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Ics 23.020.20 January 2003 edition ‘AD 2000-Merkbiatt s1 ‘Simplified analysis ‘Special cases for cyclic loading The AD 2000-Merkbiater ara propared by the soven associations listed below who together form the “Arbeitsgemeinschaft Duckbehaiter* (AD). The structure and the eppication ofthe AD 2000 body of regulations and te procedural guidelines are covered by AD 2000-MerkbatG 1. The AD 2000-Merkblater cantain safety requirements to be met under normal operating condone. if above-normal ioacings ar to be ‘expected during the operation ofthe pressure vessel, tis shal be takon into account By meeting special requirements. ‘there are any divergences trom the requirements ofthis AD 2000-MerkDiat, it shal be possible to prove that the standard of afaty of this body of regulations has been maintained by cther means, e.g. by materiale tasting, Tost, stage analyle, operating experience. © Car Hoymanne Verag KG Uscmburger Strabo 442, 50000 Kea Fachverband Damplkesset, Bahiiter- und Rotrieitngsbau e.V. (FDBA), Dassaldort Hauptverband der gowerbichen Berulsgenossenschafen «.V., Sankt Augustin Verband der Chemischen Industrie .v. (VC), FrankdurtiMaln Verband Deutscher Maschiner- und Aniagenbau e.V. (VDA), Fachigemelnschalt Verlatvenstechnische Maschinen lund Apparate, FrankturiMain Stahlinstiut (DER), Dussaliort GB PowerTech e.¥, Essan Verband der Technischen Uberwachungs-Vereine &.V. (VaTO\), Essen. The above associations continuously update the AD 2000-Merkbltter inline with technical progress. Please address any proposals for this tothe pubssher: Verband der Technischen Oberwachungs-Vereine e.V., P.O. Box 103834, D-45038 Essen. Contents 0 Foreword 1 Scope 2 General 8 Symbols and units 4 Datermination of allowable number of load eyeles 5 Design 6 Manufacture 7 Testing 0 Foreword ‘The AD 2000 body of regulations can be applied to satisy the basic safoty requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive, principally for the conformity assessment in accordance with Modules "G” and "B + F”. The AD 2000 body of regulations is structured along the ines of a self-contained concept. If other technical ules are used in accordance with the state of the art to solve related prob- lems, it s assumed that the overall concept has been taken into account ‘The AD 2000 body of regulations can be used as appropriate, for other medules of the Pressure Equipment Directive or for different sectors of the law. Responsiblity for testing is as ‘specified in he provisions of the relevant soctor ofthelaw. 8 Consideration of special operating conditions 9 Measures to be taken when the design lifetime has been reached 10 Additional detaits| Annex 1: Explanatory notes on AD 2000-Merkbiatt S + Annex 2: Example of calculation ‘Annex 8: Simplified analysis for cyclic loading for spheroidal ‘graphite cast iron 1 Scope 1.1. The following rules on simplified analysis forcyclicload- ing apply to pressure-bearing parts of pressure vessels made of ~ ferric and austenitic rolled and forged steels, = spheroidal graphite cast iron grades as specified in annex 3 ‘manufactured and tested according to the W and HP series of the AD 2000-Merkbttr. 1.2 The calculation only applies for components dimen- sioned on the basis of non-ime-dependent design strength values (see 6.2 and 6.3 of AD 2000-Merkblat B 0) and sub- Jected to eyclic lads only inthe form of pressure fluctuations. ‘ditional cyciic loadings, for example loads due to rapid 9) Telrm"oelloadng te pearthare naconpranensve sense att vasaon atin cla ean garda othe magnucs sndanterole ena he aan ‘Supersedes October 2000 edition; ‘= Amendments to previous edition of doubt or eps, the atest sion ofthe Garman tit yf ald ‘AD 2000- Meriter re rotociod by copy. The ris fue, particu of any warleton,rprodton, otras of gare, anamsalan by phto- ‘mechani maar and storage in data rotiovalsytome, even of extract, re roeaved to tha einer. Call Heymanne Verag has taken a eazenabia ‘measures to ensure the ancuracy of tis relation bul ogra at no respons canbe atoapted for ay err emaion or nacouacy oases Page 2A 2000 Mea 81, 01.2000 eon changes in temperature during operation or from external for- ‘c9s and moments, are to be assessed within the framework of the caleuletion according to AD 2000-Merkbiatt S 2. 