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Understanding

'0' Level

through

Problem Solving

A Supplementary Practice
Latest MOE syllabus Topics are categorised into easily manageable sections Questions are arranged in increasing level of difficulty to facilitate a better mderstam Question types .. simple recall to fo .. analysis an! synt esis " an aspect in tac#ling data"s$em
",n

David Oon

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&irst !ubli'hed ())* Re!rinl+d ()), -uthor .a/id 0on

Editor 1han 'hyong 2a3/

1o!yrighted #aterial

T eme % apter -

'" Measurement
P ysical Quantities3 Dnits and Measurements -.)ase Quantities3 Dnits and PrefiJes K.? Errors in Measurements -.6 Lengt Measurements /it %alipers and Micrometer Time Measurements and t e Pendu llu -.= -.5 Scalars3 Eectors and Eector Fiagram % allenging Segment -.7

1 1

(
6

7
1 ;

T eme ?
% apter ?

'" .e/tonian Mec anics


Ginematics ?.- Sl?eed3 Eelocity and Acceleration ?.? Hrap ical AnalI<sis of Motion 2.3 @reefall % allenging Segment ?.= Fynamics )alanced @orces -.&&nbalanced @orces -.? 3.3 @riction 6.= % aDenging Segment Mass3 Leig t and Fensity Mass and MnertiN, =.Leig t =.? =.6 Fensity and @lotation =.= % allenging Segment Turning Effect of @orces 5.- Moments 5.? Princil?le of Moments 5.6 %entre of Hravity and Stability % allenging Segment 5.= 4 4

l""5

((
?= (1 (1

% apter 6

?>

11

6.6
7 8(

% apter =

=<:
=..5(

% apter 5

=6 =6
6

=0i

=.>

1o!ynghted #atenal

% apter 7

Pressure
73Pressllre

7.?
7.6

7.= 735 7.7 % apter C

Li9uid Pressure and Atmosp eric Pressure Pressllre Fifference Oydraulics


Pressllre Measurelnent

49 49 5:

5S
5C

% allenging Segment

58 59
91 76
7-

Lor#3 Energy and Po/er C3Lor# C.? Ginetic Energy and Hravitational Potential Energy C.6 Principle of %onservation of Energy
C.=

Po/er

C.5

% allenging Segment

65 68 69

T eme 6
% apter >

<' T erma- P ysics Ginetic Model of Matter >.- States Qf Matter and t e Ginetic MQdel >3? )ro/nian Motion >.6 % allenging Segment T ermal Energy Transfer ;.- T ermal E9uilibrium
;.?

CS

73 73

76
79 79

% apter ;

;36 ;.= ;.5


% apter -:

%onvect 2on 1adiation % allenging Segment

%onduction

79
>-

82 83
87 87 89
;:1

Tenlperal/4e -:.- Principles of T ermometry -:.? T ermocouple T ermometers


-:.6 % allenainI Seament

90

% apter --

T ermal Properties of Matter --.- Oeat %apacity and Spe%ific Oeal %apacity --.? Melting3 )oi$ing 0D-dEvaporation --.6 Latent Oeat and Specific Latent Oeat --.= % allenging Segnlent

94 96 -::

1o!ynghted #aterial

T enle =
% apter -?

; Laves
Heneral Lave Propenies -?.- Longitudinal and Transverse Laves -?.? Lave Terms and Hrap ical 1epresentation of a Lave -?.6 1ipple Tan# -?.= % allenging Segment Lig t -6.- 1eflection -6.? 1efraction -6.6 Total &nternal 1eflection -6.= T in l.enses -6.5 % al.lenging Segnlent Electromagnetic Spectrum -=.- Properties of Electromagnetic Laves and Applications -=.? % allenging Segment Sound -5.- Sound Lave and its Hrap ical 1epresentation -5.? Speed of Sound -5.6 Ec o and Dltrasound -5.= % allenging Segment

1")8

un
-.:=
$..:7 -:C

% apter

-6

109

-:;

&-ill ill ill


119

% apter -=

119 120
1("8"

% apter -5

-?7

ill

127 ]28

T eme 5
% apter -7

; Electricity and Magnetism


Static Electricity -7.- Ma/s of Electrostatics -7.? Eleclrostatic % arging -7.6 Electric @ield -7.= % allenging Segment %urrent of Electricity -C.- %urrent -C.? ElectTomotive @orce +E.M.@., and Potential Fifference -C.6 1esistance -C.= O m4s La/ -C.5 % allenging Segment

ill l.6..l

132
ill l..6=

% apter -C

ill
181 18,

"l-0"
-=-

ill

1o!ynghted #atenal

Chapter

18

F.%3 %ircuits I R.l Series %4iMcilit 18.2 Parallel %ircuir 18.3 Series and Para liel %i <14 ill4 18,4 Potentilll Fivider %ircuits 18.5 Dse of %at ode"1a!- Oscilloscope 18.6 % allenging Segment Practical Electricity 19.1 Electric Po/er and Ener3003y 19.2 Fangers of Electricity 19.3 Safe Dse of Electricity 19.4 % allenging Segment Magnetism 20.1 La/s of Magnetism and &nduced Magnetism 20.2 Magnerisation and Fema!netisation 20.3 Magnetic @ield 20.4 % allenging Segment Electron3agnetism 21.1 Magnetic Effect of a %urrent 21.2 @orce on a %urrent"%arrying %onductor 21.3 Tbe nc Motor 21.4 % allenging Segment Electromagnetic &nduction 22.1 Principles of Electromagnetic &nduction 22.2 T e A.%. Henerator ??.!TransfoMlllf!M and POllAer4&ransmisaion 22.4 % allenging Segment
All!!ers and Lor#ed 'alutians

-=6
15"8

-== -=7 -=-=> -5: -56 -56 -5= -57 -5C -7-7l -76 -7= -75 -7C -7C -7; -C6 -CC -CC -C; ->->= ->;

Chapter 19

Chapter 20

Chapter 21

I <I I

Chapter 22

1o!yrighted

material

S"$$%&' O( )*' QDAi!4rrr&ES3S'$+O,S %-D !.-/0S


Quatity Sym o! I, h ...
-

"nit

Lengt Area
=olu#e

Leig t Mass Time


PeriodA
FensityA

V W m, M
I

#m3 &n3 em3 nun m? , em" m<l, emA


.P

p
1.1"

SpeedA
AccelerationR

!#

Acceleration of free fall


@orceA

F, P
W,E E

Moment of forceP Lor# done Energy Po/er Pressure Atmosp eric pressure Temperature Oeat capacity Specific eat capacity Latent eat Specific latent eat @re9uecy Lavelengt @ocal lengt Angle of incidence Angles of reflection3 refraction
+:,

#g3 g3 mg h, min3 S3 ms s gQcm43 #gQrnA #rnQ 3 mis3 cmQs mis4 rnQs43 .Q#g . .m $P3 #L P
J

P
p,P
{J, T

\"'1* PaP3 N/mz use of rnilibar S% , G $Qo%3

c
L
I

I/K $Q >g C), $Q >g ?) J $Q #g3 $Q g


m3 cln &n3 ern degree +:, degree degree +:,
EP3 mv A3 &liA

.f ,
II-

Hz

.f
I

%ritical angle Potential differencePQvoltage


%urrentA

c
V

% arge e.m .rr-" resistance

I q, Q E R

%3A
E
Q

1o!yrighted #aterial

~~.r~~~/~m~e~as~u~re~m~en~t_s~
@-.

Physical Quantities, Units and

1.1 +a1e Quantitie1, "nit1 and 2re3i4e1


$o n3 / o as a mass of 5: #g. eig t of -.5= &n3 is able to run a distance of & #m in a time of 5 min -? s. Ois average speed /as calculated to be 6.?- rals:
>a)

Lrite do/n all t e p ysical 9uantities and t eir respective S& units for t e situation above.

>A)

P ysical Quantities

S& units

+b,

L ic

of

t e

9uantities

above

are considered

as base 9uantitiesT

M?$ +c,

L at

ot er

base

9uantities

are

t ere

besides

t ose

in +b,

aboveT

M=$ >d) L ic prefiJ as been used in t e situation aboveT State o/ #any times is t e factor

of

t is prefiJ over its base unit.

M?$

?.

Ali said3 A& found out t at t e speed of lig t in space is 6 J -:A &nQs. T is means t at lig t can travel a distance of 8 J 1)" m in a time interval of 2ust 1 second0A
>a)

&dentify and /rite do/n from / at ALisaid3 all t e base p ysical 9uantities and t eir respective S& units.

>()

+b,

1e/rite t e distance of 6 B &D4 # using t e prefiJes #ilo"3 mega" and giga".

M6$

6 B -:A nl
+c,

#in U

Min U

Hm

%onvert 6 J -:A nlQs into< +i, #mQs3

+?-

>ii) #mQ 3

M?-

% apter &

1o!yrighted #aterial

"!.."

6.

Alice calculated t e density of a solid metal boJ by first measuring t e mass and volume of t e boJ. T e results are as follo/s<

ass C !"" #
#lcm'
>a)

$%l&m' C (" 'm'

)'*s+,- C 5
M?,

Out of t e t ree p ysical 9uantities above3 / ic are not considered as base 9uantitiesT

+b, %onvert for all t ree 9uantities above3 into t eir respective S& units. Mass < 6:: g

[6]
V V
V

"

Eolume< 7: em4 " Fensity< 5 gQcmT "

' -.? *rror1 in $ea1urement1


1"

+a, Lrite do/n t e

tD0

types of errors t at may be present during measurement.

>()

+b, State / ic of t e errors above can be reduced by ta#ing a larger number of measurements and averagingT

M&K

?.

State t e main type of error for eac of t e tD0 cases belo/. EJplain your c oice of ans/er and describe o/ in eac case3 t e error can be reduced. +a, )ala and )illy ave a digital stop/atc eac . )ot measures t e time ta#en for a marble to roll do/n a l"m ramp and t e results are 6.5C s and 6.=? s respectively. Type of error< V M&, M?K

EJplanation and description on o/ to reduce error<

+b,

A glass cylinder as a lengt specified by t e manufacturer as -5.: cm. )ill /anted to measure and confirm t is lengt . Oe used a metre rule3 una/are t at it as a defective
scale at t e Iero #arE" Ois #easure#ent result is 15", cm. Type of error< V M-K <(F

EJplanation and description on o/ to reduce error<

_2

. 4nderstanding Physics through Proble# So!vin5

1o!yrighted

material

6.

