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A STUDY OF THE CLARINET AND PIECES BY NOOR YASMIN BT MOHD REDZUAN DEVAN LECTURER: MS. IRINA TITOVA ACCOMPANIST: LEE SHI MIN 23141013 AMZ 1503 NOVEMBER 2013

2 Contents Title Introduction & Etymology History Characteristics Construction Usage & Repertoire Study of Pieces -Cielito Lindo -Ode to Music Sources Page 3 5 9 14 19 24

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3 Introduction and Etymology

The clarinet is a type of woodwind instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece. It has a straight cylindrical tube and a tubed bell with a top that is curved outwards. A person who plays the clarinet is called a clarinetist or clarinettist. The word clarinet entered the English language either from the French word, clarinette (the feminine diminutive of Old French clarin or clarion), or from Provenal clarin, that has the same meaning as "oboe". It is a diminutive of clarino, the Italian for trumpet, and the Italian clarinetto is the source of the name in many other languages. According to Johann Gottfried Walther (1684-1748), the reason for the name was that "it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet". This may indicate its loud and harsh sound in the upper register, although in the low register it was "feeble and buzzing". The English form clarinet is known to be used as early as 1733, and the now-archaic clarionet appears from 1784 until the early years of the 20th century. There are many types of clarinets with different sizes and pitches, creating a large family of instruments. The unmodified word clarinet usually refers to the most common type, the B soprano clarinet, which has a large range of nearly four octaves. The clarinet family is the largest woodwind family, with more than a dozen types (of which there are even more sub-families), ranging from the (extremely rare) BBB octo-contrabass to the A piccolo clarinet. Of these, many are rare or obsolete (for example, there is only one BBB octo-contrabass clarinet in existence), and music written for them are usually played on more common versions of the instrument.

Johann Christoph Denner is generally considered to have invented the clarinet in Germany around the turn of the 18th century by adding a register key to the earlier chalumeau. Over time, additional keywork and airtight pads were added to improve tone and playability of the instrument. Today, the clarinet is used in jazz and classical ensembles, in chamber groups, and as a solo instrument across multiple genres.

5 History Lineage The roots of the clarinet can be traced back in the early single-reed instruments or hornpipes used in the Middle East and Europe since the Middle Ages, such as the albogue, alboka, and double clarinet.

Left to right: albogue, alboka, double clarinet The Baroque instrument, the chalumeau, helped inspire the development of the modern clarinet. This instrument was similar to a recorder, but with a single-reed mouthpiece and a cylindrical bore. It lacks a register key, thus it was played mainly in its fundamental register, with a limited range of about one and a half octaves. It had eight finger holes, like a recorder, and two keys for its two highest notes. At this time, contrary to modern practice, the reed was placed in contact with the upper lip.

A chalumeau

Around the turn of the 18th century, the chalumeau was modified by converting one of its keys into a register key to produce the first clarinet. This development is usually attributed to German instrument maker Johann Christoph Denner, though some have suggested his son Jacob Denner was the inventor instead. This instrument played well in the middle register with a loud, sharp and shrill sound, so it was given the name clarinetto meaning "little trumpet" (from clarino + -etto). Early clarinets did not play well in the lower register, so players continued to play the chalumeau for low notes. As clarinets improved, the chalumeau fell into disuse, and these notes became known as the chalumeau register. Original Denner clarinets had two keys, and could play a chromatic scale, but various makers added more keys to get improved tuning, easier fingerings, and a slightly larger range. The clarinet during the classical period typically had eight finger holes and five keys. Clarinets were soon accepted into orchestras. Later models had a more mellow tone than the originals. Mozart (d. 1791) liked the sound of the clarinet (he considered its tone the closest in quality to the human voice) and wrote numerous pieces for the instrument. and by the time of Beethoven (c. 18001820), the clarinet was a standard fixture in the orchestra.

7 Pads

From left to right: Clarinet pads, Iwan Mller The invention of the modern pads was the next great development on the modern clarinet. Because early clarinets used felt pads to cover the tone holes, they leaked air. This required pad-covered holes to be kept to a minimum, restricting the number of notes the clarinet could play with good tone. In 1812, Iwan Mller (1786-1854), a Russian-born clarinetist and inventor, developed a new type of pad that was covered with leather or fish bladder. It was airtight and let makers increase the number of padcovered holes. Mller designed a new type of clarinet with seven finger holes and thirteen keys. This allowed the instrument to play in any key with near-equal ease. Over the course of the 19th-century makers made many enhancements to Mueller's clarinet, such as the Albert system and the Baermann system, all keeping the same basic design. Modern instruments may also have cork or synthetic pads.

