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SUITABILITY STUDY OF RIPPER -DOZER COMBINATION IN INDIAN MINES


THESIS ACQUIESCED FOR FRACTIONAL FULFILLMENT OF THE NECESSITIES FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR IN TECHNOLOGY INMINING ENGINEERING GIVEN BY MANISH SINGH

109MN0647

DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLGY ROURKELA-769008 2013

SUITABILITY STUDY OF RIPPER -DOZER COMBINATION IN INDIAN MINES


THESIS ACQUIESCED FOR FRACTIONAL FULFILLMENT OF THE NECESSITIES FOR THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR IN TECHNOLOGY INMINING ENGINEERING BY MANISH SINGH 109MN0647 Under the guidance of PROF. H.K.NAIK

DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLGY ROURKELA-769008 2013

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLGY ROURKELA

CERTIFICATE
This is here to certify that the thesis TITLED AS SUITABILITY STUDY OF RIPPER DOZER COMBINATION IN INDIAN MINES Is acquiesced by Sri MANISH SINGH for the partial contentment of the necessities for the honour of Bachelor of Technology degree in Mining Engineering at National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is a reliable work performed by him under my observation and guidance. To the best of my awareness, the work provided in this thesis has not been acquiesced to any other University/Institute for the honour of any Degree or Diploma. Professor-H.K.NAIK Department of Mining Engineering N.I.T Rourkela

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstly, I want to give my deep thanks and obligation to Prof. H.K.Naik, Department of Mining Engineering for permitting me to perform my work on the present topic Suitability study of ripper-dozer combination in Indian mines and guiding me with his endless efforts for enhancing the understanding of mine about my project ..Assembly of work of this type could never have been tried and performed in the lack of reference and motivation from others work whose details are stated in the reference section. I pay my heartiest gratitude to all of them. At last, but not the least I want to convey my honest thanks to all my friends who have provided all kinds of help for completing this assignment.

MANISH SINGH 109MN0647

CONTENTS
Item CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGE MENT ABSTRACT LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER 1
1.1 1.2 1.3

Title

Page No.
3 4

8 9 10

INTRODUCTION Layout Objective Research Approach LITERATURE REVIEW


2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.4 2.5

11 11 12 12 13 13 14 18 21 21 23 25 27 28

CHAPTER 02

Contextual Advantages of ripping operation Calculation of rippability of rock Estimation for rippability of rock Direct Method Indirect Method Laboratory tests Working of the ripping machine Ripping mechanism

2.6

Attachment of the dozer blade or 29 pusher blade with the ripper

CHAPTER 03
3.1 3.2

C++ programs for various calculations

30

Program to calculate hourly production 30 rate Program for calculation of specific 31 energy in laboratory Program to calculate output of a dozer
32 33

3.3

CHAPTER 04 CHAPTER 05
5.1

Field study

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Field study 1: PACHPATMALI 37 BAUXITE MINES, N.A.L.C.O


5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4

Introduction Technique of mining Drilling and blasting operation

37 38 39

Drawbacks of using drilling blasting 40 technique A lot of prior studies have been done 41 before employing ripper dozer in Panchpatmali bauxite mines which are stated below Manufacturers and the population of 43 dozer used in Panchpatmali bauxite mines are given below: Comparison of drilling and blasting 44 with ripping on the basis of the cost
5.1.7.1

5.1.5

5.1.6

5.1.7

5.2.1 5.2.2

Drilling and blasting cost for per tonne 44 extraction 48 Introduction Geological condition of Talabira-1
48 50

5.2.3

Important features of Talabira-1 Open Cast Mine

5.2.4 5.2.5

Choice and usage of Ripper dozer in 50 Talabira-1 51 Comparison of ripping cost with drilling and blasting cost Recent developments in the field of 53 ripper dozer

CHAPTER 06

6.1 6.1.1

Remote operation of ripper and dozer Following are the advantages of remote control operation Mine APS Dozer
6.2.1 6.2.2

53 53

6.2

54 54 55 56 57

Features Benefits of the system Conclusion

CHAPTER 07 Reference

ABSTRACT
In the open cast mining drilling and blasting operations are required for extraction of ore or coal and simultaneously it helps in loosening the strata. Drilling and blasting operations are associated with a numerous number of problems such as formation of dust, evolution of harmful gases, ground vibrations, crack development and production of noise. As a result these operations are not considered as eco-friendly. So we are in a search of blast free mining method. Also these operations are too costly as a lot of machinery and labour cost is associated with it. Blast free mining is the demand of the era to conserve the environment. As s a result from various kinds of studies and research it has been found that Ripper dozer could be a possible solution. Ripper dominantly put in use for the extraction of overburden. It not only reduces the number of machinery but also produces a better solution for the problems posed by drilling and blasting operations. As a result we have to be conscious for installing any ripper and dozer so proper rippability measurement of the strata with the present machine to be installed must be done properly. There are various constraints on which rippability of rocks depend on. Relationships are studied between the constraints and production of rippers. Taking in account of all these constraints rippers are employed into the mines.