)ob is trying >) determine t e period of a -.? m long pendulum. Oe first measures t e time interval for -: complete oscillations /it a digital stop/atc . Oe t en carries out an averaging to determine t e period of oscillation. Suggest t/o /ays in / ic e can ma#e t e results more accurate. M?K
clamp

,
I

,,
,

r
I

.. !'.
\ ......

,161.2n!

,,

3NA

3
I

@- 1.3 ,en57h $ea1urement1 "ith Ca!i er1 and $i8rometer


-.
Lrite do/n t e readings for t e follo/ing measurements belo/. T e follo/ing pairs of cal ipers ave no Iero error. >a)

?:

6:

1eading

M&K

+b,

1eading C

M&K

?.

Lrite do/n t e readings for t e measurements belo/. T is pair of calipers

as no Iero error.

+a, -------------------M-----e# 5

o
&llllllllll

-:

1eading U"""""l&$
5

+b, -&&&&&&&&&&&&&&fllllllili
em
C

1eading
>

M&K

1ha!ter I

1, .9.::,.;;;;#
1o!ynghted #alenal

6.

A pair of faulty calipers is found to ave a Iero error of R:.:6 cln / en t e 2a/s are fully closed. T is pair of calipers is used to measure t e dept of a bea#er.

------------------------e#

-:

+a, Lrite do/n t e measurement made /it t is pair of faulty calipers. +b, Lrite do/n t e actual dept of t e bea#er. +c, State t e pan of t e vernier calipers used to measure t e dept of t e bea#er. =. A pair of faulty calipers is found to bave a Iero error of ":.:- ern / en tbe 2a/s are fully closed. T is pair of calipers is used to measure t e diameter of a syringe.

+&,
M-K M&K

o
-

-:

I I II
-

IIIII
=

---------M---------------e#

+a, Lrite do/n t e measurement made /it t is pair of faulty calipers. +b, Lrite do/n t e actual diameter of t e syringe. +c, Fescribe / at you /ould do to obtain a more accurate diameter of t e syringe.

<1)

M-K +?,

S.

Lrite do/n t e t/o measurements belo/ made /it a micrometer. Assume t at t e micrometer as no Iero error.

+a,
!3UA."!n -:

>b)

4!lM3W""$5
o
1eading C M-K 1eading C -----<1F

'#####'

Dnderstanding Physics through Problem Solving

1o!yrighted #aterial

7.

T e diagrams belo/ s o/s four measurements of a diameter of a non"uniform iron rod made /it a micrometer.
!lU<""!n6S
6:

L&"V!V4?5
Measurement Measurement ?

Measurement 6

Measurement = -=K
=

+a, 1ecord t e readings of all four measurements in t e table belo/.

Measurement .o. /nitia! measurements %orrected measurements

+b, A student c ec#s t e micrometer and finds t at it as a Iero error of ":.:? mm3 %orrect l=K all four earlier measurements and record t em in t e table above. +c, %alculate t e average diameter of t e iron rod.

M?-

+d, State t e type of error present in t is situation.

<II

C.

A faulty micrometer scre/ gauge /it an error of ":.:? nun / en t e 2a/s are fully closed is used to measure t e eJternal diameter of a test tube. +a, Lrite do/n t e measurement s o/n on t e micrometer. V
<1F

+b, Lrite do/n t e actual diameter of t e test tube. >. V <IJ

A faulty micrometer scre/ gauge /it an error of R:.:? mm / en t e 2a/s are fully closed /as used to ---eaSDrte e diameter of a /as er. +a, Lrite do/n t e measurement s o/n on t e micrometer. V <II

+b, Lrite do/n t e actual diameter of t e /as er. V

[ll
% apter &
I

....A... .......

<

u!yrighteo # stertal

<' 1.4 0ime $ea1ureme t1 and the 2endu!um


$. T e diagram belo/ s o/s a simple pendulum setup in a sc ool laboratory. T e average time ta#en for t e bob to move $ro# Q to 1 is :.= s.
cla#!
r

+a, Fefine t e period of an oscillation.

<u
M-K

", , ,

+b, L at is t e period of t e pendulumT

, , ,, , , ,

"

, ,

P!#!
Q

, , ,, , ,, , , ,

"

+c, T e pendulum eJperiment allo/s us to calculate an approJimate value of Eart 4s gravitational acceleration /it a simple formula. Hravitational acceleration C =-t?H +i, lengt of pendulum bob in metre s9uare of period of osci llation in seconds

T e lengt of pendulum in t is eJperiment is :.75 m. On t e diagram above3 IIIar# t e lengt of t e pendulum. gravitational acceleration of Eart in nlQs?.

<1F +?K

>ii) Dsing t e value found in +b, and lengt of pendulum as :.75 m3 calculate t e

+iii, Oo/ must t e lengt of t e pendulum be ad2usted to increase t e period of t e


!endulu#I <IF

+iv, - student proposes to use a bob t at is eavier in order to lengt en t e period of t e pendulum. EJplain i$ t e proposal is valid. M?K

?.

T e diagram belo/ s o/s a setup of a simple pendulum suspended from a clamp. T e !endulu# bob is moved about 5S to J and released3 causing t e bob to oscillate bet/een positions $ and J" T e bob ta#es an average of :.7: s to #o/e from $ to ? and to J"
>a)

L at is t e period of t e !endulu# aboveT

M&,

clamp

+b, L at is t e time ta#en for t e pendulum to ma#e ?.5 oscillationsT

<IF

G $4
L#_

,, 3-. ,
I . I /:

,,,",,, ,, ,
I

"
?

, ,, ,,

, ,

, ,
J

"

:6==.... Understanding Physics through Proble# Solving

1o!yrighted #aterial

+c, Marcus lengt ens t e pendulum and proceeded to measure t e rime ta#en for t e pendulum to ma#e ?: oscillations. Marcus uses a digital stop/atc . T e process is repeated four more times and t e results are as follo/s< 65.?7 s
+i,

67.?6 s

6=.>6 s

6=.;= s

67.:? s
M?K

%alculate t e ne/ period of t e pendulum by averaging. S o/ your /or#ings clearly.

+ii, %alculate t e fre9uency of oscillation of t e pendulum.

-?K

+iii, EJplain / y t e determination of t e period of oscillation is more accurate by

calculating t e average of ?: oscillations and not from one single oscillationT M&,

+iv, T e met od used in +i, and +ii, is useful to minimise / at type of errorT

<IF

T e diagram belo/ s o/s a boJ acted upon by t/o forces.


-.
>a) State t e resultant magnitude and direction of t e

A1K1

boJ due to t e t/o forces.


M?K

6I
b

oJ

8N

+b, T e >". force is no/ reversed. State t e resultant magnitude and direction of t e boJ

due to t is c ange. T e 5". force re#ains t e sa#e, M?K

?.

A vector of siIe 7 units3 points directly nort / ile anot er vector of siIe > units3 points east. Fra/ a parallelogram to determine t e vector addition of t ese t/o vectors. Dse a scale of - cm < ? units. Stat.e t e magnitude and direction of t is resultant vector. M5K

1ha!ter I

&$opyrig tlGl#,lIerlal

6.

@orce is a vector 9uantity. T/o forces of 7 . eac acts on an ob2ect. +a, Fescribe o/ it is possible to produce a Iero resultant force from t e t/o forces. +?,

%b& Fescribe o/ it is possible to produce a resultant force of -? . from t e t/o forces.

M?K

+c, Fra/ a vector diagram to s o/ o/ a resultant force of 7 . may be obtained from t e t/o forces of 7 . eac . Label t e 7". forces and t e resultant force clearly. M?$

=.

T e diagram belo/ s o/s t/o forces of 6: .and =: . acting on a crate.


$O.

crate

Fra/ a parallelogram to determine t e resultant force of t ese tLOforces. Dse a scale of & ern < 5 .. State t e magnitude and direction of t e resultant force.

M5,

Dnderstanding 2hy1i81 t roug 2ro !em So!vin5

1o!yrighted #aterial

5.

L ic

of t e follo/ing diagram correctly s o/s t e addition of t e 6". and =". forcesT

A
3N SN IN

+
51 1

c
3=-451 1

.
351 1

=.

41 1

41 1

@- -.7 Cha!!en57n5 S!ment


-.
as a Iero error of L)"( #rn" Alan uses it to #easure t e lengt of a cubic dice. T e reading is -?.7 ##" 1ecognising t e error in t e calipers3 Alan ma#es ad2ustments to is reading and recorded t e lengt of one side of t e dice as -?.> mm. Oe t en proceeds to calculate t e volume of t e dice and /rites do/n t e result as ? :;C mrnA3 +a, State t e t ree errors made by Alan. >8)

- pair of calipers

>b) L ic of t e 9uantities above is a derived 9uantityT

MlK

?.

T/o forces act at rig t angles at a point : as s o/n belo/. Dhat is t e resultant of t e forces s o/nT Magnitude Firection

Qr - - - - - - - - - R

A + 1

?- . ?- 7

-5 . -5 .

!" #$ !"
PR

;-4-

-? .

o
< )

8"

T/o forces are co#bined and cause a resultant force.

>a) State t e one factor t at affects t e magnitude of t e resultant force.

Ml,

+b, State t e range of t e magnitude o$ t e resultant / en forces of magnitude 6 .and = .


are combined.

M-.-

=.

$ames3 starting at a point P3 /al#s due .ort for one our at a constant speed of =.: #mQ and t en3 at t e same constant speed3 /al#s =.: #m due East3 finis ing at a point Q. In t e same total time but at a different constant speed3 $o /al#s directly from P to Q. Fetermine

+a, t e total distance /al#ed by $ames.

