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TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry February 11, 2013 February 11, 2013 TeraHertz: New opportunities for
TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry
February 11, 2013
February 11, 2013
TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry
Present and Future of
Terahertz Communications
Tadao Nagatsuma
Osaka University
1

My First “THz”

J. Appl. Phys. 54 (6), pp.3302-3309 (1983) .

“THz” J. Appl. Phys. 54 (6), pp.3302-3309 (1983) . TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB

Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO)

f = Vdc/ 0 483.6 GHz/mV (100GHz~700GHz) Superconductor     V dc I
f = Vdc/ 0
483.6 GHz/mV
(100GHz~700GHz)
Superconductor
 
 
V dc
I dc
 
Superconductor
Insulator

AC current

Load

Quantized flux

Applied magnetic field

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

3

“FFO” Integrated MMW/THz Receivers

Integrated superconducting receiver for atmosphere monitoring at 500 650 GHz (TELIS project: TErahertz and submm LImb Sounder)

650 GHz (TELIS project: TErahertz and submm LImb Sounder) LO RF IF FFO (Local oscillator) 400
650 GHz (TELIS project: TErahertz and submm LImb Sounder) LO RF IF FFO (Local oscillator) 400
LO RF IF
LO
RF
IF

FFO (Local oscillator) 400 x 8~16 m 2

Antenna and mixer (0.8 m 2 )
Antenna
and mixer
(0.8 m 2 )

ISEC 2007 “Integrated Receivers for Space” by V. Koshelets

Outline

Background and motivation

needs for high speed wireless why THz? who pays for THz wireless?

Enabling Technologies

photonics vs. electronics (reviewing 120GHz band wireless)

Photonics base approach

direct detection coherent detection

Electronicsbased approach

Future issues

Summary

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

5

Outline

Background and motivation

needs for high speed wireless why THz? who pays for THz wireless?

Enabling Technologies

photonics vs. electronics

Photonics base approach

direct detection coherent detection

Electronicsbased approach

Future issues

Summary

Bit Rate (Gbit/s)

Bit Rate (Gbit/s)

Trends in Wired Line

1000

100GbE Ethernet 10GbE 10GEPON GbE PON GEPON (Passive Optical BPON Network) FastE ~10 times /
100GbE
Ethernet
10GbE
10GEPON
GbE
PON
GEPON
(Passive
Optical
BPON
Network)
FastE
~10
times / 5 years

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

0.001

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

Year

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

7

Trends in Wireless

1000

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

0.001

Fixed Wireless Access Field Pickup Unit Wireless Backhaul 120 GHz (5 km) ? ? 60
Fixed Wireless Access
Field Pickup Unit
Wireless Backhaul
120 GHz
(5 km)
?
?
60 GHz
802.15.3c
Wireless
802.16
PAN/LAN
(WiMAX Fixed)
802.11n
60 GHz
802.16e
802.11g
(WiMAX Mobile)
802.11
802.11b

1995

2000

2005

Year

2010

2015

2020

Approaches to Enhancing Speed

1) Improvement of the spectral efficiency with use of multi value modulation or MIMO (multiple input multiple output) at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies such as 60 GHz/90 GHz

2) Free space optical link possibly with WDM technologies, which have already been established in the fiber optic communications technologies

3) Use of terahertz carrier frequency with simple modulation format like ASK (amplitude shift keying), PSK (phase shift keying), and FSK (frequency shift keying)

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

9

Developing Higher Carriers

1 THz 60 GHz LAN THz LMDS Satellite comms WPAN 1 GHz Radio comms LMDS
1
THz
60 GHz LAN
THz
LMDS
Satellite comms
WPAN
1
GHz
Radio comms
LMDS : Local Multipoint
Distribution Service
T. S.
Bird, Keynote talk at Asia ‐ Pacific
Microwave Conference 2011, Melbourne,
Australia, December 2011.
1 MHz
Marconi
Carrier Frequency

1900

1940

1980

2020

Different Way of Radio Use

Different Way of Radio Use Microwaves Increasing power, complexity and cost Shannon theory R (bit/s) =
Different Way of Radio Use Microwaves Increasing power, complexity and cost Shannon theory R (bit/s) =
Microwaves
Microwaves

Increasing power, complexity and cost

Shannon theory R (bit/s) = B (Hz) log 2 (1 + S/N)
Shannon theory
R (bit/s) = B (Hz) log 2 (1 + S/N)

VS.

Energy efficient, cost effective, and ….

THz waves
THz waves

Frequency

= Space

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

11

Carrier Frequency vs. Data Rate

100 300GHz wireless 10 24Gbit/s 120GHz wireless Wireless LAN 10Gbit/s Wireless HD (BW:17GHz) 3.8Gbit/s 1
100
300GHz
wireless
10
24Gbit/s
120GHz
wireless
Wireless LAN
10Gbit/s
Wireless HD
(BW:17GHz)
3.8Gbit/s
1
(BW:7GHz)
0.3Gbit/s
Transfer jet
( SONY etc.)
Unallocated
Region
0.56Gbit/s
0.1
Bluetooth 3.0
1
10
100
1000
0.054Gbit/s
Data Rate (Gbit/s)

Carrier Frequency (GHz)

275GHz

FreeSpace Loss (1)

2 2 4r 4fr  = =  c
2
2
4r
4fr
 =
=
c
A e r Point source
A e
r
Point source

Loss increases in proportion to square of distance, r, and frequency, f.

Loss 4r 2 /A e

A e : Antenna aperture = 2 Ga/4G a : Antenna gain

The above formula is obtained when Ga = 1 (0 dBi).

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

13

FreeSpace Loss (2)

P r (Rx power)= P t (Tx power) + G t (Tx antenna gain) +
P r (Rx power)= P t (Tx power)
+ G t (Tx antenna gain)
+ G r (Rx antenna gain)
- 20 log (4rf/c)
Free-space loss

In case of point-to-point link, free-space loss can be compensated with antenna gain, which increases with square of frequency.