8 Arrangement of keys and holes

From left to right: Two Oehler system clarinets: a B clarinet (left) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece), Oskar Oehler, Hyacinthe Klos Oehler system clarinets use additional tone holes to correct intonation (patent C, low E-F correction, fork-F/B correction and fork B correction) The final development in the modern design of the clarinet used in most of the world today was introduced by Hyacinthe Klos in 1839. He devised a different arrangement of keys and finger holes, which allow simpler fingering. It was inspired by the Boehm System developed for flutes by Theobald Boehm. Klos was so impressed by Boehm's invention that he named his own system for clarinets after Boehm, although it is different from the one used on flutes. This new system was not popular when it was first introduced and gained popularity slowly, because it required clarinet players to relearn how to play the instrument. To make this transition easier, Klose wrote a series of exercises for the clarinet, designed to teach his fingering system. Gradually it became the standard, and today the Boehm system is used everywhere in the world except Germany and Austria. These countries still use a direct descendant of the Mueller clarinet known as the Oehler system clarinet. Also, some contemporary Dixieland and Klezmer players continue to use Albert system clarinets, as the simpler fingering system can allow for easier slurring of notes.

9 Characteristics Sound

The cylindrical bore is mainly responsible for the clarinet's distinctive timbre, which changes between its three main registers, known as the chalumeau, clarion, and altissimo. The tone quality varies greatly with the musician, the music, the instrument, the mouthpiece, and the reed. The differences in instruments and geographical isolation of players in different countries led to the development (from the last part of the 18th century onwards) of several different schools of clarinet playing. The most prominent were the German/Viennese traditions and the French school. The latter was centered on the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris. The proliferation of recorded music has made examples of different styles of clarinet playing available. The modern clarinetist has a diverse palette of "acceptable" tone qualities to choose from.

From left to right: Bass clarinet, Alto clarinet

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The A clarinet and B clarinet have nearly the same bore, and use the same mouthpiece. The A and the B instruments have nearly identical tonal quality, although the A typically has a slightly warmer sound. The tone of the E clarinet is brighter than that of the lower clarinets and can be heard even through loud orchestral or concert band textures. The bass clarinet has a characteristically deep, mellow sound, while the alto clarinet is similar in tone to the bass clarinet. Range Clarinets have the widest pitch range of common woodwinds. The intricate key organization that makes this range possible can make the playability of some passages difficult. The bottom of the clarinets written range is defined by the keywork on each instrument, standard keywork schemes allowing a low E on the common B clarinet. The lowest concert pitch depends on the transposition of the instrument in question. Nearly all soprano and piccolo clarinets have keywork enabling them to play the E below middle C as their lowest written note, though some B clarinets go down to E3 to enable them to match the range of the A clarinet. On the B soprano clarinet, the concert pitch of the lowest note is D3, a whole tone lower than the written pitch. Most alto and bass clarinets have an extra key to allow a (written) E3. Modern professional-quality bass clarinets generally have additional keywork to written C3. Among the less commonly encountered members of the clarinet family, contra-alto and contrabass clarinets may have keywork to written E3, D3, or C3; the basset clarinet and basset horn generally go to low C3. Defining the highest point of a clarinets range is difficult, since many advanced players can produce notes well above the highest notes commonly found in method books. The G two octaves above G4 is usually the highest note clarinetists encounter in classical repertoire. The C above that (C7 i.e. resting on the fifth ledger line above the treble staff) is attainable by advanced players and is shown on many fingering charts, and fingerings as high as G7 exist. The range of a clarinet can be divided into three distinct registers. The lowest register, consisting of the notes up to the written B above middle C (B4), is known as the chalumeau register (named after the instrument that was the clarinet's immediate predecessor). The middle register is termed the clarino (sometimes clarion) register and spans just over an octave (from written B above middle C (B4) to the C two octaves above middle C (C6)); it is the dominant range for most members of the clarinet family. The top or altissimo register consists of the notes above the written C two octaves above middle C (C6). Unlike other woodwinds, all three registers have characteristically different sounds. The chalumeau register is dark and rich The clarino register is brighter and sweet, like a trumpet (clarino) heard from afar. The altissimo register can be piercing and sometimes shrill.

11 Acoustics A clarinet consists several acoustical components: 1. a mouthpiece-reed system: like an energy source, it produces air flow and pressure oscillating components that fill into the instrument. a cylindrical bore: a resonator that forms the air column and produces the standing wave. a bell (at the open end of the cylindrical bore) and open tone hole(s): act as radiators.

