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How to Edit, Revise and Rewrite Your Novel

A Quick and Simple Guide


*** by Gordon A. Kessler
Copyright 2012 by Gordon A. Kessler

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprod !ed or transmitted in any form or by any means" ele!troni! or me!hani!al" in!l ding photo!opying" re!ording or by any information storage and retrieval system" #itho t permission in #riting from the !opyright o#ner.

$or information email% Gordon&GordonKessler.!om

'his book #as p blished in the (nited )tates of Ameri!a. *ersion 2.2+.1+

Note: How to Edit, Revise and Rewrite Your Novel is a g ide book for editing eBook novels for e, blishing. -t is abo t the a!t al editing, revising and rewriting process and not abo t the ePublishing process, nor is it abo t promoting s !h #ork . there are do/ens of very good e0ooks available to help yo #ith those things. -f yo are seeking publication by one of the big traditional publishing houses, yo might !onsider my book Novel 1riting 2ade )imple. -t3s a great book for beginning novelists #hose goal is a!4 iring a p blishing !ontra!t #ith a traditional p blishing ho se. ,lease pi!k p a !opy of 50ook 1riting 2ade )imple6 if yo r goal is 7indie8 p blishing yo r o#n book as an e0ook. -t3s an e9!ellent g ide for the e0ook a thor. A Personal Messa e !rom Gordon A "essler to t#e Reader: $%ve &een teac#in novel writin for nearly t#enty years" and -3ve #ritten thriller novels for longer. - en:oy #riting them almost as m !h as - like talking abo t the pro!ess. -f yo en:oy this !ompilation of my tho ghts and fo! s on the novel;editing pro!ess" and if this little e0ook helps yo hone yo r skills . or if yo have been entertained by my fi!tion . please drop me a 4 i!k email. <et me kno# #ho yo are and #hat yo en:oyed the most. - promise that - #ill personally respond. 5mail me and say hi at% gordon&gordonkessler.!om '#eet me at% https%==t#itter.!om=gordonkessler <ink p #ith me at% http%==###.linkedin.!om=in=gordonkessler ,in me at% http%==pinterest.!om=gordonkessler And follo# me at% ###.fa!ebook.!om=gordon.kessler1 ,lease stop by my #ebsite and blog at% http%==gordonkessler.!om -t>s f n and yo >ll be glad yo did.

Need help #ith yo r novel? <ooking for an editor? <et3s talk. @rop me an email. Aere3s the old !ons ltant=editor3s shingle% <><><> * EDITING COVER DESIGN EPUBLISHING PRINT ON DEMAND (POD) * Do you need help wi ! you" no#e$% A"e you $oo&in' (o" )n editor? Need your cover designed at a reasonable price? How )*ou ePublishing and POD? Le +, )$&Drop me an email. Heres the old consultant/editors shingle: ./0 I (i1 no#e$,2o" in(o"3) ion on 3y 4No#e$ Me5!)ni16 ,e"#i5e, )nd ) ("ee e#)$u) ion7 8$e),e e3)i$ 3e )9 Go"don:Go"don;e,,$e"<5o3 Low ") e,7 !i'! "e,u$ ,< 2"ee ini i)$ 5on,u$ ) ion< .0.0.0

Acknowled ements
'o 2ike 2!B ay and <eonard 0ishop" t#o of the best mentors a #riter !o ld ever have. 2ay yo both rest in pea!e. 'o bestselling a thors @o glas ,reston and Cames Dollins" t#o of the finest thriller novelists today. 'hank yo for yo r en!o raging and !omplimentary #ords abo t my #riting. 'o my h ndreds of st dents and fello# #riters #ho have helped me better nderstand the novel;#riting !raft. - thank all of yo no#. ;E; 'o any #riter #ho pi!ks p this g ide" - hope it helps yo . 0est #ishes and en:oy. . Gordon A. Kessler 1ebsite E 0log% http%==GordonKessler.!om

5mail% Gordon&Gordonkessler.!om

'(isclaimer . -f yo 3ve read Novel Writing Made Simple and=or EBook Writing Made Simple" yo may find many parts of this #ork some#hat familiar. 'hese g idebooks #ere relied pon heavily in order to !ompile this information.

)a&le o! *ontents
Part I. essler!s Rule"o#"$%um& St'le (uide
1.1Editing, Revising and Rewriting Fig 1. Common Editors Marks Fig. 2. My Critics Marks

Part II. )ormatting *a ver' &rie# summar'+ Part III. ,losing $%oug%ts on Editing, Revising and Rewriting *-..+ /ppendi0 /1 Resour2es and Re#eren2es *3..+

$ntroduction F2odified Foreword from EBook Writing Made SimpleG


Hkay" so somebody left the gate open and let o t all the #a!kos6 Ies" getting a book p blished today is abo t as easy as filling o t a :ob appli!ation or applying for a loan. 'he good Fand the badG thing abo t it is that nlike trying to get a :ob or a loan" everyone #ho applies gets p blished. Ao# !an this be bad? 'hink abo t it% everyone #ho #ants to get p blished !an no# get whatever they want p blished. Hf !o rse there are a fe# limitations. 0 t" #ithin reason" anything yo #ant to thro# o t for p bli! !ons mption !an no# be 7o t there8 #ithin a matter of ho rs. Aere3s #hat this book IS N4$% 1. A step;by;step g ide #alking yo thro gh the p blishing pro!ess 2. A marketing g ide sho#ing yo ho# to promote yo rself and yo r #ork +. A g arantee that yo 3ll #rite an e0ook that #ill sell even one" let alone a millions of !opies. Hver the past year or t#o" do/ens of books #ere p blished on e, blishing and e0ook marketing . neither yo nor the rest of the #orld needs another one. 1hat this book IS% 1. A g ide to help yo edit" revise and re#rite yo r f ll;si/e e0ook novel like a pro. 2. A g ide to promote a better nderstanding of #hat the reading p bli! #ants . #hat they look for in #ell;#ritten stories. +. A referen!e to promote a better nderstanding of the a!!epted r les and e9pe!ted !onventions of the novel;#riting !raft. )imply p tJ this e0ook is a g ide designed spe!ifi!ally to help e0ook novel a thors polish their #ork into great stories . #hi!h" in t rn" !an help in selling more books. Ao# !an it help yo sell more books if it3s not abo t p blishing or promoting yo r #ork? 'ake a good look at ! rrently available e0ooks . most of them for K.LL to K+.LL" and yo 3ll nderstand #hat -3m talking abo t. Not even !onsidering the ab ndan!e of typos" misspellings" #rong #ords" missing #ords" poor and mispla!e p n!t ation" bear #itness to the none9istent story str !t re" amate rish and distra!ting #riting" and poor storytelling in general. Io 3ll probably find a fe# of the above in this e0ook as #ell. 'he idea is to limit these distra!ting errors as m !h

as possible and tell a f n and entertaining story that readers #ill not only en:oy" b t #ill remember and tell their friends abo t. 1hen readers are distra!ted" #hat happens? 'hey stop reading to attempt to nderstand #hat the a thor is trying to tell them. 1hat happens if these :olts o t of the story take pla!e too fre4 ently? 'hey stop reading altogether. 0efore a reader p r!hases an e0ook" most online e0ook stores allo# for a 10;20M sample do#nload. Ammm. -f yo r #riting isn3t p to par in those first fe# paragraphs" do yo think a potential reader #ill b y yo r book? @o bt it6 5ven if they do" do yo think that same reader #ho has been distra!ted time after time by typos" poor grammar and a !onf sing storyline #hile tr dging thro gh yo r e0ook #ill even !onsider b ying yo r ne9t one? @o bt it. And if they post a revie# do yo think it #ill be favorable? )o if yo r #riting shines" yo 3ll leave all those others behind" and yo 3re on the #ay to the top" right? Not ne!essarily. Io 3ve got a lot of !ompetition" espe!ially from the traditional p blishers #ho3ve e, blished their brand;name a thors3 #ork. 1hy take it from me? -f yo look at my ba!kgro nd and e9perien!e" - think yo 3ll see -3ve fo nd at least some s !!ess in not only #hat this book spe!ifi!ally pertains to% #riting good stories" b t also #hat it does not% marketing e0ooks. 5diting matters in traditionally p blished books. -t doesn3t matter at all in indie books . nless" of !o rse" yo #ant readers to en:oy yo r stories" give yo good revie#s and !ome ba!k for yo r ne9t book. -n other #ords" yo #ill not only !aref lly self;edit yo r #ork" b t yo 3ll have yo r friends and !riti4 e gro p members give it a on!e over as #ell" if yo #ant even a small !han!e at s !!ess.