M?,

% apter -

"K -K-

M"""""

%opyrig ted material

+b,

by dra/ing. t e distance /al#ed by $o3

M5,

>c) t e velocity o$ Jo"

l?$

A"

T e reverse bungee is II new and eBcinng $or# o$ $airground ride $irst introduced in -;;;. Passengersboard a s!herical cage. and arc then released vertically u!wards into t e s#y. T e cage is pulled up/ards by a !air o$ elastic cords #ounted on t e side of t e cage" T e diagram shows t e forces acting on t e sp erical cage. Eac force as a siIe o$ 5) E7 eac . scale drawing, determine t e magnitude and direction o$ t e resultant force eJerted by both elastic cords on t e s!herical cage.
II

)y #eans o$

!######'

10

4nderBtendiug $&I,y'..ic($o IhlKou6h Proble# Solving

+3opyngl-ted m4lterA &

+
-. +a,

)inematics
1(F

Oo/ is displacement different from distanceT

>b)

L ic of + e 9uantities above is a vectorT

IIF

>c) Gat y t ro/s a ball up/ard into t e air and caug t it at t e same position / en t e ball returns to Eart . Evaluate t e follo/ing statements belo/3 ma#ing t e neccessary corrections to statements t at are false.M5K +i, T e distance travelled by t e ball is > rn.

Mid"point of do/n/ard #otion


2oint o$throwing

4m

b.-l

True I @alse
---.

+ii, T e displacement of t e ball at t e point t at it is caug t is R= +iii, T e eig t reac ed by t e ball is e9ual to t e total distance travelled. +iv, T e displacement of t e ball at t e ig est point is R= m. +v, L en t e ball is mid"/ay on its do/n/ards motion3 its dis!lace#ent is (? ---. ?. T e diagram on t e rig t s o/s a spring suspended from a retort stand. A bob is ung belo/ t e spring3 causing t e spring to be eJtended to t e neutral position s o/n.
bob

True I @alse True I @alse True I @alse True I @alse

T e bob is t en pulled do/n/ards to position J / ic is neutral > cm belo/ t e neutral position and t en released. T is *osition causes t e bob to oscillate bet/een positions $ and ? repeatedly.

? # # # # #
one complete u*
>10??#11
$.I$$c$

X
# # # # #

oscitlation

>a) L at is t e displacement of t e bob / en it is at position JI

<IF

+b, L at is t e displacement of t e bob / en it is at position GT


>c)

<IF
<IF

L at is t e total distance moved if t e bob rna#es one complete oscillation from t e neutral positionT

+d, L at is t e displacement of t e bob / en it as ma#e one complete oscillation measured from t e neutral positionT

<IJ

c,o!yrighled #aterial

6.

+a,

Fefine speed and state its S& unit.

>()

+b,

Fifferentiate bet/een average speed and instantaneous speed.

M?K

+c, Lrite do/n t e $or#ula used to calculate average speed.

M$ I

+d, &s t ere a formula to calculate instantaneous speedT +e, A car starts from rest and travels -- distance of 7:: rn in -5 s. A fter / ic its slo/s do/n and travels anot er distance of 7:: m in ?5 s. %alculate t e average speed of t e car.

M&&

=.

+a,

Fefine velocity and state its S& unit.

>()

+b, Fifferentiate

er"/een average speed and average velocity.

M?K +c., EJplain / en average speed is t e same as average velocity. M-K +d, Evaluate t e follo/ing statements belo/ about speed and velocity3 ma#ing t e necessary corrections to statements t at are false. M6K +i, Speed and velocity as t e same magnitude but could be of different direction. True I @alse True Q @alse Tnle Q @alse M6K

+ii, T e 9uantity speed can be a negative value. +iii, T e 9uantity velocity can be a negative value. 5. +a,

T e speedometer of a ve icle s o/s a reading of 5: #mQ . %ross out t e statements t at are /rong.

. T e instantaneous speed of t e ve icle is 5: #mQ . . T e average speed of t e ve icle is 5: #mQ . . T e total distance travelled in t e last one our is 5: #m.
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Dnderstanding P ysics t roug Problem Solving

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>b) A van moves at Y&naverage speed of 5: #rnQ . %ross out t e statements t at are /rong.

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T e instantaneous speed of t e van cannot be less t an 5: #mQ . T e instantaneous speed of t e van cannot be more t an 5: #rnQ 3 T e van may reac an instantaneous speed of -:: #mQ . T e van may reac an instantaneous speed of : #mQ .

[4]

Evaluate t e follo/ing statements belo/ about an ob2ect moving /it a negative velocity3 ma#ing M e necessary corrections to statements t at are false. +a, T e moving ob2ect is decelerating at a uniform rate. +b, T e moving ob2ect is decelerating at a non-uni$or# rate.
(c)

-=K

True Q @alse True Q @alse True I @alse True0 @alse

T e moving ob2ect is moving at a constant speed.

+d, T e moving ob2ect is moving at Iero acceleration.

7.

+a,

Fefine acceleration and state its S& unit.

M?$

+b, &s acceleration a vector or scalar 9uaruityT L y40

M?K

(c)

Lrite do/n t e e9uation used to calculate acceleration of an ob2ect.

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+d, A football /as moving at a speed of :.5 rnQs / en it /as given a #ic#. T e time ta#en for t e impact is :.? s. &rs ne/ speed is 5.5 nlQs. %alculate t e acceleration of t e football. M?K

+e,

A motorcycle accelerated a/ay from rest at a traffic lig t /it a magnitude of ?.= rnQs<. %alculate t e lime ta#en for it to reac a speed of -> IllOs" +?,

% apter 2

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Evaluate t e follo/ing statements belo/ about acceleration. %orrect t e statements / ic are !se. M! +a, L en an ob2ect accelerates3 its velocity increases. True I @alse

+b, L en an ob2ect accelerates3 its speed may be increasing. +c, Feceleration is a scalar 9uantity. +d, L en an ob2ect decelerates3 it is slo/ing do/n. +e, An ob2ect first accelerates at ? mQs?.&t t en decelerates at ? &nQs?3 T is must mean t at t e ob2ect is no/ moving in a direction opposite to t at / en it /as moving /it an acceleration of ? m/s20
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True I @alse True I @alse True I @alse True I @alse

Mat ematically3 deceleration U " acceleration.

True I @alse

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A van ta#es ?: s to travel t e first >: m3 anot er lOs to travel a furt er C: m. &t t en decelerates at a rate of 6 m/s2 to come to a complete stop in ?.5 s. +a, %alculate t e average speed of t e van in t e first 6: s of its motion. M?K

+b, %alculate t e instantaneous speed of t e van at lime of 6: s.

M?,

@ra hiea! ana!y1i1 o3 motion


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T e grap on t e rig t s o/s a distance"time grap of a moving ob2ect. Analyse t e grap and evaluate t e follo/ing statements as true or false. M-:K +a, Ob2ect as travelled a distance ofC5 m in 63: S. True L @alse +b, Ob2ect as travelled a distance of -:: m in 5.: s. True I @alse

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+e,

Speed of ob2ect from : to =.: s is constant. 5: m by ? s.

True I @alse Tru! l @al!e True f @als! Tru! L @alse True Q @alse True I

%0 Speed of ob2ect from : to =.: s cannot be calculated by dividing


+g, Speed of ob2ect from =.: to 7.: s is non"Iero.
>h) Speed of ob2ect from =.: to 7.: s can be calculated by dividing

-:: m by ? s.

+i, >j)

T e slope of a distance"time grap gives us t e speed of t e ob2ect. Ob2ect is moving at constant speed bet/een : to =.: s and is at rest @alse from =.: to 7.: s.

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Lrite do/n t e times at / ic t e 2ogger is at is fastest run. Lit out ma#ing any calculations3 eJplain o/ you deduce your ans/er3

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>d) %alculate t e speed +in mQs, of t e 2ogger / en e is at is slo/est run.

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%alculate t e average speed +in InOs) of t e 2ogger t roug out t e / ole 2ourney.

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>I)

T e 2ogger started and ended is run at t e sa#e point. State and eJplain3 whether t ere is anyt ing from t e grap t at suggests t is information. <()

6.

A tennis ball /as t ro/n vertically up/ards. &t travelled up/ards for > m3 stopped3 travelled

bac# do/n/ards and caug t at t e point t at it /as t ro/n. T e time ta#en for ball 1) reac its ig est point is I s. &t ta#es anot er I s for it to drop bac# to t e point it /as caug t. >a) Evaluate t e follo/ing statements about t e distance and displacement of t e ball. Ma#e corrections to t e statements t at are false. MCK +i, T e total distance travelled by t e ball is > #" True Q Pa&se True Q @alse True L @alse True I @alse True I false True I @alse True I @alse

+ii, At t e ig est point3 t e distance travelled and t e displacement of t e ball is t e sa#e, +iii, T e displacement of t e ball at t e point it /as caug t is -7 m. +iv, T e displacement of t e ball at t e ig est point is > m. +v, T e displacement of t e ball alf/ay do/n/ards is -5 #, +vi, T e total distance travelled and displacement of t e ball at t e point it /as caug t is t e same. +vii, )ot 9uantities< distance and displacement. are vector 9uantities.

+b, On t e grap s belo/ s#etc t e distance"rime and displacement"time grap of t e motion. +i, distance"lime grap +ii, displacement"time grap
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%alculate t e average speed of t e baD t roug out t e / ole motion.

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%alculate t e velocity of t e ball +i, / en it 2ust leaves t e and3 and +ii, 2ust before it /as caug t.

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Albert standing at a platform -:m above ground t ro/s a ball vertically up/ards. T e motion of t e ball is plotted in t e grap belo/.
displacementQm 1)

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+b, State t e approJimate time at / ic t e ball its t e ground. +c, Stale t e total distance travelled by t e ball.

M-<IF M&,

>d) State t e displacement. of t e ball at t e end of t e motion.


>e)

State t e time at / ic t e speed of t e ball is : &nQs. Fescribe t e speed of t e ball from : to 6 s.