ExampleFree-space loss = 134 dB for 1 km at 120 GHz (= 2.5 mm), And it becomes 34 dB with 50-dBi antennas for Tx & Rx.

Friis’ Formula

A et
A et
Friis’ Formula A et r Transmitter A er R e c e i v e r

r

Transmitter

A er
A er

Receiver

P r = P t (A et A er ) / (r λ) 2 f 2

A et : Effective area of Tx antenna A er : Effective area of Rx antenna

P r : Transmitted power P t : Received power

r : Link distance

λ : Wavelength

Assuming the same antenna size, the received power increases with frequency, resulting in lower transmitted
Assuming the same antenna size, the received power
increases with frequency, resulting in lower transmitted
power required.

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

15

Case Study: 60GHz vs. 400GHz

60GHz 400GHz

Loss due to atmospheric/rain(25mm/h)/fog 27dB

26dB

Transmitted power

100mW 4 mW

Antenna Aperture: 10cmx10cm 10 -6 60GHz 10 -8 400GHz 10 -10 10 -12 C. M.
Antenna Aperture: 10cmx10cm
10
-6
60GHz
10
-8
400GHz
10
-10
10
-12
C. M. Mann, in
“Terahertz sources
and systems”,
Kluwer, 2001,
p. 261.
10
-14
0
1
2
3
Received Power (W)

Link Distance (km)

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

16

Attenuation (dB/km)

Attenuation by Air/Rain/Fog 1000 60GHz 100 Dry air 10 Heavy Rain 1 (25 mm/h) Visible
Attenuation by Air/Rain/Fog
1000
60GHz
100
Dry air
10
Heavy Rain
1
(25 mm/h)
Visible
Light
0.1
Fog (0.1g/m 3 )
Visibility 50 m
0.01
10 G
100 G
1 T
10 THz
100 T
1000 T

Frequency (Hz)

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

17

Atmospheric Attenuation: Mid. Distance

10 7 10 5 10 4 10 3 10 2 10dB/1km 10 1 10dB/10km 0.1
10
7
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10dB/1km
10
1
10dB/10km
0.1
100 200 300
500
1000
2000 3000
Attenuation (dB/km)

Frequency (GHz)

Impact of Attenuation by Rain

1 km 1 km
1 km
1 km
25 W Fair condition 100 W (inversely proportional to square of distance ) Rain atten.:
25 W
Fair condition
100
W
(inversely proportional to
square of distance )
Rain atten.: 10dB/km
10 W
250 nW
6 orders
3 orders
Rain atten.: 20dB/km
1 W
2.5 nW
Rain atten.: 30dB/km
100
nW
25 pW
(=60dB/2km)

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

19

Atmospheric Attenuation: Short Distance

10 6 10 5 10 4 10 3 1dB/10m 10 2 10 1 Future applications
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
1dB/10m
10
2
10
1
Future applications
0.1
Attenuation (dB/km)

100

200 300

500

1000

Frequency (GHz)

2000 3000

60 GHz vs. 300 GHz

60GHz band 300GHz band LSI for Baseband Signals Array Antenna Reduction of size: 1/5 (area:
60GHz band
300GHz band
LSI for Baseband
Signals
Array Antenna
Reduction of size: 1/5
(area: 1/25)
2~5mm
25mm
Possible to use for
consumer devices
market opportunity

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

21

Usage and Requirements Usage Environment Distance Condition Beam Positioning Backbone Fixed wireless Highly NW
Usage and Requirements
Usage
Environment
Distance
Condition
Beam Positioning
Backbone
Fixed wireless
Highly
NW link
access
100 m~
a few km
Line of sight
Air attenuation
Directive/
Fixed/outdoor
(FWA)
Manual
THz nanocell
<100m
Line of sight
Non-LOS
(dynamically
changed)
Automatic
Mobile NW
positioning
In/outdoor
required
<10~100 m
Same as above
WLAN/WPAN
Link to access
point
Mainly indoor
Same as above
LOS
Kiosk
Indoor/mobile
<0.1~1 m
Tx/Rx Multiple
download
Same as above
(manual is OK)
reflection
Short distance
Indoor
Mainly on desk
LOS
device
<0.1 m
Same as above
Multi-pass
connection
Board-to-
In computers/
Almost
board
<0.1 m
Same as above
instruments
fixed
connection

Example of Beam Steering Techniques

K. Sengupta and A. Hajimiri (Caltech), ISSCC 2012

Radiator Core Divider Phase shifter Central VCO
Radiator
Core
Divider
Phase shifter
Central
VCO

45 nm CMOS 4x4 array 2.7mm x 2.7mm BW: 276 285 GHz Beam angle: 80 degree Output power: 190 W

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

23

Who pays for THz Com. ??

EPFL, FEB 11 ‐ 13, 2013 23 Who pays for THz Com. ?? 1) Broadcasting uncompressed

1) Broadcasting uncompressed HD x N:1.5 Gbit/s x N uncompressed UHD (SHV): 24 Gbit/s, 42, 72… uncompressed 3D w/ HD or UHD >100 Gbit/s

2) Medical more reality in color and increased resolution for diagnosis huge image data handled at real time for surgery wireless data transfer required in surgery rooms no latency for remote medicine

3) General consumer ?? cheaper and smaller

medicine 3) General consumer ?? cheaper and smaller TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB
medicine 3) General consumer ?? cheaper and smaller TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB

Expected Applications

Reduction of Cost & Energy by Transportation Education & Work Medical & Health 4K‐TV Cloud
Reduction of Cost &
Energy by Transportation
Education & Work
Medical & Health
4K‐TV
Cloud Server
Conference Site
E
‐books
Office
School
HD Image
Medical Sensor
8K‐TV
Hospital
(12Gbps)
Super High Vision(>24Gbps)
4K‐TV
Optical
Life ‐support
Network
Life & Environment
Medical
Robot
Data
Instantaneous Data
Transfer
HD/SHD
Relay
Home
Points
Optical Fiber
Remote
TV Station/
Office
Shielded
Event Site
Network Center
Health Care
THz Communication