From the energy's point of view, most of the energy injected by the player compensates the thermal and viscous losses to the wall inside the cylindrical bore, while only a fractional part of energy is radiated via bell and open holes and heard by listeners. Mouthpiece-Reed System The reed serves as a spring-like oscillator. It converts steady input air flow (DC) into acoustically vibrated air flow (AC). However, it is more than a single-way converter because it also interacts with the resonance of the air column in the instrument, i.e.: initially, increasing the blowing pressure results in more air flowing into the clarinet bore. but too much difference of the blowing pressure and the mouthpiece pressure will close the aperture between the reed and the mouthpiece and finally result in zero air flow. This behavior is roughly depicted in Figure 1:

Figure 1: Mouthpiece-Reed system diagram

12 How is sound created on the clarinet? To produce sound on the clarinet, you blow air into the mouthpiece, forming an airtight embouchure position with your mouth around the mouthpiece. The pressure of the air coming out of your lungs will force the reed, attached to the mouthpiece to vibrate. This vibration produces sound waves. The combination of the reed, mouthpiece, and a players embouchure creates a sound generator. The body of the instrument also plays a part in the production of sound. The sound waves created by the sound generator resonate inside the cylindrical tube which is the body of the clarinet. Thus, the combination of the sound generator and the body of the instrument produce sound on the clarinet. Knowing that the longer the length of the air column the lower the pitch, why does the clarinet have a lower range than other woodwind instrument of the same length? Compared to other instruments that have about the same body length, the clarinet is able to produce sounds an octave lower. This is possible because the clarinets body is a cylindrical bore (nearly identical size from top to bottom). The reed end of the instrument is closed (or stopped), whereas the bottom end is open. In pipes of similar shape the lowest possible frequency of sound vibration has a wavelength four times the length of the given pipe. What are the harmonics created on the clarinet on a given fundamental note? What adjustments have to be made when going up in register in order to make the pitches accurate? The vibrating air in a stopped cylindrical pipe produces sound enriched by odd harmonics and has almost no even ones. This peculiarity is one of the characteristics of the lowest chalumeau register of the clarinet timbre. The higher the register of clarinet, the more even partials start to appear in clarinet sound. Those new pitches are based most exclusively on odd harmonics of fundamental register, but the shape of mouthpiece, bell flare, open and covered tone-holes produce deviations from the a perfect cylindrical pipe. All these factors make the higher pitches sound lower. At the same time, the higher the register the closer together become pitches in harmonic series. Thus, many alternative fingerings are available for a particular note in a high register. What is end correction and what impact does it have on the construction of the clarinet? The higher the frequency of the wave, the more energy it carries and the further distance it travels after passing the highest open tone-hole on the body of the clarinet. This distance is called open-hole end correction, or just end correction. This phenomenon flattens the higher register of the clarinet if no adjustment within the shape of the clarinet bore is done.

13 Describe the dual function and compromise in the placement of the register key. To act as a perfect register breaker, the speaker key should have a smaller hole and be placed higher on the tube of the clarinet. To provide a perfect B-flat pitch, the speaker key should have a bigger diameter of its hole and be placed lower on the clarinet. In this case the resonance column would be longer, and the sound would have more partials. The S-K Mechanism was patented in 1952 by William Stubbins and Frank Kaspar. This invention allowed for the separation of the function of the key by providing an additional hole underneath the register key for a B-flat pitch, operated by left-hand thumb ring. What are the four factors in the correct positioning of the tone holes? 1. Convenience for performer to operate. 2. Breaking the tube in correct lengths. 3. Tonal quality, balance, and resistance in sound. 4. Correct placement to achieve exact pitches. What area(s) of the clarinet typically produce wider 12ths? The lower joint, particularly in the bottom part. The upper top part of the upper joint. Describe two physical adjustments to the clarinet to lower the pitch of a particular note. Explain how this accomplished. Lowering a pad by adding a cork to a lever. Applying a small amount of tape inside the hole. Describe two physical adjustments to the clarinet to raise the pitch. Explain how this accomplished. Raising the pad. Undercutting or sharpening a tone hole with a fine round file.

14 Construction

The construction of a clarinet (Oehler system) Raw Materials Most modern clarinet bodies are made out of African blackwood (Dalbergia melanoxylon). There are actually many different trees in the African blackwood genus, such as black cocus, Mozambique ebony, grenadilla, and East African ebony. It is this heavy, dark wood that gives clarinets their characteristic color. Inexpensive clarinets designed for students may be made out of artificial resins. Very occasionally, clarinets are manufactured out of silver or brass. The clarinet mouthpiece is made out of a kind of hard rubber called ebonite. The keys are usually made out of an alloy called German silver. This is made from copper, zinc, and nickel. It looks like pure silver, but does not tarnish. Some fine instruments may be made with pure silver keys, and expensive models are available with gold-plated keys. The key pads require cardboard and felt or leather. The reed is made from cane. Other materials used in the clarinet are cork and wax, for lining the joints, and a metal such as silver or a cheaper alloy for the ligature, the screw clip that holds the reed in place, and stainless steel for the spring mechanisms that work the keys.