1.3 The analysis for cyclic loading shall only be considered 4 Ifotime expectancy celcultion to reasonably determine testing and inspection intervals tat fatigue cracking which may occur can be dtected in timo. “The numberof load oycles to be withstood may attain a mul- tiple of the design load cycle number if the scatter band of ‘he fatigue values is taksn into account and in the case of boundary conditions for design, manufacture and loading that are more favourable than those on which design appro- val is basod. 1.4 Ifthe following two conditions are satisfied, AD 2000- Merkblatt $1 need not be applied. a) The number of load cycles with pressure fluctuations bbetweon prossuraless condition and maximum allowable pressure p (start-ups and shutdowns) is N= 1000 and ») the range (9 ~ 8) of any number cf load fluctuations does not excoed 10% of p. ‘The limit value for the pressure fluctuation range (B ~ 6) of 10% may be increased to 20 % ofp ifthe following additonal conditions are satisfied: = the number of load cycles with pressure fluctuations between pressureless condition and maximum allowable pressure p (start-ups and shutdowns) fs N = 1000 ~ stools with tensile strengths = 800 Nimm® at 20°C, as -specitied by the standards, are used wall thicknesses of up to 25 mm — governing design temperature T* = 200°C ~ geometries with a shape-dependent stress factor n < Sas ‘shown in Table 3 of this AD 2000-Merkblat. 4.5. With regard to an intended operational fetime of 20 years (385 operational days), this AD 2000-Merkblatt naod ‘notbe applied either if the following conditions are satisfied: b-p > ~ to range of proseuretuctntons (2=2.) refered 0 _p does not exceed the values as shown in Fig. 2 ~ steels with tensile strengths < 300 Nimme at 20°C, as specified by the standards, are used. ‘Tho curves in Fig. 2 apply to ~ N= 1000 load cycles wth pressure ftuctuations between pressureless condition and maximum allowable pressure {etart-ups and shutdowns) — wall thicknesses of up to 25 mm ~ governing design temperature T” < 200°C ~ welded Joints of weld class K 2 and geometies wih a shape-dependont stress factor == 9 a8 shown in Table 3 ofthis AD 2000-Merkbiat. For fllt welds for the connection of nozzles, only “/s of the referred pressure fluctuation range as shown in Fig.2 are In the case of more than 1000 start-ups and shutdowns, the ranges of pressure fluctuations as shown in Fig. shall be reduced to obtain ) wit taken trom Hg. 1.8 Instead ofthe maximum alowable pressure p the ran- ges of preseure fluctuation (p— 8) may also bo referred to the design pressure p,(ctious pressure). 117. the number of pressure fluctuations to bo expected dlring operation exceeds the allowable number of load cye- les calclated according to this AD 2000-Merkblat, kis necessary to change the design or conduc adetalled calcu- lation according to AD 2000-Merkbiatt S 2 to satisfy the cyclic lacing conditions. 4.8 This AD 2000-Merktlatt assumes that there are no in- fluences from the fluid which may reduce the fatigue life (see clause 8), 2 General 2.1. This AD 2000-Merkblatt shall only be applied in combi- ‘ration with AD 2000-Merkblatt B 0. 2.2 The ciitetion for failure due to cyclic loading is an inci- plent crack) 2.3 Ameasute for oycic loading inthis AD 2000-Merkblatt [is the Auctation range (double the stress amplitude) arising from the action of the repeatedly fluctuating pressure (52° Fig. 1). 2.4. The alowablonumberoffoad cycles caloulatod accord- ing to AD 2000-Merkblatt § 1 is infuenced by the dimensio- ‘ning and design of the pressure vessel. In the caso of fre {quent load cycies with considerable cyclic loading, caloulat- ‘ons according to AD 2000-Merkblatt S 2 are more practical, however, to assess appropriate modification measures. AS a rule, this yields a greater allowable numberof load cycles than ‘the caloulation fo AD 2000-Merkblat S 1 25. Of special importance are fluctuations between the Unpressurised state and he maximum allowable pressure p (start-ups and shutdowns). The pressure fluctuations can ‘also be superimposed, however, with ow ampitide onthe working overpressure (0. in surgo or storage vassols) or can arse with varying amplitude inthe range between O and with regular sequence an fering frequency (operaio- Falioad regime) Where the vessels under vacuurn this pro- cedure shall be applied accordingly. 