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

25

Big Wall Displays Change Our Life
Big Wall Displays Change Our Life
FEB 11 ‐ 13, 2013 25 Big Wall Displays Change Our Life 8K‐ TV (>12 Gbit/s)
8K‐ TV
8K‐ TV

(>12 Gbit/s)

Office
Office

Conference

site

UHD ‐ TV 24‐ 72 Gbit/s
UHD ‐ TV
24‐ 72 Gbit/s
Hospital 8K‐ TV 3D ‐ TV
Hospital
8K‐ TV
3D ‐ TV
8K ‐ TV School

8KTV

School

72 Gbit/s Hospital 8K‐ TV 3D ‐ TV 8K ‐ TV School Big wall-displays provide highly
72 Gbit/s Hospital 8K‐ TV 3D ‐ TV 8K ‐ TV School Big wall-displays provide highly
Big wall-displays provide highly realistic-sensation remote communications, and a wireless will be truly user’s demand.
Big wall-displays provide highly realistic-sensation remote
communications, and a wireless will be truly user’s demand.

Smart Phone with Wall Displays

Video Voice
Video
Voice

Courtesy of David Britz, AT&T

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

27

Big Data: from Store to Circulation

Cloud Server Cloud
Cloud Server
Cloud
Big Data: from Store to Circulation Cloud Server Cloud Upload 100Gbit/s (12.5GBite/s) proximity link Download
Big Data: from Store to Circulation Cloud Server Cloud Upload 100Gbit/s (12.5GBite/s) proximity link Download

Upload

from Store to Circulation Cloud Server Cloud Upload 100Gbit/s (12.5GBite/s) proximity link Download SD

100Gbit/s

(12.5GBite/s)

proximity link

Download

SD memory*
SD memory*
(12.5GBite/s) proximity link Download SD memory* SSD memory From Tera-Bite to Peta-Bite We will carry only

SSD memory

From Tera-Bite to Peta-Bite

We will carry only “smart phone” with huge memory, when instantaneous wireless transfer of big
We will carry only “smart phone” with huge memory, when
instantaneous wireless transfer of big data becomes possible

Outline

Background and motivation

needs for high speed wireless why THz? who pays for THz wireless?

Enabling Technologies

photonics vs. electronics (reviewing 120GHz band wireless)

Photonics base approach

direct detection coherent detection

Electronicsbased approach

Future issues

Summary

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

29

Enabling Technologies: Tx

DATA signal

11 ‐ 13, 2013 29 Enabling Technologies: Tx DATA signal Electrical modulator Electronics based Tx Antenna

Electrical

modulator

Electronics based Tx
Electronics based Tx

Antenna Post amplifier

modulator Electronics based Tx Antenna Post ‐ amplifier Electrical RF signal generator Gunn diode + multiplier
modulator Electronics based Tx Antenna Post ‐ amplifier Electrical RF signal generator Gunn diode + multiplier

Electrical RF signal generator

Gunn diode + multiplier Oscillator IC, RTD, etc.

Diode

mixer

Amplifier IC

Oscillator IC, RTD, etc. Diode mixer Amplifier IC Photonics (O/E) based Tx DATA signal DATA signal

Photonics (O/E) based Tx DATA signal

DATA signal

IC Photonics (O/E) based Tx DATA signal DATA signal Optical amplifier Optical Optical   O/E  

Optical

amplifier

(O/E) based Tx DATA signal DATA signal Optical amplifier Optical Optical   O/E   RF signal

Optical

Optical

 

O/E

 

RF signal

modulator

RF signal modulator converter

converter

RF signal modulator converter

generator

 

Infrared

lasers, etc.

EOM EDFA EAM SOA
EOM
EDFA
EAM
SOA

Photodiode

Photocon

ductor

etc. EOM EDFA EAM SOA Photodiode Photocon ‐ ductor Amplifier IC TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry,

Amplifier IC

Enabling Technologies: Rx

Enabling Technologies: Rx Direct detection Antenna Pre ‐ amplifier Electrical demodulator DATA signal Amplifier

Direct detection Antenna

Enabling Technologies: Rx Direct detection Antenna Pre ‐ amplifier Electrical demodulator DATA signal Amplifier

Preamplifier

Rx Direct detection Antenna Pre ‐ amplifier Electrical demodulator DATA signal Amplifier IC Diode

Electrical

demodulator

Antenna Pre ‐ amplifier Electrical demodulator DATA signal Amplifier IC Diode detector Baseband IC
Antenna Pre ‐ amplifier Electrical demodulator DATA signal Amplifier IC Diode detector Baseband IC

DATA signal

Amplifier IC

Diode

detector

Baseband IC

Heterodyne detection
Heterodyne detection

Antenna

LO signal source Pre‐ amplifier Electrical demodulator
LO signal
source
Pre‐ amplifier
Electrical
demodulator

Gunn diode + multiplier Photonics based, etc.

Gunn diode + multiplier Photonics ‐ based, etc. DATA signal Amplifier IC Diode mixer IF/baseband IC

DATA signal

Amplifier IC

Diode mixer

IF/baseband IC

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

31

Recent Developments(1) Carrier Technology Frequency Tx Rx Max. Bit rate (Error free) Affiliation Photonics-
Recent Developments(1)
Carrier
Technology
Frequency
Tx
Rx
Max. Bit rate
(Error free)
Affiliation
Photonics- MMIC(InP)
120
GHz
10 Gbit/s
NTT
based
(direct det.)
MMIC(InP)
20 Gbit/s
120
GHz
MMIC(InP)
NTT
(direct det.)
(with pol.MUX)
MMIC(CMOS)
120
GHz
MMIC(CMOS)
(direct det.)
9 Gbit/s
Hiroshima U.
UCL
Photonics-
146
GHz
based
Disc. comp.
(heterodyne det.)
1 III-V Lab
Gbit/s
UC3M
Photonics-
200
GHz
1 Gbit/s
IEMN
based
Disc. comp.
(heterodyne det.)
Fraunhofer
~15 Gbit/s
220
GHz
MMIC(GaAs)
MMIC(GaAs)
IAF
Photonics-
Disc. comp.
NTT
8 Gbit/s
250
GHz
based
(direct det.)
Osaka-U