15 The Manufacturing Process Preparing the body 2. 1 When wood is harvested for clarinet-making, logs are sawed to between 3-4 ft (11.2 m) in length. The logs must be seasoned, to prevent later warping. They may be seasoned by being kept in the open air for several months, or they may be dried in a kiln. Then the logs are split and sawed to lengths approximating the finished lengths of the clarinet body pieces, (upper and lower joints, barrel and bell). The body pieces look like narrow rectangular blocks, and pieces for the barrel are carved in a rough pyramidal shape. These pieces are known as billets. The manufacturer buys the billets in lots, and begins the manufacturing process from these roughed-out shapes. 3. 2 When the manufacturer receives the billets, workers inspect the lot. Then skilled workers place the billets on a borer, which drills a hole lengthwise through the center of each piece. The diameter and shape of this hole, called the bore of the clarinet, is crucial to determining the tone of the instrument. The bore may be drilled in a straight cylinder, or the cylinder may be slightly tapered. After the bore is drilled, the body pieces are turned on a lathe. The rectangular billets become smooth, round, hollow cylinders. These cylinders are then seasoned again. After the rough pieces have been seasoned for the second time, they are reduced to finished size. The pieces are turned on a lathe and trimmed to exceedingly precise diameters. The joints where the body pieces fit into each other are turned after the exterior is completed. The bore may be reamed more precisely, and then it is polished on the inside. Then the joints are painted with a black dye. Plastic models 3 Body parts for clarinets made of plastic are produced by injection molding. Plastic pellets are melted and forced under pressure into molds. The molds for clarinet body parts produce hollow cylinders. In some cases, the molds are so precise that these cylinders do not need any additional reaming. Or they may be reamed and polished, as are wooden clarinets. The steps that follow apply to both wooden and plastic models.

16 Boring the tone holes

4 Next, the maker bores the tone holes that the player's fingers cover to make the different notes. The most common method for mass-produced clarinets is to set the body pieces in a setting out machine. This is a table which holds the piece on a mount under a vertical drill. The holes are drilled at specified distances apart and with precise diameters. The exact dimension of the holes affects the tuning of the instrument, and the holes may be adjusted after the instrument is nearly complete. Not every hole is the same size, and the maker may have to insert a different drill bit for each hole. The holes are smaller on the outside than on the inside, and to achieve their precise shape, after the holes are drilled they are undercut. The clarinet maker uses a small, flared tool placed in the tone hole to expand the underside of the hole. Next to the tone holes, tiny holes for holding the key mechanism are also drilled.

17 Construction of keys 5 Early clarinets were made with hand-forged keys. The modern method is usually die-casting. Molten alloy (usually German silver) is forced under pressure into steel dies. A group of connected keys may be made in one piece in this method. Alternately, individual keys may be stamped out

There are two main clarinet key systems in use. The simple, or Albert, system is used principally in German-speaking countries. The Bohm system has more keys than the Albert and is standard in most other parts of the world. by a heavy stamping machine, and then trimmed. These individual keys are then soldered together with silver solder to make the connected group. Next the keys are polished. Keys for inexpensive models may be placed in a tumbling machine, where friction and agitation of pellets in a revolving drum polish the pieces. More expensive keys may be buffed individually by being held against the rotating wheel of a polishing machine. Some keys may be silver-plated, and then polished. 6 The keys are then fitted with pads. The pads are usually made of several layers cardboard, felt, and skin or leather. The circular pads are stamped or cut, and then workers glue them by hand into the head of the key. This will muffle the sound of the tone hole closing when the instrument is played. 7 The keys are drilled, and then fitted with springs that will keep them either open or closed. These springs are made of fine steel wire. Mounting the keys 8 The keys are mounted on small pillars called posts. The posts are first set in the holes previously drilled for them. In many models the posts are threaded, and they can be simply screwed in by hand. Using a very small drill bit, tiny holes are then drilled in the posts to hold the needle springs. Then the keys are screwed into the posts with stainless steel hinge rods. The assembler uses a fine screwdriver, pliers, and a small leather mallet to fit the keys and adjust the spring action. The assembler also checks that the tone holes are covered completely by the key pad, inserting a tiny pick under the pad on each side.

18 The pad may need to be adjusted or reset, or the assembler may clamp a key shut temporarily, to set the crease for a perfect, airtight closure. Finishing 9 The joints of the body pieces are lined with cork and waxed, so that the pieces fit smoothly into each other. The ends of the body pieces are fitted with decorative metal rings, as is the bottom of the barrel. The barrel is usually embossed with the name of the maker. The mouthpiece, manufactured separately out of hard rubber, is fitted to the instrument. When a reed is inserted, the instrument can be played for the first time.

Quality Control After the clarinet is fully assembled, a worker checks the instrument for visual flaws, checks the action of the keys, and then play tests it. By playing it, the worker can note the tone quality, intonation, and action of the new instrument. The finished clarinet should be checked for precision tuning. The clarinet's sounding A natural should be at 440 cycles per second, and the other notes in tune with this. If the instrument has been manufactured according to a standard model, with care to exact diameters of bore and tone holes, it should play in tune automatically. It may be tested with an electronic tuner, and the diameters of the tone holes made larger by more reaming, if necessary. If tone holes are too large (producing a flat note) they may be filled with a layer of shellac. The wood of the clarinet body should not crack, and the action of the keys should be smooth and not too loud. Ideally, the instrument should last for decades without warping, cracking, or any serious defect.