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$osep conducted an eJperiment to investigate t e speed of a remote control car. T e data from t e data"logger is as s o/n belo/. Speed in r%ls

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@rom t e grap 3 +b, determine t e speed of t e car / en t e time is -5.: seconds. +c, / ic time+s, suggest to you t at t e car is stationaryT +d, /rite do/n t e times / en t e car
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18
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+ii, decelerates.

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+e, calculate t e acceleration of t e car from -=.: to ->.: s.

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calculate t e acceleration of t e car from ->.: to ?:.: seconds.

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calculate the total distance travelled by t e car.

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+ , calculate t e average speed of t e car.

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Drite do/n t e e9uation used to calculate acceleration.

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+b, A toy car moves do/n a slope from rest3 It travels 6.7 &n in t e first 6 seconds. Fetermine t e acceleration of t e toy car /it t e aid of grap ical analysis. -ssu#e t at t e acceleration is constant. M?K

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>a)

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%ar $ accelerates at t e sa#e rate as car ?"

True I @alse True [@alse True [@alse True [@alse True [@alse
% apter 2

+ , %ar $ and car ? al/ays travel at steady speed. +c, %ar $ stalls at a faster speed c an car ?"

>d) %ar $ overta#es car ? 2ust as car ? is about to stall #o/ing" +e, %ars $ and ? start at t e same time.

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Lilson3 standing at t e second storey of a building / ic is -: m above ground3 t ro/s a ball vertically up/ards. T e speed of t e ball / en it leaves t e and is -: mQ> and t e speed is

-C.6 mQ5 2ust before it its t e ground3 T e motion of t e ball is plotted in t e grap belo/. +a, L at is t e eig t reac ed by t e ballT
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L at is t e total distance travelled by t e ballT

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+c, Lrite do/n t e gravitational acceleration of Eart T <IF +d, S#etc t e +i, distance"time grap of t e motion3
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+c, $erry said3 A@rom t e grap 3 it loo#s li#e car ) overta#es car A at > s. T is is because t e speed of) is no/ more t an t at of A.A &s / at $erry said trueT EJplain and 2ustify your ans/er by s o/ing t e appropriate calculations. +?,

$0. A small marble is given an initial pus up a ramp. It moves up t e frictionless slope and do/n
again. T e time ta#en for t is to appen is -.? s. +a, S#etc a velocity"rime grap 1) represent t e motion of t e marble in -.? s3 +\ou may ta#e t e up/ard motion along t e ramp as positive, +b, S#etc a distance"time grap to represent t e motion of t e marble in -.? s.

% apter ]

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-. Evaluate t e follo/ing statements about free"fa$l on Eart in t e absence of air resistance for true or false. Ma#e necessary corrections to t e statements / ic are false. <5) +a, Any ob2ect falling freely /ill al/ays increase its speed at a rate of -: mQs every second. True I @alse True Q @alse True Q @alse True I @alse

+b, Any ob2ect falling freely /ill al/ays fall at a constant speed of -: &nQs.

%c,

A feat er and a pebble dropped from t e same eig t /ill reac t e ground at eJactly t e same time.

+d, Any ob2ect t ro/n vertica$ly up/ards /ill accelerate at R-: mQs?.

?.

A ball is t ro/n vertically up/ards at a speed of > &nQs. &t t en falls bac# to Eart . &gnoring t e effect of air resistance. evaluate t e follo/ing statements for true or false. M6K +a, T e siIe of acceleration of t e ball t roug out its motion is t e same. +b, T e acceleration of t e ball is -1) mQs? up/ards and 1) ---QSd?o/n/ards. True Q @alse True I True I

@alse +c, T e speed of t e ball as it passes t e point of t ro/ing is > mQs. @alse 6. L ic grap represents t e motion of an ob2ect in free fall reac ing terminal velocityT

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at its maJimum value3
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...2...2.....

Dndersrunding Physics through Problem So!vin5

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5.

A man is in a gondola of a O& air balloon3 ascending at a rate of -? &nQs. As t e gondola passes t roug a point t at is 5:: --- above ground3 e leans over t e edge and releases a coin.
>a) S#etc

a velocity"time grap of t e first = s of t e motion of t e coin. On t e grap 3 label clearly t e time / en t e coin is at Iero speed. 15F

>b)

Ma#e use of t e grap to calculate3

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velocity of t e coin after = s3

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eig t of t e coin above ground after = S.

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acceleration acceleration acceleration

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A plane carrying some parac utist starts moving along a run/ay3 in t e process of ta#ing off. T e table belo/ s o/s t e variation of rime /it t e distance travelled by t e aircraft as it moves do/n t e run/ay. TimeQs FistanceQ&ll +a, State and eJplain3 +i, if t e speed of t e plane is increasing. decreasing or remaining constant3 +?$

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if t e acceleration of t e plane is increasing3 decreasing or remaining constant.

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+b,

L en t e plane reac es an appropriate altitude3 a parac utist steps off from t e plane. T e parac ute opens SOllletime after t e start of t e fall. EJplain / y t e initial vertical acceleration of t e parac utist is about -: mQs1" M?K

?.

A model roc#et is launc ed from rest. &ts engine delivers a constant acceleration of >.? mIs' for a full 5.: S3 after / ic t e fuel is used up. Assuming t at t e roc#et /as launc ed vertically and t at air resistance is not significant3 +a, s#etc a velocity"time grap in t e space on t e rig t to s o/ t e variation of velocity to time of t e roc#et motion from launc until it returns to Eart . M?$

+b, find t e maJimum altitude reac ed by t e roc#et. M?K

+c,

find t e total time t e roc#et is in flig t.

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'#####'

24

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10P2righted #atenal

8"

is @"-7 @ig ting @alcon in a secluded desert in t e 4'-" To pass is training3 e must control is aircraft suc t at it can maintain a stable line of flig t. %his is necessary so that t e launc ed missile is able to it a stationary target sonle distance a/ay. Ois aircraft as a speed of Mac -.?. L en t e aircraft is <N #m a/ay frorn t e target3 t e pilot presses t e launc button and t e missile speeds a/ay from his aircraft at a speed of Mac 1", relative to t e aircraft. -ssu#e t at air resistance is not significant and t e condition is /indless.

An R'-& pilot is training /it

missile

+ $, -ighling +alcon

+Mac speed refers to o/ many times t e aircraft is travelling faster t an t e speed of sound. Speed of sound is assumed to be 6=: nlQs in t is situation.,
>a) %alculate t e time ta#en for t e #issile to hit t e target.

-?$

+b, After passing t e firsttest3 t e pilot flies bac# to base. Oe flies is aircraft for/ard at an additional Mac :.- per second3 but all t e / ile decreasing altitude at a uniform rate for t e neJt five seconds. Fescribe t e acceleration of t e aircraft in bot t e oriIontal and vertical directions in t is five seconds.

-=K

+c, T e aircraft speed is no/ Mac -.C. Estimate t e lime ta#en in minutes for im -: return to base / ic is ;7 E# $ro# is current !osition, State any assu#!tions#ade" <(1

+d,

T e pilot is preparing to land is plane /it an approac speed of >: m/s0 Dpon touc do/n3 e applies t e bra#es / ic 9uic#ly slo/ the plane do/n to a stop in 2ust 5.: s" %alculate t e distance t e plane travelled on t e run/ay before it comes to a complete stop. M?K

% apter ? '-- ?S

..J

1o!yrighted rnaterial

=.

A toy car initially travelling at a speed of :.5 &FQs3 accelerated to a speed of 6.5 m/s0 T e distance covered by t e car during t is acceleration is > m. Fetermine t e acceleration of t e toy car by met od of grap ical analysis. +5,

5.

A traffic stunt is planned for an action movie. T e stunt involves t e main c aracter being t ro/n oriIontally a/ay from t e top of a moving car t at cras es into a railing and landing inside an open"top truc# filled /it mattresses as it passes by underneat . T e diagram belo/ s o/s a s#etc of t e planned stunt /it some ot er important data.
main 8hara8ter >: E#Ih

eJactly 2 m 3rom bac# of truc#

spot to ruin -or i1

,,

"

"" "

""
A#

""
8) E#lh
6

,
$

critical 5+s,a*c'

As t e stunt coordinator3 you /ill need to determine t e critic l !ist "c# bet/een t e bac# of truc# and t e point of impact. T is distance is crucial suc t at t e mec anics of t e motion /ill not result in t e main c aracter landing on t e road in front or be ind t e truc#0 +Assume t at air resistance is not significant and t at t e speed of t e main c aracter after being t ro/n off t e car is >: ErnOh") +7K

A.#:..

16

4nde#anding Physics through Problem Solving

1o!yrighted rnaterial

)N@

3.1 +a!an8ed (or8e1


+a, .e/ton4s @irst La/ states t at an ob2ect V

1.

M$,

>b) A boo# rests on a table. Fra/ and label t e t/o forces acting on t e boo# clearly.

<()

>c)

State if t e boo# in +b, above is under balanced forces. EJplain your ans/er.

M?K

>d)

EJplain o/ your ans/er above is a case of .e/ton4s @irst La/.

M$,

?.

Evaluate t e statements belo/ about balanced forces for true or false. Ma#e t e necessary c anges to statements t at are false. l=K
>a) All stationary ob2ects are under balanced forces.
+b,

True I @alse Tnle I @alse True I @alse True f @alse

L en an ob2ect is stationary. t ere are no forces acting on it.

+c, -ll ob2ects moving at constant speed in a straig t line are under balanced forces.
+d,

An ob2ect under Iero net force is al/ays at rest.

6.

T&le diagram on t e rig t s o/s a man of /eig t C5: ..


+a,

Label t e forces acting on t e man. staling clearly t e magnitude of eac forces. M?K
M?K

>b) State if t e mall is under balanced forces. EJplain.

% apter 6 .!,//0./.,1

%opyrig ted material

=.

A boat is moving at constant speed. &ts engine provides a for/ard force of 6? le.. T e boat eJperiences resistance from bot t e sea and air. +a, State if t e boat is under balanced forces. EJplain. M?K

+b, State t e total resistance due to sea and air acting on t e boat3

< IF

+c, A sailor in t e boat increases t e t rottle causing t e for/ard force to to =5 le.. Fescribe o/ this action affects t e motion of t e boat. increase

suddenly +?,

5.

