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Notes on Advanced Mechanics of Solids

Edmundo Corona
Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, IN 46556
ecorona@nd.edu
November 24, 2003
2
Contents
1 Elementary Topics in Mechanics of Solids 5
2 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis 23
3 Beams on Elastic Foundations 31
4 Beams with Axial Load 35
5 Shear Deformations of Beams 41
6 Unsymmetric Bending 49
7 Plastic Problems 55
8 Forces and Stresses in Solids 63
9 Kinematics of Solids in Cartesian Coordinates 73
10 Bending of Rectangular Plates 79
3
4 CONTENTS
Chapter 1
Elementary Topics in Mechanics of
Solids
Introduction
This section discusses the basics of the topics which are usually covered in elementary under-
graduate courses in Mechanics of Solids or Strength of Materials. Many good textbooks exist
in this subject. If you no longer have your textbook, it would be a great idea to purchase
one to keep in your personal library.
The elementary topics in the area of Mechanics of Solids include the fundamental
aspects of the theories of axially loaded members, torsion of circular shafts and bending of
beams. The basics of each case will be discussed from the perspective of a second course in
mechanics of solids. Before proceeding, however, it is convenient to also start by assuming
that the structural members considered are made of homogeneous, isotropic, linearly elastic
material the simplest material model.
Homogeneous, Isotropic, Linearly Elastic Materials
Consider a solid of general shape in space. The material that makes up the solid has certain
material properties such as modulus of elasticity, yield stress, etc. The material is homoge-
neous if it has the same macroscopic properties independently of position in the solid. This
would exclude, for example, a plate made of alternating layers of two materials. The material
is isotropic if the properties are independent of the direction in which they are measured.
This excludes materials such as ber reinforced composites where properties in directions
along the bers are dierent from those transverse to the bers.
The concept of linear elasticity is best understood by considering a bar made of such
material as shown in Fig. 1.1(a). When unloaded, the bar has length L, diameter D and
cross-sectional area A(= D/4). If a tensile axial load P is applied uniformly over the cross-
section as shown in Fig. 1.1(b) the bar will stretch by an amount L and its cross-sectional
area will shrink to A

. The engineering axial stress in the bar is dened by the familiar


5
6 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
formula

x
=
P
A
. (1.1)
In this case, the axial stress is uniformly distributed over the area as shown in Fig. 1.1(c).
The engineering axial strain is dened by:

x
=
L
L
. (1.2)
The lateral contraction of the bar can be characterized by the change in diameter
D. A transverse strain can then be dened as

y
=
D
D
(1.3)
The relations between
x
,
x
and
y
are independent of the size of the specimen and depend
only on the material properties of the bar.
The relation between
x
and
x
is shown in Fig. 1.1(d) for a linear elastic material.
The double arrows indicate that loading and unloading occur along the same line. The
constant of proportionality between
x
and
x
is the Youngs modulus of the material and
is denoted by the symbol E. Hence,

x
= E
x
. (1.4)
The relation between
y
and
x
is also linear as shown in Fig. 1.1(e) and given by

y
=
x
(1.5)
where is the Poissons ratio of the material.
Axially Loaded Members
Consider a axially loaded member of length L in equilibrium as shown in Fig. 1.2(a). The
length L is signicantly larger than the dimensions of the bar in other directions, which can
vary with x. The bar is loaded by forces P and Q applied at each end and a distributed
axial force q with units of force per unit length. The governing equations for the behavior
of the bar can be obtained from the consideration of three fundamental items:
1. The description of the motion of material points in the bar (kinematics)
2. The equilibrium of the forces acting in the bar (equilibrium)
3. The stress-strain relation of the material (constitutive behavior).
These three items are essential in the solution of problems in mechanics of solids and will
re-appear often in later sections.
7
z
x
a
a
P
y
z
a-a
a-a
(a)
(b)
a
a
P
P
(c)
(d)

x
E
1

x
1

(e)
L
D
D-D
A
L
A
Figure 1.1: Tension test on a homogeneous, isotropic material.
8 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
x dx
u
x dx
x
z
* *
x
z
P Q q
dx
a
b
c
d
m n
(a)
(b)
(c)
L
N N + dN
q
dx
dx
dA
m n
Figure 1.2: Axially loaded member
9
Kinematics
The objective of the kinematic analysis is to determine the relationship between the displace-
ment of points in the bar and the resulting strain. Since the bar carries only axial loads, the
elementary theory concentrates on the description of the deformation of the bar in the axial
direction. To describe the kinematics, consider the line segment mn. This line element is
also shown in Fig. 1.2(b). Before deformation, the length of the segment is dx and its left
end is located at an axial distance x from the origin. After deformation, the left tip of the
element moves a distance u in the axial direction, so that it is now located at a distance x

from the origin. In addition, the line mn has a new length dx

. It is clear from the gure


that
x

= x + u (1.6)
An important assumption of the theory is that u is a function of x only. Dierentiation with
respect to x gives
dx

dx
= 1 + u

(1.7)
where ( )

=
d( )
dx
. For small strain,
x
can be approximated by

x
=
dx

dx
dx
= u

(1.8)
Equilibrium
Now let us consider the equilibrium of the axial element of the bar abcd, also of length dx.
The free-body diagram of the element is shown in g. 1.2(c). The quantity N is the resultant
of the axial stress in the bar. It is given by
N =
_
A

x
dA (1.9)
where dA is an innitesimal element of cross-sectional area, shown in Fig. 1.2(c). In the
present case,
x
is constant over the cross-section, so
N =
x
A. (1.10)
Note that N, however, changes value to N + dN over the length dx. Equilibrium of forces
in the axial direction gives