2.6 The number end level of pressure fluctuations which a pressure vessel can withstand during its probable ietime ‘without damage to the pressure pars depend on a large number of diferent influences, e ~ Design, ‘2.6. coniiguration of component with regard tothe avol dance of high peak stresses; ~ Manufacture, ‘29. avoidance of damaging residual stresses and weld imperfections; — Material, softer siceis ae for example normally ess notch-sensitve than harder ones. With the notch-sensitive steeis it be noted that the probability of failure is greator fa manufac- ‘uring defect isnot noticed or the operating condlions are unfavourable. Tho strength ofthe weld metal should be equal to or just litle higher than that of the base metal 2 poplar rack a erckyp mir ecoty whi canbe ctacad bp opical sans or sonaectuctv eon AD 200 = Surface condition, {design with minor surface roughness (machining, grinding (of welds) for high lifetime requirements; = Wall thickness, with equal stress range, an increase in the wall thickness will reduce the component lifetime because of tho influence of size; ~ Temperature, higher temperatures reduce the cyclic strength of the materials and hence the componert ifetime. 2.7 Corrosion arising during operation can reduce the num- ber of load cycles which can be withstood, especially in notch-sensitive materials. Operational measures (see 8.1) ‘and inspection curing the operating period (see 7.3) are of ‘special importance here. Where a protective layer forms, this shall be considered when dimensioning and designing in order to pravent the protective layer from tearing up. 2.8 Forthe calculation the following is definedas the gover- ring temperature during any load cycle under consideration (see Fig. 1): T= 0,75-7+ 028-7 a All temperature-rolated faciors shall be related to this gover- ning temperature 7* of the relevant load cycle. 2.9 To determine the allowable number of toad cycles for the wholo vessel, the calculations according to clause 4 shall be performed for the vatious sections of the vessel. The smallest value is the relevant one for the vessel. 3. Symbols and units ‘The following symbols apply beyond the provisions of ‘AD 2000-Merkbiatt B 0 and as a deviation from it fr temperature influence factor fy fatigue strength reduction factor for welded joint classes - f. Toad cycle increase (fatigue strength ‘extension) factor for pressure fluctuti- ons (@~8) 25 mm according to @ ° 20, Fe S ‘or from Fig. 4. The factor F shall be limited to F, = 0,64 with wall thicknesses of s, = 160 mm maximum. In the case of forgings, the governing heat treatment diameter according to DIN 17243 shatl be taken as the wall thickness. 4.4.4 With load cycle temperatures of T > 100°C up to ‘temperatures ofnon-time-dependent design strength values, ‘a temperature influencing factor f- shall be considered. The correction factor shall be determined for ferrite material ‘according to f= 1.08~ 15-104. Th =1,5- 108-72 ® and for austenitic material according to fr =1,043- 43-1047 © cr shall be taken from Fig. 5. 4.2 The allowable number of oad cycles shal be calculated within he scope 108 = N= 2 108 afunction of the stress [range 2 aecorcing o 4.1 from S) 9 See amex 9 Soe ao 52 “AD 2000-Merkbiatt Page's AD 2000S 1, 01.2009 etn ‘where m = 3 for welded joints and m = 3,5 for unwelded ‘component areas with roling skin surface, or shall be taken from Fig, 6. The notch effects from weld seams or surface toughness and the greatest possible influence of residual welding strosses or mean stresses from working pressure have already been taken into account here. 4.2.1. The values of the calculation constants B can be found in Table 1. The class K 0 