Part $+ "essler,s Rule-o!-)#um& St.le Guide


5.5 Editing, Revising and Rewriting
1hen yo 3re done #ith yo r story" don3t forget to read it alo d before yo give it to a friend or !riti4 e gro p for opinions. 'ry to look at every #ord as yo read instead of relying too m !h on memory and skimming. )in!e yo kno# #hat yo intended to #rite" it3s easy to miss a lot of simple mistakes. 'he ne9t step is to strengthen yo r #riting by fi9ing all the #eak spots. Io might see #eak #riting in a n mber of best;sellers" and that3s okay" a!!epted" the story itself !arrying the reader over these minor b mps in the road #ith ease. As a beginning novelist seeking to sell e0ooks" yo !an3t afford too many b mps. -f yo de!ide to go the traditional p blishing ro te" yo 3ll find many agents and editors have their o#n pet peeves abo t grammar" p n!t ation" #eak #riting" et!. @o yo r best to make yo r #riting strong" and yo 3ll find yo s b:e!tive h rdles. /+/ 0asics+ )ome say that #riters aren3t #riting ntil they3re re#riting. C st thro#ing do#n the story in a logi!al se4 en!e for the first time is probably not the most !reative part of #riting a novel. Going ba!k over yo r first draft and finding the holes in the plot" the pla!es that !an be filled in and enhan!ed and those that are over#ritten or are even nne!essary . no# that3s #riting. 0efore yo re#rite" yo r story is bare bones" skeletal. 1hen re#riting" yo are adding the flesh" the tendons" the m s!le" the skin and the hair" and yo 3re doing so #hile adding as little fat as possible. Io are s! lpting a bea tif l animal" strong and 4 i!k" #ith sharp teeth and sleek lines. De#riting is not only adding important information" the m s!le that makes yo r story !an leap these initial"

stronger" b t trimming the portions of yo r story that add nothing or a!t ally take a#ay from yo r story . the fat that slo#s yo r story do#n" makes it sl ggish and tiresome. Io are editing% !orre!ting spelling errors and typos" moving portions of yo r story to #here they are more effe!tive and #ork better. Io are revising% s!r tini/ing #ord !hoi!es" s bstit ting stronger verbs and more !on!rete no ns for #eak generi! ones" and yo 3re repla!ing #ords sed repetitively #ith synonyms that #ork as #ell or better. Io are adding imagery #ith similes" metaphors and des!riptors that help yo r readers see the story as yo intend. Io !an try for!ing yo rself to #rite ntil the prose flo#s and the #ords !ome o t like a fo ntain . that #orks for some #riters. )ome m st be in the mood. )ome find they !an3t #rite !reatively ntil they go thro gh !ertain rit als. )ome feel they need at least a t#o;ho r blo!k of time set aside or they #on3t even get #armed p. An important thing here is" altho gh yo might for!e yo r #riting : st to get it o t" don3t even think abo t ploading it" for!ing" r shing yo r #ork to into an e0ook before it3s been thoro ghly proofread and is in as good of shape as yo !an get it. -f yo p t o t a poorly edited e0ook the first time" #hat makes yo think readers #ill #ant to see a se!ond e0ook? 'his alone !o ld determine #hether yo ever sell more than a meager amo nt of e0ooks. And" possibly the very #orst ramifi!ations of p tting o t a poorly edited e0ook are the poor revie#s it may garner. 'hose bad revie#s never go a#ay. 'hey #ill remain atta!hed to yo r e0ook and #ill al#ays affe!t its sales" even if yo got ba!k and revise it. a1 Para rap#s !an be sed as tools. A paragraph is a gro ping of senten!es" #hi!h !onvey information abo t a parti! lar aspe!t of a broader topi!. <ong paragraphs slo# the story pa!e and !an be sed for that p rpose. )hort paragraphs speed p the pa!e and are espe!ially effe!tive in dramati! a!tion s!enes. Deaders per!eive that the #riter is implying more emphasis . that these shorter paragraphs might have more importan!e" more #eight. Also" short paragraphs" in!l ding dialog e paragraphs" give a more inviting appearan!e to the reader . making the virt al page appear easier to read. &1 Sentences sho ld be !lear and !on!ise. 5very senten!e sho ld have a p rpose #hether for mood setting or for providing information or imagery in order to assist

readers in seeing the story

nfold. As #ith paragraphs" generally" the longer the

senten!e" the slo#er the pa!e. )horter senten!es speed p pa!e. )ometimes senten!e fragments like Behind the door Hr ! bomb might be an effe!tive tool in !onveying importan!e and in!reasing the pa!e. Ao#ever" never forget that any tool used too often will become dull and lose its effectiveness " its edge. 'his said" sometimes a!tion !an a!t ally be sped p by sing a long senten!e #ith many 4 i!k" short movements involving several pre!ise a!tion verbs. 'ry it6 2/1 S.nta3 and 4verloadin + Al#ays !onsider synta9 #hen revising. 'he !learer yo make yo r senten!es" the more likely yo r readers are to en:oy the story. 59tra #ords . #ordiness" verbosity . is a ma:or problem. A#k#ard phrasing #ill stop readers and make them have to reread for !larity. 'his distra!tion from yo r story :erks their minds from their fantasy" from follo#ing along in the ,H* !hara!ter3s head" ba!k to the reality of staring at a book f ll of #ords. Hverloading senten!es" sing too many !ompo nd and !omple9 senten!es" !an do the same thing. 'hink of eating a go rmet meal . small bites !he#ed easily add to the pleas re" #hile large mo thf ls s#allo#ed in l mps go do#n #ith diffi! ltly and !an mean ma:or indigestion Fdispleas reG in the meal Fyo r bookG do#n the road. 251 R#.t#m+ )ome #riters have a rhythmi!" almost poeti!" flo# to their prose. 'his #orks #ell" e9!ept that the same basi! rhythm !arried o t paragraph after paragraph may be!ome tiring. '#o se4 ential senten!es #ith the same basi! str !t re sho ld be s!r tini/ed nless they #ere intentionally !reated in order to prod !e a story;val able effe!t. @one by a!!ident and #itho t positive effe!t" it is !alled !ault. r#.t#m. )ometimes even e9perien!ed fi!tion #riters get into an nintentional groove or rhythm that be!omes !omfortable. -t3s a r t #here most of their senten!es are basi!ally the same length and se the same synta9 or senten!e str !t re. 'his fa lty rhythm !an be!ome boring and monotono s to the reader. -t3s like easing a heavily loaded refrigerator dolly #ith s4 are #heels do#n dark basement stairs. 5very senten!e step is a :olt. )oon" it :ars readers so badly that if they !an3t see the end of the stair#ay of !hoppy senten!es" they #on3t #ant to go farther into the dark basement of yo r story for fear they3ll need a !hiropra!tor. 'hree senten!es in a ro# #ith the same str !t re sho ld be dealt #ith by !hanging the synta9 of the individ al senten!es or by