F
x
= N + N + dN + qdx = 0 (1.11)
or
N

= q. (1.12)
This is the equilibrium equation of the axially loaded bar.
10 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Constitutive Relations
The constitutive relation between
x
and
x
is given by (1.4) if the material is assumed to
be linearly elastic.
Final Form of the Governing Equation
Consideration of the three fundamental items above yielded a system of four equations (1.4),
(1.8), (1.10), (1.12) for the four unknowns u,
x
,
x
, N. These equations can be reduced to
a single dierential equation as follows.
Substituting (1.4) into (1.9) and using (1.8) yields
N = EAu

(1.13)
substituting this into (1.12) yields
(EAu

= q (1.14)
which is the governing dierential equation for an axially loaded bar in equilibrium.
Lets suppose that q = 0 and the we need to calculate the elongation of the bar in
Fig. 1.2(a). Equation (1.14) reduces to
(EAu

= 0, (1.15)
indicating that P = Q in Fig. 1.2. Integrating this dierential equation yields
u u(0) =
_
x
0
C
1
EA
dx (1.16)
where C
1
is a constant of integration to be evaluated from a boundary condition and u(0) is
the displacement of the left end of the bar. The boundary condition is that at x = 0, N = P
so that
P = [EAu

]
0
= C
1
(1.17)
and
u u(0) =
P
E
_
x
0
dx
A
. (1.18)
The stretch of the bar is = u(L) u(0). It is given by
=
P
E
_
L
0
dx
A
. (1.19)
If the cross-sectional area A does not change with x, then we obtain the familiar
formula
=
PL
EA
. (1.20)
11
Torsion of Circular Bars
Consider a bar of length L subjected to two end torques T
1
and T
2
and a distributed torque
q as shown in Fig. 1.3(a). The elementary theory of torsion is restricted to the case of
bars with circular cross-section. Analysis of other cross-sections is more complicated and is
treated in elasticity books
1
. Since the discussion will be restricted to the case of bars with
circular cross-section, a cylindrical coordinate system is most appropriate. The coordinate
directions x, , are in the axial, radial and circumferential directions respectively. As in
the case of axial load, L is signicantly larger than the other dimensions of the bar.
Kinematics
The main kinematic characteristic in the theory is that the cross-sections of the bar rotate
as rigid bodies about their center. So, for example, point m in Fig. 1.3(b), which is located
at a distance from the center of the cross-section moves to location m

after deformation.
The angle of rotation is denoted by . For small rotations, the displacement of m can be
assumed to be equal to the tangential component v. Then
v = . (1.21)
Now consider the line element mn of length dx in Figs. 1.3(a) and (c). This line
element is originally parallel to the x axis. Point m is located at x, , while point n
is located at x + dx, , . After deformation, mn moves to position m

. The line m

makes an angle with the x axis, where is the shear strain at point m. Note that the
circumferential coordinate of m

is now

= + v/.
Dierentiation with respect to x gives
(d

)
dx
= = v

(1.22)
Note also that dierentiating (1.21) with respect to x and substituting in (1.22) yields
=

(1.23)
Equilibrium
Now consider the equilibrium of the section abcd, also of length dx in Fig. 1.3(a). Its free
body diagram is shown in Fig. 1.3(d). The quantity T is the torque resultant of the shear
stresses acting on a cross-section as shown in Fig. 1.3(e). It is given by
T =
_
A
dA. (1.24)
1
See, for example: Timoshenko, S. P. and Goodier, J. N.,Theory of Elasticity, Third Edition, McGraw-
Hill, 1970.
12 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
T T + dT qdx
a

m
m
v

(a)
(b) (c)
(d) (e)
b
c
d
1
T
2
T
x
n
m
n
dx
v

m
m n
dx
q

dx
L

*
Figure 1.3: Torsion of a circular bar.
13
Considering the equilibrium of the free body in Fig.1.3(d) by summing moments about the
x axis yields

M
x
= T + T + dT + qdx = 0 (1.25)
or
T

= q. (1.26)
Constitutive Relations
The shear stress-strain relation for a linear elastic, isotropic material is
= G (1.27)
where G is the shear modulus of the material. It can be expressed in terms of E and as
G =
E
2(1 + )
. (1.28)
Final form of the Governing Equation
Substituting (1.27) into (1.24) and using (1.23) yields
T = GJ

(1.29)
where
J =
_
A

2
dA (1.30)
is the polar moment of inertia of the cross-section. Substituting (1.29) into (1.26) yields the
dierential equation for
(GJ

= q. (1.31)
Note that it has exactly the same form as the dierential equation (1.14) for u in the axially
loaded bar.
The shear stress can be calculated based on T by substituting (1.23) into (1.29) and
using (1.27). This yields
=
T
J
. (1.32)
Note that the stress varies linearly with , so it is maximum on the surface of the bar.
Bending of Beams
A beam is a structural element which resists loads applied transverse to its axis as shown in
Fig. 1.4(a). As in the previous cases discussed, the length of the beam is much larger than its
dimensions in other directions. The elementary theory is restricted to straight beams whose
cross-sections have one plane of symmetry. All transverse forces have lines of action that
14 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
are in the plane of symmetry. This plane is called the plane of bending. Bending couples
applied to the beam must be perpendicular to the plane of bending. If the conditions above
are satised, the deection of the beam will occur exclusively in the plane of bending. In
the discussion that follows, the x axis passes through the centroid of the cross-sections of
the beam, while the z axis is in the plane of bending (centroidal coordinate system).
Kinematics
Consider the line segment mn, of length dx which is originally aligned with the x axis as
shown in Fig. 1.4(a). The left end of the line, point m, is located by the coordinates (x,z) as
shown in Fig. 1.4(b). After deformation, the left tip of the segment moves to (x