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

32

Recent Developments(2) Carrier Technology Frequency Tx Rx Max. Bit rate (Error free) Affiliation Photonics- Disc.
Recent Developments(2)
Carrier
Technology
Frequency
Tx
Rx
Max. Bit rate
(Error free)
Affiliation
Photonics- Disc. comp.
Osaka-U
300~400GHz
24 Gbit/s
based
(direct det.)
NTT
Frequency
TU Braun-
300
GHz
multiplier
Disc. comp.
(heterodyne det.)
~100 Mbit/s
schweig
Frequency
ETRI
300
GHz
~1.5 Gbit/s
multiplier
Disc. comp.
(heterodyne det.)
Resonant- Resonant-
Rohm
300
GHz
2.5 Gbit/s
tunneling diode
tunneling diode
Osaka-U
Resonant-
Disc. comp.
Tokyo
542
GHz
1~2 Gbit/s
tunneling diode
(direct det.)
Inst. Tech
Frequency
Disc. comp.
NJ IT
625
GHz
2.5 Gbit/s
multiplier
(direct det.)
Bell Lab

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

33

100 Gbit/s Wireless Reported, But…

“NOT” errorfree result; use of FEC was assumed. BER was estimated by off line signal processing.

BER was estimated by off ‐ line signal processing. 2E ‐ 3 Multi ‐ level modulation
2E ‐ 3
2E ‐ 3

Multilevel modulation (16QAM) and pol. MUX using Wband (75GHz 110GHz) X. Pang et al., OPTICS EXPRESS, Vol. 19, No. 25, 24945(2011).

Pursuing “Error Free”

Bit Error Rate (BER) = number of errors / total number of bits sent

1E-2 1E-4 ??? 1E-6 1E-8 1E-10 1E-12 1E-14 Bit Error Rate
1E-2
1E-4
???
1E-6
1E-8
1E-10
1E-12
1E-14
Bit Error Rate

Tx/Rx Power

1E-6 1E-8 1E-10 1E-12 1E-14 Bit Error Rate Tx/Rx Power 2E ‐ 3 FEC(Forward Error Correction)

2E‐ 3 3

FEC(Forward Error Correction) limit

1E‐ 11 Error free (practical)
1E‐ 11
Error free
(practical)

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

35

BER Movie

120 G: Hardware Evolution in 10 years

Photonicsbased Transmitter

2000-2002

in 10 years Photonics ‐ based Transmitter 2000-2002 2004/7 Transmitter Core 2005/8 Transmitter Photonic MMW
2004/7 Transmitter Core 2005/8 Transmitter Photonic MMW Generator Receiver Data Modulator
2004/7
Transmitter Core
2005/8
Transmitter
Photonic MMW
Generator
Receiver
Data Modulator

Electronics based Transmitter

Output power10 mW, 2 km Power consumption: 600W

2008/5 2007/1
2008/5
2007/1
Controller Transmitter Mobility, Portability
Controller
Transmitter
Mobility, Portability
Transmitter
Transmitter

Volume: 1/6

Weight: 1/2

Battery operation

Output power10 mW, 2.2 km Power consumption60 W

Easy set-up system

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

37

Initiated by Photonics

EPFL, FEB 11 ‐ 13, 2013 37 Initiated by Photonics P D C h i p
EPFL, FEB 11 ‐ 13, 2013 37 Initiated by Photonics P D C h i p

PD Chip

Microwave Photonics 2000

Optical Fiber

P D C h i p Microwave Photonics 2000 Optical Fiber Optical Signal Slot Antenna (774

Optical Signal

Slot Antenna (774 x 95 mm 2 )

Antenna

Optical Signal Slot Antenna (774 x 95 mm 2 ) Antenna 1 mm Si-Lens Si Platform
Optical Signal Slot Antenna (774 x 95 mm 2 ) Antenna 1 mm Si-Lens Si Platform

1 mm

Si-Lens

Si Platform

MMW Signal

Powered by MMICs

Transistors and amplifiers change the world

Transmitter (photonics based)

MSL Amplifier Photodiode
MSL
Amplifier
Photodiode
Transmitter (photonics based) MSL Amplifier Photodiode Output Optical Input Transmitter MMIC Receiver MMIC

Output

Optical

Input

Transmitter MMIC

Amplifier Photodiode Output Optical Input Transmitter MMIC Receiver MMIC TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry,

Receiver MMIC

Output Optical Input Transmitter MMIC Receiver MMIC TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

39

Electronic Devices: InP HEMT

0.1-m-gate InAlAs/InGaAs HEMT

g m = 1.2 S/mm, f t = 170 GHz, f max = 350 GHz

MIM capacitor, double-layer interconnection process with BCB

BCB SiN/SiO 2 0.1 m
BCB
SiN/SiO 2
0.1 m

Fully matured production level technology (NTT Electronics)

120GHzband System with Photonic Tx

IN

Baseband

amplifier

‐ band System with Photonic Tx IN Baseband amplifier Data signal 125 GHz MMW signal (10

Data signal

125 GHz MMW signal

(10 Gbit/s) PD with Optical amplifier modulator 125 GHz Optical signal
(10 Gbit/s)
PD with
Optical
amplifier
modulator
125 GHz
Optical signal
Optical amplifier modulator 125 GHz Optical signal MMIC Rx Baseband amplifier Data signal (10 Gbit/s)
Optical amplifier modulator 125 GHz Optical signal MMIC Rx Baseband amplifier Data signal (10 Gbit/s)
MMIC Rx Baseband amplifier Data signal (10 Gbit/s)
MMIC Rx
Baseband
amplifier
Data signal
(10 Gbit/s)
Optical MMW signal generator
Optical MMW
signal
generator

Optical signal

Electrical signal

OUT

A. Hirata et al., IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 54, pp.1937-1944, 2006.

41 TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 11‐ 13, 2013 120‐GHz Band Transmitter Antenna
41
TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 11‐ 13, 2013
120‐GHz Band Transmitter
Antenna
(45-cm diameter)
PD with amplifier
Optical signal generator
Optical modulator and
control board
A. Hirata et al., IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 54, pp.1937 ‐ 1944, 2006.
42

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

Setup for Field Test

Lab Fiber:400 m Air transmission:250 m
Lab
Fiber:400 m
Air transmission:250 m

digital

Fiber50 m

analog

Receiver

transmission:250 m digital Fiber : 50 m analog Receiver Transmitter A. Hirata et al., IEEE J.