LIST OF FIGURES
S.No. 2.1 2.2 Topic Name
Hinge kind of ripper (P .K Panda and S. K Misra, 1989) Parallelogram type ripper Adjustable parallelogram type Adjustable radial type Type of extraction of rock on the basis of strata condition. Relationship for seismic velocity and ripping conditions to ripping (Basis: Caterpillar, 2008). Triangular cross section cut Ripping capacities (in term of power and seismic velocity) Exclavability based on Rebound no.( R) and compressive strength(qu) Machine use in laboratory to determine rippability. Dependence of specific energy and hourly production of ripper First penetration of tyne with the help of hydraulic forces Ripping Mechanism Technique for reclamation of mined area of the mine It shows Komatsu D-475 in work at the mine

Page No. 16 16 17 17 19 21

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 5.1.1 5.1.2

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 39 43

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LIST OF TABLES

S.No.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 4.1

Topic Name
Consideration of various different parameters by different researchers Extent of ripping taking various characteristics in account Rippability of rock on the basis of joint spacing The associations between specific energy and various rock properties

Page No 18 20 20 26

Specification of various ripper-dozer available in India by different 33 manufacturers Relationship between ease of ripping and production Extended rippability classes of marls Findings from the test carried out by N.G.R.I Hyderabad

4.2 4.3 5.1.1 5.1.2

36 36 41

Study of physico-mechanical properties of both laterite and bauxite by I.I.T 42 Kharagpur. Calculation for expenditure for drilling per MT Expenditure on the blasting operation for per tonne of the material Total expenditure on ripping per T (tonne) Geological condition of Talabira-1 block (H.I.N.D.A.L.C.O, 2011) Cost of ripping for per tonne of overburden.

5.1.3 5.1.4 5.1.5 5.2.1 5.2.2

44 45 47 49 51

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CHAPTER 01
INTRODUCTION
1.1 LAYOUT:
From the various studies and researches it had been found that mining practices started way back from ancient times. Back to the history romans did hydraulic mining to fracture the rocks but it got pace when black powder was invented by the Chinese as the explosive in medieval period. Also when this concept reached to Europe new technologies came into play. Then invention of dynamite increased the pace of mining in late middle period and the starting of modern period. Now a days use of ammonium nitrate and various other explosives has in miracle increased the production .But proper use of drilling pattern and placement of holes with right amount of explosives provide the efficiency in breakage of rocks. Advancement in various techniques in blasting and drilling techniques were also associated with advancement in transporting and loading techniques in order to get higher production rates. At the present days scenario we can think of mining up to more depth by open cast mining methods with such a revolution in the technologies. As a result we can observe that open cast mining holds 70% of worlds total production in mining. Mining of ores by open cast method requires drilling and blasting operations as they give a heavy amount of production but as it is well known that these techniques have many opposing effects on environment. So in todays era of eco-conscious world the demand is there for alternatives technology for explosion free, harmless and eco-friendly mining. Ripper dozer combination can come as a strong and suitable answer as the modern requirements. It not only reduces the adverse effect but also reduces the cost of production by minimizing the operations of mining.

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1.2 Objective:
The sole objective is to study the applicability and performance of ripper-dozer combination and suggest some modern advancement in coal and metal opencast mines.

1.3 Research Approach:


I. A heavy amount of literature study has been done in order to recognize the various constraints and there effect on the performance of ripper-dozer combination. II. C++ programs are introduced to minimize the calculation and modernize the study technique. III. Various Ripper dozer present in the market and there comparisons along with specification have been provided IV. Two different case studies have been done to study the performance and applicability of ripper dozer. The case studies belong to Panchpatmali mines (bauxite), N.A.L.C.O, Damanjodi and Talabira coal OCP, HINDALCO have been studied. V. Modern advancements also have been mentioned in this thesis.

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CHAPTER 02
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Contextual: Ripping -dozer combination started in late 1950s .Earlier it was only use for removal of the overburden. But with developments in its structure now days it has been use for extraction of ores also. Ripping is done to cut, break, or loosen the rock with the help of tynes attached in the back side of the bulldozer. The Tyne is lowered into the rock or the soil to be extracted, it goes deep in the strata then the bulldozer is moved in forward direction in order to remove the soil or rock. It works with the same technique as the plough works. As compared to drilling and blasting operations ripping is commonly beneficial for comparatively soft rocks.With increased concern over the preservation of ecosystem by the whole world and implementation of various laws has driven for the solution such as ripper dozer combination. It not only reduces the air, noise and dust pollution but also abolishes the ground vibration which poses a serious threat on preserving surface features. With the reforms in science and technology by the use of high power and capacity ripper it has become possible to use as alternative for drilling and blasting practices. We can say that rippers came into the role in about 312 B.C as it uses the same technique used by ancient humans for plough driven by oxen in order to do cultivation. As the time passed a lot of developments were made and in present times we can see that we have rippers weighing up to 1000 tones and operating with a power of 1000 H.P tractor.

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2.1 Advantages of ripping operation: Increase in production and productivity: When we use ripper dozer combination the work is always going on. There is no need for drilling, charging the holes and afterwards performing blasting operations. Contrary to that in ripping process is uninterruptedly going on. This as a result reduces the idle time work. There is no need for shifting of machines which is required in blasting operation. So, as time of work increases the production and productivity also increases. Extraction with required Size: In blasting operation the size of extracted rock varies a lot it may range from boulder size to the size of a few mm. On the other hand we can get the desired size of rock by the selection of right size of the ripping machine. Reduced power: with the reduction in machines the power required for operating them is also reduced. Profitable: Ripping involves less amount of machinery so the cost is lowered as there is no cost for operation, labour and machine maintenance. Monitoring the quality of ore: In blasting, operation, the ore can be diluted. But, in ripping process the operator can easily differentiate between ore and waste. Reduction in noise and dust pollution: In ripping operation comparatively less amount of nose is produced. It reduces the dust quantity and prevents them from becoming airborne. Reduced level of ground vibration: Drilling and blasting operation gives a heavy amount ground vibration by which a lot of adverse effects are caused such as creation of cracks on ground and nearby structures which is not observed in drilling and blasting operation. Eco-friendly Mining: As the amount of production of pollution is reduced at a very high level so we can say that it is solution as eco-friendly mining. Selective Mining: We can perform selective mining as the operator can easily differentiate between ore and the waste rock. Also where water bodies are nearby we can use it as we can easily extract the right amount of ore without any disturbance.