19 Usage and repertoire Use of multiple clarinets The modern orchestral standard of using soprano clarinets in both B and A has to do partly with the history of the instrument, and partly with acoustics, aesthetics and economics. Before about 1800, due to the lack of airtight pads, practical woodwinds could have only a few keys to control accidentals (notes outside their diatonic home scales). The low (chalumeau) register of the clarinet spans a twelfth (an octave plus a perfect fifth), so the clarinet needs keys to produce all nineteen notes in that range. This involves more keywork than is necessary on instruments that "overblow" at the octaveoboes, flutes, bassoons, and saxophones, for example, which need only twelve notes before overblowing. Clarinets with few keys cannot therefore easily play chromatically, limiting any such instrument to a few closely related key signatures. For example, an eighteenth-century clarinet in C could be played in F, C, and G (and their relative minors) with good intonation, but with progressive difficulty and poorer intonation as the key moved away from this range. In contrast, for octave-overblowing instruments, an instrument in C with few keys could much more readily be played in any key. This problem was overcome by using three clarinetsin A, B and Cso that early 19th-century music, which rarely strayed into the remote keys (five or six sharps or flats), could be played as follows: music in 5 to 2 sharps (B major to D major concert pitch) on A clarinet (D major to F major for the player), music in 1 sharp to 1 flat (G to F) on C clarinet, and music in 2 flats to 4 flats (B to A) on the B clarinet (C to B for the player). Difficult key signatures and numerous accidentals were thus largely avoided. With the invention of the airtight pad, and as key technology improved and more keys were added to woodwinds, the need for clarinets in multiple musical keys was reduced. However, the use of multiple instruments in different keys persisted, with the three instruments in C, B and A all used as specified by the composer. The lower-pitched clarinets sound more "mellow" (less bright), and the C clarinet being the highest and therefore brightest of the threefell out of favour as the other two clarinets could cover its range and their sound was considered better. While the clarinet in C began to fall out of general use around 1850, some composers continued to write C parts after this date, e.g., Bizet's Symphony in C (1855), Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 2 (1872), Smetana's Vltava (1874), Brahms Symphony No. 4 (1885), and Richard Strauss deliberately reintroduced it to take advantage of its brighter tone, as in Der Rosenkavalier (1911). While technical improvements and an equal-tempered scale reduced the need for two clarinets, the technical difficulty of playing in remote keys persisted and the A has thus remained a standard orchestral instrument. In addition, by the late 19th century the orchestral clarinet repertoire contained so much music for clarinet in A that the disuse of this instrument was not practical. Attempts were made to standardise to the B instrument between 1930 and 1950 (e.g., tutors recommended learning the routine transposition of orchestral A parts on the B clarinet, including solos written for A clarinet, and some manufacturers provided a low E on the B to match the range of the A), but this failed in the orchestral sphere.

20 Similarly there have been E and D instruments in the upper soprano range, B, A, and C instruments in the bass range, and so forth; but over time the E and B instruments have become predominant. The B instrument remains dominant in concert bands and in jazz. Both B and C instruments are used in some ethnic traditions, such as klezmer music. Classical music

A pair of Boehm system soprano clarinetsone in B and one in A. In classical music, clarinets are part of standard orchestral and concert band instrumentation. The orchestra frequently includes two clarinetists playing individual partseach player is usually equipped with a pair of standard clarinets in B and A, and clarinet parts commonly alternate between B and A instruments several times over the course of a piece or even, less commonly, of a movement (e.g., 1st movement Brahms 3rd symphony). Clarinet sections grew larger during the last few decades of the 19th century, often employing a third clarinetist, an E or a bass clarinet. In the 20th century, composers such as Igor Stravinsky, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and Olivier Messiaen enlarged the clarinet section on occasion to up to nine players, employing many different clarinets including the E or D soprano clarinets, basset horn, alto clarinet, bass clarinet and/or contrabass clarinet. In concert bands, clarinets are an important part of the instrumentation. The E clarinet, B clarinet, alto clarinet, bass clarinet, and contra-alto/contrabass clarinet are commonly used in concert bands. Concert bands generally have multiple B clarinets; there are commonly 3 B clarinet parts with 2-3 players per part. There is generally only one player per part on the other clarinets. There are not always E clarinet, alto clarinet, and contra-alto clarinets/contrabass clarinet parts in concert band music, but all three are quite common.