restr !t ring the paragraph. 261 Sentence 7ariet. is important in keeping the readers3 minds a!tive in a s bliminal #ay. 'he boredom bro ght on by fa lty rhythm !a ses their minds to #ander and important story information is easily lost. -f yo feel yo m st #rite t#o !ompo nd senten!es" one dire!tly follo#ing another" ho# abo t making the one follo#ing those long ones short and important? ,erhaps yo 3ve #ritten t#o short senten!es in a ro#" and yo don3t #ant to speed p the pa!ing by doing so. -f the ne9t t#o senten!es have !onne!tive ideas" #hy not !ombine them as independent !la ses of one !ompo nd senten!e? )tarting fo r o t of five senten!es #ith the same #ord or phrase is also a problem and adds to reader boredom" as does starting ea!h paragraph in that manner. *ary senten!es by sing !hara!ter introspe!tion" internali/ation and dis!overy. 0 t be !aref l of sing too many introd !tory parti!ipial phrases" espe!ially ina!! rate in!inite-ver& p#rases #hi!h depi!t t#o sim ltaneo s a!tions that !annot or are not intended to happen at the same time" e.g. Walking to the window, she opened it# (nless she had very long arms" yo r !hara!ter probably didn3t open the #indo# #hile #alking to it. 0etter stated% She walked to the window and opened it# 281 Am&i uous P#rases+ 'he follo#ing are some ambig o s phrases and s ggestions on ho# to make them !learer. Consider these s ggestions !aref lly nless" of !o rse" yo 3re #riting h mor% Aer eyes dropped to the floor. Ais eyes fle# a!ross the room. Ais eyes darted bet#een them. Aer eyes !aressed him. ) ggestion% se ga$e instead of eyes. )he turned into a drive#ay. ) ggestion% se pulled instead of turned. )he #alked thro gh the door. ) ggestion% se doorway instead of door.

Ae got off the phone# ) ggestion% say hung up# )he thought of %ohn, long and hard# ) ggestion% say she agoni$ed over what to do about %ohn# Ae kne# things !o ld get sticky in a relationship like this. ) ggestion% say complicated instead# 291 (iction !an be problemati!" espe!ially for a!ademi!s and s!ientists or for #riters trying to so nd like them. -n fi!tion" a good r le of th mb is to #rite no higher than an eighth to tenth grade level and #ith a more informal" !onversational tone. 5levated #riting" prose #ritten above this level" might appear pretentio s. 'he reader !o ld gro# tired of being distra!ted from yo r story in order to look p meanings of terms yo 3ve sed. c1 :ord *#oices are e9tremely important. Hften" people from different religions" ra!es" pbringings or parts of the !o ntry #ill have different !onnotations for many of the same #ords. 'ake !are in ens ring yo r #ord !hoi!es are not abstra!t" generi!" sed for an obs! re meaning of the #ord or even ar!hai!. 2/1 )one Settin #ords are very effe!tive tools for the #riter. Ao#ever" #hen sed nintentionally" they !an !reate 4 ite the opposite effe!t #ith the reader. -f yo des!ribe a !hara!ter #ho loves his home and !hildhood" as being raised in the bowels of the Appala!hian 2o ntains" yo r reader might not nderstand that this !hara!ter is pro d of his home and has !herished memories of his boyhood. Ao# abo t making his pbringing be in the heart of the Appala!hians #here the s mmer valleys are pl sh and green and the !lear mo ntain streams are alive #ith tro t? 'hese tone;setting #ords are espe!ially sef l in !onveying the intended mood of the story. 'hey help !hara!teri/e the ,H* !hara!ter thro gh interesting internali/ation and introspe!tion by the #ay she !onsiders and relates to the #orld aro nd her. 251 A&stract and Stock vs+ Speci!ic and *oncrete )erms+ 'he se of speci!icit.

in des!riptions helps to gro nd yo r story in realism. 'hese des!riptions !on: re familiar images in the readers3 heads and shift them smoothly into a believable fi!tional #orld. Deading stories #itho t this kind of spe!ifi!ity and !on!reteness are like looking from behind a Aolly#ood movie set #here yo !an see the boards propping p the s!enery. 5ven in an nfamiliar setting" sing spe!ifi! arti!le names and !on!rete terms #ill help the reader see these pla!es yo take her to as real. @es!ribing the nfamiliar thro gh familiar shapes" !olors" movements" smells" tastes and te9t res provide verisimilit de to readers #ho are #illing to step into the fi!tional #orld yo 3ve !reated bet#een the pages. Aere3s an e9ample taken from my novel &ead 'eckoning% At s nset )p rs stood alone on the signal de!k and #at!hed as a tinny" prere!orded version of (aps so nded" and the s n dipped into the darkening sea. 'he !tchison)s stem pl nged into the t r4 oise o!ean before her and ! t thro gh" laying it open in #hite sli!es that ! rled a#ay from the bo# and si//led past the h ll. 'he frigate3s s!re#s !h rned in a rhythmi! h m as she ga/ed past the bo# to the last 4 en!hing gold and #hite rays of s nlight. Hn the hori/on off the starboard side" the bla!kening silho ette of the Enterprise #as pinned against a dimming sapphire mantle. )he smiled" the sea;freshened air in her hair" light o!ean spray on her fa!e. 'his #as the e!stasy her father had spoken abo t . the solit de" the #onderf l emptiness that filled the so l" stret!hing it to the point of b rsting #ith an a#e;inspiring reali/ation of insignifi!an!e in the enormity of the #orld. *** Aopef lly" this narration allo#s the reader to imagine #hat the ,H* !hara!ter sees and is e9perien!ing even tho gh the reader might never have been aboard a ship. Hne of the biggest !on!erns most beginning novelists have abo t spe!ifi!ity is to avoid getting s ed by some mega !orporation for sing their prod !t name. -f yo feel n!omfortable #ith this" don3t do it. Hther#ise" the key is to not defame or sho# in a negative light the brand;name prod !t yo r story !hara!ters are sing or that yo are depi!ting in yo r story. 'hat3s not to say yo !an3t have one of yo r !hara!ters drive an old" beat; p $ord" Chevy or @odge. 'hat $ord or Chevy isn3t beat p be!a se it3s the

#ay they #ere made" b t from years of ab se . and they3re !ommonJ #e3ve all seen them on the street. 261 Econom. o! :ords. Another r le of th mb fe# #riting instr !tors" agents" editors or even readers #ill arg e #ith is that the #riter sho ld say #hat needs to be said in as fe# #ords as possible . avoid wordiness. 'his is a val e : dgment #hen !onsidering des!riptions and relating important information. 0 t this notion is espe!ially important #hen #riting simple e9position or narration of needed story elements. $ollo#ing" yo #ill find some e9amples of #ordy phrases.