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Stability of slope: Unlike the ripping technique in blasting operation slope failure is often observed . Safety: There are chances of flying rocks and misfire which may endanger the life but no such thing is observed in ripping operation. 2.2 The different kinds of Rippers available: (P. K Panda and S. K Misra , 1989)

The different kind of ripper and dozer available in market classified according to methodology of working are as follows:

Hinge kind of ripper Parallelogram kind of ripper Adjustable parallelogram kind of ripper Adjustable radial kind of ripper

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1) Hinge kind of ripper: Ripper of this kind has a assembly holding the beam and the bar hinges at the hindmost end of the ripper. It utilizes a beam by one or more pockets to hold one to five bars. Each pocket allows up to five diverse bar locations to bend penetration and tooth angle to fulfil different condition. Hinge type offers

the benefit of hostile tooth entrance angle but cannot be accustomed for changing rock conditions.

Fig.2.1 Hinge kind of ripper (P .K Panda and S. K Misra, 1989) 2) Parallelogram kind of ripper:
In the ripper of this kind the connection retains the identical tip ground angle irrespective of tooth

complexity, therefore it possesses excellent penetration features. Single bar rippers are utilised specifically for firm ripping where larger ripping depth is required. The allowance between the pathways and the bars is more in case of parallelogram kind than hinge kind of ripper. The ripper is in elevated position which benefits the machinist to observe the tip damage or loss as a result it avoids the damage to the bar from ripping.

Fig. 2.2: Parallelogram type ripper

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3) Adjustable parallelogram kind of ripper:

This kind of ripper has combined features of ripper of bot kind i.e. hinge type and parallelogram type. It facilitates angle variation for increased penetration and possesses hydraulically adjusting facility while ripping to deliver the finest ripping angle.

Fig. 2.3 Adjustable parallelogram type

4) Adjustable radial kind of ripper: In the association with the features of hinge type it have the bar angles in elevation angles. It offers more violent bar penetration angle at jerk and finest angle for movement through the material.

Fig.2.4: Adjustable radial type.

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2.2 Calculation for rippability of a rock


To select the appropriate ripper first of all we should know the rippability of the rock. According to various researchers the rippability of rock depends on various factors. In the table given below it has been given that which parameter is given by which researcher.

FACTORS

Field Seismic Velocity (m/s)

Fracture Index

Point Load Index

Rock Hardness

Rock Weatheribility

Joint spacing

Joint continuity

Joint gauge

Dip Strike

and

Orientation

RESEARCHERS Atkinson (1971) J.M.Weaver (1975) yes no yes no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

no

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Kristen (1982) yes Singh R N, Denby B and Egretli (1987) Hardy J (1986) Smith no no no yes yes yes yes yes yes I yes no no no yes no no no no no no no yes yes no yes no

Franklin, and (1971)

Broch Walton no yes yes no no no no no no

Table 2.1: Consideration of various different parameters by different researchers

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Factors on which the extent of rippability of rock depends on are as follows: Type of rock to be ripped: Sedimentary rock is easy for ripping while Igneous & metamorphic rocks are difficult to rip.. Fragility and crystalline construction of rock. Well-known fracture plane. Existence of Moisture content: More the Grain size: coarser the grain-size more it is suitable for ripping. Union of different type of rock. Specific energy. Various physical properties of strata such as compressive strength tensile strength, shear strength etc. Fig.2.5: Type of extraction of rock on the basis of strata condition.

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Table 2.2: Extent of ripping, taking various characteristics in account, (Rock excavation techniques, MnE-415 notes, university of Arizuana mining and geological engineering.)

Table 2.3: Rippability of rock on the basis of joint spacing ,(Rock excavation techniques, MnE-415 course notes, university of Arizona mining and geological engineering.)

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Fig.2.6: Relationship for seismic velocity and ripping conditions to ripping (Basis: Caterpillar, 2008).

2.3 Estimation for rippability of rocks


There are two methods by which Rippability can be found. Direct method Indirect method 2.3.1 Direct method: In this method hourly production of the ripper is calculated from the site of field only . Hourly production rate (Qh) is given in m /hr., which is either determined by volume by weight, volume by cross sectioning, and volume by length method ( Basarir and Karpuz (2004)). Hourly production rate, Qh = Qc x 60 x E /t
3

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Where, Qc Total volume of production in a complete cycle in (m3) E Operators efficiency t Cycle time, minutes Now, production in one cycle is given by, Qc = (A x L) Where, Qc Per cycle production in m A Cross sectional area, m L Ripping length, m
2 3

Cross sectional area is calculated by using following triangular cut.

Fig.2.7: Triangular cross section cut Cross sectional area,

A = DW/2
Where, D ripping depth, m W ripping width, m Replacing the values mentioned above we can get hourly production.