,z

) and its
length becomes ds

. In addition, the line segment makes an angle with the x axis. From
the gure it is clear that
x

= x + u (1.33)
z

= z + w (1.34)
where u and w are the x and z components of displacement respectively. Dierentiating
with respect to x yields
dx

dx
= 1 + u

(1.35)
dz

dx
= w

(1.36)
and
ds

dx
2
+ dz
2
=
_
(1 + u

)
2
+ w
2
dx. (1.37)
Expanding (1.37), neglecting the term u
2
compared with u and then expanding using
a binomial series yields
ds

= (1 + u

+
1
2
w
2
)dx. (1.38)
Hence the expression for the axial strain is

x
=
ds

dx
dx
= u

+
1
2
w
2
(1.39)
Note that, for relatively small deections, the angle is given by
= w

. (1.40)
The next step is to relate the displacement components of any point in the beam
( u, w) to the displacement components of its centroidal axis (u,w). This can be done by
using the commonly adopted assumption that, for slender beams, plane sections originally
perpendicular to the centroidal axis remain plane and perpendicular to the centroidal axis
after deformation. This assumption is explained in Fig. 1.5. Figure 1.5(a) shows the segment
15
q
L
a b
c d
x
z

ds*
x*
x
z
u
z*
dx
y
z
y
z
z
x
(a)
(b)
(c) (d)
dA
dx
m n
l
l
l-l
M M+dM V
V+dV
dx
w
qdx
Figure 1.4: Bending of beams
16 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
a b
c
d
m
x
x
z
z
u
u
z
a
d
m
a
d
m
(a)
(b)
w
w
e
f
e
f
e
f
Figure 1.5: The plane sections remain plane assumption.
abcd of Fig. 1.4(a) with one such plane section ad and a segment of the centroidal axis ef
highlighted. The highlighted lines are also shown in Fig. 1.5(b). The point m represents an
arbitrary point in the cross-section. The location of all lines and points after deformation
according to the plane sections assumption are identied by the primed symbols. From the
gure it is clear that, if the plane sections assumption holds, the displacement components
of point m are given by
u = u z (1.41)
w = w. (1.42)
where u and w are the displacement components of point e which is in the centroidal axis.
Dierentiating (1.42) and (1.40) with respect to x yields

x
= u

zw

+
1
2
w
2
(1.43)
which can be re-written as

x
=
o
x
+ z (1.44)
where
o
x
= u

+ 1/2w
2
is called the membrane strain and = w

the curvature. The


product z is the bending strain.
17
Equilibrium
Now let us consider the equilibrium of the element abcd in Fig. 1.4(c). The quantities M
and V are the moment resultant of the axial stress and the force resultant of the shear stress
respectively. They are given by
M =
_
A

x
z dA (1.45)
and
V =
_
A

xz
dA (1.46)
where the element of area dA is shown in Fig. 1.4(d). Since the beam in Fig. 1.4(a) does not
carry axial loads, the corresponding stress resultant N must be zero, that is
N =
_
A

x
dA = 0. (1.47)
Summing forces in the z direction yields

F
z
= V + V + dV + q dx = 0 (1.48)
while sum of moments in the y direction about point c yields

M
y
= M + M + dM V dx + q dx
dx
2
= 0. (1.49)
Simplifying the previous two equations and letting dx 0 yields the equilibrium equations
V

= q (1.50)
M

= V (1.51)
Constitutive Relations
For linear elastic materials, the axial stress-strain relation is given by Hookes law (1.4).
Final Form of the Governing Equation
Substituting (1.4) into (1.47) and using(1.44) yields
N = E
_
A
(
o
x
+ z)dA = 0. (1.52)
The second term is zero because the z axis has its origin at the centroid. Hence (1.52)
indicates that, in the absence of axial load,

o
x
= u

+
1
2
w
2
= 0 (1.53)
18 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
which provides a relation between the axial and transverse displacement components of the
beam. Note that (1.44) reduces to

x
= z. (1.54)
Substituting (1.4) into (1.45) and using (1.44) yields
M = E
_
A
(
o
x
z + z
2
)dA. (1.55)
Due to the centroidal nature of the z axis the rst term is zero while the second term yields
M = EI (1.56)
where
I =
_
A
z
2
dA (1.57)
is the second moment (moment of inertia) of the cross-sectional area about the y axis.
Dierentiating (1.51) with respect to x, substituting into (1.50) and using (1.56) and
= w

gives the dierential equation for the deection of the beam


(EIw

= q (1.58)
This is a fourth order dierential equation. Its solution requires that four boundary condi-
tions be specied to solve for the four integration constants.
The axial stress
x
can be calculated in terms of M by substituting (1.54) into (1.56)
and using (1.4). The nal expression is

x
=
Mz
I
. (1.59)
Note that the stress varies linearly with z and therefore is maximum at the point in the
cross-section which is furthest from the centroid in the z direction.
If a beam contains discontinuities in geometric or material properties, or it is subjected
to point loads as shown at points A through D in Fig. 1.6(a), then (1.58) is valid only between
the discontinuities or point loads. In these cases, matching conditions must be specied
between the various segments of the beam. The kinematic matching conditions are always
w
R
= w
L
w