;nnecessar. :ords and Redundancies Fthe #ords in parentheses !o ld be stri!kenG

281 Active vs+ Passive+ A!tive verbs and senten!es Factive voiceG are essential to a !lear" fast;moving story. (sing more pre!ise verbs instead of adverbial phrases and modifiers is the first step. 'he 7killer be verb8 sho ld al#ays be s!r tini/ed" that is% any form of the verb to be #hen sed in yo r story" sho ld be !aref lly !onsidered. Hf !o rse" the forms of to be are% is, are, am, was" were" has been" had been" have been" will have been and will be. 0 t don3t get !arried a#ay #ith s#atting o t all of those be)s. -f yo !an3t repla!e a to be verb #itho t making yo r senten!e so nd for!ed" don3t do it. Io r senten!es m st flo# smoothly and nat rally so that the prose itself doesn3t attra!t attention" #hile your story does. Contrary to pop lar belief" the se of to be verbs does not" in itself" !onstit te passive voi!e. -t takes the addition of a past participle Fthe form of a verb s ally ending in 7ed8 or 7en8G follo#ing the to be verb to tr ly make a passively !onstr !ted senten!e. -n an active senten!e the s b:e!t a!ts" performing the a!tion e9pressed by the verb. -n a passive senten!e the s b:e!t is a!ted pon" being the re!eiver of the a!tion e9pressed by the verb. $or e9ample% ,assive% 'he b rglar Fs b:e!tG #as arrested Fa!tionG by the rookie !op Fa!torG. ,assive% 'he b rglar Fs b:e!tG #as arrested Fa!tionG. A!tive% 'he rookie !op Fs b:e!tG arrested Fa!tionG the b rglar Fob:e!t of a!tionG. 'his is another time yo sho ld not get !arried a#ay #ith senten!e revision. 1riting good" !lear senten!es is very important . and a!tive senten!es are essential LNM of the time. Ao#ever" there may be a time that !alls for a matter;of;fa!t statement #hen the ob:e!t of the a!tion is #hat3s important and the a!tor of the a!tion doesn3t matter or is nkno#n" like% (he summer had been unbearably hot the year Ma* Frie$en came to town# F0y the #ay" - love the name Ma* Frie$en sed in a story set d ring hot #eather . b t do yo think this #o ld be appropriate for anything other than a h mor novel or an over;the;top men3s a!tion=advent re?G Generi! verbs are vag e a!tion #ords that allo# for broad interpretation by the reader. )ometimes they #ork #ell for des!ribing a non;dramati! a!tion that sho ld not

dra# attention. Ao#ever" over se or repetition of these #ords be!omes boring and might imply la/y #riting. 'hree of the most over sed" vag e a!tion #ords in beginning novelists3 stories are looked, walked and ran and the forms thereof. -n most !ases" #henever a more des!riptive and pre!ise verb for an a!tion is available" se it . darted, dashed, loped, +ogged, scurried, scuttled, sprinted or raced for ranJ ga$ed, glanced, glared, ogled, stared for lookedJ and ambled" paced" stepped" sauntered" strode" strolled" toddled" marched or sometimes perhaps even moved or went for walked. 0 t al#ays be !aref l that the repla!ement of s !h verbs is not only to avoid repetition in nearby senten!es b t to also !larify the a!tion and doing so does not appear for!ed or stilted. 'his is a !ommon problem for beginning novelists #ho have : st learned this very important r le" b t don3t nderstand that it is even more important to avoid for!ed prose. A parti! larly tro bling e9ample is in the se of dialog e tags. 'hey repla!e #ith a vengean!e the #ords said and asked #ith tags that many !riti!s generally per!eive as sore;th mb" stilted #ords s !h as inter+ected" conveyed and ,ueried. Said and asked are !onsidered invisible to the reader and dialog e tags themselves sho ld mainly be sed to help attrib te dialog e to a spe!ifi! !hara!ter. 'r thf lly" before yo learned this r le" did the se of said or asked in a novel ever sti!k o t to yo ? 2ore likely" yo read right over the tag" #itho t noti!e" b t #ith a !lear nderstanding of #hi!h !hara!ter #as speaking" and ho# the #ords #ere e9pressed d e to strong" #ell;#ritten dialog e. )ome less;distra!ting repla!ements may #ork #ell on o!!asion" e.g. replied" answered" teased and suggested. Ao#ever" #hen sing these more distra!ting tags yo sho ld remember the p rpose of dialog e tags . to name the speaker or ho# the #ords are spoken" when necessary. $or the most part" if yo 3ve done a good :ob #riting the dialog e" yo #on3t need many dialog e tags at all. Rule: Avoid usin passive voice at all cost 2stomp out t#e <killer &e=>1+ 59!eption% )!ien!e $i!tion a thor 2ike 2!B ay3s opening of his novel Escape from -ew .ork /01203 /a noveli$ation of the movie of the same name3 " in #hi!h he des!ribes the ro gh;to gh protagonist" )nake ,lissken" #ith passive verb metaphors. 'he effe!t is

a !lear" dramati! and immediate nderstanding of the !hara!ter des!ribed. 4e was a cat# 4e was an iron bar fistload in a hard right hand# 4e was rough like a chisel and relentless as a +ackhammer# 4e was Snake Plissken and he was running for all it was worth# F'his is the e9ample"
sed nder (he Fair 5se !ct for the p rpose of !ommentary" ill stration and !riti!ism.G

'ake that yo 7killer be8 stompers.yo active voice purists6 1ho sho ld attempt breaking this r le% Io " on!e yo benefi!ial effe!t yo #ant re4 ires it. 291 Misused :ords+ 1ords are mis sed !ontin ally by yo r friends" !o#orkers" family and the p bli! yo meet on the street. Io hear the b t!hery of the 5nglish lang age every day in movies" on '* sho#s" in songs" even by professional ne#s!asters. Io see it in letters" novels and even in te9tbooks Fhopef lly not too many times in this g idebookG. Sew, whose two tell yew your wrong6 <et3s take a look at a fe# e9amples. Io kno# the meanings of the follo#ing #ords Fif yo don3t" this might be a good time to look them pG. 0 t #hile yo #ere on a topilot trying to get the image in yo r head onto paper before it vanished forever" did yo type the intended #ord3s #omon.m F#ords #ith the same pron n!iation b t different meanings and spellingsG or one that sounds similar to the one yo intended by mistake? )pell!he!ker #on3t !at!h them . and" as yo 3ll noti!e" one of these homonyms or misspellings #ill p t a #hole ne# spin on yo r story. Che!k o t the follo#ing t#o tables to see. Io may have been sing the #rong #ord all along6 nderstand the r les and the

'his ne9t table identifies a n mber of homonyms. )ee if yo re!ogni/e a fe# of the !ommonly mis sed ones.

After having seen this #ord list as #ell as the others in this se!tion" se them #hen yo 3re giving yo r man s!ript that final edit before ploading it to be p blished. -t only takes a fe# min tes to do a #ord sear!h to ens re yo 3ve sed them properly. Another mis se to #at!h o t for !on!erns the su&?unctive mood. $or the most part" this is #hen the verb were is sed instead of was in a !la se that is !ontrary to fa!t" as

in 7f he were still alive, we wouldn)t have this problem. 1ith this old r le being ignored habit ally in fi!tion and informal #riting" - believe the main thing here is to be !onsistent. $or a detailed revie# of su&?unctive mood look in the le9i!on in the ba!k of this book. 2@1 *ommon Grammatical Errors+ 'he in!orre!t se of irreg lar verb tenses is one of the most !ommon grammati!al mistakes. )ome of the most fre4 ent are%

'he r le for the se of itali2s is often mis nderstood. $irst things first" in a novel manuscript" - used to re!ommend underlinin the ob:e!t #ordFsG instead of sing itali!s. 'his is an old r le from before #ord pro!essors and !omp ters" #hen #riters sed type#riters #itho t itali! keys. )till" ntil re!ently" it seemed #ise to adhere to this r le #hen s bmitting a man s!ript to a traditional p blisher. -n the old days" the type#ritten" nderlined #ords indi!ated !learly to the typesetter that those #ords sho ld be itali!i/ed #hen p t into p blished form. 5ven today" a fe# holdo t !opyeditors #ork from a hard !opy of the man s!ript rather than a #ord pro!essing file. -n this !ase" espe!ially" it is easier for the !opyeditor to noti!e yo r nderlined #ords than it is to spot the itali!i/ed ones and then !opy them onto the printed" p blished page. 'hat said" #ith ele!troni! s bmissions and ele!troni! p blishing of e0ooks" it3s time for me to relent. no# s ggest yo itali!i/e in yo r man s!ript #hat sho ld be itali!i/ed in the p blished #ork . especially if yo 3re going to pload it onto an -nternet e0ook seller3s online store as an e0ook p bli!ation. )ome of the #ords that sho ld be itali!i/ed are% direct internali$ation, titles of books and movies /b t not shorter pie!es like poems" short stories and '* sho# episodes " #hi!h sho ld be given #ithin do ble 4 ote marks" i.e." 7Aills <ike 1hite 5lephants8 by 5rnest Aeming#ay3, names of ships, sometimes when referring to a word as a word, foreign words, spelling out a sound or onomatopoeia, and words needing emphasis. &o not indi!ate emphasis by setting #ords in bold or all !aps #hen #riting a novel man s!ript. 2A1 *ommonl. Misspelled :ords+ 'here are a n mber of #ords that are !ommonly misspelled" and yo r spell!he!ker might not pi!k p on them be!a se they are be!oming a!!eptable d e to !ontin al and #idespread mis se and error. Altho gh the in!orre!t spelling might" at some point in the f t re" be!ome a!!eptable" #hy take the !han!e #hen yo 3re finally e9amples% ploading yo r other#ise pristine" fast;pa!ed s spense novel to an online e0ookstore to make available to the masses? Aere are three