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2.3.2 Indirect method: There are two indirect methods that are: 1. Seismic 2. Laboratory We record the value of seismic wave velocity in the unit m/s and with the help of tests the following parameters could be known a. Deepness of unconsolidated cover for example clay rock or gravel. b. Wideness of the middle layers supposing each becomes gradually harder c. Rough density of every layer and degree of association leading to identification of material type d. Position of faults, fold, joint, fractures and other disturbances in the founding

Fig.2.8: Ripping capacities (in term of power and seismic velocity)

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Also on the basis of rock rebound number found by seismic study and its plotting with compressive strength we can find out the rippability of the rock

Source (McLean & Gribble, 1985) Fig.2.9: Exclavability based on Rebound no.( R) and compressive strength(qu)

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2.3.3 Test done in laboratory: In the laboratory various tests are done to find out various properties of rock mass such as universal compressive strength (UCS), indirect tensile strength (ITS) and point load strength index tests (Is50). Test done in the laboratory for ripping operations is performed by the machine shown below. The machine simulates functioning of a single bar ripper with rating 1850 rpm, and cutting speed of 150m/s . Particularly constructed cutting bar is used to create a V-cut in rock samples. Power calculated is noted by the readings. As a result we get specific energy in/m . With the help of the length of the cut (L) in meters, density of material produced, and volume of the material cut in m is calculated. In view of force (F) calculated in Mega Newton (MN) Specific energy (SE) is given by,
3 3

SE = FL/V

Fig 2.10: Machine use in laboratory to determine rippability. The specific energies can be related to various rock parameters as shown in the table 2.4

26 Table 2.4: The association between specific energy and various rock properties (H Basarir (2008))

With the help of specific energy we can determine the hourly production of ripper by the findings shown in the graph given below.

Fig.2.11: Dependence of specific energy and hourly production of ripper (H Basarir (2008))

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2.4 Working of the ripping machine:


Firstly the ripper tip is pull down in to the ground by help of hydraulic forces. The first penetration of the tip or Tyne is done by rock mass or fault planes or combination of both which is stated below in the figure.

Fig.2.12 First penetration of Tyne with the help of hydraulic forces

As the stress deliberation of tip surpasses the compressive strength of the rock it accounts for shear failure of rock permitting first tip penetration. So when the tractor moves in the forward direction the penetration causes tensile failure of rock. Places where the jointed rocks occurs the failure takes place due to failure of cohesive force between the structural blocks.

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2.5 RIPPING MECHANISM Various ripping mechanism provided by Darcy, 1971: Ploughing: In compact rock in absence of bedding planes, a thin road is ploughed

shifting very less amount of rock .Crushing: It is done where the occurrence of fractured rocks having less defect spacing (0.10.3m) is observed. The material is easily rumpled and disorganized. Lifting: It is done where straight stratified rocks is found, blocks are raised by ripper resulting the breakage by pull, twisting and cutting. Breaking: It is done in the case of inclined stratified rocks by cutting at the point of the ripper by twisting and lateral pull.

Fig 2.13 Ripping Mechanism

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2.6 Attachment of the dozer blade or pusher blade with the ripper:
Ripper is employed with a dozer blade or pusher blade attachment. The dozer blade or the pusher blade can be elevated or dropped through small angles horizontally with the help of rams run by hydraulic pressure or ropes. The dozer blade or pusher blade is used to push materials ripped. A dozer can dig up to 1.5m underneath the ground in earth or weathered rock. Commonly used different types of dozer: Straight dozer: The straight blade contains of mould board angled forward and concave in the front. It comprises of removable cutting edge at the end. The straight blade has higher competence of improved penetration and handling of heavier material. Universal dozer: It consists of blade which has big wings on either side of vital section. It is right for larger loads strapped over long distances. Wings are there to avoid the leakage of materials. Semi-universal dozer: The semi-universal possesses the combined features of the above two. It consists of short wings. Universal blade is meant for larger loads pushed over long distances.

Output of dozer: The output of the dozer can be calculated as:

Q = 60Cs/t
Where, Q- output in m /h C Dozer blade capacity s Swell factor - production efficiency t Cycle efficiency
3

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CHAPTER 03

3 C++ PROGRAMS FOR VARIOUUS CALCULATIONS 3.1Program to calculate hourly production rate # include<iostream.h> # include<conio.h>v void main ( ) { clrscr ( ); float l, d, w, A, Qc, Qh, E, t; cout << Press on the keyboard the length of cut (in m); cin >> l; cout << Press on the keyboard the width of cut (in m); cin >> w; cout << Press on the keyboard the depth of cut (in m); cin >> d; A= (w*d)/2; Qc = (A*l); cout << Press on the keyboard the operators efficiency; cin >> E; cout << Press on the keyboard the cycle time in minutes; cin >> t ; Qh = (Qc * 60 * E)/t ; cout << The hourly production rate in m3 / hr. << Qh ;

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getch ( ) ;}

3.2Program for calculation of specific energy in laboratory # include<iostream.h> # include<conio.h> void main ( ) { clrscr( ); float l, f, v, SE; cout << Press on the keyboard the length of sample (in m ); cin >> l; cout << Press on the keyboard the volume of sample (in m3); cin >> v; cout << Press on the keyboard the force acting on sample in Mega Newton; cin >> f; SE = (f*l)/v; cout << Specific energy in M.J/m << is << SE; getch ( ); }

