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International Migration Outlook SOPEMI 2006
International Migration Outlook SOPEMI 2006

International

Migration

Outlook

SOPEMI 2006

International Migration Outlook

Annual Report 2006 Edition

International Migration Outlook Annual Report 2006 Edition ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of 30 democracies work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.

The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD.

OECD Publishing disseminates widely the results of the Organisation’s statistics gathering and research on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the conventions, guidelines and standards agreed by its members.

This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries.

Also available in French under the title:

Perspectives des migrations internationales RAPPORT ANNUEL 2006

© OECD 2006

No reproduction, copy, transmission or translation of this publication may be made without written permission. Applications should be sent to OECD Publishing: rights@oecd.org or by fax (33 1) 45 24 13 91. Permission to photocopy a portion of this work should be addressed to the Centre français d'exploitation du droit de copie, 20, rue des Grands-Augustins, 75006 Paris, France (contact@cfcopies.com).

ISBN 92-64-03627-X International Migration Outlook Sopemi 2006 Edition © OECD 2006

Foreword

For the past thirty years, the OECD's Continuous Reporting System on Migration (known by its French acronym SOPEMI) has been producing an annual report. In 1992, the report first appeared as a flagship publication of the OECD, under the title Trends in International Migration. The thirtieth report broadens its analytical scope and its new title, International Migration Outlook, better reflects the growing importance of international migration in a context of accelerating economic globalisation and population ageing.

The current report is divided into four parts and a statistical annex. Part I describes overall trends in international migration. For the first time, the report presents harmonised statistics on long-term international immigration flows for most OECD countries. It underlines the growing importance of recent entries from Russia, the Ukraine, China and Latin America, as well as trends in increasing feminisation of the flows. Family migration still dominates, while asylum requests continue to decline. Meanwhile, migration for employment is on the increase. Immigrants present a growing share of the labour force, but some have difficulties integrating into the labour market. Particular attention is paid to the employment of immigrant women and the report proposes specific measures to facilitate their integration into the labour market. Part I finishes with an overview of migration policies, especially those which aim to regulate migration flows, assist immigrants to integrate into host countries, and reinforce international co-operation between sending and receiving countries.

Parts II and III are devoted to topical issues. The first addresses the question of the management of migration inflows through quotas and numerical limits, and evaluates the efficiency of such tools. The second analyses the links between migration, remittances and development. Part IV contains re-designed country notes with new standardised tables describing recent developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries, and in some non-member countries. Finally, a statistical annex presents the latest data on foreign and foreign-born populations, foreign workers, migration flows and naturalisations.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OUTLOOK: SOPEMI 2006 EDITION

– ISBN 92-64-03627-X – © OECD 2006

3

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents

Editorial

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Introduction

 

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Part I RECENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

 

A. Developments in Migration Flows

 

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1. Towards harmonised statistics of long-term

 

migration flows

 

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2. International migration by country of origin and entry category

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3. The immigrant population.

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4. The contribution of migration to human capital in receiving countries

 

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B. Immigrants and the Labour Market

 

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1. The situation of foreigners and immigrants in OECD member country labour

 

markets

 

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2. Overview of the labour market integration of immigrant women on the labour

 

market in OECD countries

 

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C. An Overview of Migration Policies

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1. Migration policy and labour market

 

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2. Enforcement strategies, security and the fight against irregular migration

 

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3. Policies aiming at facilitating the integration of immigrants into the labour

 

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4. Migration, development and international .

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Part II MANAGING MIGRATION – ARE QUOTAS AND NUMERICAL LIMITS THE SOLUTION?

Introduction

 

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1. Selecting immigrants .

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2. Control over migration numbers

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3. How much migration is subject to control and how much is relatively “free”?

 

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4. Managing migration through numerical limits

 

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5. Numerical limits and their management

 

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Conclusion

 

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Notes .

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Bibliography .

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Annex II.A1. Defining Discretionary and Non-discretionary Migration

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Annex II.A2. National Examples of Numerical Limits or Targets and their Management

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– ISBN 92-64-03627-X – © OECD 2006

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part III INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT REMITTANCES AND THEIR ROLE IN DEVELOPMENT

Introduction .

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1. Migrant remittances: data and trends

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2. Determinants of money remittances

 

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3. The transfer

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4. The economic effects of money

 

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Conclusion

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Notes .

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159

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Part IV RECENT CHANGES IN MIGRATION MOVEMENTS AND POLICIES

 
 

(COUNTRY NOTES)

 

Australia

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Luxembourg

 

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Austria.

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Mexico.

 

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Belgium .

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Bulgaria .

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New Zealand

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Canada

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Norway

 

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Czech Republic .

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Poland .

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Denmark

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Portugal

 

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Finland

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France .

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Slovak

 

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Germany

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Spain.

 

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Greece .

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Sweden

 

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Hungary .

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Switzerland

 

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Ireland.

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Turkey .

 

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Italy

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United Kingdom

 

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Japan.

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United States

 

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Korea

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How to read the Tables of Part IV .

 

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How to Read the Chart .

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STATISTICAL ANNEX

 

Introduction

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Inflows and Outflows of Foreign Population

 

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Inflows of Asylum Seekers

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Stocks of Foreign and Foreign-born Population .

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Acquisition of Nationality Inflows of Foreign Workers

. Stocks of Foreign and Foreign-born Labour

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. List of OECD Secretariat Members Involved in the Preparation of this Report

List of SOPEMI Correspondents

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INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OUTLOOK: SOPEMI 2006 EDITION

– ISBN 92-64-03627-X – © OECD 2006

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Charts, Tables and Boxes

Part I RECENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

Charts

I.1.

Inflows of foreign nationals as a percentage of the total population, selected

 

OECD countries, 2004, harmonised data

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I.2.

International migration by category of entry, selected OECD countries, 2004,

 

harmonised data

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I.3.

International tertiary students in OECD Europe and outside of Europe,

by country of origin, 2003

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I.4.

Stock of foreign and foreign-born populations in selected OECD countries, 2004

 

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