R
= w

L
(1.60)
where the subscripts L and R indicate the points immediately to the left and to the right
of the discontinuity or point load. These conditions state that the beam does not break nor
develops kinks. The behavior of the shear force and bending moment can be established
with the aid of Fig. 1.6(b). Considering the equilibrium of the element and letting
x
0
the following relations are obtained:
M
R
M
L
= M
o
V
R
V
L
= P
o
. (1.61)
19
A
B
C D
P
M
o
o
(a)
(b)
E
1
E
2
O
P
o
V
L
M
L
V
R
M
R
M
o
x
Figure 1.6: (a) Beam with geometric and material discontinuities and point loads.
Substituting from (1.51), (1.56) and recalling that = w

we can write (1.61) in terms of


w as follows:
(EIw

)
R
(EIw

)
L
= M
o
(EIw

R
(EIw

L
= P
o
. (1.62)
Summarizing, (1.60) and (1.62) provide four equations that must be satised at all
points where geometric or material discontinuities, or point loads are present. These equa-
tions are used to adjust four of the eight constants of integration obtained from the beam
segment to the left and right of the discontinuity or point load.
Strain Energy
Every time an elastic body is loaded it stores energy that can be recovered or converted into
a dierent form upon removal of the loads. Consider a bow and arrow. As the archer pulls
back on the string, the frame of the bow bends and stores energy (equal to the work done
by the archer). When the archer lets go of the string, the load in the bow is released and
most of the energy is transfered to the arrow in the form of kinetic energy.
20 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
The energy stored in an elastic body by virtue of its deformation is called strain
energy, is given the symbol U and is equal to the work performed during deformation from
a stress-free state. In the problems considered in this chapter, only one stress component is
present, namely a normal stress in the case of axial and bending deformations and a shear
stress in the case of torsion. It is important to be able to calculate the strain energy stored
in these cases. To do so we rst recall the denition of work.
Denition of Work
Consider a particle P which is moving from a point A to a point B along a given path as
shown in Fig. 1.7. The work done by the force F on the particle P in going from A to B is
dened by
W =
_
B
A
F ds. (1.63)
That is, only the component of the force which is parallel to the instantaneous motion of P
does work.
A
B
F
P
s
ds
Figure 1.7: Particle moving under the inuence of a force.
Strain Energy under Uniaxial Stress
Consider rst the cases of bars under axial or bending loads. In these cases the only stress
component is the axial stress
x
. If we consider a small cube of material in the bar as
shown in Fig. 1.8(a) with dimensions dx, dy and dz when unloaded and subject it to a stress

x
, the cube will stretch in the x direction by an amount
x
dx and contract in the other
21
dx
dy
dz
dx
(1+ )
x
dy
(1+ )
y
dz
(1+ )
z

x
(a) (b)
Figure 1.8: Small material element under uniaxial stress.
two directions due to the Poisson eect. From (1.63) the strain energy stored in this small
volume, dU, which is equal to the work done by
x
, will be given by
dU =
_
x
0
(
x
dydz)(d
x
dx) =
_
x
0

x
d
x
dV (1.64)
where dV is the volume of the cube. The strain energy density, or strain energy per unit
volume is clearly given by
u
o
=
_
x
0

x
d
x
(1.65)
so that for the complete body, the total strain energy is given by the volume integral of u
o
U =
_
V
u
o
dV. (1.66)
For a linearly elastic material the constitutive law is given by (1.4) so that
u
o
= E
_
x
0

x
d
x
=
E
2
x
2
. (1.67)
Therefore, the total strain energy is given by
U =
E
2
_
V

2
x
dV (1.68)
Axially Loaded Bar
In this case, the axial strain is a function of the axial coordinate x only (see Fig. 1.2),
therefore
U =
E
2
_
L
0
A
2
x
dx (1.69)
If the bar is prismatic (the area is constant over the length), then
U =
EA
2
_
L
0

2
x
dx. (1.70)
22 CHAPTER 1. ELEMENTARY TOPICS IN MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
Finally, if the bar is also a two-force member,
x
= /L where is the stretch of the bar and
U =
1
2
EA
L

2
. (1.71)
Furthermore, in this latest case the relation between and the load P is given by (1.20) and
the strain energy can be written in terms of P instead as
U =
P
2
L
2EA
. (1.72)
Bending of Beams
The plane sections-remain-plane assumption of beam theory yields a strain distribution that
is linear through the height of the beam as given by (1.54). Therefore, the expression for
strain energy is given by
U =
E
2
_
L
0
_
A
(z)
2
dAdx =
E
2
_
L
o

2
dx
_
A
z
2
dA =
E
2
_
L
0
I
2
dx. (1.73)
If the beam is prismatic, then I is a constant and
U =
EI
2
_
L
0

2
dx. (1.74)
The moment-curvature relation for a beam is given by (1.56), so it is possible to write
the strain energy in terms of the moment as
U =
1
2EI
_
L
0
M
2
dx. (1.75)
Being able to calculate the strain energy stored in a body may be useful in its own
right. The main applications, however, concern the use of energy methods, a sometimes very
useful alternative to the equilibrium methods presented in this chapter.
Chapter 2
Energy Methods in Structural
Analysis
Castiglianos First Theorem
Consider a body subjected to N point loads. These loads can be either forces of moments as
shown in Fig. 2.1. Let the loads be P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, . . . , P
N
. These loads cause the body to deform
from the shape indicated by the solid line into the shape indicated by the dashed outline.
Let the quantities
1
,
2
, . . . ,
N
be the displacements at the points where the corresponding
loads are applied and in the same direction as the loads. Note the that if the load is a force,
the displacement will be a translation but if the load is a moment, the displacement will be
a rotation. Since the body has deformed, it has stored strain energy U, which can be written
as a function of the displacements. That is
U = U(
1
,
2
, . . . ,
N
). (2.1)
Now suppose that one of the displacements, say
i
increases by a small amount d
i
,
then the strain energy will increase by an amount dU equal to the work done by the force
P
i
. That is
dU = P
i
d
i
. (2.2)
From equation (2.1) dU is given by
dU =
U

i
d
i
(2.3)
From equations (2.2) and (2.3) we obtain Castiglianos rst theorem, rst postulated in 1879,
P
i
=
U

i
. (2.4)
Note that the strain energy must be expressed in terms of the displacements.
23
24 CHAPTER 2. ENERGY METHODS IN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
i
P
N