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3.3Program to calculate output of a dozer # include<iostream.h> # include<conio.h> void main( ) { clrscr ( ); float Q, C, s. , t; cout << Press on the keyboard the dozer blade capacity in m ; cin>> C; cout<< Press on the keyboard to give value for swell factor; cin>> s; cout << Press on the keyboard the - production efficiency; cin >> ; cout << Press on the keyboard the cycle time; cin >> t; Q = (60*C*s*)/ t; cout << The output of dozer is << Q ; getch ( ) ; }

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CHAPTER 04
SPECIFICATION OF VARIOUS RIPPER- DOZER AND THERE APPLICABILITY
Table 4.1 Specification of various ripper dozer available in India by different manufacturers

34

35

Ripping is dependent on a lot of factors but for the production amount to ease of ripping have also a relationship which is given below:

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Table 4.2: Relationship between ease of ripping and production ( by Fiona MacGregor)

Dependence of specific energies and production for different types of Caterpillar ripper dozers.

Table 4.3 Extended rippability classes of marls (by H. Basarir & C. Karpuz, 2004)

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CHAPTER 05
5.1 FIELD STUDY 1: PACHPATMALI BAUXITE MINES, N.A.L.C.O 5.1.1 Introduction: Panchpatmali bauxite mine is governed by National Aluminum Company Limited (N.A.L.C.O) accounts for production of 4.8 Million tons of bauxite ore in addition with 1.6 Million tons of over burden. Great size of rippers has been selected an alternative to drilling and blasting. Deposit found here are of Precambrian age. Overburden comprises of hard ferruginous laterite with a ranging of thickness from 0 to 3.5 m. accompanying with a layer spreading in thickness from 10 to 35m with an average thickness of 14m. Study of seismic wave velocity of different formation conducted by NGRI Hyderabad tells that it ranges from 1100m/s to 2600 m/s and more than80% of deposit falls within the velocity range of 1100 -1300 m/s and later 15% of the deposit falls inside the range of 1300 to 2600m/s and above. It shows the amenability of the deposit for efficient and economic application of production ripping and enabled the engineers to select out of the existing rippers appropriate equipment for the various sizes of rocks. Khondalites and Chanockite types of rocks are observed with granet, sillimanite Corundum feldspar quartz and also opaque ore minerals limonite and graphite as the major mineral constitutes. Modest relief by means of slopes generally less than 10% although steeper over 2/5 of the deposit and very irregular contact between ore and bottom.

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5.1.2 Technique of mining Mining is done simultaneously in three different phases: Excavation of overburden: Overburden comprises of top soil and laterite and is mined in two stages. Top soil is directly excavated and loaded will ahead of laterite & kept separately for using in plantation in reclaimed area. Total amount of laterite is mined in one bench only above bauxite maintaining a lead of 75m. Low quantity of overburden compared to ore & the relative softness of the rock allows breakage of the rock by ripping. Ripping is associated with blasting for the harder formation of rock. After blasting or ripping the OB is handled wheel loader & dozer to clean the mineralized top. Overburden is then loaded on 50/55 ton dumper with the help of loader.

Afterwards it is sent to area where overburden is required for the reclamation.

Excavation of bauxite: The bauxite mining at present is carried out in two stages top bench mining & Bottom bauxite mining. The top benches are excavated by drilling & blasting with average bench height of 8 m. and the diameter of the drill holes are 150 mm which are drilled by DTH drill Charging is done with indoboost , indo-gel & blasted to loosen the ore. The blasted mineral is loaded by the 8.7 m3 wheel loader into 50/55 ton dumpers which carry it to the crusher. The last bench of bauxite is mined selectively by using back hoe for whole bauxite extraction. Crushing of bauxite ore is done with the help of double roll toothed crusher up to a size of 150 mm and then its transportation is done. It is send to recycling plant with the help of belt conveyor which is 14.6 km long

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Reclamation for the removed area: Reclamation is simultaneously done as the adopted mining method used is trench mining method. When complete bauxite extraction is completed the area is set free for back filling with the help of over burden comprising of fertile soil and laterite which was mine earlier . Laterite is send to the bottom level and above that a thin layer of soil is left on the top for plantation activities. Reservoirs and sumps are made in the reclaimed area in order to collect the water and prevent the land degradation by soil erosion

Mining & Reclamation


Top Soil Late rite Land Re clamation & Plantation

Top Bx t.

Bottom. Bx t.

PLK

SAB\mis2\ppt

16

Fig 5.1.1 Technique for reclamation of mined area of the mine

5.1.3Drilling and blasting operation The current exercise of Drilling and Blasting has been adopted from the beginning of the mine to optimize the use of explosive energy. Mainly A.N.F.O is used explosive in non-rainy days Also, ANFO is mixed by imported Mingling and delivering truck of very high capacity. Cartridge and/or Cast booster is largely used as booster. Where the dry holes are present there cartridge column charge is used with cartridge booster. Explosives are stored in safe places as per regulation and they are properly handled.

