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1/11/2010

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PN Junction
Examples
Example 1:
Calculate the built-in potential barrier for
silicon with NA=10
18
cm
-3
and ND=10
15
cm
-3
at
T=300K
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Solution:
Built in potential barrier in pn junction is given
by:
( )
V
n
N N
e
kT
V
i
D A
bi
754 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 10
ln 0259 . 0
ln
2
10
15 18
2
=
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\
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=
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=
Example 2:
For a silicon one-sided abrupt junction with
N
A
=10
19
cm
-3
and N
D
=10
16
cm
-3
calculate the
depletion region width and maximum field at
zero bias (T=300K)
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Solution:
In one-sided abrupt pn junction, the impurity
concentration is much higher at one side
If N
D
>>N
A
, depletion region in n-side is much
smaller than the p-side (x
n
<<x
p
)
If N
D
<<N
A
, depletion region in n-side is much
smaller than the p-side (x
n
>>x
p
)
Width of the depletion region:
Built in potential barrier:
n
d a
x
N N
=
)
`

=
>>
)
`

+
=
2
1
d
bi s
2
1
d a
d a bi s
N
1
e
V 2
W
N N
N N
e
V 2
W
( )
V
n
N N
e
kT
V
i
D A
bi
874 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 10
ln 0259 . 0
ln
2
10
16 19
2
=
|
|

\
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=
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\
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=
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Permittivity=dielectric constant x permittivity
of vacum
For silicon, dielectric constant = 11.7
Therefore, permittivity for silicon:
( ) cm F / 10 854 . 8 7 . 11
7 . 11
14
0

=
=
Therefore, width of the depletion region:
Maximum electric field:
m 343 . 0
10
1
10 1.6
)(0.874) 10 8.854 2(11.7
N
1
e
V 2
W
2
1
16 19 -
15 -
2
1
d
bi s
=
)
`


=
)
`

=
cm V
W
W
/ 10 52 . 0

eN

eN
E
4
s
d
s
d
n
=

=
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Example 3
An abrupt pn junction consists of a p-type
region containing 2x10
16
cm
-3
acceptors and n-
type region containing 10
16
cm
-3
acceptors in
addition to 10
17
cm
-3
of donors.
Calculate the thermal equilibrium density of
electrons and holes in the p-type region as well as
both densities in n-type region
Calculate the built in potential of the pn junction
Calculate the built in potential of the pn junction
at 400K
Solution
Thermal equilibrium densities are:
In the p-type region:
Holes concentration:
Electron concentration:
3 16
10 2

= = cm N p
a
( )
3 4
16
2
10 2
10 125 . 1
10 2
10 5 . 1

=

= = cm
p
n
n
i
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In the n-type region:
Electron concentration
Hole concentration:
3 16 16 17
10 9 10 10

= = = cm N N n
a d
( )
3 3
16
2
10 2
10 5 . 2
10 9
10 5 . 1

=

= = cm
n
n
p
i
Built in potential barrier:
( )( )
( )
7695 . 0
10 5 . 1
10 2 10 9
ln 0259 . 0
ln
2
10
16 16
2
=
(
(


=
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\
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=

i
type p type n
bi
n
p n
e
kT
V
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At 400K, intrinsic carrier concentration will
change
( )
( )( )
3 12
3
19 19
3
300 , 300 ,
400
2
2
10 378 . 2
03453 . 0
12 . 1
exp
300
400
10 04 . 1 10 8 . 2
) 400 (
exp
300
400
exp

=
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=
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=
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=
cm n
k
E
N N n
kT
E
N N n
i
g
K V K C
K
i
g
V C i
Built in potential barrier at 400K
( )( )
( )
V
n
p n
e
kT
V
i
type p type n
bi
676 . 0
10 378 . 2
10 2 10 9
ln 03453 . 0
ln
2
12
16 16
2
=
(
(


=
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\
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=