T e figure on t e rig t s o/s a eavy ball moving at terminal velocity after being released from a great eig t. At terminal velocity3 t e magnitude and direction of ball is constant.
>a) On t< e figure on t e rig t3 label all t e forces acting on
t e ball.

+?,

+b, L ic statement best describes t e resultant force acting on t e ballT A


+

%
.

Dp/ards and e9ual to t e /eig t of t e ball. Dp/ards and less t an t e /eig t of t e ball. ]ero because t e /eig t of t e ball is e9ual to air resistance. Fo/n/ards because t e /eig t of t e ball is more t an air resistance.

o
>
F

<'
-.

.2 "ntia!an8ed &6
A ? #g boJ is under t e influence of? forces as s o/n. Evaluate t e follo/ing statements about forces for true or false. Ma#e t e necessary corrections 1) statements t at are incorrect.
M=,
>a)

6 I
-=. !

!""

?= .

&#

)oJ is under t e influence of unbalanced forces.

True

+b, T e net force acti ng on I e boJ is Iero.


>c) T e boJ /ill move to/ards t e rig t at constant

@alse True I @alse True I @alse True I @alse True I @alse True I @alse

speed. T e acceleration of t e boJ is 5 TnQs4 to/ards t e rig t.


+d, +e,

I$ t e 15-7 force is increased +:?= 7, t e boJ /ill continue

movi.ng at constant speed.


(I)

&f t e ?=". force is reduced to -= .3 T eboJ /ill slo/ do/n.

..._

28o
J

Dnderstanding P ysics t roug Problem Sotving

%OP\rig tedmatenal

?.

T e diagram belo/ s o/s a bus of /eig t ?:::: . moving at a constant speed of 6 mQs. T e bus eJperiences a total retarding force of >::: .. T is retarding force includes friction bet/een t e bus3 t e road and air resistance. &ts engine provides t e for/ard force t at enables t e bus to move for/ard.

+a,

&s t e bus moving under balanced or unbalanced forcesT EJplain.

M?$

+b, State t e net force acting on t e bus. +c, +d, 6. State t e magnitude of acceleration of t e bus.

V V

<I$ <I) -4=-

&ndicate /it arro/s and label t e forces acting on t e bus in t e diagram above. +T ere s ould be four forces acting on r e bDS.,

T e diagram belo/ s o/s a carom puc# of mass :.:5 #g resting on a smoot carom board. It /as given a 9uic# pus force of = ..

+a,

&s t ere ot er forces acting on t e puc# besides t e = . pus forceT EJplain. /3 t ere are ot er forces present3 indicate and label t em on t e diagram above. M6K

+b, State t e net force acting on t e carom puc#.


+c, &s t e carom puc# under balanced or unbalanced forcesT EJplain.

M&,
>()

+d,

%alculate t e acceleration of t e carom puc#. S o/ t e e9uation used clearly.

+?,

% apier 6

; # ;<

29

1o!yrighted #aterial

+e,

T e e9uation used above is a representation of / ic

of .e/ton4s La/T

<IF

+-,

%alculate t e final velocity of t e puc# i$ t e time of impact bet/een pus and puc# is 2ust :.:5 s. M6K

=.

T e diagram on t e rig t s o/s a lift of /eig t 5 ::: 7 under t e influence of an up/ard force provided by its attac ed cables. +a, &s t e lift under balanced or unbalanced forcesT EJplain. M?K

rd 3or8e 5,)) 7
U*23

lift cabies

r- lin

+b, %alculate t e acceleration of t e lift given t e acceleration of free fall is I: &nQs!.

M?K

+c,

&s t e lift moving up/ards or do/n/ardsT EJplain.

M?K

5.

T e diagram on t e rig t s o/s t e velocity"time grap of a >::(#g lift t at started from rest at t e first floor until it stops ar t e 64A floor of a building. +a, State t e time interval+s, / en t e lift is +i, under balanced"forces and. V V

/etociryOrn s4

-.?

+ii, unbalanced forcesT

M?$

LL-----5--K3--L
7 >

tirneQs

+b, State t e net force acting on t e lift during t e - to 7 s intervalT +c,

<1F

@rom. t e grap 3 calculate t e net force acting :-- t e lift bet/een t e : to & s interval. M?-

#### #
30

4nderstanding Physics through Proble# Solving

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

6.

T e diagram on t e rig t s o/s a car of mass I 5:: #g initially at rest. T e car4s engine provides a for/ard force t at causes t e car to accelerate J0 t e rig t at a rate of 1"( n-Qs?. +a, &gnoring t e effect of air resistance3 state and eJplain t e siIe of friction acting :: t e car / en it is at rest. M &K

+b, %alculate t e net force acting on t e car.

+?K

+c,

@rom your ans/er in +b,3 lind t e siIe of friction acting on t e car if it is #no/n t at t e for/ard force is 6 ::: .. M?,

+d, T e car reac es a speed of 7.: mQs after 5 s. T e for/ard force is no/ reduced to - ?:: .. State t e net force acting on t e car no/. <1F

+e,

Fescribe and eJplain t e motion of t e car after 5 s.

M?K

+f,

S#etc a speed"time grap of t e car up till -:.: s.


,
"

M-K
% % ,& %... %r' &&' '

, ;

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......
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G "6""","

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,,K

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"";"

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,

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K,K1 "J"""M-K--M---l"M KK ," K66 """"&""""."V....&"V".- timeQs

-:

'!#

Dnderstanding 2hy1i81 t roug 2ro !em So!vin5

32....

1o!ynghted #alenal

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

+b,

@rom your results in +a,3 calculate t e acceleration of t e ob2ect.

M?K

6.

speed of ?:.: m/s for 5.: s before cras ing into a /all. It came to a rest in :.= s.
>a) State t e net force acting on t e test car during t e first 5.: s of t e lest.

A test /as carried out on a ne/ly designed car of mass of & =:: #g. It /as moving at a steady

<1)
>()

>b) @ind t e average force eJerted on t e car during t e collision.

=.

A train of mass 7.>= J -:7 #g is moving at a speed of >: #mQ . T e bra#es3 / ic produce a net bac#/ard force of -.;6 B lQ7.3 are applied for ?5.: s, +a, L at is t e ne/ speed of t e trainT M?K

+b, Oo/ far as t e train travelled in t is limeT

M6K

5.

T e figure belo/ s o/s a / eel of a truc# as it is about direction of friction acting on t e / eel.

1)

move off. Label on t e diagram t e

M-K

direction of motion

'### _
34

"nder1tandin5 2hy1i81 throu5h Problem So!vin5

....

%opyrig ted material

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

+c,

In furt er investigations3 t e student determines t e variation of tan /it t e oriIontal force eJerted by t e spring. T e values of tan and lengt of t e spring is given in t e table belo/. %omplete t e table by filling in t e empty blan#s.

lanS Lengt

o$ s!rin(O#

:.-?6 -:.::5

:.6>5 -:.:-5

:.56? -:.:??

:.C55 -:.:6:

-.::: -:.:=: :.:=


19

EJtension3 .rQm SiIe of4 spring forcel.


Plot a grap of tan

e against magnitude of t
GG,I" "M","6"

e force in t e space belo/.


3V3 "

" """ ,

,
#

"

"" ""

.%

,(%
--""

, %r'
GG "" " ,K66"

&
"" GG K"

P " """""" P P ""

K""

3..

"

"

" ",,

!<3."
.. 3 M .V

66

""
,

""

"

#.

M4

P
,

","
,

, " "

,
3

,K,

""

GG
" ""

"

, GG """ "
,

", ",-" V..

N",",

",

"

,,

"

"

,""",
K K GG

",N"
, i"

",

" " " " ",K


-",,K"

G GI

-6-K-

"" ", ""

"""

"

"G" "
"

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"

...... V """"G",
V

..

<K

"""""
6

"

.N

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K

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,

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3VA

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.....<..

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. 4444-" K,$PPPt
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04

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4

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<

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G G G

$
t

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A4l4"4!
"

. "..

, t -6 -6K-"6"$K "
G

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o

A3A"4"

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P "" ,
, .....

....

M"K

""""

3
w M6

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4;4.

"","

,;

4-"4

!. A V/3 .$

t ,

L,

, I ""
. V
G""GG

KG" ,K ,K,

;"
L

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",K 3A 3

c4"3

I " " G"


.3A
", -

! !

M ""w "" M

! V:" ... N

- 3

: .A.V

VA.3...

..

V.V$..O.

+d, L at can t e student conclude about t e relations ip bet/een tan

e and forceT

EJplain. <IF

+e,

Dse your grap to determine t e angle

e/

en F is -: ..

<IF

'#####'

6>

Dnderstanding P ysics t roug Problem Solving

1o!ynghted #alenal

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

@- 4.4
-.

6e.t

1obert /ants to calculate t e density of a type of /ood. Oe measures t e mass and volume of different siIes of /ood samples3 L ic grap s o/s is resultsT "13SS O!!iSS

+
ma11

%
n13SS

o
?.

$-----

volume

/olu#e

< T e diagram on t e rig t s o/s t/o cubes made out of identical material. One cube as sides t at are t/ice as long as t e ot er cube. &f t e /eig t of t e small cube is L3 find t e /eig t of t e larger cube in terms of m3 / ere III is t e mass of t e small cube. M=$

6.

A metal bloc# of dimension 5 cnl J 5 em J > em and as a density of =.5 gQcm4 is released from a great eig t. %alculate t e air resistance acting on t e metal bloc# / en it reac es terminal velocity. +6,

=.

+6,

%lara made t is statement3 AOey0 & 2ust found out t at our /eig t drops / en you are ig up in t e s#y.A &s %lara4s statement trueT EJplain. +?,

+b, Folly / o eard %lara4s statement /as curious. S e tried t is out during a oliday trip and /as over2oyed. S e told er friends t is3 A$ 2ust found out o/ & can lose /eig t very 9uic#ly. $ust ta#e a trip by plane. L en t e plane is ig up in t e air3 step on a bat room scale and you /ill find t at your /eig t as reduced0 L at a great /ay to lose /eig t0 .o more dieting or slimming pills0A &s Folly4s statement validT EJplain. M6K

!!#### #
Solving

4 2

Understanding Physics ihrough Proble#

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

@- 5.3 Centre o3 @ravit7 and Sta i!it7


-.
>a)

Fefine centre of gravity.