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5.1.2 Drawbacks of using drilling blasting technique As, it is naxal prone area also from the experience of past attack it is to be stored with proper security and the explosives attracts them. The desired size ore is not found because of variation in the sizes of ore after blasting. Since the mine is located on hilly region and valley is nearby with the short amount of vibration it can pose a serious threat Since the area is located in forest region it can have adverse effect on wildlife habitat. Lot of dust as well as high level of noise is produced which is injurious for the men. In the process of blasting results in back interruption and projections which are unsafe for equipment operating there. For the shifting of men and machineries a lot of idle time is inevitable. The rock left after blasting needs to be cleaned at the face before loading which further rises the idle time allotted for the equipment. Letdown of blasting, misfire directly effect to the production as well as productivity. It is difficult for the operator to differentiate between ore and waste In adverse weather condition such as in rain and dense fog is not possible for the safety point of view. Bucket fill factor for the dozing material is more as compared to the blasted material. Heavy amount of power is wasted to load the blasted material. It is not easy to distinguish between ore and overburden so blasting will mix both the materials.

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5.1.5 A lot of prior studies have been done before employing ripper dozer in Panchpatmali bauxite mines which are stated below 1) Determination of seismic wave velocity in laterite bauxite and khondalite done by Hyderabad (Field as well as laboratory) N.G.R.I

No of species

Laterite

bauxite

khondalite

80%

1100m/s

1300m/s

1400m/s

90%

1500m/s

1500m/s

1500m/s

95%

1800m/s

1700m/s

1700m/s

100%

2600m/s

2200m/s

1900m/s

Table 5.1.1 Findings from the test carried out by N.G.R.I Hyderabad

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Table 5.1.2: Study of physico-mechanical properties of both laterite and bauxite by I.I.T Kharagpur. Rock property laterite Vesicular bauxite Dry density (kg/m ) Moisture Content (%) Compressive Strength (kg/cm ) Tensile strength(kg/cm )
2 2 3

Massive bauxite 2.1

Soft bauxite 1.8

khondalite

2.0

1.85

1.9

2.0

2.2

2.5

2.5

7.0

140+/70 26+/_ 13

92+/31 18+/4

144+/87 25+/6

85+/35 16+/3

32+/36 15+/4

This test clearly indicated that the ore present at Panchpatmali mine is very liable for ripping.

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5.1.6Manufacturers and the population of dozer used in Panchpatmali bauxite mines are given below: 1) BEML D-355---------------------------------3Numbers 2) BEML D-475---------------------------------1Number 3) Komatsu D-375----------------------------2Numbers 4) Komatsu D-475-----------------------------2Numbers

Figure 5.1.2 Komatsu D-475 working the mine

There all specifications have been given under the table of specifications for all the ripper and dozers.

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5.1.7 Comparison of drilling and blasting with ripping on the basis of the cost 5.1.7.1 Drilling and blasting cost for per tonne extraction Average drilling operation in a day --560m.So as we had 2 working shifts = 280m per shift, 3 drilling machines were used and for operating them three operators were employed, actual working hour in a shift = 4 hrs., interest for one drill machine = Rs. 4417.8469, Depreciation cost of machine=Rs. 6126.25 ,Rear and Management expenditure=Rs.5416.667. Table 5.1.3 Calculation for expenditure for drilling per MT

Particulars Drilling per day particulars Material cost HSD Conversion cost Labour cost Depreciation R&M cost@10% ADMN Overhead Interest Total cost/m

UoM m UoM @2% litre 1200 Rs45/lit 560 Quantity Rate/unit Value-Rs 654 54000 Per unit 1.17 96.42

9000 18379 16250 9168 13254

16.07 32.82 29.02 16.37 23.67 215.54

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Table 5.1.4 Expenditure on the blasting operation for per tonne of the material

Particulars

UoM

Quantity

Rate/unit

Value (Rs)

Per unit(Rs)

Material generated

M T

560 1200

Material cost Explosive HSD for explosive Van Conversion cost Labor cost Depreciation R&M @10% Admn OH@10% Interest Total cost 9000 4241 3750 25409 3059 0.75 0.35 0.32 2.12 5.46 33.90 kg litre 9000 60 32 45 288000 2700 24 0.25

Explosive usage in a single hole------114 kg Drilling expenditure of single hole -------------------Rs 1725 Material found after explosion --------------------------200 Tonnes Drilling expenditure per MT--------------------------- Rs 8.65 Whole expenditure on Drilling & blasting per MT-----33.90+8.65= Rs 42.55 per T

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Shovel is also introduced if operation for excavation and loading purpose. Its operation and repairs costs = Rs. 12.42 per Tonne.

Total cost = 42.55 + 12.42= Rs. 54.97 per Tonne

5.1.7.2 Expenditure on ripper and dozer for extraction per T (tonne) Material removed per day -7200Tonnes Exact working hours in a day8 Two dozers operating in one shift Total Diesel usage -2000litre Expenditure on labour Rs -6000 per day

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Table 5.1.5 Total expenditure on ripping per T (tonne)

Particulars Material generated Particulars A) Material cost consumbles@2% of R&M HSD B) Conversion cost Labourers cost Depreciation Repair& maintenance cost @10% residual cost Admn.overhead@10% Interest on capital Total cost/per MT

unit T UoM

quantity 7200 Quantity Rate/unit value Per unit

6545 Litre 2000 Rs 45/lit 90000

.91 12.5

6000 61263

.833 8.51

32725

4.55

22053 44178

3.06 6.14 36.503

For loading the material loader is used .So expenses on loader= Rs. 14.92 per Tonne.
Total expenditure on ripping and dozing operation = 36.503+14.92= 51.423 per Tonne.5.2

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FIELD STUDY 2: TALABIRA- 1 COAL MINE, OCP, HINDALCO

5.2.1 Introduction: Talabira-1 mine is the first blast free coal mine in India. It is also the first mine of ODISHA state to have ripper dozer and surface miner working on the same mine. It is located in the SAMBHALPUR district of ODISHA. H.I.N.D.A.L.C.O owns its whole governing authority. Mainly the extraction is done by the surface miner and ripper and dozer. As the surface miner is present for the operation no coal handling plant is required. Loading and transporting of coal is done on contractual basis.