N
Figure 2.1: Forces and corresponding displacement denitions used to derive Castiglianos
theorems.
Potential Energy
The potential energy of any conservative mechanical system in some actual conguration is
dened as the work which will be done by all of the acting forces if the system is moved
from the actual conguration to a reference conguration. For example, consider the case of
a mass m near the surface of the earth, which is located at a height h above a reference line
as shown in Fig. 2.2. The force acting on the mass is mg, and if the mass is released and
falls to the reference, the work done by gravity will be mgh. Hence, the potential energy of
the mass in the actual conguration (distance h above the reference) is
= mgh.
In the case of solids, we will always take the reference conguration to be the shape
of the unloaded structure, which has no strain energy; for example, the solid outline in Fig.
2.1. In this case, the potential energy of the internal forces in the solid will be equal to the
strain energy U. The potential energy of the external forces will be

i=1
P
i

i
.
Note that the potential energy of the load P
i
is not equal to the work done by P
i
during loading of the structure.
The total potential energy of the system is
= U
N

i=1
P
i

i
. (2.5)
25
m
h
=0
=mgh
g
Figure 2.2: Gravitational potential energy.
Principle of Stationary Potential Energy
Note that, form equation (2.5),

i
=
U

i
P
i
and, from equation (2.4) it is clear that, at equilibrium

i
= 0 (2.6)
that is, the potential energy is stationary.
A useful analogy is to consider a ball which can roll in a surface under the inuence
of gravity. If the surface is concave, as shown in Fig. 2.3(a) then the equilibrium position is
at the bottom and corresponds to a minimum in the potential energy. Note that if the ball
is pushed to the side a little it will want to return to its equilibrium position. This means
that the equilibrium is stable. If the surface is convex, as shown in Fig. 2.3(b) then the
equilibrium position is at the top of the surface, where the potential energy is a maximum.
If the ball is pushed to the side then it will tend to move away from the equilibrium position.
This means that the equilibrium is unstable. If the surface is at, as shown in Fig. 2.3(c)
then any position is an equilibrium position. If the ball is pushed to the side in will tend
to neither return nor depart from its original equilibrium position. This is a condition of
neutral equilibrium.
The Rayleigh-Ritz Method
In many instances the exact solution of structural problems (within the applicable theory)
may be very dicult or impossible to nd. In these situations we use methods which can
provide an approximate solution to the problems. For example, the nite element method
has become widely used in engineering. The Rayleigh-Ritz method is an older relative of the
nite element method and can be used to nd good approximations to problems in structural
26 CHAPTER 2. ENERGY METHODS IN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
g
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 2.3: A ball resting on a surface in a gravitational eld.(a) Stable equilibrium, (b)
Unstable equilibrium, (c) Neutral equilibrium.
and solid mechanics. The following discussion will concentrate on the use of the method to
solve beam problems, but it can also be used in other situations.
Consider a beam subjected to a combination of arbitrary point loads, point moments
and distributed loads as shown in Fig. 2.4. The potential energy of a beam like this can be
written as follows:
=
1
2
_
L
0
EI(w

)
2
dx
_
L
0
qwdx
M

k=1
P
k
w(x
k
)
Q

l=1
M
l
w

(x
l
) (2.7)
where the point force P
k
is applied at x
k
and the point moment M
l
is applied at x
l
.
P
1
P
2
M
1
M
2
q
Figure 2.4: Beam subjected to transverse forces and moments.
The core of the method is to guess what the deected shape of the beam will be in
order to come up with an expression for w. In general we approximate the deection of the
beam by choosing w in the form
w =
N

i=1
a
i

i
(2.8)
where
i
are the so-called shape functions, and a
i
are unknown coecients. The choice of
i
must be such that they satisfy the kinematic boundary conditions. Substituting (2.8) into
27
(2.7) yields
=
1
2
_
L
0
EI(
N

i=1
a
i

i
)
2
dx
_
L
0
q
N

i=1
a
i

i
dx
M

k=1
P
k
N

i=1
a
i

i
(x
k
)
Q

l=1
M
l
N

i=1
a
i

i
(x
l
). (2.9)
The next step is to minimize the potential energy, which is obtained by setting
/a
j
= 0 for j = 1, 2, . . . N. Hence,

a
j
=
_
L
0
EI(
N

i=1
a
i

i
)

j
dx
_
L
0
q
j
dx
M

k=1
P
k

j
(x
k
)
Q

l=1
M
l

j
(x
l
) = 0. (2.10)
This operation yields a system of N algebraic equations for the N unknown coecients a
i
.
Since the expression for was based on linear beam theory, the algebraic equations are also
linear and can be written in matrix form as
Ka = b (2.11)
where
K
ij
=
_
L
0
EI

j
dx
b
j
=
_
L
0
q
j
dx +
M

k=1
P
k

j
(x
k
) +
Q

l=1
M
l

l
(x
l
) (2.12)
and the a
i
s are unknowns.
For example, in the case in which no point loads are applied and N = 2, (2.11)
reduces to
_
_
L
0
EI