>()

+b, A long uniform ob2ect usually as its centre of gravity at its +c, T e diagram s o/s a ?"m uniform rod of mass 5 #g.

<1F

>i)

Mar# on t e diagram t e centre of gravity of t e rod /it an ^. V

M-K M-K

+ii, State t e distance of ^ from end A of t e rod. +d, T e rod is placed on a pivot t at is >: cm a/ay from end A. +i, Mar# t e pivot in t e diagram above /it a triangle3 7.. V

+ii, Fescribe / at /ill appen to t e rod. +e, %alculate t e moments and state its direction for +d, above.

M-,

[2]

>$)

L ere must t e pivot be placed in order for tbe rod to balanceT

<1F

2. T e figure belo/ s o/s a ?: .


cantilever inged at point P. &ts centre of gravity is at point %. +a,
8) 7 3!
5)7 /eig t

?: e#
1) e#

5:cm

%alculate t e force F needed to #eep t e cantilever in e9uilibrium. M=K

5 e#GG
p

+b, T e t ree forces3 6: .3 =: .and F are removed. Fescribe and eJplain / at /ould appen to t e cantilever about point P. Dse t e term m%m'*,s in your eJplanation.

+?K

....._ ...I

.. ..

4 6 "nder1tandin5

Physics through Proble# So!vin5

10P2righted #atenal

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

+b, &f #ore #ercury is added to ) suc t at mercury level in A rises by ? ern, describe and eJplain / at appens to t e level of #ercury at +I >()

+c, &f some air is introduced to t e space above A3 t e difference in level of A and ) becomes 7:: mrn3 @ind t e pressure of air in t e space in mrn Og. M?K

C.

T/o simple barometers are used to measure pressure. %alculate t e eig t of a column of /ater / ic /iD eJert t e same pressure as ?:"cm column of mercury. T e density of mercury is -6.7 gQcmA and /ater is -.: gQcmA

#### ";;;; "

mer8ury

/ater

>.

T e figure s o/s t/o vertical tubes P and Q partly immersed in a vessel containing mercury. T e space above t e mercury in tube P is empty of any gas. T ere is a small amount of air in t e space above t e mercury in tube Q. Mercury bas a density of -6 7:: #gQnr4 / ile t e gravitational field strengt is -: .Q#g.
>a)

" "" $-"


CC e#

" "
7: e#

Lrite do/n t e atmosp eric pressure in cm Sg from t e data above. <IF

+b, %alculate t e pressure in Pa3 eJerted by air above

mercury level in Q.
>8)

%opyng ted maiertai

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

+b, %alculate t e pressure of t e trapped Li9uid.

M?K

+c, &f t e small piston moves do/n by > ern3 calculate t e distance moved by t e big piston. M6K

' 6.5 2re11ure $ea1urement


$. T e figure s o/s some carbon dioJ ide gas trapped in a cylinder fitted /it a tig t piston. T e carbon dioJide gas pressure of value % eJerts a force * on t e piston / ic as a surface area S. Eolume of trapped gas is V. +a,
surface3 area3 S 5a1 pre11ure, 4

Lrite do/n an e9uation t at correctly s o/s t e relations ip bet/een *, % and S.

M&$

+b, %alculate t e pressure of t e carbon dioJide gas inside t e cylinder given t at t e surface area S is :.::> m43 and t e force acting on t e surface F is e9uals to =: .. M?K

+c, T e piston /as pus ed furt er into t e cylinder3 causing t e volume occupied by t e carbon dioJide gas to reduce by 2""/"0 %alculate t e pressure of t e carbon dioJide gas inside t e cylinder. M6K

......

5>.... Dnderstanding

P ysics t roug Problem Solving

10P2righted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

5.

Sam pus es a s opping trolley of mass 6: #g for M7 m. T e /or# done by im is ? #$.


>a)

L at is t e force eJerted by 'a# on t e trolley4T

M?$

+b, Some additional groceries are added to t e trolley. T e trolley is t en lifted vertically off t e ground for ?5 &&& by a lift system t at did -: #$ of /or#. T e Dft moves at a constant speed. +i, L at is t e force eJerted by t e lift in raising t e trolleyT

M?$

+ii, %alculate t e mass of t e added groceries.

M6,

7.

A tractor is pulling a fallen tree trun# along a roug road oriIontally. T e tree trun# /eig s ?5:: .. T e tractor is moving at a constant speed of -.? nlQS for 5 s. T e pull force eJerted by tractor on trun# is && #.. +a, %alculate t e distance travelled by t e tree trun# for 5 s.

M?$

+b, %alculate t e /or# done against friction bet/een tree trun# and t e roug road.

M6$

;;#6; 2.....

Understanding Physic!( thc%&t.g_h Proble# 'ol/ing

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

6.

A /ooden boJ initially at rest slides do/n a smoot slope A) and onto a smoot ground as shown in t e diagram below, T e distance .of t e slo!e is 5 m.
-

oriIontal

8))
./

c
M6K

+a, %alculate t e speed of t e bloc# / en it reac es point %. = m a/ay from t e slope3

>b)

Fescribe and eJplain / at appens to t e boB after it reac es !oinr %.

<(F

=.

A bas#et ball is dro!!ed onto t e $loor, As t e ball bounces up and do/n3 t e eig t of eac bounce gradually decreases. Furing t e motion of t e ball.

A
+ % F 5.

t t t t

e #inetic energy o$ t e ball is constant. e potential energy of t e ball is constant. e sum of t e #inetic and potential energies of t e ball is constant. e total energy of t e ball. ground and air is constant.

<

A bQ^of mass ? #g slides from rest t roug a distance of ?: m do/n a frictionless slope as s o/n in t e diagram. L at is t e #inetic energy of t e bloc# at t e bottom of t e slopeT M6K

1)#

'##

77

...

Dnderstanding P ysics t roug Problem Solving

1o!yrighted # aterlal

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

?.

@igure A s o/s a -?: #g boJ / ic is pro2ected up a roug incline /it an initial speed of =: mQs. T e boJ returns to its starting point -5 s later /it a speed of ?: rnQs. @igure ) gives t e grap ical representation of t e motion using a velocity"time grap .
/elociryO# g#I

@igure A

@igure )

+a,

@ind t e acceleration in t e intervals.


>i)

>5) +li, Q1.

PQ.

+b, %alculate t e distance travelled by t e boJ up t e plane and bac# to its starting point. +?,

+c,

%alculate t e initial and final #inetic energy of t e boJ / en it returns to its starting point.

M=$

+d, Suggest an eJplanation for t e difference in initial and final #inetic energy in +c,.

M?K

....<

C0

...

Dnderstanding P ysics t roug Problem Solving

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

6.

>a)

EJplain / y gases can fill all t e space available to t em.

+?,

+b, EJplain o/ particles of gases eJert pressure on t e /alls of its container.

M?K

4.

T e diagram s o/s a container /it one end closed. Some air is trapped inside t e container by a piston. T e piston can move free0y in and out of t e container. T e pressure of t e trapped air is similar to atmosp eric pressure.

air

sealed container

T e container is eated until a steady temperature of >:S% is ac ieved. T e piston starts to move out/ards and comes to a stop / en t e temperature becomes steady. +a, Fescribe and eJplain / at appens to t e force of collisions bet/een air molecules and t e inner /alls of t e container. M?K

+b, Fescribe and eJplain / at appens to t e pressure of t e gas at >: S%.

>8)

+c,

)ased on t e description above3 state t e relations ip bet/een temperature and volume of a fiJed mass of gas / en its pressure is constant. M&K

T e piston is loc#ed suc t at it cannot move. T e container is t en beated to -::S%. After some time3 t e container bulges out/ards. +d, EJplain / y t e container bulges out/ards. M6K

+e,

)ased on t is observation3 deduce t e relations ip bet/een temperature and pressure of a <1F fiJed Inass of gas / en its volume is constant.

'##

C4#'

Dnderstanding P ysics t roug Problem Solving

1o!ynghted #alenal

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

5.

+a,

EJplain / y t e eJternal surface of a metal #ettle is usually painted s iny silver.

l?$

+b, Lill /ater boil faster if a #ettle /it a s iny silver eJternal surface is used instead of one

/it a dull blac# surfaceT M?K

7.

T e figure belo/ s o/s a typical truc# used to #o/e fuel from a petroleum compleJ petrol #ios#s. fuellanE

1)

EJplain / y t e outside surface of t e fuel lan# is al/ays painted s iny silver.

M?K

,0'

5.6 4haUen'
T e figure s o/s a boiling"lube being ealed. T&le rube contains boiling /ater at t e top and ice at t e bortom. It is observed t at t e ice at t e borto# melts very slo/ly des!ite t e boiling /ater at t e tOp. +a, L at does t e eJperiment above demonstrateT

-.

!'+::' boiling /ater

+unsen burner

"rl

icc

M&K

+b, &s convection current set up in t e arrangement aboveT &f so3 eJplain / y it does not melt & ei!. M?K

+c,

EJplain t e purpose of t e /ire gauIe.

llK

% apter ;

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

; 10.1 2rin8ip!e1 of T ermometn<.


-. +a, L en eat is removed from a substance. t e temperature of t e substance /ill normally " >IF +b, L en eal is supplied to a substance. t e temperature of t e substance /ill normally

. M&&
?.
>a) K%e#!erature is a

. M-. M-K . M& $ M=K

+b, Temperature is measured in +c, T e instrument used to measure remperarurc is called a 6. EJplain /it diagrams / at is meant by Aice pointA and Asteam pointA.

=.

-#y /as provided /it t ree different types of t ermometers3 S e /as as#ed -: name t e

t ermometer and describe t e p ysical property t at c anges /it temperature for t at t ermometer. T e table belo/ s o/s er incomplete /or#. %omplete t e table.

