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International Migration Outlook International migration remains high on the policy agenda in OECD member countries,
International Migration Outlook
International migration remains high on the policy agenda in OECD member countries, despite a lower
demand for labour in the context of the economic downturn. This annual publication analyses recent
developments in migration movements and policies in OECD countries. It looks at the contribution of
immigration to changes in the working-age population in the past decade, and the role of migration
inflows at projected levels in driving growth of the working-age population in the next decade. It
also focuses on international students, including a first attempt to calculate the rates at which these
students remain in their host countries after the completion of their studies.
This publication also explores the main changes introduced in migration policies, including new
laws governing immigrant entry, stay and access to the labour market. The selective recruitment of
immigrants according to labour market needs and points-based systems is described, as well as
measures to facilitate the integration of immigrants. International co-operation to improve border
control and to combat irregular migration is analysed in detail.
The impact of the economic crisis on the labour market outcomes of immigrants is examined, taking
into consideration gender, sectors of employment and different types of contracts, as well as the
demographic dynamics of native and foreign-born populations during the period under review.
The reader will also find in this book:
• Two special chapters on topical issues. The first addresses the determinants of public opinion
regarding migration, reviewing opinion surveys to identify individual determinants and examining the
role of different stakeholders in shaping opinion. The second chapter presents an in-depth study of
the impact of naturalisation on the labour market outcomes of immigrants, exploring how acquisition
of citizenship can increase opportunities.
• Country notes, together with standardised tables, describing recent developments in migration
movements and policies.
• A statistical annex containing the latest data on migration flows, foreign and foreign-born
populations, and naturalisations.
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SOPEMI 2010
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SOPEMI 2010
International Migration Outlook
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SOPEMI 2010

International Migration Outlook

SOPEMI 2010

International Migration Outlook SOPEMI 2010

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

The OECD is a unique forum where governments work together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of globalisation. The OECD is also at the forefront of efforts to understand and to help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate governance, the information economy and the challenges of an ageing population. The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.

The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD.

OECD Publishing disseminates widely the results of the Organisation’s statistics gathering and research on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as the conventions, guidelines and standards agreed by its members.

This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member countries.

ISBN 978-92-64-08601-2 (print) ISBN 978-92-64-08602-9 (PDF)

Also available in French: Perspectives des migrations internationales : SOPEMI 2010

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FOREWORD

Foreword

This publication constitutes the thirty-fourth report of the OECD’s Continuous Reporting System on migration (known by its French acronym SOPEMI).

The report is divided into five parts plus a statistical annex. Part I contains two subsections. The first of these provides a broad overview of recent trends in international migration flows, both temporary and permanent and a look at population growth in countries undergoing demographic decline. Migration already accounts for about 60% of total population growth in the OECD as a whole, and more than 85% in the countries of southern Europe, Austria and the Czech Republic. Special attention is devoted to changes in labour migration flows associated with the economic crisis. The movement of international students – the number of foreign students in tertiary education more than doubled in the OECD between 2000 and 2007 – is examined, and the first attempt to calculate stay rates – changes of status for those who do not renew their student permits – is presented, showing that stay rates varied between 15 and 35% in 2007.

The second subsection of Part I highlights major changes in migration policy. It looks specifically at the expansion in demand-driven systems for recruitment of workers from abroad, as well as the increasing use of points-based systems to select immigrants likely to succeed on the labour market. Recent developments in integration, residence and citizenship policies are described.

Part II provides a close look at the impact of the economic crisis on the employment situation of immigrants, following up on the 2009 Special Edition of the International Migration Outlook focusing on the crisis. The disproportionate impact of the crisis on immigrants is examined, looking at factors such as concentration in specific sectors and gender differences.

Parts III and IV are devoted to special topics. Part III examines the determinants of public opinion regarding migration. It looks at recent opinion surveys, individual determinants and the role of major stakeholders such as social partners and the media. Parts IV focuses on the determinants of acquisition of nationality and the impact of naturalisation on labour market outcomes.

Part V presents succinct country-specific notes and statistics on developments in international migration movements and policies in OECD countries in recent years. Finally, the statistical annex includes a broad selection of recent and historical statistics on immigrant flows, the foreign and foreign-born populations, naturalisations and migrant workers.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OUTLOOK: SOPEMI 2010 © OECD 2010

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents

Editorial: Ensuring that Migrants are Onboard the Recovery Train

 

15

Introduction

 

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Part I

 
 

RECENT TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION

 

A. Recent Flows, Demographic Developments and Migration

 

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1. Introduction

 

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2. International migration flows during 2008

 

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3. Immigration flows by category of

 

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4. Temporary worker migration

 

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5. International migration flows and the economic crisis

 

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6. Continents, regions and countries of origin of immigrants

 

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7. Asylum seekers

 

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8. International students

 

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9. Demographic developments in OECD countries and international migration .

 

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B. Migration Policy Development in OECD Countries

 

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1. Introduction

 

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2. Labour migration policies

 

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3. International students

 

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4. Humanitarian policies

 

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5. General administrative procedures and structure

 

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6. Enforcement and border

 

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7. International agreements

 

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8. Integration policies .

 

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9. Migration policy in OECD countries

 

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82

 

Part II

 
 

MIGRANTS IN OECD LABOUR MARKETS THROUGH THE CRISIS

 

1. A brief analysis of the dynamics of foreign-born employment in OECD countries

 

through the crisis

 

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2. How were different migrant groups affected by the worsening of labour market

 

conditions

 

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INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OUTLOOK: SOPEMI 2010 © OECD 2010

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

3. What are the main determinants of the recent labour market outcomes

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4.

Helping immigrants through the crisis and

 

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Annex II.A1.1.

 

Quarterly employment and unemployment rates (15-64) by place

 

Annex II.A1.2a.

 

. Top 10 industries with the largest changes in foreign- and native-born

of birth in selected OECD countries, 2007-2009

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employment between 2008 and 2009 in the European Union

 

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Annex II.A1.2b.

 

Top 10 industries with the largest changes in foreign- and native-born

 
 

employment between 2007 and 2009 in the United

 

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Part III PUBLIC OPINIONS AND IMMIGRATION:

 
 

INDIVIDUAL ATTITUDES, INTEREST GROUPS AND THE MEDIA

 

Summary

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116

 

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1. Public opinion on immigration and migration

 

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2. Determinants of preferences over immigration

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3. Interest groups and their influence on migration policy

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4. The role of the media and the weight of beliefs in shaping public opinion

 

141

Conclusion

 

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145

 

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Annex III.A1.

 

Presentation of

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Annex III.A2.

 

Determinants of Beliefs about the Impact of Immigration and Preferences

Part IV

 
 

about Migration Policy Based on the World Value Survey

 

155

 

NATURALISATION AND THE LABOUR MARKET INTEGRATION OF IMMIGRANTS

Key findings

 

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158

Introduction

 

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159

1. Citizenship take-up among immigrants: An overview across selected

 
 

OECD

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2. The labour market outcomes of naturalised and non-naturalised

 

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3. The impact of naturalisation on immigrants’ labour market outcomes

 

175

Conclusions

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Methodological Annex

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183

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OUTLOOK: SOPEMI 2010 © OECD 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part V

RECENT CHANGES IN MIGRATION MOVEMENTS AND POLICIES

(COUNTRY NOTES)

Australia

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188

 

Lithuania

 

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220

Austria

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190

Luxembourg

 

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222

Belgium

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192

Mexico

 

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224

Bulgaria

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