here applies to unwekied ‘component areas. The othor classes rolate to welded joints allocated to classes K 1, K2 and K Sin Table 3in accordance with their notch effect. Table 1. Calculation constants B ‘lass 8 [Nim] 10° N=2- 108 Ko 7680 Kt 7340 K2 6300 K3 5040 4.2.2 The fictitious endurance limit is fixed as N = 2-108. | With stress ranges 2; below the values 209 according to Table 2, endurance may be assumed. Table 2, Endurance limit values 2.5 Class 2oge Nim] Nz2-108 Ko 128 Kt 63 ke 50 ks 40 4:3 For the special case of welded pressure vessels with ‘geometries to correspond to a stress factor n < 3,0, at tam- peratures T* = 100°C, wall thicknesses s, <25 mm and pressure fluctuations between 0 and p,, the allowable num= br of ioad oycles within the range 1000 <= Nay = 2- 108 can bbe determined by means of Nas = Nioo * fy fi, a with: 1854-10 Igo = 1354108 (Kad) e * t= (e Ges) . and 10 fork ux] 08. tork2 0) Oasis The values Neo and f, can also be taken from Figs. 7 and 8, ‘Tho pressure fluctuation range relatedo,, that canbe with- ‘stood under fatigue strength considerations by the vessel, shall be taken trom Fig. 9 as a function of Kay/S. ‘The curves are described by B=. 2 40 “1 Pe 3-KglS With 20,0 from Table 2 4.4 fpressure fluctuations offering range and frequency ‘cour (operational ioad regime), the allowable fatigue fe shall be determined using the linear damage accumulation law. Ie (ae +e. ath) st (12) AMAA Ny Nz Ne are the numbers of load cycles to be ‘expected in operation, with the load cycles with the same pressure fluctuation rango (6 ~ 6) being comprised to form ‘ene load regime, The related allowable number ofload cycles | Magt. Naso:~ Mage Shall be taken with the relevant stress range 203, aocording to equation (2) in the corresponding oad eycle ‘cutves 0 Fig. 6 or shal be calculated according to equation ©. 14.42 If an operational toad regime gives rise to stress range 20, which are smaller than the laigue limits 2,5 given in Table 2 for N’> 2- 10 the related allowable numbers of load cycles Nay = 2 - 10° shall be taken. The damage port | ons of iad regimes whose stress range 2c, is emailer than 50% of the 2aup values can be neglected here. 5 Design 5.1. The fatigue ie of oyclcally loaded components largely pends on the dimensioning and design. Special care shall be taken hereto ensure that designs wih hign stress or strain | concentration e.g. due to ebrupt wall hickness transitions, are avoided, Table 3 contains an assessment of frequently ‘sed weld details in pressure vessels, n the case of rigorous requirements regarding component etime, the weld esigns of class K 1 are recommended. necessary, more "gorous requirements shal bo imposod on the design than are given in AD 2000-Merkbiatt HP 1 (compare stress factors nin Table 3). Suitable design shall make possible testing and inspection as spectied in clause 7. 5.2 To assess the life expectancy of designs not given in Table, the anticipated 7 value shall be fixed by moans of corresponding estimates on the stress concentration factor (ee6 clause 4 of AD 2000-Morkblatt $2). In such cases, how- ever, tis practical to conduct a detelled calculation according to AD 2000-Merkbiatt S 2. This generally applies to cam clo- ‘ures and clasp-bolted joins, for example. 5.3. The life expectancy can be Increased within the frame- work of design evaluation according to Table 3 by, for exampie, the following design measures: (1) Hemispherical or torispherical head instead of semi- clipsoidal head; (2) Conical shell with knuckle instead of cone with comer Joint; (3) Avoidance of inclined nozzles and pad reinforcements; (4) Tapered transition between tubesheets, flanges ete. and the vessel shell (8) Avoidance of rectangular openings. Over-dimensioning for predominantly static loading also leads to a greater numberof allowable load cycles. Similarly 2 gteater number of load cycles can normally be permitted by applying AD 2000-Merkblatt S 2 (see Annex 2 of this ‘AD 2000-Merkblett). 6 Manufacture For the manufacture of pressure vessels the HP sories of the ‘AD 2000-Merkbidtier applies. For vessels calculated accord +