+6,

T ermometer
+

.ame of t ermometer Li9uid in glass t ermometer

P ysical properties t at c anges /it temperature

Electromotive force 1esistance t ermometer M5K G ?

%
5.

%onvert t e follo/ing temperatures into t e slated temperature scale. +a,


>c)
>e)

OS%

+b, >d)

57:S%

-;5 G C )?

A%

"?-6S% C

o%
% apter to

71

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

;
-.

11.1 Deat %apaci!and Spe8i3i8 Deat Capa8ity


Fescribe t e effect of t ermal energy on molecules of a substance and eJplain o/ it affects temperature of t e substance. M=K

?.

%omplete t e table belo/ to s o/ t e difference bet/een eat capacity and specific eat capacity.

>9)

Property Fefinition S& Dnit E9uation for Energy


6.

Oeat %apacity

Specific Oeat %apacity

T e eat capacity of a small piece of lead is ?7: $QG. +a, &f :.75 #$ of t ermal energy is supplied to t e lead3 / at is t e increase in temperature of t e lead in S%T M?K

+b, EJplain3 if necessary3 o/ you /ould convert your ans/er above from t e #elvin scale to celsi us scale. M IF

+c,

T e same piece of lead is cooled suc t at its temperature drops by = S%. L at is t e amount of t ermal energy lost by t e piece of leadT M?K

1ha!rer I I

...9..1.

##

_...

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

+c, %alculate t e total t ermal energy provided by t e eater to solid P

M6K

+d, %alculate t e mass of solid substance P.

M6K

+e, %alculate t e total energy supplied by t e eater during t e -7 minutes long eating process. T e latent eat of fusion is 7= #l.

M6K

=.

&s it possible for /ater to boil at OS%T Fiscuss t is.

>()

5.

A pot o$ /ater is eated until it starts 1) boil. T e temperature of /ater is originally at 6:S%.
>a)

Fescribe o/ t e rate of evaporation is affected by t e eating process. Assume t at t e pressure of air remains t e same and t ere is negligible presence of /ind. M?K

+b, State and eJplain if /ater evaporates during boiling3

+?,

% apter && .... .

95

<

%opyrig ted rnaterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

+d, @ind t e specific latent eat of vaporisation of\.

M6-

+e,

L at is one assumption t at is made in solving t is problemT

M&$

>$)

Lould you eJpect t e values of +a, and +c, to be t e sameT EJplain your ans/er.

+?,

5.

\ou ordered a %lip of iced tea from your neig bour ood coffee s op. T e c ef miJed some tea and poured t em into -- cup containing some ice"cubes. +a, %omplete t e paragrap aboutt ermal energy eJc anges bet/een ot tea and ice. T ermal energy is lost by . T is loss causes t e V

ot +6,

of t is

substance to drop. T ermal energy is gained by

+b, Lrite do/n t e t ree processes t at ta#e. place / en t e t ermal energy is gained by t e ice"cubes. +6,

.o/ let us try to find out o/ muc t ermal energy is transferred from one substance to anot er. assuming t at t e system is ideal. T ere is :.? #g of tea3 originally at ;: A%3 / ile t ere are -: ice"cubes. eac /it identical mass of -: g3 and at "5S%. Hiven t ai t e specific eat capacity of /ater and ice is = #$$#gO%and ?.- #$Q#gO% and t e specific latent eal of fusion of ice is 6:: #lQ#g. &f after miJing bot lea and ice"cubes3 t e temperature of t e cool tea is -:S%3 find t e follo/ing. +c, %alculate t e amount of t ermal energy gained by ice from V5S% to : S%. M6K

+d, %alculate t e amount of t ermal energy gained by ice in melting completely.

M6,

% apter & & a,'/.55.//_

...1

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

_ 12.1
-.

Jo6tudinaalnd 0ran1ver1e Eave1


o/ cor# /i II <IF

T e diagram belo/ s o/s a cor# floating on t e surface of /ater. +a, S o/3 by using directional arro/s on t e cor#3 move / en t e /ave passes.

----------,###########

#########

+b, State t e type of /ave t e movement of t e cor# is representing. EJplain your ans/er. Ml$

+c,

As t e /ave travels from one end to anot er3 it transfers transferring t e V

/it out

[2]

?.

T e figure belo/ s o/s a rope eld tig tly bet/een t/o pupils A and ).

pupil A

pupil +

+a,

L at type of /ave can be created on t e ropeT

III

+b, Fescribe o/ pupil A s ould disturb or move is end of t is rope in order to create t e /ave above. M &K

+c,

EJplain / y t e /ave above is created / en pupil A disturbs t e end of t e rope.

+?,

+d, &t is observed t at / en t e rope is disturbed continually. a A/ is ingA sound is eard. +i, Suggest / at creates t e sound. M&K

+ii, &s sound /ave an eJample of transverse or longitudinal /ave4T

r IF

+e, T e moving rope loses energy to t e surrounding air. State and eJplain one evidence t at confirms t is. M?K

% apter --

103

1o!yrighlad #aierial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

+c,

L en ob2ect is placed belXveen lens and @.

(&

&

?-4

.ature of image<

M5K

-.

A person standing at point A in t e figure belo/ sees t e reflection in a s op /indo/ of a person standing at point ).

s op /indo/

H" " """" """""" """" " y


A

;11 KII
II

r!XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX&!M

II "
/all

/all

+a, On t e figure3 dra/ a ray of lig t to s o/ o/3 by reflection3 t e person at A sees t e person at ). +you may start your line from t e centre of circle A and ), +?$ +b, On t e figure3 mar# /it a letter &3 t e position of t e image of ) formed by reflection in t e s op /indo/. M&K +c, Measure and /rite do/n t e angle of reflection. V
8 I&

+d, +i,

Person at A moves a/ay from ) to/ards \ in t e direction s o/n in t e figure. Mar# /it a letter ^ t e furt est position along \ to / ic t e person A can move so t at t e t/o people /ill still be able to see eac ot er by reflection in t e s op /indo/.

ru
M&K

+ii, EJplain o/ you decided on t e position of ^.

% apter -6

####
1 1 5

_ .......

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

+b, Plot a grap of air pressure against distance tor"t e vibrations in t e plot provided belo/3
pressure
G

%2&

"-"""""""""""""""

di1tan8e

+c,

Fefine /avelengt of -- sound /ave.

<1)

+d, &ndicate and label /it a Aon figure above3 t e /avelengt of t e sound /ave created by t e luning for#3 M-, 6. T e diagrams belo/ s o/ t e pressure variation /it time of a sound /ave. Fra/ a second grap on eac diagram to s o/ M=, +a, a note of lo/er pitc of e9ual loudness
pre11ure

+b, a softer note of same pitc


!ressure

+c,

a softer note /it double t e pitc


*ressure

+d,

a note doubly loud /it


pressure

alf t e pitc

=.

T e figure on t e rig t s o/s a clamped ruler3 pulled to one side and t en released. T e ruler vibrates and produces a sound /ave. EJplain / y t ere are compressions and rarefactions in t e sound /ave t at is produced. M6K

3JM-rt6cr

clamp

1o!yrighteRl #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

; 16.2 *!e8tro1tati8 Char .


-.
T e figure s o/s a plastic ruler after being rubbed /it a piece of fabric on an insulating mal. T e plastic ruler is found to be negatively c arged. )ot items /ere originally neutral before rubbing. +a, insulatingmat fabric

&ndicate t e c arges on bot items /it 4 LK and 4"4.

M?K M?K

+b, EJplain o/ t e ruler becomes negatively c arged.

+c, EJplain o/ t e fabric becomes positively c arged.

[2&

+d, $oe ma#es t is statement3 AT e ruler may become negatively c arged / en rubbed /it t e fabric3 because t e ruler loses protons to t e fabric. So it as less electrons and it becomes positively c arged.A &s t e statement correctT EJplain. M?,

+e,

$acob ma#es t is statement3 AT e fabric is positively c arged after electrostatic c arging. T is must mean t at t ere are no more electrons left in t e fabric.A &s t e statement correctT EJplain. M?K

?.

T e diagram on t e rig t s o/s a conducting sp ere P mounted on an insulating stand. T e sp ere P is positively c arged. A small neutral metal sp ere S3 suspended on an insulating t read is broug t near to P. +a, S o/ on t e diagram t e c arges induced on S /it KLK and 3V3 signs. +?,

s
%2&

+b, Fescribe and eJplain / at /ill appen to sp ere ST

......

<;

132

Dnderstanding P ysics t roug Problem Solving

1o!ynghted #alenal

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

16
@ 1C.1
-. +a,

4urrent o- 9lectricity
M?K

Current

Fefine electric current and state its T1 unit.

+b, Lrite t e e9uation t at relates electric current to c arge and time.

M&l

+c,

Lrite do/n t e name of t e instrument used to measure electric current.

&&&

+d, ?: % of c arges flo/ t roug a lamp in =: s. %alculate t e electric current t roug t e lamp. M?K

+e,

:.?: A of current flo/s t roug a resistor. %alculate t e number of c arges flo/ing t roug t e resistor in :.> minutes.

M?K

>$)

%alculate t e time ta#en for -.? % of c arges to flo/ t roug an ammeter t at s o/s a current reading of 6: &nA. M?K

?.

T e diagram s o/s a simple electric circuit. +a, &ndicate in t e diagram /it an arro/3 t e direction of conventional current and label it /it I. M&,

+b, An ammeter needs to be placed in t e circuit to measure t e current t roug t e lamp. Fra/ in t e diagram3 t e position of t e ammeter. <1F +c, T e ammeter s o/s a reading of :.> A.
>i)

M=K V V

L at is t e amount of c arges flo/ing t roug t e lamp in & sT

+ii, L at is t e amount of c arges flo/ing t roug t e ammeter in & sT +iii, L at is t e amount of c arges flo/ing t roug any point in t e circuit in K sT +d, @rom your ans/ers in +c, above3 / at can you conclude about t e current flo/ing t roug t e circuitT

M&l

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

6.