Transmitter

A. Hirata et al., IEEE J. Lightwave Tech., vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 23382344, 2008.

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

43

Transmission Characteristics

Receiver power

-27 -28 -29 -30 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 Received power (dBm)
-27
-28
-29
-30
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
Received power (dBm)

Time

Bit error rate (BER)

Total number of BER bit errors 1 st day 3 1X10 -14 2 nd day
Total
number of
BER
bit errors
1 st day
3
1X10 -14
2 nd day
5
2X10 -14
3 rd day
13
5X10 -14

Fluctuations in received power: < 1 dB for 6 hours

BER of wireless link: < 1X10 -13 Meets OC-192 and 10GbE standards

A. Hirata et al., IEEE J. Lightwave Tech., vol. 26, No. 15, pp. 23382344, 2008.

120GHzband Transmitter with Electronics

LO signal IN 120 GHz with WR-8 Power amp. module waveguide (>40 mW) Power amp.
LO signal IN
120 GHz
with WR-8
Power amp. module
waveguide
(>40 mW)
Power amp.
to antenna
MMIC
DATA IN
Transmitter module
LO:62.5GHz
Battery operated
Multiplier(x4) MMIC
Transmitter
MMIC
LO:
15.625 GHz
XFP module
Optical data
(O/E)
(10-Gbit/s)
NTT Technical Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 48–51, 2007 (in Japanese).
DATA
IN

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

45

Advanced All Electronics System

Controller

Tx Frontend

All ‐ Electronics System Controller Tx Frontend Cassegrain anntena Camera cable ( ~1km ) Bayonet mechanism
All ‐ Electronics System Controller Tx Frontend Cassegrain anntena Camera cable ( ~1km ) Bayonet mechanism
All ‐ Electronics System Controller Tx Frontend Cassegrain anntena Camera cable ( ~1km ) Bayonet mechanism

Cassegrain anntena

Camera cable ( ~1km ) Bayonet mechanism Transmitter head Controller 15.625 Power GHz supply AC/DC
Camera cable
( ~1km )
Bayonet mechanism
Transmitter head
Controller
15.625
Power
GHz
supply
AC/DC
PA
module
Controller
Controller
O/E
E/O
Tx
XFP
module
10-Gbit/s

100240 V AC

HD-SDI signal

10-Gbit/s

optical signal

electrical signal

Waveguide 2 mm×1 mm)

NTT Technical Review, vol. 7, no. 3, Mar. 2009

120 G: Now

10 Gbit/s, >5 km, InP ‐HEMT MMIC with FEC Bidirectional with polarization multiplex
10 Gbit/s, >5 km, InP ‐HEMT MMIC with FEC
Bidirectional with polarization multiplex

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

47

120 G @ Beijing Olympic Data rate:10.3125 Gbit/s 10 ‐ 2 10 ‐ 4 10
120 G @ Beijing Olympic
Data rate:10.3125 Gbit/s
10
‐ 2
10
‐ 4
10
‐ 6
Minimum received
power: ‐38 dBm
10
‐ 8
10
‐ 10
10
‐ 12
‐ 45
‐ 40
‐ 35
Received Power (dBm)
48
TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 11‐ 13, 2013
Bit Error Rate

Results of 120 G @ Olympic

View from BMC

Results of 120 G @ Olympic View from BMC -28 Fluctuations < 2dB -29 -30 -31
-28 Fluctuations < 2dB -29 -30 -31 4 8 12 16 20 24 Received power
-28
Fluctuations < 2dB
-29
-30
-31
4
8
12
16
20
24
Received power (dBm)

Time (hr) Received power on August 8 (Opening day of Olympics)

1 km
1 km

Experimental Setup

Date 8/1 5 10 15 20 24 1 6 12 18 24 Time of day
Date
8/1
5
10
15
20
24
1
6
12
18
24
Time of day

TV programs with 120-GHz system

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

49

Indoor 4K Digital TV Transmission (<10 m)

4-K Display Tx Rx Link Distance < 10 m Rx Tx “Small Antenna”
4-K Display
Tx
Rx
Link Distance < 10 m
Rx
Tx
“Small Antenna”
Rx Link Distance < 10 m Rx Tx “Small Antenna” 30 mm TeraHertz: New opportunities for

30 mm

Teleconference with 10G Wired & Wireless

Media Server “cloud” 3D and 4 K data NTT Musashino NICT JGN 2 Plus (10G
Media Server “cloud”
3D and 4 K data
NTT
Musashino
NICT
JGN 2 Plus
(10G Ethernet system)
NICT
(Tokyo)
(Kyoto)
KDDI
NTT Com
Building
Building
・ 120 GHz link (10mW)
Medical Dr. A
Medical Dr. B
・ 150 m (thr. Windows)
Bi ‐ dorectional

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

51

Outline

Background and motivation

needs for high speed wireless why THz? who pays for THz wireless?