21 This practice of using a variety of clarinets to achieve coloristic variety was common in 20th-century classical music and continues today. However, many clarinetists and conductors prefer to play parts originally written for obscure instruments on B or E clarinets, which are often of better quality and more prevalent and accessible. The clarinet is widely used as a solo instrument. The relatively late evolution of the clarinet (when compared to other orchestral woodwinds) has left solo repertoire from the Classical period and later, but few works from the Baroque era. Many clarinet concertos have been written to showcase the instrument, with the concerti by Mozart, Copland and Weber being well known. Many works of chamber music have also been written for the clarinet. Common combinations are: 4. Clarinet and piano (including clarinet sonatas) 5. Clarinet, piano and another instrument (for example, string instrument or voice) 6. Clarinet quartet: various combinations including four B clarinets, three B clarinets and bass clarinet, two B clarinets, alto clarinet and bass, and other possibilities such as the use of a basset horn, especially in European classical works. 7. Clarinet quintet, generally made up of a clarinet plus a string quartet. 8. Wind quintet, consists of flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and horn. 9. Trio d'anches, or trio of reeds consists of oboe, clarinet, and bassoon. 10. Wind octet, consists of pairs of oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and horns. Marching and military bands Clarinets are common in marching bands and military bands. Jazz The clarinet was a central instrument in early jazz starting in the 1910s and remained popular in the United States through the big band era into the 1940s. Larry Shields, Ted Lewis, Jimmie Noone and Sidney Bechet were influential in early jazz. The B soprano was the most common instrument, but a few early jazz musicians such as Louis Nelson Delisle and Alcide Nunez preferred the C soprano, and many New Orleans jazz brass bands have used E soprano. Swing clarinetists such as Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, and Woody Herman led successful and popular big bands and smaller groups from the 1930s onward. Duke Ellington, active from the 1920s to the 1970s, often emphasized the clarinet in his works. Featured clarinetists in Ellington's bands included Barney Bigard, Jimmy Hamilton and Russell Procope. Harry Carney, primarily a baritone saxophonist, occasionally doubled on bass clarinet. With the decline of the big bands' popularity in the late 1940s, the clarinet faded from its prominent position in jazz, though a few players (John Carter, Buddy DeFranco, Eric Dolphy, Jimmy Giuffre, Perry Robinson, Theo Jrgensmann and others) used clarinet in bebop and free jazz. The French composer and clarinetist Jean-Christian Michel initiated a jazz-classical cross-over on the clarinet with the drummer Kenny Clarke. The clarinet's place in the jazz ensemble was usurped by the saxophone, which projects a more powerful sound and uses a less complicated fingering system.

22 During the 1950s and 1960s, Britain underwent a surge in the popularity of traditional jazz. During this period, the British clarinetist Acker Bilk became popular, founding his own ensemble in 1956. Bilk had a string of successful records, including the ballad "Stranger on the Shore". America also saw a renewed interest in Dixieland or traditional New Orleans jazz; Pete Fountain was one of the best known performers in this genre. The filmmaker Woody Allen is a clarinetist, and performs New Orleansstyle jazz regularly with his quartet in New York. Other genres The clarinet is uncommon, but not unheard of in rock music. Jerry Martini played clarinet on Sly and the Family Stone's 1968 hit, "Dance to the Music"; Don Byron, a founder of the Black Rock Coalition who was a member of hard rock guitarist Vernon Reid's band, plays clarinet on the Mistaken Identity album (1996). The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Radiohead, Aerosmith, Billy Joel, and Tom Waits have also all used clarinet on occasion. Clarinets feature prominently in klezmer music, which entails a distinctive style of playing. The use of quarter-tones requires a different embouchure. Some klezmer musicians prefer Albert system clarinets. The clarinet is prominent in Bulgarian wedding music, an offshoot of Roma/Romani traditional music. Ivo Papazov is a well-known clarinetist in this genre. In Moravian dulcimer bands, the clarinet is usually the only wind instrument among string instruments. In the Republic of Macedonia, old-town folk music -called chalgija (""), the clarinet has the most important role in wedding music; clarinet solos mark the high point of dancing euphoria. One of the most renowned Macedonian clarinet players is Tale Ognenovski, who gained worldwide fame for his virtuosity. In Greece the clarinet (usually referred to as "" - "clarino") is prominent in traditional music, especially in central, northwest and northern Greece (Thessaly, Epirus and Macedonia). The double-reed zurna was the dominant woodwind instrument before the clarinet arrived in the country, although many Greeks regard the clarinet as a native instrument. Traditional dance music, wedding music and laments include a clarinet soloist and quite often improvisations. Petroloukas Chalkias is a famous clarinetist in this genre. The instrument is equally famous in Turkey, especially the soprano clarinet in G. The soprano clarinet crossed via Turkey to Arabic music, where it is widely used in Arabic pop, especially if the intention of the arranger is to imitate the Turkish style.

Turkish clarinet Also in Turkish folk music, a clarinet-like woodwind instrument, the sipsi, is used. However, it's far more rare than the soprano clarinet and is mainly limited to folk music of the Aegean Region.