alright Faltho gh be!oming more a!!eptedG sho ld be spelled all right alot sho ld be spelled a lot heighth Far!hai!G sho ld be spelled height 8etting the Words 'ight by 'heodore A. Dees Cheney is an e9!ellent book to help #riters in re#riting" editing and revising their stories. d1 Punctuation . the death knell of many #riters. -3ve been told that as fe# p n!t ation marks as there are in the 5nglish lang age" it sho ldn3t be too hard to kno# #hen to se them !orre!tly. - don3t kno# abo t yo " b t even #itho t !onsidering the en" em" 2;em and +;em dashes" proper p n!t ation !an be !onf sing to me. An added !ompli!ation is that" nlike the average e0ook reader many !ontemporary editors are more re!eptive to trends of e9!eptions to the old and firm p n!t ation r les #e learned in high s!hool and !ollege. Again" sub+ectivity raises its artf l head. Hld s!hool p n!t ation . by the letter" let3s say . is !alled closed, #hereas more !ontemporary vie#s of p n!t ation" sparingly appropriately !alled open. As soon as yo get sed and only to provide !larity" is sed to the more re!eptive editors3

some#hat la9 treatment of 5nglish grammar !onventions" yo might find an agent #ho feels e9a!tly the opposite and re4 ires that yo #rite by a parti! lar style g ide. 'here are even a fe# agents still adhering to a more 0ritish style than the !ommonly a!!epted Ameri!an style. 'his 4 andary is easily solved by indie p blishing yo r book yo rself as an e0ook. )till" it3s imperative for the reader that yo 3re !onsistent #ith p n!t ation Fremember that less is betterG and yo r #riting is !lear. After that yo r story itself #ill !arry more #eight to even the pi!kiest reader than his or her o#n vie#s on p n!t ation. ,leaseJ ho#ever" always refer to a good di!tionary or style book #hen in do bt. )ome of the more pop lar di!tionaries s !h as Webster)s -ew World 9ollege &ictionary have tr st#orthy style g ides in!l ded as an appendi9 in the ba!k. 'he 9hicago Manual of Style !an also be !onsidered a definitive so r!e. 2ost fi!tion #riters se )tr nk and 1hite3s (he Elements of Style be!a se it is to the point" easy to se and !ompa!t. )till" yo may find these so r!es vary on a fe# spe!ifi! g idelines. 'he most often sed 5nglish p n!t ation marks are listed belo# #ith a brief

s mmary of ho# and #hen to se them when writing fiction . a!!ording to :essler)s 'ule;of;(humb Style. 'he period O + P is sed% 1. at the end of a p rposely #ritten !ra ment or !omplete senten!e that is a statement" !ommand or polite re4 est a.k.a. !o rtesy re4 est Fsee 4 estion mark" belo#GJ 2. at the end of most abbreviations . if yo 3re abbreviation in yo r di!tionary or stylebookJ +. and after ea!h n mber of a list. 'he comma O , P is the most ab sed" nne!essarily sed and mis nderstood p n!t ation mark" indi!ating the slightest interr ption of senten!e str !t re or !hange in !ontin ity of tho ght. 2any ind stry professionals agree that the !omma3s primary p rpose is to clarify intent and meaning #ithin a parti! lar senten!e that other#ise is ambig o s or !onf sing. 1hen all is said and done" when possible" avoid separating the s b:e!t of a senten!e from its verb or pla!ing a !omma bet#een the verb of a senten!e and its dire!t ob:e!t Faltho gh yo 3ll see that -3ve disregarded this r le often in this book d e to !omple9ity of !ontent and tho ghtG. (se good : dgment and make yo r primary !on!ern to !onvey yo r story as !learly as possible to the reader. Conventionally" the !omma is sed% 1. 'o :oin independent clauses" introd !tory !la ses that are long and !o ld be !onf sed and participial p#rases Fdo not se a !omma after a erund p#rase . serving as the s b:e!t of a senten!eG. 1hen introd !tory !la ses and independent !la ses are short and there is no danger of being mis nderstood" the comma may be left outJ 2. 'o set off mildly parentheti!al elements and introd !tory parti!ipial phrases. 'his in!l des #ords" phrases or inter:e!tions that interr pt the senten!e. Ao#ever" in many !ases the !omma !an be left o t if the #riter doesn3t #ant the reader to pa se and senten!e !larity is not sa!rifi!edJ +. 0et#een three or more items in a list or series #ith the !omma bet#een the last ns re" look p the parti! lar

t#o items left o t if it doesn3t !a se !onf sion. Note% not sing a !omma to separate the last t#o items is contrary to some pop lar style g ides and to those #ho believe in the 7H9ford !omma8" even #hen an 7and8 is sed bet#een those items. 2ost importantly" be !onsistentJ Q. 0efore or after a 4 ote to separate the 4 ote from the dialog e tag" unless that 4 ote ends #ith an e9!lamation point or 4 estion markJ N. 'o set off a series of ad:e!tives e4 al in rankJ R. Hr to set off spe!ifi! dates or !ity and state lo!ations from the rest of a senten!e. 'he e3clamation point O > P is sed #hen a point is made emphati!ally as in an emergen!y" inter?ection or done #ith high emotion. -t is sed mainly in dialog e and internali/ation and rarely sed in e9position. 'he Buestion mark O C P is sed to end dire!t 4 estions" in!l ding rhetori!al 4 estions. -t is al#ays in!l ded in dialog e before !losing 4 otes" e.g. 7@id yo go?8 she asked. Ao#ever" it is generally a!!eptable to end a polite re,uest #ith a period" e.g." 71o ld everyone please t rn off their !ell phone ringers.8 'he sin le Buote mark O D , P is sed in fi!tion #riting only to e9press dialog e repeated within dialog e and m st be #ithin a senten!e en!losed by do ble 4 ote marks" i.e." 0ob told him" 7)he said" Sdon3t bother me" -3m #at!hing my soaps.38 ,roper se of do ble and single 4 otes is sometimes !onf sed #ith the opposite 0ritish style by ine9perien!ed #riters. 'he dou&le Buote mark O < = P is sed% 1. to set off dialog e" or a dible spee!h b t never for onomatopoeias or so nds other than #ordsJ 2. to set off the names of poems" essays and arti!lesJ +. sometimes for ni!knames" b t s ally only for initial introd !tion of that ni!knameJ Q. #hen referring to a #ord as a #ord. A!!ording to most style g ides !on!erning #riting fi!tion in an 7open8 Ameri!an style" #hen 4 ote marks are sed" al#ays p t periods" !ommas and ellipses inside the !losing 4 otation mark Fthis varies from the more rigid" 7!losed8 style of stri!ter style g idesG. Ao#ever" 4 estion marks" e9!lamation points" and dashes sho ld only be

in!l sive #hen they are part of the 4 otation. Degard this as the general r le #hen !onsidering single 4 otes" also. 'he colon O : P is sed to introd !e a list or modifi!ation" or an e9planation pre!eded by an independent !la se" and !an be s bstit ted for that is# -t is normally sed before lists introd !ed by phrases s !h as% these are" they are" the follo#ing" as follo#s and s !h as. Colons are not sed fre4 ently in fi!tion" espe!ially #hen a !omma #ill do. 'he semicolon O E P is sed to :oin independent clauses that sho# a !lose con?unction. -t !an also be sed sed #ithin the series. A !onne!tion and that do not have a coordinatin

bet#een items in a series" espe!ially #hen !ommas are ambig ity !an be avoided #ith a !omma" se it.