Enabling Technologies

photonics vs. electronics

Photonics base approach

direct detection coherent detection

Electronicsbased approach

Future issues

Summary

Photonics based Tx & Direct Detection

Seamless between fiberoptic and wireless

Data(OOK) Fiber-optic link  1 Optical Base‐ band Data Modulator Photodiode  2 RF Photodiode
Data(OOK)
Fiber-optic link
 1
Optical
Base‐ band
Data
Modulator
Photodiode
 2
RF
Photodiode
Photo‐ mixing
Wireless link
Unlocked
f RF = c 
 1  2
RF
Data
Receiver

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

53

Photo mixing

Generating THz Signals

f 1 f 2 frequency
f 1
f 2
frequency
f 2 - f 1 frequency
f 2 - f 1
frequency
THz Signals f 1 f 2 frequency f 2 - f 1 frequency Photo mixing Tunable
THz Signals f 1 f 2 frequency f 2 - f 1 frequency Photo mixing Tunable

Photo mixing

Tunable laser 1 Photodiode Tunable laser 2
Tunable laser 1
Photodiode
Tunable laser 2
Photo mixing Tunable laser 1 Photodiode Tunable laser 2 TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB

300GHz Band Experiment

Tx Rx
Tx
Rx
THz wave Schottky‐ Photo ‐ f barrier diode diode RF freq. Horn anttena Preamp. Dielectric
THz wave
Schottky‐
Photo ‐
f
barrier
diode
diode
RF freq.
Horn anttena
Preamp.
Dielectric lens
Optical amp.
Baseband
Freq.
Limit amp.
Optical freq.
Baseband freq.
Optical
modulator
Pulse ‐ pattern
generator
freq. Optical modulator Pulse ‐ pattern generator Wavelength tunable laser Wavelength tunable

Wavelength

tunable laser

Wavelength

tunable laser

f

tunable laser Wavelength tunable laser f     Oscillo ‐ scope Error detector Optical
tunable laser Wavelength tunable laser f     Oscillo ‐ scope Error detector Optical

laser Wavelength tunable laser f     Oscillo ‐ scope Error detector Optical freq.
Oscillo ‐ scope
Oscillo ‐
scope
Error detector
Error
detector

Optical freq.

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

55

Photo of Setup

Dielectric Lens Transmitter Receiver
Dielectric Lens
Transmitter
Receiver

Fast Photodiode Technology

p-doped

“speed-up carrier transit”
“speed-up carrier transit”

diffusion block layer

absorption layer un-doped collection layer un-doped absorption layer layer
absorption layer
un-doped
collection
layer
un-doped
absorption layer
layer

p-contact

layer

(C.B.)

n-contact

(V.B.)

Stub UTC-PD C “relax CR time constraint” DC bias RF 100 µm out
Stub
UTC-PD
C
“relax CR time constraint”
DC
bias
RF
100 µm
out

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

57

Output Power at 300400 GHz

90 Gbit/s w/ ASK 140 GHz 120 270 410 10 mA 100 80 60 6
90 Gbit/s w/ ASK
140 GHz
120
270
410
10 mA
100
80
60
6 mA
40
20
0
Detected Power (W)

260

300

340

Frequency (GHz)

380

420

Increasing Output Power

Chip Structure

6 Output Combiner 0 ‐ 6 ‐ 12 PD PD ‐ 18 Output power (dBm)
6
Output
Combiner
0
6
‐ 12
PD
PD
‐ 18
Output power (dBm)
1 mW @300 GHz @ 18 mA per PD
1 mW @300 GHz
@ 18 mA per PD

1

10

100

Photocurrent per PD (mA)

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

59

Photo of Transmitter

PD Module Dielectric Lens Optical Fiber Horn Antenna
PD Module
Dielectric Lens
Optical Fiber
Horn Antenna

New Antenna Technology

100 mm
100 mm

50 mm

Photodiode

New Antenna Technology 100 mm 50 mm Photodiode Collaboration with J. Hirokawa and M. Ando (Tokyo

Collaboration with J. Hirokawa and M. Ando (Tokyo Inst. Tech)

300 GHz 42 mm
300 GHz
42 mm
Hirokawa and M. Ando (Tokyo Inst. Tech) 300 GHz 42 mm Photodiode TeraHertz: New opportunities for

Photodiode

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

61

Low profile Array Antenna

Plate-laminated waveguide slot array antenna

16 x 16 (256), 32 dBi

waveguide slot array antenna 16 x 16 (256), 32 dBi 11.2 mm 11.2 mm 0.6 mm

11.2 mm

11.2 mm
11.2 mm
slot array antenna 16 x 16 (256), 32 dBi 11.2 mm 11.2 mm 0.6 mm Radiating

0.6 mm

array antenna 16 x 16 (256), 32 dBi 11.2 mm 11.2 mm 0.6 mm Radiating Slot

Radiating Slot

Cavity
Cavity

Coupling

Slot
Slot
mm 11.2 mm 0.6 mm Radiating Slot Cavity Coupling Slot Feeding Network 62 TeraHertz: New opportunities

Feeding

Network

62

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

Receiver Configuration

Bandwidth of baseband signals~ 20 GHz

Antenna Schottky barrier diode 120  m
Antenna
Schottky barrier diode
120  m

Baseband signal

Receiver chip

Silicon lens
Silicon lens
120  m Baseband signal Receiver chip Silicon lens Baseband signal Receiver module TeraHertz: New

Baseband

 m Baseband signal Receiver chip Silicon lens Baseband signal Receiver module TeraHertz: New opportunities for

signal

Receiver module

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

63

24 Gbit/s Error Free

0.01 12.5 Gbit/s 24 Gbit/s 1E-4 1E-6 1E-8 1E-10 1E-12 10 W 50 W 1E-14
0.01
12.5 Gbit/s
24 Gbit/s
1E-4
1E-6
1E-8
1E-10
1E-12
10 W
50 W
1E-14
0
2
4
6
8
10
Bit Error Rate

Photocurrent (mA)