23 Groups of clarinets

Contrabass and contra-alto clarinets Groups of clarinets playing together have become increasingly popular among clarinet enthusiasts in recent years. Common forms are: Clarinet choir, which features a large number of clarinets playing together, usually involves a range of different members of the clarinet family (see Extended family of clarinets). The homogeneity of tone across the different members of the clarinet family produces an effect with some similarities to a human choir. Clarinet quartet, usually three B sopranos and one B bass, or two B, an E alto clarinet, and a B bass clarinet, or sometimes four B sopranos. Clarinet choirs and quartets often play arrangements of both classical and popular music, in addition to a body of literature specially written for a combination of clarinets by composers such as Arnold Cooke, Alfred Uhl, Lucien Caillet and Vclav Nelhbel.

24 Study of pieces 1. Cielito Lindo by Carlos Fernandez. Introduction To The Piece Cielito Lindo is a popular Mexican song that originated from a Spanish copla (a poetic form of four verses found in many Spanish popular songs and literature) which was popularized in 1882 by original composer Quino Mendoza y Cortes (1859-1957).

Quirino Mendoza y Corts His father taught him to play the piano, flute, violin, guitar and organ at a young age. He went to work alongside his father as a church organist in Milpa Alta and his hometown of Xochimilco. He composed his first piece in 1880, titled My Blessed God. At first, he only composed religious pieces, but he then decided to venture into other genres such as hymns, polkas, marzukas, corridos, waltzes, huapangos, pasodobles, marches, childrens songs, boleros and rancheras. Aside from selling his compositions, he made his living by teaching in an elementary school and becoming a music teacher for sixty-two years. Due to his long service in the education system, he won a medal called Master Manuel Altamirano and another medal by an art school, For his music, he received an honorable mention by President Henry S. Truman (33rd American president) and Japanese Emperor Hirohito amongst multiple citations from the Chilean, Honduras, Venezuelan and Cuban governments for Cielito Lindo. He managed to receive diplomas, trophies, golden and silver records recognition. In 1919, he was awarded by the Royal Palace of Madrid with a medal, for composing a hymn to the king of Spain at that time, Alfonso XIII. The International Womens Club honored him for organizing an all-female orchestra, of which he was also the teacher of. He passed away on November 9th, 1957 in Mexico City and was buried on the same lot as the other Illustrious Men of Xochimilco.

25 He married a woman named named Catalina Martinez and she inspired him to compose Cielito Lindo (meaning beautiful heaven). It quickly became popular throughout Mexico. The song is often played in mariachi bands and contains lyrics that was written in a scheme that corresponds to the Spain Castillian classical stanza, known as seguidilla. Since performers are allowed to add and change the lyrics as they please, the lyrics vary widely from performer to performer. The clarinet solo with piano accompaniment was composed by C. Fernandez and arranged by Art Jolliff. Form and Analysis The piece is in the key of F Major with a three four time signature. The piece is played in a waltz tempo (84-90 beats per minute). The piece is a short, three-voiced piece, two for the piano and one for the clarinet. It begins with the pianos right hand and left hand playing the same melody in the first two measures. The clarinet joins in during the 7th measure, playing the same melody that the piano begun with. The first twenty-three measures seems to be expositional, the main theme being played first by the piano, then repeated by the clarinet as the piano accompanies it. There is a cadence at measure 23, followed by a new developmental material and another cadence at measure 39 as the clarinet rests for four measures. Measure 43rd returns somewhat to the expository material, but the melodic pattern differs from the original material at the 47th measure and slides back into the original material at measure 51. At the 55th measure, the melodic pattern changes into the previous pattern before the expository pattern again, albeit played with lower notes, and ends at the 59th measure, where the piece ends with development material. The final two measures ends with a senza ritardando, where the final two notes are played by using fortissimo.

26 2. Ode to Music by Frdric Franois Chopin Introduction To The Piece The Composer

Frdric-Franois Chopin (March 1, 1810 October 17, 1849) is widely seen as the greatest of Polish composers and among the very greatest of composers for the piano, the instrument for which he wrote almost exclusively. He was born as Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, adopting the French variant 'Frdric-Franois' when he left Poland for Paris at age 20, never to return. His surname is also sometimes spelled Szopen in Polish texts. He was another one of the extremely rare child prodigies, including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Felix Mendelssohn. According to the artist himself and his family, Chopin was born on March 1, 1810. However, his baptismal certificate, written several weeks after his birth, lists his birthdate as February 22. Chopin was born in elazowa Wola in central Poland near Sochaczew, in the region of Mazovia, which was part of the Duchy of Warsaw. He was born to Mikoaj (Nicolas) Chopin, a Polonized Frenchman and to his Polish mother, Tekla Justyna Krzyanowska. The musical talent of young Chopin became apparent early on and can be compared with the childhood genius of Mozart. At the age of 7, he was already the author of two polonaises (in G minor and B-flat major), the first being published in the engraving workshop of Father Cybulski. The prodigy was featured in the Warsaw newspapers, and 'little Chopin' became the attraction at receptions given in the aristocratic salons of the capital. He also began giving public charity concerts. His first professional piano lessons, given to him by the violinist Wojciech ywny (b. 1756 in Bohemia), lasted from 1816 to 1822, when the teacher was no longer able to give any more help to the pupil whose skills surpassed his own. The further development of Chopin's talent was supervised by Wilhelm Wrfel (b. 1791 in Bohemia). This renowned pianist and professor at the Warsaw Conservatory gave Chopin valuable (although irregular) lessons in playing organ (music), and possibly piano. From 1823 to 1826, Chopin attended the Warsaw Lyceum, where his father was a professor. In the autumn of 1826, Chopin began studying music theory, figured bass, and composition with the composer Jzef Elsner (b. 1769 in Silesia) at