1
dx
_
L
0
EI

1
dx
_
L
0
EI

2
dx
_
L
0
EI

2
dx
_ _
a
1
a
2
_
=
_
_
L
0
q
1
dx
_
L
0
q
2
dx
_
. (2.13)
Complementary Energy
Let us introduce the concept of a new type of energy
1
by considering a simple, geometrically
linear, axially loaded bar as shown in Fig. 2.5(a). The material in the bar will be assumed
to be nonlinear elastic, with a stress-strain response like that shown in Fig. 2.5(b). Under
these conditions, the load-displacement (P-) response of the bar will have a similar shape
as that shown in Fig. 2.5(c). The work done by the force P in deforming the bar is given by
W =
_

1
o
P d
where
1
is the nal displacement of the bar. The strain energy stored in the bar is equal to
W (U = W). This strain energy is represented in Fig. 2.5(c) by the area between the curve
1
Most of the material in this section comes from the book by Gere and Timoshenko Mechanics of
Materials.
28 CHAPTER 2. ENERGY METHODS IN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
and the axis. The strain energy can also be calculated by integrating the strain energy
density u
o
over the volume of the bar, that is
U =
_
V
u
o
dV =
_
V
_

1
0
d dV
P

#
P
P
dP
U

#
1
1
1
1

U
u
u
d
d
d
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 2.5: (a) Bar with nonlinear material behavior, (b) Stress-strain response, (c) Load-
Deection response.
Now let us dene the complementary work W

as follows:
W

=
_
P
1
0
dP (2.14)
where P
1
is the nal value of the load P. The complementary work is represented in Fig.
2.5(c) by the are between the P- curve and the P axis. Note that, although, W

does not
have a clear physical meaning,
W + W

= P
1

1
(2.15)
which is the area of a rectangle of sides P 1 and
1
, so in some sense W

is the complement
of W. The complementary energy U

is dened to be equal to the complementary work done


by the applied loads, so
U

= W

. (2.16)
Note then that
U

=
_
P
1
0
dP =
_

1
0

L
d
_
P
A
_
AL =
_
V
_

1
o
d dV =
_
V
u

dV (2.17)
where u

is the complementary energy density, or complementary energy per unit volume.


If, in addition to being geometrically linear, the bar is made of a linearly elastic
material, then the relation between P and will also be linear as shown in Fig. 2.6 and
U

= U. (2.18)
29
P

U
U
#
Figure 2.6: Strain and complementary energy for a linear structure.
Although the two quantities are numerically equal it is important to remember that they
are conceptually dierent quantities.
Now consider a geometrically linearly solid with strain energy density
u
o
=
_

o

x
d
x
+
y
d
y
+
z
d
z
+
xy
d
xy
+
yz
d
yz
+
xz
d
xz
and, by analogy, dene the complementary strain energy to be
u

=
_

o

x
d
x
+
y
d
y
+
z
d
z
+
xy
d
xy
+
yz
d
yz
+
xz
d
xz
. (2.19)
Note that whereas the strain energy is naturally written in terms of strains (or displace-
ments), the complementary energy is naturally written in terms of stresses (or loads).
If a structure is made up of multiple members (such as a truss or frame) we know
that, from energy conservation, the sum of the strain energy in each member must equal
the work done by the external forces and the strain energy of the whole structure. This is
independent of whether the structure is linear or nonlinear. A similar statement concerning
complementary energy is true if and only if the structure is geometrically linear.
The Crotti-Engesser Theorem and Castiglianos Second
Theorem
Consider the body subjected to N point loads in Fig. 2.1. The loads P
1
, P
2
, P
3
, . . . , P
N
cause
the body to deform from the shape indicated by the solid line into the shape indicated by
the dashed outline. The quantities
1
,
2
, . . . ,
N
are the displacements at the points where
the corresponding loads are applied and in the same direction as the loads. The body will
have complementary energy U

, which can be written as a function of the forces. That is


U

= U

(P
1
, P
2
, . . . , P
N
). (2.20)
30 CHAPTER 2. ENERGY METHODS IN STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Now suppose that one of the loads, say P
i
increases by a small amount dP
i
, then the
complementary energy will increase by an amount dU

equal to the additional complementary


work done. That is
dU

=
i
dP
i
(2.21)
as shown in Fig. 2.7.
P
dP

i
i
i
dU = dP + HOT
i i
#
Figure 2.7: Increment in complementary energy caused by an increase in dP
i
.
From equation (2.20) dU

is given by
dU

=
U

P
i
dP
i
. (2.22)
From equations (2.21) and (2.22) we obtain the Crotti-Engesser theorem,

i
=
U

P
i
. (2.23)
Note that the complementary energy must be expressed in terms of the loads.
If the structure is linear then U = U