1E-14 0 2 4 6 8 10 Bit Error Rate Photocurrent (mA) 12.5 Gb/s 24 Gb/s

12.5 Gb/s

2 4 6 8 10 Bit Error Rate Photocurrent (mA) 12.5 Gb/s 24 Gb/s Minimum data

24 Gb/s

Minimum data rate for UHD

Eye Diagrams up to 30 Gbit/s

20

Gbps

22

Gbps

24

Gbps

20 ps
20 ps
20 ps
20 ps
Gbit/s 20 Gbps 22 Gbps 24 Gbps 20 ps 20 ps 26 Gbps 28 Gbps 30

26

Gbps

28

Gbps

30

Gbps

PD current 10 mA 20 ps
PD current 10 mA
20 ps
20 ps
20 ps
28 Gbps 30 Gbps PD current 10 mA 20 ps 20 ps BER ~10 ‐ 4

BER

~10 4

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

65

Use of Ultra Broadband

(a) Ultra-broadband channel

Carrier Carrier >40 GHz >70 GHz (24 Gbit/s) (43 Gbit/s) UHD OC-768 Power
Carrier
Carrier
>40 GHz
>70 GHz
(24 Gbit/s)
(43 Gbit/s)
UHD
OC-768
Power

(b) Multiple giga-bit channels

2.5 GHz Gbit/s) Frequency (1.5 Power
2.5 GHz
Gbit/s) Frequency
(1.5
Power

HDTV

280 to 400 GHz Experiments

280 GHz
280 GHz

(a)

320 GHz
320 GHz

(c)

360 GHz
360 GHz

(e)

300 GHz
300 GHz

(b)

340 GHz
340 GHz

(d)

380 GHz
380 GHz

(f)

400 GHz 500 ps
400 GHz
500 ps

(g)

1.0 Gbit/s
1.0 Gbit/s

Usable bandwidth:

120 GHz 48 ch. HDTV

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

67

450 to 720 GHz Experiments

450 GHz
450 GHz
500 GHz
500 GHz
550 GHz
550 GHz

(a)

(b)

(c)

1.6 Gbit/s 600 GHz
1.6 Gbit/s
600 GHz

(d)

650 GHz
650 GHz

(e)

720 GHz
720 GHz

(f)

Usable bandwidth: 270 GHz 108 ch. HDTV

Multi band Receivers

Multi ‐ band Receivers 1.5 Gbps Experiments TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 11 ‐

1.5 Gbps

Experiments

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

69

Future Strategy

Wired (Ethernet): 100 Gbps 100 100 Gbps Multi value mod. (e.g., QPSK) 40 40 Gbps
Wired (Ethernet): 100 Gbps
100
100 Gbps
Multi value mod.
(e.g., QPSK)
40
40 Gbps
Now
ASK Modulation
30
Max 30 Gbps
20
Max 22 Gbps
Max 16 Gbps
10
Max 11.4 Gbps
Data Rate [Gbps]

2010

2011

2012

2013

201x

Outline

Background and motivation

needs for high speed wireless why THz? who pays for THz wireless?

Enabling Technologies

photonics vs. electronics

Photonics base approach

direct detection coherent detection

Electronicsbased approach

Future issues

Summary

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

71

Towards Coherent Detection

Transmitter

Receiver

Coherent Detection Transmitter R e c e i v e r IM: Intensity Modulator Data Opt.

IM: Intensity Modulator

Transmitter R e c e i v e r IM: Intensity Modulator Data Opt. Carrier 1
Data Opt. Carrier 1 RF IF IM PD Data Opt. Carrie 2 LO Local Oscillator
Data
Opt. Carrier 1
RF
IF
IM
PD
Data
Opt. Carrie 2
LO
Local
Oscillator
Stability of RF signal is dependent on those of optical carriers
 Frequency difference in optical carriers should be stabilized

Example of Recent Studies

10Gbit/s PPG

23.125 GHz

Laser
Laser
EDFA QPSK EDFA MZM Modulator Modulator Freq. Quadrupler AWG Filter Horn Photodiode Carrier IF RF
EDFA
QPSK
EDFA
MZM
Modulator
Modulator
Freq. Quadrupler
AWG Filter
Horn
Photodiode
Carrier
IF
RF
I
Recovery
IQ Separa
Q
-tion
Optical
Coherent
LO (75 GHz)
Receiver

Kanno et al., IEICE Electronics Express, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 612 617 (2011).

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

73

Use of Optical Frequency Comb

Transmitter Receiver  1  2 Optical RF IM PD Filter LO Data Local Optical
Transmitter
Receiver
 1  2
Optical
RF
IM
PD
Filter
LO
Data
Local
Optical
Oscillator
Frequency
Comb
Generator
(OFCG)
Wavelength 
IF Data
IF
Data

1.5 Gbit/s @100 GHz

Frequency is stabilized  Unstable transmission
Frequency is stabilized
 Unstable transmission

Origin of Instability

Optical Carrier

Origin of Instability Optical Carrier 1/f 1 RF Signal Optical Filter PD Coupler From OFCG 1/f

1/f 1

Origin of Instability Optical Carrier 1/f 1 RF Signal Optical Filter PD Coupler From OFCG 1/f

RF Signal

Origin of Instability Optical Carrier 1/f 1 RF Signal Optical Filter PD Coupler From OFCG 1/f
Optical Filter
Optical
Filter
PD
PD

Coupler

From

OFCG

1/f 2

Phase instability between optical carriers  Jitter of photonically generated RF signal
Phase instability between optical carriers
 Jitter of photonically generated RF signal

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

75

Countermeasure

x ref = cos( t) x carrier = cos{( t) +  (t)} PS
x ref = cos( t)
x carrier = cos{( t) +  (t)}
PS

Reference Arm

PS Phase shifter

Slow PD cos{  (t)}
Slow PD
cos{  (t)}
Arm PS : Phase shifter Slow PD cos{  (t)} Coupler Feedback Circuit Locking to the

Coupler

Feedback Circuit
Feedback
Circuit
shifter Slow PD cos{  (t)} Coupler Feedback Circuit Locking to the reference optical signal by
Locking to the reference optical signal by feedback circuitry
Locking to the reference optical signal
by feedback circuitry

Stabilized Transmission

PS IM UTC‐PD RF 25 GHz 1.5 Gbps Optical OFCG 100 GHz Data Filter PS
PS
IM
UTC‐PD
RF
25 GHz
1.5 Gbps
Optical
OFCG
100 GHz
Data
Filter
PS
Feedback Signal
to Each PS
Low‐
Speed PD

1.5 Gbit/s @ 100 GHz

200 ps/div.
200 ps/div.