5.2.2 Geological condition of Talabira-1 It is situated on eastern lb valley coalfield. Total constituting area is 2.60 sq. km and the permissible lease given to H.I.N.D.A.L.C.O is 1.70 sq. km the residual goes to the forest department and department of water resources. Location of the mine is adjacent to Hirakud dam. It is affected mainly by three main faults (N-S, NW-SE, NE-SW) in which the NE-SW fault separates it from Rampur Colliery. Deposit belongs to Karharbari and Barakar foundations. The three connected ruptures of Ib seam signify the Karharbari formation. Contrary to that the Barakar creation on the other hand, contains five connected horizons constituting the top and four ruptures of Rampur bottom seam. The top seam of the Rampur is the earliest and the widest seam.

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Table 5.2.1 Geological condition of Talabira-1 block (H.I.N.D.A.L.C.O, 2011) Variation in the

Name Given to the depth seam

Parting in meters

Thickness Direction in meters of dip

Rate of dip
o o

Nature of overburden

8-54 Rampur top 6-60 Rampur bottomIII 6-66 Rampur bottomII 6-74 Rampur bottom-I 18.37IB-III 82.71 32-92.00 IB-II 36-08 IB-I 0.25-2.54 2.66 0.14-2.0 2.34 0.4-3.83 0.3-3.42 0.24-5.57 071-6.15 0.44-3.01 2-5.32 0.44-2.76

NW-SE

5 to 10

Top soil/ boulder clay

NW-SE

5 to 10

Sandstone & shale

NW-SE

5 to 10

Sandstone & shale

NW-SE

5 to 10

Sandstone & shale

NW-SE

5 to 10
o

Sandstone & shale

NW-SE

5 to 10
o

Sandstone & shale

NW-SE

5 to 10

Sandstone & shale

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5.2.3 Important features of Talabira-1 Open Cast Mine:


Lease area for mining Area having coal deposit on-going working area for mining Total reserve for extraction of coal Grade of coal Total working seams Utilisation of coal Average. stripping ratio of mine Dip of the seam O.M.S Thickness range for the seam : 170.305 Hectare : 89 Hectare : 55 Hectare : 23.50 MT (million tonnes) :G&F : 7 numbers : For generation of power : 1.09 m /tonne : 5 -10
o o 3

: 31.56 tonne : 0.7- 44.69m

5.2.4Choice and usage of Ripper dozer in Talabira-1:


As Hirakud dam is nearby so according to D.G.M.S regulation blast free mining method is being adopted Ripper dozer are selected on the basis of seismic wave analysis .With the help of ripper and dozer overburden is removed and with the help of surface miner coal is removed. For loading of overburden loaders are used whereas for loading of coal dumpers are used. Two rippers (KOMATSU D-475A) are used for ripping of the overburden. There specification is given in the above table for the specifications.

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5.2.5 Comparison of ripping cost with drilling and blasting cost


Table 5.2.2 Cost of ripping for per tonne of overburden.

Particulars Material generated Particulars

unit T UoM

quantity 7800 Quantity Rate/unit value Per Unit

A) Material cost consumbles@2% of R&M HSD B) Conversion cost Labourer cost Depreciation Repair& maintenance cost 6000 61260 32500 .769 7.854 4.167 Litre 2160 Rs 45/lit 6500 97200 .833 12.46

@10% residual cost Admn.overhead@10% Interest on capital 22000 44178 2.82 5.66

Total cost per MT

34.563

Since loader is required for loading so for having dozer and its maintenance cost = Rs.14.92 So total cost of ripping comes to be = Rs.49.483 per T

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Cost of drilling and blasting for per tonne of overburden:


Drilling cost (per meter) = Rs.215.54 Drill hole diameter = 150mm Depth of the hole = 7.8m Drilling cost per hole = Rs.1681 Total material produced = 344 Tonne Cost of drill per Tonne = Rs. 4.88 Cost of blast = Rs.38.63 per Tonne Cost of labour = Rs. 0.75 per Tonne Cost of depreciation = Rs.0.35 per Tonne Cost of repair and maintenance= Rs. 0.32 per Tonne Cost of overhead administration = Rs.2.12 per Tonne Interest = Rs.5.46 Total blasting cost = Rs.47.63 per Tonne Total expenditure on shovel = Rs. 12.42 per Tonne .Cost for the total drilling and blasting = Rs 64.94 per Tonne Clearly we can observe that ripping and dozing is more economical.

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CHAPTER 06

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF RIPPER DOZER 6.1 Remote operation of ripper and dozer: (Remote control technologies Pv.t Ltd, Australia) For the remotization of the ripper and dozer only Remote Control Technologies is responsible. This company designed various models for Caterpillar, i.e. D5N, D8T, D9H, D10, D10N, D10R, D11N, D11R Series 1, 2, 3, KOMATSU D475, D572-A2, D575A,D575A-3 &D275AX.. RCT is the first one to install remote control for a dozer CAT D11NinPNG in 1989. In 2006 RCT was the first in the world to remote control a CAT D8T dozer. 6.1.1 Following are the advantages of remote control operation: Prevents repetitive stress injuries. Maximization of machine utilization. Greater overall operator vision. Improved ergonomic working condition for operator. Less idle time between production cycles. More control of critical machine tolerances. Hazardous machine tasks can be accomplished safely.