semi!olon sho ld also pre!ede !on: n!tive adverbs s !h as 7ho#eve r.8 -n fi!tion" if 'he das# O F or -- P isn3t sed fre4 ently in formal and b siness #riting" b t !an be a very helpf l tool #hen #riting fi!tion. Generally" it takes the pla!e of a !omma b t !arries more #eight. 'he dash is more rela9ed than parentheses and is less formal than a !olon. -t is made by typing t#o hyphens !lose together #ith no spa!es bet#een them and the t#o ad:oining #ords. 1ith a #ord pro!essing program s !h as 2) 1ord" the t#o hyphens sho ld a tomati!ally form into a longer dash #hile typing. 'he dash is sed to% 1. interr pt a senten!e as an interr ption of tho ght" #ith a se!ond dash follo#ing the interr ption if the senten!e ret rns to the initial tho ghtJ 2. sho# #hen the dialog e of one !hara!ter is interr pted by that of another and sho ld be follo#ed by !losing 4 ote marks and no other p n!t ation O . 8 PJ +. sho# hesitation or a break in dialog eJ Q. introd !e a statement or e9planation s !h as a parentheti!al e9pressionJ N. introd !e a !larifying or emphasi/ing statementJ R. s m p a list or tho ght. 'he #.p#en O - P is sed% 1. to divide a #ord at the end of a lineJ 2. bet#een spelled o t !ompo nd n mbers from t#enty;one to ninety;nineJ +. bet#een #ords modifying a no n Fs !h as mild;mannered reporterG to ens re !larity of meaning Fb t never after a modifier ending in ly3.

'he ellipsis or suspension points O +++ P are sed follo#ing a spa!e% 1. to sho# #ords or senten!es have been omitted from a 4 otationJ 2. to sho# a trailing off of spee!hJ +. as s spension points" to sho# a pa se in dialog e or an nfinished statement. Note T1% -f the ellipsis follo#s a !omplete senten!e" a fo rth dot FperiodG sho ld be inserted O ... . P For 4 estion mark O ... ?PGJ other#ise" the ellipsis stands alone e9!ept in !ases #here !losing 4 ote marks are ne!essary O ... 8 P. Note T2% for ele!troni! media" the ellipsis normally doesn3t re4 ire spa!es bet#een the dots O U or U. P. Ao#ever" most !redible so r!es say that dots sho ld be 7spa!ed8 for ordinary man s!ripts. 2ost importantly" be !onsistent. 'he apostrop#e O , or D P is sed to sho# possessives Fan e9!eption being the possessive form of it being its . done so to avoid !onf sion #ith the !on: n!tion it)s" sed for the #ords it isG" omission of letters Fespe!ially in !ontra!tionsG or to sho# pl rals #hen referring to spe!ifi! letters F!)sG" n mbers F0<<)sG" #ords or abbreviations themselves. -f the pl ral #ord already ends in an =s"8 se only the apostrophe to indi!ate possession" e.g. the )ims3. Parent#eses O 2 1 P are sed rarely in fi!tion. 'hey set off in!idental information #hi!h might as easily be set off by !ommas or dashes. A!!ording to a n mber of fi!tion;#riting a thorities" parentheses are !onsidered distra!ting . even tho gh a n mber of name; brand a thors se them. 2any senten!es #ith parenthesis !an be rearranged #itho t them and be made m !h stronger . or !an be re!ast into t#o senten!es that flo# smoother. 'he slas# Fa.k.a. solidus ref# 9MSG" slant or vir ule O G P is rarely sed in fi!tion bet#een t#o #ords or phrases to indi!ate alternatives. /+5 0reakin t#e Rules+ Any of the so;!alled rules of storytelling !an be broken and are broken 4 ite often by #ell;p blished #riters. 'he tri!k is to kno# the r les first" then kno# #hen it is effe!tive to break them. 'ake the breaking of fi!tion;#riting !onventions serio sly. Hnly break these important g idelines #hen yo are s re that doing so #ill help yo tell yo r story better" more dramati!ally" more !learly. Keep in mind the p yo r e0ook novel is to be entertained. n mber one reason for a reader to pi!k

$inding the best possible #ay to do this sho ld be yo r prin!ipal !onsideration #hen #riting. 0eing ! te" distra!ting or !onf sing #ith str !t re" #ord !hoi!es or p n!t ation are not methods of entertainment. /+6 *ritiBue Groups+ A !riti4 e gro p !an be one of the most benefi!ial or one of the most harmf l things of #hi!h a #riter !an be!ome a part. Criti4 e gro ps held by a b n!h of kno#;it;all amate rs !an be the #orst thing of all. 'his is espe!ially tr e for the novi!e #riter #ho kno#s no better than to tr st the emphati! : dgment of a gro p of #annabes #ho have : st pi!ked p on a key #riting !on!ept and no# have made the stri!t obedien!e to this little #riting notion into a personal !r sade. At the same time" belonging to an overly agreeable" al#ays;be;ni!e;and;n rt ring; even;if;yo ;have;to;lie gro p !an be : st as detrimental. 'he very best gro p of !riti!s is made p of #riters s !h as yo rself" preferably #ho both #rite in and read yo r genre. Ao#ever" s !h a gro p might be hard to find. 'he leader of the gro p m st be honest yet open to ideas" and none of the members sho ld be overbearing and !riti4 e #ith a kno#;it;all;attit de. Generally" yo 3ll find that !riti4 e gro ps sing an oral presentation method !an be highly entertaining" espe!ially #hen the reader has a dynami! voi!e. 0 t this sort of presentation doesn3t lend itself #ell to readers #ho are less talented. Also" m !h !an be missed d ring an oral presentation as the !riti!s :ot do#n notes in order to remember their !omments at the end. And p n!t ation is" for the most part" impossible to be !onsidered. 1ith a #ritten presentation . that is" !opies of the #ork in eight to si9teen page segments being emailed or passed o t to all the !riti!s prior to the meeting . the !riti!s have more time to more !onsider #ord !hoi!es" plotting" !hara!teri/ation" des!ription" p n!t ation" et!. 'hen" d ring the !riti4 e session" !omments !an be made by the !riti!s in t rn as they pro!eed from page to page.

'he follo#ing t#o images !ontain a fe# !riti!3s marks - re!ommend that might help provide !onsisten!y and nderstanding among yo r fello# !riti4 e gro p members.

)ig 5. ,ommon Editor!s Marks


(for a downloadable image, go to: http://gordonkessler.com/writing books/ebook writing made simple/!

)ig. 6. M' ,riti2!s Marks


(for a downloadable image, go to: http://gordonkessler.com/writing books/ebook writing made simple/!