27 the Warsaw Conservatory. In 1831 he left Poland for Vienna before settling in Paris where he spent much of his life. Chopin first visited Vienna in early 1829, where he gave a piano performace and received his first favorable reviews. The following year he returned to Warsaw and performed the premiere of his Piano Concerto in F Minor at the National Theater on March 17. By 1831 Chopin had left Poland for good and settled in Paris. He began work on his first scherzi and ballades as well as the first book of tudes. It is also at this time that he began his lifelong struggle with tuberculosis. The early and mid-1830s in Paris were a productive time for the composer. He completed several of his most famous works and also performed regular concerts, to rave reviews. By 1838 Chopin had become a famous figure in Paris. Among his closest friends were opera composer Vincenzo Bellini (beside whom he is buried in the Pre Lachaise), and painter Eugne Delacroix. He was also friends with composers Hector Berlioz, Franz Liszt and Robert Schumann, and although he was at times critical of their music, Chopin dedicated some of his own compositions to them. In 1836 Chopin was secretly engaged to a seventeen-year-old Polish girl named Maria Wodzinska. The engagement was later called off. In that same year, at a party hosted by Countess Marie d'Agoult, Chopin met the novelist Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin, better known by her pseudonym as George Sand. Sand's correspondence suggests that Chopin was asexual; that is, that he had no inclination to have sexual relations with anyone, male or female. Even so, his relationship with Sand lasted for ten years until they parted after arguments over Sand's children. A notable episode in their time together was a turbulent and miserable winter on Majorca (18381839) living in unheated peasant huts and in the then-abandoned (and equally cold) Valldemossa monastery. 1 Chopin would also later complain of having to go to great lengths to obtain a piano from Paris and of the difficulty of moving it uphill to the monastery. Chopin reflected much of the mood of this desperate time in the twenty-four prludes, Op. 28, the majority of which were written in Majorca. The weather had such a serious impact on Chopin's health and his chronic lung disease that he and George Sand were compelled to return to Paris to save his life. He survived but never recovered from this bout. By the 1840s Chopin's health was rapidly deteriorating. He and Sand took several trips to remote locations, such as Nohant-Vic, to no avail. By 1849 most of his major works were completed and Chopin concentrated on mazurkas and nocturnes. His last work was a mazurka, in F minor. Chopin died, officially, of tuberculosis in 1849, although there is some speculation that he may have had another disease such as cystic fibrosis or emphysema due in part to autopsy findings (reported only by his sister) seemingly inconsistent with the initial diagnosis. He had a terror of being buried alive, and asked to be 'cut open' to make sure he was dead. He had requested that Mozart's Requiem be sung at his funeral, held at the Church of the Madeleine. The Requiem has major parts for female singers but the Madeleine had never permitted female singers in its choir. The funeral was delayed for almost 2 weeks while the matter raged, the church finally relenting and granting Chopin's final

28 wish. Although Chopin is buried in the Pre Lachaise cemetery in Paris, his heart is entombed in a pillar in the Church of the Holy Cross in Warsaw. The piano and clarinet version of his Ode to Music was arranged by Art Joliff. Form and Analysis The song is in the key of E major with a common time signature. The song is played in moderato con moto which means a moderate tempo, but with motion. This piece is also a short, three-voiced piece, two for piano and one for the clarinet. The first chord is the second inversion of the tonic triad. The clarinet enters at the fourth beat in the 4th measure in a ritardando and pianissimo dynamic, beginning the exposition material, that lasts for 23 measures, going into a cadence in the 24th measure. The material changes until the 30th measure, where the expository material begins again at the fourth beat in the same measure. The material is only played once this time, with a cadence at the 40th measure. The material changes again, never returning to the expository material until the ending. The clarinet ends the piece very softly on the root note, as the piano ends with an interval very softly on the G and E, similar to the first chord that was played in the beginning.

29 Sources

http://www.wikipedia.org/ Clarinet for Dummies by David Etheridge Google Image Google Translate Buyers Guide for Clarinets by Woodwind & Brasswind The Life and Music of Frederic Chopin by Ted Libbey Rubank Book of Clarinet Solos with Piano Accompaniment by Rubank publications C. Forbes, Tuning the Clarinet S. Fox Basic Acoustics article M. Richards The Clarinet of the Twenty-first Century Grove Music Online