Transmitter

Optimized FB  Error free transmission
Optimized FB
 Error free transmission

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

77

BER Characteristics

10 ‐1 Theoretical 10 ‐3 10 ‐5 10 ‐7 10 ‐9 Coherent Detection Direct Detection
10
‐1
Theoretical
10
‐3
10
‐5
10
‐7
10
‐9
Coherent Detection
Direct Detection
10
‐11
‐50
‐ 40
‐ 30
‐ 20
BER

Transmitter Power (dBm)

Outline

Background and motivation

needs for high speed wireless why THz? who pays for THz wireless?

Enabling Technologies

photonics vs. electronics

Photonics base approach

direct detection coherent detection

Electronicsbased approach

Future issues

Summary

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

79

Output Power by Electronics

High power MMW amplifier + Frequency multiplier 20~40 μ W (w/ x12) @ 1.7~1.9 THz Transistor–based oscillator IC 100 300 μ W @ 250 350 GHz with InP DHBT, 780 μ W at 290 GHz, 160 μ W at 480 GHz with CMOS Resonant tunneling diode (RTD) oscillator 200 μ W @ 443 GHz, 610 μ W @ 620 GHz (2 arrays), 10 μW @ 1.3 THz

T. Nagatsuma, “Terahertz Technologies; Present and Future”, IEICE Electronics, Express, Vol.8, No. 14, 1127 (2011).

Lorene A. Samoska, “An Overview of Solid-State Integrated Circuit Amplifiers in the Submillimeter-Wave and THz Regime”, IEEE Trans. Terahertz Science Tech., Vol. 1, No. 1, 9(2011).

Comparison

SiGe HBT 0 CMOS CMOS RTD -10 InP HBT -20 InP HEMT 10 W -30
SiGe HBT
0
CMOS
CMOS
RTD
-10
InP HBT
-20
InP HEMT
10 W
-30
CMOS
-40
-50
Output Power (dBm)

100

200

300

400

500

Frequency (GHz)

600

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

81

CMOSbased Generator

45nm CMOS: ~1mW (2x2) @ 180~190GHz

‐ based Generator 45nm CMOS: ~1mW (2x2) @ 180~190GHz M. Uzunkol et al., Tech. Dig. IMS

M. Uzunkol et al., Tech. Dig. IMS 2013, 17 22 June 2012

Progress in Resonant Tunneling Diode

Progress in Resonant Tunneling Diode 2 element array 610  W @624GHz (S. Suzuki et al.,

2 element array 610 W @624GHz (S. Suzuki et al., IEEE J. Select. QE,

2012.)

Single ~10 W @1.4 THz (H. Kanaya et al., IPRM 2012)

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

83

Antenna integrated RTD

Tapered Slot Antenna

RTD Chip InP Substrate
RTD Chip
InP Substrate

RTD

Electrode n+InGaAs 8nm n+InGaAs 15nm n-InGaAs 25nm un-InGaAs 20nm un-AlAs 1.1nm un-InGaAs 4.5nm un-AlAs 1.1nm
Electrode
n+InGaAs 8nm
n+InGaAs 15nm
n-InGaAs 25nm
un-InGaAs 20nm
un-AlAs 1.1nm
un-InGaAs 4.5nm
un-AlAs 1.1nm
un-InGaAs 2nm
n-InGaAs 25nm

Tunnel Barrier

Quantum Well

Tunnel Barrier

Electrode

25nm Tunnel Barrier Quantum Well Tunnel Barrier Electrode n+InGaAs 400nm TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry,

n+InGaAs 400nm

Barrier Quantum Well Tunnel Barrier Electrode n+InGaAs 400nm TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB

Principle of RTD

電極 Au/Pd/Ti Au/Pd/Ti n+InGaAs n+InGaAs n-InGaAs n-InGaAs un-InGaAs un-InGaAs un-AlAs un-AlAs un-InGaAs
電極
Au/Pd/Ti
Au/Pd/Ti
n+InGaAs
n+InGaAs
n-InGaAs
n-InGaAs
un-InGaAs
un-InGaAs
un-AlAs
un-AlAs
un-InGaAs
un-InGaAs
un-AlAs
un-AlAs
Layer Structure Tunnel Barrier Quantum Well Tunnel Barrier
Layer
Structure
Tunnel Barrier
Quantum Well
Tunnel Barrier

DC

Current

Thin layers

(~1 nm)

un-InGaAs

un-InGaAs

n-InGaAs

n-InGaAs

Au/Pd/Ti

電極

Au/Pd/Ti

n+InGaAs

n+InGaAs

半絶縁

InP InP sub sub

 

I-V Characteristics ② Common ③ Diode DC Voltage
I-V Characteristics
Common
Diode
DC Voltage
① Well Barrier Barrier Electron Resonant level
① Well
Barrier
Barrier
Electron
Resonant level
Energy Band ② V
Energy Band
V
③ V
V

TeraHertz: New opportunities for industry, EPFL, FEB 1113, 2013

85

Operation Points

B 10 Operation point for transmitter 0 A 電流 Operation point for receiver - 10
B
10
Operation point
for transmitter
0
A
電流
Operation point
for receiver
- 10
電圧(V)
DC Current (mA)

-1.0

-0.5

0

DC Voltage (V)

0.5

1.0

Transmitter Operation

Transmitter Operation Non ‐ Oscillation O s c i l l a t i o n
Transmitter Operation Non ‐ Oscillation O s c i l l a t i o n

Non Oscillation Oscillation