Part $$+ Hormattin 2a ver. &rie! summar.1


6.. Me2%ani2s and EBook Manus2ript )ormatting 2&e!ore .ou start and
a!ter .ou !inis#1+ -t3s important that yo follo# the format spe!ifi! g idelines for #hi!hever e, blisher yo !hoose to pload yo r book. 'his is not a !opo t6 0e!a se these e, blishers have their o#n formatting g ides that need to be follo#ed" it3s best to get this info from them dire!tly. -f yo 3ve already #ritten or started to #rite yo r story and didn3t set yo r file p for these e, blishers" don3t #orry. -t3s not too late to do so. -t3s : st a little easier to start #ith the !orre!t format before yo type the first #ord of yo r story into the file. @epending on #here yo 3ve de!ided to e, blish" please do#nload one or both Fre!ommendedG of the follo#ing free e0ooks% Building Your Book #or indle 2See <0e!ore You :rite= !or pa e !ormattin 1

'his one is for p blishing yo r e0ook for Kindle eDeaders espe!ially on Ama/on Smas%words St'le (uide 7 How to )ormat Your EBook 'his one is for p blishing yo r e0ook and pla!ing it on most all the others. 'here are some spe!ial !on!erns sin!e yo 3re dealing #ith a n mber of different format types. Io 3ll #ant to follo# this g ide to the letter in order to avoid time;!ons ming heada!hes do#n the road that #ill blo!k yo from getting yo r #ork in the big online bookstores. 'here are also se!tions on the vario s e0ook p blishing and distrib ting #ebsites that #ill help yo format yo r e0ook" sometimes both before and after yo 3ve #ritten it. @o yo need a table of !ontents or bookmarked !hapters for yo r e0ook novel? p to yo . Generally" in a #ork of fi!tion" these types of things aren3t 'hat3s totally

ne!essary be!a se the reader vie#s the pie!e se4 entially" and doesn3t sear!h o t spe!ifi! passages o t of t rn. -f the reader !hoses to bookmark a passage or point in their personal eCopy of the e0ook" they !an do so on their eDeader. Also" #ith today3s

eDeaders" the last page vie#ed is al#ays a tomati!ally bookmarked so that #hen the devi!e is t rned off" or yo 3ve s#it!hed to a different story for some reason" #hen yo t rn the thing ba!k on or ret rn to the original story" yo ret rn to the point yo had stopped reading" making a 'HC less important. -f yo de!ide yo #ant a 'HC or bookmarks" any#ay. 'he aforementioned g ides #ill assist yo in making them on!e yo 3ve !ompleted yo r story.

,art ---. Closing 'ho ghts on 5diting" Devising and De#riting F+.0G
Demember yo are an entertainer. Give yo r readers a good sho#. As fi!tion #riters" yo are not nlike salespeople" either. @on3t be an irritating snake;oil salesperson that readers #ill #ant to get rid of. Kno# #hat yo r ! stomer Fa dien!eG #ants. 0asi!ally" it3s the same as any of s . a good deal. 'hey have !ome to yo r little spa!e on the bookshelf for a prod !t" not a sales pit!h promising something yo don3t deliver. 'hink ba!k on the dis! ssion abo t nne!essary #ords" phrases" senten!es" paragraphs" s!enes and !hapters. Demember to e!onomi/e #ords . trim the fat" se pre!ise terms. @on3t try to be ! te #ith #hat yo say or ho# yo say it. <eave that p to yo r !hara!ters and the t#ists and t rns of yo r story. Keep yo r prose !lear and !risp so that the individ al #ords don3t grab yo r readers3 attentions . yanking them o t of yo r story and ba!k to #here they #ere% in front of the book. 1hat yo r story says sho ld be #hat grabs readers" p lls them into it and makes them feel as tho gh they are a part of the thing" #at!hing it" e9perien!ing it in their mind3s eye as it nfolds. <ike good salespeople" yo 3re selling emotions. Deaders #on3t b y yo r emotions if yo tell #hat happens in yo r story. Io m st show them" and let them see for themselves . e9perien!e the s!enes as they read . then perhaps they3ll b y #hat yo 3re selling. No#" get to #ork. 5ntertain those readers. )ell them the emotions of yo r story thro gh yo r #ell;!rafted prose. Io have a lot to say. @o not stop. @on3t even slo# do#n. And don3t let the #ords get in the #ay.

Appendi3 A: Resources and Re!erences 28+I1


All of the follo#ing are partial lists and very fl id. 1ebsites !hange" ne# ones pop p and old sites die" often. ,rinted material goes o t of print and be!omes navailable" #hile ! rrent books and arti!les are p blished. $or information more relevant to ! rrent #riting !on!erns" please go to ###.1riters2atri9.!om #here these links and lists of reso r!es and referen!es for #riters are !ontin o sly pdated. Grammar and St.le F* indi!ates strongly re!ommendedG *Any ! rrent" large" 5nglish di!tionary *Any ! rrent" thesa r s *(he Elements of Style by 1illiam )tr nk" Cr. and 5. 0. 1hite (he 9hicago Manual of Style by the (niversity of Chi!ago ,ress M>! 4andbook for Writers of 'esearch Papers *Word Menu by )tephen Gla!ier :ritin 0ooks F* indi!ates strongly re!ommendedG *(he !rt of Fiction by Cohn Gardner *&are to be a 8reat Writer by <eonard 0ishop *(he Writer)s %ourney by Christopher *ogler *(he First Five Pages by Noah < keman ?n Writing by )tephen King :ritin Resources F* indi!ates strongly re!ommendedG *Writers Market For a s bs!ription to their #ebsite listed belo#G *Writer)s 8uide to Book Editors Publishers and >iterary !gents by Ceff Aerman

;se!ul :e&sites !or :riters A ent G Editor Researc# Agents A!tively <ooking% people#clemson#edu@Atoddp@agentsactivelylooking#html Agent Desear!h and 5val ation% www#agentresearch#com@inde*#shtml Asso!iation of A thors3 Depresentatives% www#aar;online#org @ire!tory of <iterary Agents % nt1#nyic#com@literaryagent@sch;page#html 5veryone 1ho3s Anyone in 'rade , blishing% everyonewhosanyone#com@inde*#html $irst 1riterB www#firstwriter#com@subscriber -'-3s <iterary 2arket ,la!e% www#literarymarketplace#com <iterary Agents% www#literaryagents#org ,E5% <iterary Agents% www#anotherealm#com@prededitors@peala#htm 1riters3 $ree Defer. <ist of AgentsB www#writers;free;reference#com@pageagt#htm 1riters 2arket% www#writersmarket#com Re!erences @i!tionary% www.yourdictionary.com @i!tionary and 5n!y!lopedia% www#answers#com 5n!y!lopedia% www#refdesk#com 2ystery 1riters3 Deso r!es% www#$ott#com 2ystery 1riters and Deaders% manuscriptediting#com@Mystery'esources#htm , blishers3 2arketpla!e Fp blishing ne#sG% www#publishersmarketplace#com , blisher3s 1eekly% publishersweekly#reviewsnews#com )tyle% www#bartleby#com 'hesa r s% thesaurus#reference#com@'oget;!lpha;7nde*#html 'he 1riters )ite% www#thewriterssite#com 1riter3s Co rnal% www#writers+ournal#com 1riters Deferen!e% www#writers;free;reference#com E0ooks A&out EPu&lis#in and Marketin E0ooks 4ow 7 Sold 0 Million eBooks in C Months by Cohn <o!ke

0< .ears and DE 4ours to 7ndie Epublishing Success by @. @. )!ott E;Book Marketing (odayB !n !uthorFs 8uide by Gadget" @avid @alglish" Cason <etts and )ibel Aodge Building .our Book for :indle by Kindle @ire!t , blishing Publish on !ma$on :indle with :indle &irect Publishing by Kindle @ire!t , blishing Smashwords Book Marketing 8uide ; 4ow to Market any Book for Free /Smashwords 8uidesG by 2ark Coker Smashwords Style 8uide ; 4ow to Format .our Ebook /Smashwords 8uides3 by 2ark Coker Some Great 0lo s !or $ndie Aut#ors 0arry 5isler @igital 0ook 1orld Coe Konrath FA Ne#bie3s G ide to , blishingG Kindle 0oards Nook 0oards @avid Ga ghran3s <et3s Get @igital 'he ,assive *oi!e F,assive *oi!e G yG 'he 1riter3s G ide to 5, blishing 0ook Reviews 2id#est 0ook Devie#% www#midwestbookreview#com@bookbi$@writers#htm 2y)helf.!om% www#myshelf#com National :riters, 4r aniJations A thors G ild% www#authorsguild#org -nternational 'hriller 1riters% www#thrillerwriters#org 2ystery 1riters of Ameri!a% www#mysterywriters#org Doman!e 1riters of Ameri!a% www#rwanational#org )!ien!e $i!tion and $antasy 1riters of Ameri!a" -n!.% www#sfwa#org )isters in Crime F-nternet ChapterG% www#sinc;ic#org