and

i
=
U
P
i
(2.24)
provided the strain energy is written in terms of the loads, that is U = U(P
1
, P
2
, . . . , P
N
).
This is Castiglianos second theorem.
Chapter 3
Beams on Elastic Foundations
Introduction
The model of a beam on an elastic foundation was rst developed by Winkler in 1867 in order
to analyze railroad track. The model, shown in Fig. 3.1, considers a beam of bending rigidity
EI under some kind of transverse loading (distributed load or point loads) represented by the
variable q. The beam lies on a continuous, linearly elastic support which can be visualized
as a series of closely packed independent springs, that is, the deection of one spring does
not aect its neighbors. The stiness of the foundation is characterized by the parameter k,
which is the spring constant of the foundation per unit length along the beam. It has units
of force over length square.
centerline
EI
q(x)
k
Figure 3.1: Beam on an elastic foundation.
In order to keep the analysis simple, we will only consider foundations which are
attached to the beam so that the foundation and the beam are always in contact. The case
in which the foundation can detach from the beam is considerably harder to solve.
The statement of the problem of beams on elastic foundations is as follows: Given a
beam of bending rigidity EI resting on a foundation of stiness k and loaded by specied
transverse loads, nd the deection of the beam. Once the deection of the beam is known,
the strain and stress in the beam can be calculated.
31
32 CHAPTER 3. BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS
In addition to railroad tracks, the beam on an elastic foundation model has been
applied to analyze buried pipelines, networks of beams in oor systems, structures that
oat, etc.
Development of the Model
In this section we will develop the equations necessary to analyze problems of beams on
elastic foundations.
Kinematics
Only beams loaded in the plane of symmetry of the cross-section will be considered in
this discussion. Hence, all deections will also occur in the plane of symmetry. We adopt
kinematics consistent with small deections of the beam and the plane sections remain
plane assumption. Furthermore the beam is not subjected to axial loading. Under these
circumstances the axial strain in the beam is a function of x and z and is given by

x
= z (3.1)
where
= w

. (3.2)
Equilibrium
1
Consider the free-body diagram of an element of length dx of the beam as shown in Fig.
3.2. The coordinate axes are taken as indicated. The stress resultants on the left side of the
element are the shear force V and the bending moment M. Both of these quantities change
by an amount dV and dM over the length of the element. The deection of the element is w.
The foundation provides a reaction of magnitude kwdx and the distributed load contributes
q dx as shown in the gure.
Sum of forces in the z direction yields the following equation:
dV
dx
= kw q, (3.3)
while sum of moments about a point on the right edge of the element yields
dM
dx
= V. (3.4)
Taking one derivative of (3.4) with respect to x and substituting (3.3) gives,
d
2
M
dx
2
= kw q. (3.5)
1
This step can be replaced with an energy principle.
33
kw dx
q dx
M + dM
V + dV
M
V
z
x
w
dx
Figure 3.2: Free body diagram of an innitesimal length of the beam.
Constitutive Behavior
If the material of the beam is linearly elastic then the axial stress and the axial strain are
related through Hookes law

x
= E
x
. (3.6)
This, together with (3.1) yields the moment-curvature relationship
M = EI = EIw

. (3.7)
Final Form of Governing Equation
Substituting (3.7) into (3.5) yields the equation for the deection of the beam:
(EIw

+ kw = q (3.8)
and, if EI is constant,
EIw
iv
+ kw = q. (3.9)
The formulation of the beam on an elastic foundation results in a fourth-order linear dier-
ential equation for the displacement w.
Solution
Equation (3.9) can be easily solved. First re-write it as
w
iv
+ 4
4
w =
q
EI
, where =
4

k
4EI
. (3.10)
34 CHAPTER 3. BEAMS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS
Assume that the solution of the homogeneous equation is of the form
w
h
= Ae
rx
. (3.11)
The characteristic equation is
r
4
+ 4
4
= 0. (3.12)
The four roots of this equation are:
r =

2i,

2i,

2i,

2i. (3.13)
After some algebraic manipulations, the roots can be written as
r = (1 + i), (1 + i), (1 i), (1 i). (3.14)
As a result the homogeneous solution w
h
can be written as
w
h
= e
x
(C
1
cos x + C
2
sin x) + e
x
(C
3
cos x + C
4
sin x) . (3.15)
The particular solution w
p
depends on the load distribution q. For the case in which q is
constant, for example, w
p
= q/k so the nal form of the solution of (3.9) is:
w = e
x
(C
1
cos x + C
2
sin x) + e
x
(C
3
cos x + C
4
sin x) +
q
k
(3.16)
where C
1
, C
2
, C
3
and C
4
are constants of integration which are determined from the boundary
conditions.
Equation (3.16) is particularly useful in the case of long beans which can be considered
innite or semi-innite in length. In the case of beams of nite length which exhibit symmetry
or antisymmetry, (3.16) can be re-written in the more convenient form
w = Acosh xcos x + B cosh xsin x + C sinh xsin x + Dsinh xcos x +
q
k
(3.17)
where A, B, C and D are, again, constants of integration to be determined from the boundary
conditions.
Calculation of Bending Moment and Stress
Once the deection w is known as a function of x, the bending moment can be calculated
from equation (3.7).
The axial stress in the beam
x
, can be calculated from the well-known formula
=
Mz
I
(3.18)
or
= Ez = Ew

z (3.19)
where z is measured from the neutral axis of the beam to the point of interest.
Chapter 4
Beams with Axial Load
Consider a beam subjected to both axial and transverse loads as shown in Fig. 4.1(a). Let
the beam be slightly curved when it is unloaded, that is, let it be imperfect as shown by
the solid line in Fig. 4.1(b). The initial initial deection of the centroidal axis of the beam
will be denoted by w
o
and will be called the initial imperfection. The cross-section of the
beam is symmetric about the z axis as shown in Fig. 4.1(a). The x axis is set up so that it
would pass through the centroid of the cross-sections of the beam if it were perfect. All the
transverse forces have line of action along the z axis, and all moments have line of action
along the y axis. Under these conditions, the beam will deect exclusively along the z axis.
y
z
(a)
q
L
a b
c d
z
x
dx
m n
l
l
l-l
T
w
o
(b)
Figure 4.1: (a) Beam with transverse and axial loads, (b) Denition of initial imperfection.
Kinematics
Let u and w be the displacement components of any point in the beam along the x and z
axes. Note that, due to the imperfection in the beam, w = w
o
and u = u
o
when the beam
is unloaded, that is both u and w have initial values.
35
36 CHAPTER 4. BEAMS WITH AXIAL LOAD
In the discussion of the kinematics, all displacements are referred to the conguration
of a perfect (straight) beam. This will be called the reference conguration. The kinematics
of the innitesimal line segment mn in Fig. 4.1(a) originally aligned with the x axis and of
length dx in the reference conguration of the beam are shown in Fig. 4.2. Note that the left
end of the line has coordinates (x,z) in the reference conguration. Due to the imperfection
of the beam, however, this point takes the coordinates (x
o
,z
o
) when the beam is unloaded,
where
x
o
= x + u
o
and z
o
= z + w
o
. (4.1)
Note that the line segment is now inclined at an angle

