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ECE 1311

Chapter 4 Circuit Theorems


1
Outlines
Linearity Property

Superposition

Source transformation

Thevenins theorem

Nortons theorem

Maximum power transfer
2
Linearity Property
3
Learn theorems/methods for analysing electric circuits.
i.e. superposition, source transformation, thevenin and norton
are applicable to linear circuits.

Linearity property is a combination of both the
homogeneity (scaling) property and the additivity
property.
Homogeneity property:
If the input is multiplied by a constant, then the output is multiplied by
the same constant.
i.e.
kv kiR iR v = > =
Linearity Property
4
Additivity property:
Requires that the response to a sum of inputs is the sum of the
responses to each input applied separately.
i.e.



A circuit is linear if it satisfies both the homogeneity
property and additivity property.

A linear circuit consists of linear elements, linear
dependent sources and linear independent sources.

( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
2 2 1 1
v v R i R i R i i v gives
i i i applying then
R i v and R i v
+ = + = + =
+ =
= =
Example 1
5
For the circuit shown, find v
0
when i
s
=15 A and i
s
=30 A.
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Answers:
20V and 40V
Example 2
6
Assume that V
0
=1 V and use the linearity to calculate the
actual value of V
0
in the circuit shown.
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Answer:
12 V
Superposition
7
Another method for analysing circuits.

Superposition principle states that:
The voltage across (or current through) an element in a linear
circuit is the algebraic sum of the voltages across (or currents
through) that element due to each independent source acting
alone.
Steps to Apply Superposition
8
1. Turn off all independent sources except one source.
Turn off VOLTAGE source by replacing the element with a SHORT
circuit.
Turn off CURRENT source by replacing the element with a OPEN
circuit.
2. Find the output (voltage or current) due to that active
source.
3. Repeat Step 1 and Step 2 for each of the other independent
sources.
4. Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the
contributions due to the independent sources.


Note: Dependent sources are left intact because they are controlled
by circuit variables.
Example 3
9
Find v
0
using superposition.
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Answer:
6V
Example 4
10
Find v
x
using superposition.
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Answer:
25V
Example 5
11
Find I

using superposition.
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Answer:
750mA
Source Transformation
12
Another method for simplifying electric circuits.

What is it?
The process of replacing a voltage source v
s
in series with a resistor R
with a current source I
s
in parallel with a resistor R, or vice versa.

Note:
The arrow of the current source is directed toward the positive terminal
of the voltage source.
Source transformation is not possible when R=0 or R=infinity.

Independent sources
Dependent sources
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Example 6
13
Find I
0
using source transformation.
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Answer:
1.78A
Example 7
14
Find i
x
using source transformation.
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Answer:
7.059mA
Example 8
15
Find v
x
using source transformation.
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Answer:
3.65V
Thevenins Theorem
16
The theorem states that:
A linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent
circuit consisting of a voltage source V
Th
in series with a resistor
R
Th.
V
Th
is the open circuit voltage at the terminals whereas R
Th
is the
input or equivalent resistance at the terminals when the independent
sources are turned off.
To determine V
Th
, set terminals a-b to open circuit.
To determine R
Th
, turn off all independent sources.


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Thevenins Theorem
17
Two cases to consider for R
Th
:
Case 1: No dependent sources in the network.
Turn of all independent sources.
R
Th
is the input resistance looking between terminal a-b.
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Example 9
18
Determine Thevenins equivalent.
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Answer:
V
Th
=9V
R
Th
=3
I=2.25A
Thevenins Theorem
19
Case 2: A network with dependent sources.
Turn of all INdependent sources.
Apply a voltage source v
0
at terminals a-b and determine the resulting
current i
0
. Then R
Th
= v
0
/ i
0
.
Alternatively, insert a current i
0
and determine v
0
.
May assume any values of v
0
and i
0
(i.e. v
0
=1V or i
0
=1A).
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Example 10
20
Determine Thevenins equivalent.
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Answer:
V
Th
=5.333V
R
Th
=444.4m
Example 11
21
Determine Thevenins equivalent.
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Answer:
V
Th
=0V
R
Th
=-7.5
Thevenins Theorem
22
A linear circuit with a variable load can be replaced by
the Thevenin equivalent.

Consider a linear circuit is terminated by a load R
L
, the
current through the load I
L
and the voltage across the
load V
L
can be determined as follows:


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Th
L Th
L
L L L
L
Th
L
V
R R
R
I R V
R RTh
V
I
+
= =
+
=
Nortons Theorem
23
The theorem states that:
A linear two terminal circuit can be replaced by an
equivalent circuit consisting of a current source I
N
in
parallel with a resistor R
N
I
N
is the short circuit current through the terminals.
R
N
is the input or equivalent resistance at the terminals when the
independent sources are turned off.

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Nortons Theorem
24
To determine I
N
, set the terminal a-b to short circuit. Thus:
I
N
=i
sc







Dependent and independent sources are treated the same way
as in Thevenins Theorem.



.

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Th
Th
N
Th N
R
V
I
R R
=
=
Example 12
25
Determine Nortons equivalent.
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Answer:
I
N
=4.5A
R
N
=3
Example 13
26
Determine Nortons equivalent.
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Answer:
I
N
=10A
R
N
=1
Maximum Power Transfer
27
Thevenins equivalent is useful in finding the maximum
power in a linear circuit.

If the entire circuit is replaced by its Thevenin
equivalent except for the load, the power delivered
to the load is:







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L
L Th
Th
L
R
R R
V
R i P
2
2

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
Maximum Power Transfer
28
For a given circuit, V
Th
and R
Th
are fixed.
The power delivered can be varied by varying R
L
.
Power is maximum when R
L
= R
Th
.



Th
Th
Th
Th Th
Th
Th L
R
V
p
R
R R
V
p
R R when
4
max
max
2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
=
The power transfer profile with different R
L

Example 14
29
The variable resistor R is adjusted until it absorbs the
maximum power from the circuit below.
Calculate the value of R for maximum power.
Determine the maximum power absorbed by R.
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Answer:
R=25
P=7.84W