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6.2 Mine APS Dozer It is the real example for the introduction of modern technology. It is a GPS+GLONASS appliance supervision solution for dozers, allowing quicker, safer and additional productive operation. Great accuracy GPS+GLONASS supervision allows accurate dozing to plan without the need for rechecking or fixing. 6.2.1 Features: Accurately report machine position in 3D relative to digital design. Open system technologies include MS Windows, SQl, XML, NMEA, Share point services. Compact and flexible GPS+GLONASS receivers to balance investment and application. Easy to use touch screen operator interface. Operator can choose to work to design surface or offsets. Support multiple user selectable surfaces in a single file. Onboard system diagnostics. Fixed hazard and mobile equipment proximity warnings. Optional ripper sensor. Optional blade guidance sensor. Open communications interface compatible with 3G cellular, 802.11x, mesh and other communication systems. Off board and onboard production reporting options by machine, area, group or operator including: volumes, push distances, cycles, re handle, idle vs. push vs. ripping, delays, export DTM of as built surface.

55

6.2.2 BENEFITS OF THE SYSTEM: Selective mining is possible leading to improved grades. Improved safety through fixed hazard and proximity warnings. Improved efficiency and reduced errors. Achieves results faster with fewer passes. Reduce rework caused by over or under cutting or filling. Significantly reduce dependence on survey and grade checking. Machine based production reporting removes errors and improves timeless and accuracy of management information.

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CHAPTER 07

CONCLUSION
With a large amount of usage of reformed technology ripping has become important operation than drilling and blasting. Major demerit is that it is not applicable for very hard rocks. So it may be associated with drilling and blasting for a better solution. From the above findings we can conclude that it is an economical cheaper and safe operation. It can be solution as blast free mining system. Ripping do not have any adverse effect on environment hence we can protect the environment and wildlife habitat. The ores or overburden extracted has uniform size so there is no need for secondary operations such as secondary blasting. With the more advancement in techniques and machinery it can come as final solution for drilling and blasting.

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REFERENCES
i.
Amin Mohd For Mohd ; Huei Chan Sook ; Zuhairi Abd. Hamid; Mohd Khairolden Ghani.Rippability assessment of rock based on specific energy and production rate , 2
nd

construction industry research achievement international conference (CIRAIC 2009). Pp-3-

5. ii. Panda P.K ; Misra S.K. Ripping an aid to primary mining system a N.A.L.C.O experience, 3 national conference on surface mining, 1989. iii. Samal Subhrakanta ; Dash Ashish ; Murthy V.M.S.R ; Mohanty P.R. Ripping an excavation technique of future promise , I.S.M Dhanbad. iv. Basarir H.; Karpuz C.; Tutluoglu L. (2007). A fuzzy logic based rippability classification system. Template journal. v. Basarir H.; Karpuz C.; Tutluoglu L. (2008). Specific energy based rippability classification system for coal measure rock, Journal of terramechanics. vi. Prof.Mishra G.B, Surface mining, Bhubaneswar; Geominetech publications, first edition, 2007, chapter 8-excavation and loading, page- 405-406. vii. www.rct.net.au; Remote control solutions for dozer applications, Remote control TechnologiesPvt.Ltd.,Kewdale Western Australia. viii. http://www.civil.utm.my/staff/file/116/file/Rippability%20Assessment%20of%20Rock %20Based%20on%20Specific%20Energy%20&%20Production%20Rate.pdf. ix. http://www.saimm.co.za/Journal/v107n12p817.pdf.http://www.civil.utm.my/staff/file/1 16/file/Rippability%20Assessment%20of%20Quartzite%20in%20Kenny%20Hill%20F ormation%5B1%5D.pdf. x.
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Ghani. Rippability assessment of rock based on specific energy and production rate, 2

nd

construction industry research achievement international conference (CIRAIC2009). Pg-3-

5. xi. Panda P.K ; Misra S.K. Ripping an aid to primary mining system a NALCO experience, 3 national conference on surface mining, 1989. xii. Samal Subhrakanta; Dash Ashish; Murthy V.M.S.R; Mohanty P.R. Ripping an excavation technique of future promise, ISM Dhanbad. xiii. Basarir H.; Karpuz C.; Tutluoglu L. (2007). A fuzzy logic based rippability classification system. Template journal. xiv. Basarir H.; Karpuz C.; Tutluoglu L. (2008). Specific energy based rippability classification system for coal measure rock, a journal on terra mechanics. xv. Prof.Mishra G.B, Surface mining, Bhubaneswar; Geo mine tech publications, first edition, 2007, chapter 8-excavation and loading, page- 405-406. xvi. www.rct.net.au; Remote control solutions for dozer applications. Remote control Technologies Pvt.Ltd.,Kewdale Western Australia. xvii. http://www.civil.utm.my/staff/file/116/file/Rippability%20Assessment%20of%20Rock %20Based%20on%20Specific%20Energy%20&%20Production%20Rate.pdf. xviii. xix. http://www.saimm.co.za/Journal/v107n12p817.pdf. http://www.civil.utm.my/staff/file/116/file/Rippability%20Assessment%20of%20Quart zite%20in%20Kenny%20Hill%20Formation%5B1%5D.pdf.
xx.
rd

http://www.ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in