1riters G ild of Ameri!a% wga#org :ritin )ips -nspiration for 1riters% httpB@@tritt#wirefire#com Novel 1riting V ) ite 101.!om% httpB@@suite0<0#com@writingandpublishing Hrson )!ott Card% www#hatrack#com@writingclass@inde*#shtml ,oynter Hnline ; $ifty 'ools% www#poynter#org@content@contentGview#asp6idHI0200 1riters @igest% www#writersdigest#com Some *on!erences and Seminars 0o !her!on" Flo!ation varies a!ross !o ntryG" H!tober% www#bouchercon#com Aa#aii = 2a i 1riters Conferen!e" Aonol l " <abor @ay 1eekend% www#mauiwriters#com -o#a ) mmer 1riting $estival" -o#a City" s mmer% www#continuetolearn#uiowa#edu@iswfest Ca!k <ondon 1riters Conferen!e" )an $ran!is!o" 2ar!h% www#peninsulawriter#com Kansas A thor3s Cl b" Flo!ation varies a!ross stateG" H!tober% www#skyways#lib#ks#us@orgs@kac K1A3s )!ene Conferen!e" 1i!hita" K)" Fdate variesG% www#kwawriters#org Hklahoma 1riters $ederation Conferen!e" Hklahoma City" April = 2ay% www#owfi#org )le thfest" 2iami" $<" April% www#mwa;florida#org@sleuthfest#htm 'hriller$est" Ne# Iork City" C ly% httpB@@www#thrillerwriters#org@ 4t#er ;se!ul :e&sites 0o#ker3s 0ooks in ,rint Fresear!h books by -)0NG% www#booksinprint#com@bip Cons lting 5ditors Allian!e Fbook do!tors = editorsG% consulting;editors#com -ndependent 5ditors Gro p Fbook do!tors = editorsG% www#bookdocs#com -ngram Flargest book distrib tor in (.).G% www#ingrambook#com@new@publishers#asp -nspiration )oft#are F!l stering = free trialG% www#inspiration#com@test@dswmedia@,uicktour#html <ightning )o r!e Flarge" #idely sed ,H@ printerG% www#lightningsource#com

<ibrary of Congress Ffor ,CNG% pcn#loc#gov@pcn < l , blishing F,H@ ,rinterG% www#lulu#com 2emory Cat!hers Fmemoir #ritersG% www#memorycatchers#com ,at Aolt Fbook revie#er" book do!torG% www#holtuncensored#com D. D. 0o#ker Company Ffor -)0NG% www#isbn#org (.). Copyright Hffi!e Ffor !opyrightG% www#copyright#gov :riters, Marketin and Sales Products Resources 0ook @isplays F!ardboard !o ntertop E floor d mpsG% www#cardboarddisplays#com 2an s!ript 0o9es and Hther 1riters3 ,rod !ts% httpB@@www#writersstore#com@product#php6productsGidH00JI

Need help #ith your novel.looking for an editor? <et3s talk. &rop me an email and -3ll try to assist yo . Aere3s the old !ons ltant=editor3s shingle% <><><> * EDITING COVER DESIGN EPUBLISHING PRINT ON DEMAND (POD) * Do you need help wi ! you" no#e$% A"e you $oo&in' (o" )n editor? Need your cover designed at a reasonable price? How )*ou ePublishing and POD? Le +, )$&Drop me an email. Heres the old consultant/editors shingle: ./0 I (i1 no#e$,2o" in(o"3) ion on 3y 4No#e$ Me5!)ni16 ,e"#i5e, )nd ) ("ee e#)$u) ion7 8$e),e e3)i$ 3e )9 Go"don:Go"don;e,,$e"<5o3 Low ") e,7 !i'! "e,u$ ,< 2"ee ini i)$ 5on,u$ ) ion< .0.0.0

$or a more !omplete look at e0ook #riting" look for EBook Writing Made Simple " #hi!h also !ontains a N00W #ord le9i!on of #riting terms every a thor sho ld kno#. $or those seeking traditional p blishing" look for -ovel Writing Made Simple" #hi!h !ontains m !h of #hat yo 3ll see in this book pl s m !h more on the novel;#riting pro!ess" #ith a slant to#ard traditional p blishing. A Personal Messa e !rom Gordon A "essler to t#e Reader: $%ve &een teac#in novel writin for nearly t#enty years. - hope yo en:oy this

!ompilation of my tho ghts and fo! s on the !raft. -3ve been #riting thriller novels for over t#enty years. - en:oy #riting them almost as m !h as - en:oy talking abo t ho# to #rite them. -f this little e0ook helps yo hone yo r skills" or if yo have been entertained by my fi!tion" please drop me a 4 i!k email. <et me kno# #ho yo are and #hat yo en:oyed the most. - promise that - #ill personally respond. 5mail me and say hi at% gordon&gordonkessler.!om '#eet me at% https%==t#itter.!om=gordonkessler <ink p #ith me at% http%==###.linkedin.!om=in=gordonkessler ,in me at% http%==pinterest.!om=gordonkessler And follo# me at% ###.fa!ebook.!om=gordon.kessler1 ,lease stop by my #ebsite and blog at% http%==gordonkessler.!om = -t>s f n and yo >ll be glad yo did. Hn my #ebsite yo >ll find my blogs as #ell as info on not only my past #ork b t also on novels to !ome. And there>s a spe!ial se!tion for my ne# X'he 5 Y Knight DeportsX series novels. 'hese are fast readsJ a se9y" h moro s and irreverent series as #ell as a some#hat realisti! and poignant look at the darker side of life" !rime and the h man !ondition. 1ith a modern;day" ramped p X'he Do!kford $ilesX = X2agn m ,-X feel" it !onsists of page;t rning" episodi! novels. 1ithin this se!tion yo >ll find brief bios on all the X5 Y Knight DeportsX ma:or !hara!ters. 0e fore#arned% yo >ll find a page of H/>s !olorf l #itti!isms" as #ell . ad lt readers only" please. 2y Ca//y 0rass has her very o#n fan pages on the #ebsite" !omplete #ith photos" blog and XCa//y 0rass>s 2issing )!enesX. Io >ll love her" if yo don>t already6 Also" yo >ll dis!over a spe!ial se!tion on the site highlighting the XKnight>s GirlsX Fa little ris4 ZG in a gallery sho#ing the different Knight Girl for ea!h ! rrent X5 Y Knight

DeportsX novel !overs" as #ell as some that are !oming p. And don>t forget - have other thriller novels besides Brainstorm. Io >ll learn more abo t them here% 'hrillers. 5n:oy6 ,lease !he!k o t Gordon Kessler>s other books 'hriller novels% C5Y505< @5A@ D5CKHN-NG 0DA-N)'HD2 X'he 5 Y Knight DeportsX series novels KN-GA'>) DAN)H2 KN-GA'>) 0-G 5A)I And !oming soon% KN-GA'3) <A'5 'DA-N KN-GA'>) <A)' )AH' )hort stories% XCa!k Knight"X a nostalgi! roman!e F nrelated to 7 'he 5 Y Knight Deports8 seriesG X'oothpi!k for '#o"X a h moro s relationship story Nonfi!tion abo t novel #riting% NH*5< 1D-'-NG 2A@5 )-2,<5 50HHK 1D-'-NG 2A@5 )-2,<5 AH1 'H 1D-'5 A NH*5<