A piece of iron /ire :.5 &n long as a cross"sectional area of & mm". L ic iron /ire as
t/ice t e resistanceT
-

% =.

lengt C :.?5 area C -.: mm4 lengt U :.5: mN area U :.5 -l". mN

lengt C :.?5 &nN area C ?.: mmT lengt C :.5: m< area ?.: mm?

P and Q are lamps /it filaments of identical material. T e filament of lamp Q is t inner and longer t an t at of lamp P. L en connected to t e electrical mains and s/itc ed on3 %

) F 5.

P /ill be brig P /ill be brig Q /ill be brig Q /ill be brig

ter because its filament ter because its filament ter because its filament ter because its filament

as t as t as t as t

e larger resistance. e smaller resistance. e larger resistance. e smaller resistance.


H o---V- )-"""","""---,

>

T e diagram belo/ s o/s an electric circuit. L en a dry cell is connected bet/een terminals ^ and \3 t e ammeter s o/s a current of :.5 A.
>a)

@ind t e reading s o/n on t e voltmeter.

M6,

v
y33

?= n resistor

"""<..

...$

+b, %alculate t e amount of c arges flo/ing t roug t e ammeter in 6: s.

+?,

>c)

%alculate t e amount of worE done by t e source in driving t e amount of c arges calculated in +b, above t roug t e circuit.

+?,

7.

T e figure belo/ s o/s o/ t e current in t e filament of a lamp depends on t e p.d. across it3 +a,

curr.n!""."""r""....3....""".""r""..A..".....3 .(.% ( (,(..', " "" 6,


3"

:.6:

"" "
,

K" " "

&s t e filament of t e lamp an


O mic conductorT EJplain o/ you deduce your ans/er
:.?: :.-:

, ",,, . "" K
GG M,""
$K" ""M",

," " i,M"

nV. .3 4 A!A333
n( 4<.

.3 .. <..V!3!..
A.

<<

* """"
!4.Ao2

! 3

;" "
00
.. 3

.....
K GGGGG

1"

:07 08 000090

"

("(t ( (( (V ( (
-

2 0 9 00 0 0
"KM,
"

"G I"
..0

""G N""K "K;K--6-"-6K


,*"""

r"4 " -I "6 - G"M "" - " " ""

N..N

QNAA

! <<43

3N.

6K N
. 3 .

, , 0': 0 , "0 000 20:0 4 0,0,00 '


.
.4 . 3 .4 :" .

from t e grap .

M6K

"; G"G 6 O,K -

M ",-K""""""""N",G",G" K"

-P PNP$""

6;," K6 G"6r,""K";
AA< 33"V 3 2.V3 N

""""

M"""
3.3.N3N

K,"i

GGG"

,K;P;";--

""i"

i -6-

,K """ ," ;,"K K," "- "6 ..6"..6" ", $--"""""J---K-----K6-J---K----K-6I"d7 0 ( 8 5 A

+b, %alculate t e resistance of t e filament / en t e current is :.?5 A.

M6K

+c,

EJplain o/ t e figure above s o/s t at t e resistance of t e filament increases /it remperature rise.

M6K

""""""""""""""""""""""""V.V""
Dnderstanding P ysics t roug Problem Solving

1o!yrighted rnaterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

'" 18.3 Serie1 and 2araDe. Cir8uit1


-.
T e diagram on t e rig t s o/s an electric circuit. +a, %alculate t e effective resistance of t e circuit.

%2&
6n

30

+b, @ind t e reading on t e ammeter.

M?K
6n

4n

+c,

%alculate t e potential difference across +i, t e = Q3 +ii, t e 6 Q and +ii, t e 7 Q resistors.

[6]

+d, %alculate t e amount of current flo/ing t roug +i,

6 Q and

+ii, 7 Q resistors.

M=K

+e,

Lrite do/n a /ord e9uation to relate t e currents flo/ing t roug resistors and t at of s o/n on t e a##eter,

t e 6 Q3 = Q3 7 Q

M?K

>I)

Fra/ on t e diagram above3 a voltmeter used to measure t e p.d. across t e 7 "Q resistor.

M&K

?.

T e circuit on t e rig t s o/s t e lig ting system for a ouse old. LA L? and L6 are t ree identicallarnps. +a, L at is + e purpose of t e r eostat +variable resistor, in t e circuitT M?K

-: $

/*

+b, Fescribe / at appens to t e brig tness of t e lamps / en t e resistance of t e r eostat is increased. M?K

......

146;# 4nderstanding 2hy1i81 rhrough Proble# So!vin5


1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

_:" K.

18.6
L ic combination of identical resistors gives t e lo/est total valueT A

I
M -

T e diagram belo/ is for Questions ?3 6 and =.


T e lamps are identical and eac as a resistance of 5 Q. T e resistor as a resistance of -: Q. T e battery as an e"rn"$" of , =" ?. L ic of t e follo/ing correctly describes t e ammeter and voltmeter readingT

:,

Ammeter reading
-

Eoltmeter reading
E3 is less t an V1 E3 is greater t an $, E3 is less t an $, E3 is e9ual to V,

.
6.

A? is less t an ! 6 is less t an ! 6 is e9ual to -U A? is e9ual to A$

<

L ic of t e follo/ing statement is true about p.d. in t e circuitT

2lr A
%
=.

E3 ! V, R !, C e.m.f. $! / E3 L :,

II

&E +

$1 C $! E3 R $! &andl& &3 L&& and TE < F

&

&n and &E

L ic set of current values could be obtainedT

A2
5.

9-

8.

+ .

9-

8.

2. 2.
J

55-

<

T e circuit s o/s t ree identical lamps connected to a cell. L ic pair of e9uations is correct for t is circuitT

Pgtentia- Fifference
A + $; E3 L E3 L $! $; E3 L $1 $; E3 L E1

%urrent
E3 $,

V=V

$,

<

.....

...::::.::

15..0.. Dnderstanding

..

P ysics t roug Problem Solving

10P2right ed #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

4.

T e diagram belo/ s o/s a magnet moved near to but not touc ing an ob2ect suspended freely /it a t read.
Qob2e%&

6I'

76I6P~B~~3~
Ehen 1outh po!e o3 maanet i1 near end ' $ateria!

T e first time3 t e nort pole of t e magnet is moved near to end ^. T is is t en repeated /it t e nort pole of magnet moved near to end \. One of t e ob2ects is copper3 anot er is steel3 and t e last is a magnet itself. %omplete t e table by matc ing t e material to t e results observed. M6K
Ehen north po!e o3 rna et i1 near end F

Attraction .o effect Attraction 5.

Attraction .o effect 1epulsion

T/o magnets A and ) are used to attract some lig t iron pins as s o/n belo/.
magnet A
magnet )

+a, %omparing bot cases3 / at can you deduce about t e strengt of bot magnetsT

M?K

+b, Predict / at /ould appen if all t ree pins are transferred to t e nort pole of magnet A. EJplain your prediction. M?K

+c, Label on t e diagram above t e magnetic poles created at t e pin attracted to magnet A.
M&K

4nderstanding Physics through Proble# 'ol/ing

1o!yrighted #aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

-.

T e diagram belo/ s o/s a simple transformer.


Laminated Soil &ron %ore

+a, Label t e various pans of t e transformer /it Aprimary voltage3 primary coil3 secondary voltage3 secondary coilA.
>b) Fescribe t e turns ratio and /rite do/n its mat ematical form.

M=<()

+c, Lrite do/n t e e9uation t at relates t e turns ratio to its primary and secondary voltage and current of a transformer. M-,

+d, Lrite do/n t e relations ip bet/een t e po/er input +or primary po/er, and t e po/er output +secondary po/er, for an ideal transformer.

M&&

T e primary coil of an ideal transformer as =>: turns. &ts secondary coil as -?: turns. >a) Lrite do/n its turns ratio. V
?. >b) State t e transformer type.

<IF <IF

+c, Hiven t at t e voltage supplied to t e transformer is -= E3 find its secondary or output !lta@. M6K

+d, &f t e primary po/er of t e transformer is ?- L3 find t e current in t e primary coil and ence. t e secondary current. M6K

+e, Lit out ma#ing any calculations3 state t e po/er generated at t e secondary coil.

M-,

% aA3er??

1o!yrighted rnaterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

7.

A transformer consists of a coil of & ?:: turns and anot er coil3 /it a total of -?: turns3 / ic can be tapped at

(5) = 6

40
S

various places.
40

L ic pair of terminals /ould you connect to a lamp rated at -? \3 ?= L for it to be lit normallyT
-R%

S4

+R2

20 20
<

T
4

6(
c.m.f.lE

7. T e diagram s o/s o/ t e e.m$. of a simple a.c.

generator c anges /it time. L at is t e fre9uency and t e #aBi#u# value of t e e"#"$"I @reguencylOI ?:: ?:: =:: =::

MaJ. e.m.f$\
?.: =.: ?.: =.:

1) timeQms

+ % .
>.

)2
> )

T e diagram s o/s t/o coils on a /ooden core. %oil P is connected to some dry cells. / ile coil Q is connected to a sensitive galvanometer. A copper ring t at is" free to slide bet/een bot coils is positioned as s o/n. L en t e s/itc S is closed t ere is a s ort"lived deflection on t e galvanometer3 +a, On t e diagram on t e rig t dra/ t e magnetic field line pattern set up in and around coil P / en t ere is a current in coil P. +&,

copper nng

rrm

coil &4

rrm

coil Q
wooden rod

II SI

2"PI
GI
M&,

+b, L at na#e is given to t e effect t at gives rise to a current in coil Q / en s/itc S is


closedT

+c,

Fescribe and eJplain t e direction of t e deflection in t e galvanometer in coil Q / en s/itc ' is closed. >8)

+d, Fescribe and eJplain / at appens to t e copper ring / en s/itc S is closed.

+?,

% ap te r ??

.....-...>#

####'

%opyrig ted rn aterial

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

2ou ha/e either reached a !age that is una/ai lable $or /i ewi ng or reached your /i ewi ng Ii#it $or thi s booE"

Understanding

'0' Level

through

Problem Solving

T is boo# is specially designed to he!p students in t eir 9uest to understand and finally ace 4:4 Level P ysics.