o
and has length d s
o
.
x
z

ds
x
x
z
u
z
dx w
o
o
o
o

ds*
o
o z*
x*
u
w
*
Figure 4.2: Kinematics.
After the loads have been applied, the left end of the line segment moves to the point
(x

,z

) where
x

= x + u and z

= z + w. (4.2)
Now the line segment is inclined at an angle

and has length d s

.
From equations (2.5) and (2.6), it can be seen that
d s
2
dx
2
= 2

x
dx
2
(4.3)
where

x
= u

+
1
2
_
( u

)
2
+ ( w

)
2
_
.
For intermediate deformations ( u

<< 1), this expression can be simplied to

x
= u

+
1
2
( w

)
2
. (4.4)
Similarly,
d s
2
o
dx
2
= 2
xo
dx
2
(4.5)
37
where

xo
= u

o
+
1
2
w
2
o
. (4.6)
Since the beam is imperfect when unloaded, the stress will not be related not to the
total deformation d s

, but to the dierence of the deformations d s

and d s
o
. Note that
d s
2
d s
2
o
= d s
2
dx
2
(d s
2
o
dx
2
) (4.7)
or, letting d s
2
d s
2
o
= 2
x
dx
2

x
=

xo
. (4.8)
Hence

x
= u u
o
+
1
2
_
w
2
w
2
o
_
. (4.9)
Under the assumptions of intermediate deformations, the inclination of the line seg-
ments shown in Fig. 4.2 are given by:

= w

and

o
= w

o
, (4.10)
so the rotation of the line segment due to the loading of the beam is

o
= w

o
. (4.11)
The displacements u and w of an arbitrary point in the beam can be related to the
displacements u and w of the centroidal axis using two assumptions. The rst one is that
changes in the cross-sectional shape of the beam are negligible. This implies that w = w
and, hence, the rotation at an arbitrary point

is equal to the rotation of the centroidal
axis at the same location . The second one is the plane sections remain plane assumption,
which relates u to u and is explained in the handout Elementary Topics in Mechanics
of Solids.Therefore, in the imperfect, initial conguration,
u
o
= u
o

o
z and
o
= w

o
(4.12)
while in the current, loaded conguration,
u = u z and = w

. (4.13)
The axial strain in the beam is then given by

x
=
o
x
+ z (4.14)
where the membrane strain
o
x
is given by

o
x
= (u

o
) +
1
2
(w
2
w
2
o
) (4.15)
and the change in curvature is given by
= (w

o
) (4.16)
38 CHAPTER 4. BEAMS WITH AXIAL LOAD
Equilibrium
Figure 4.3 shows the free body diagram of a segment of the beam of length dx in the reference
conguration. Sum of forces in the x direction yields
N cos + (N + dN) cos( + d) + V sin (V + dV ) sin( + d) = 0 (4.17)
M
x
M+dM
V
V+dV
N+dN
N
q
ds*
dx*
dz*

+d
z
Figure 4.3: Free body diagram used to obtain the nonlinear equilibrium equations.
For moderate rotations we can approximate cos 1 and sin . Letting
dx 0 (4.17) reduces to
N

V

= 0. (4.18)
For slender beams, V is quite small so that the nonlinear interaction between shear and
rotations is customarily neglected. This assumption yields
N

= 0. (4.19)
Note that this equation says that the axial load in the beam is constant.
Sum of forces in the z direction yields
N sin V cos + (V + dV ) cos( + d) + (N + dN) sin( + d) + qdx

= 0. (4.20)
Using the same assumptions as above and realizing that dx

= (1 +u

)dx dx for u

<< 1,
(4.20) reduces to
V

+ N

+ q = 0 (4.21)
39
Sum of moments about the right end of the element gives
M +N cos dz

N sin dx

V cos dx

V sin dz

+qdx

dx

2
+M +dM = 0. (4.22)
Using the same assumptions as above, and noting that dz

dx yields
M

= V. (4.23)
Taking on derivative of (4.23) with respect to x and substituting into (4.21) gives
M

+ N

+ q = 0. (4.24)
Constitutive Behavior
The material considered is linearly elastic. This, combined with the plane sections remain
plane assumption and the fact that z = 0 at the centroid of the cross-section yield the familiar
relations (see the bending section in the handout Elementary Topics in Mechanics of
Solids)
M = EI and N = EA
o
x
. (4.25)
Final Form of the governing Equations
Substituting the rst equation in (4.25) into (4.24) yields
(EI)

+ N

= q (4.26)
or, substituting for and from (4.13) and (4.16) gives the dierential equation for the
transverse displacement w:
[EI(w

o
)]

Nw

= q. (4.27)
If EI is constant, then
EI(w
iv
w
iv
o
) Nw

= q. (4.28)
The equation for the axial displacements u can be obtained by substituting from the
second equation in(4.25) into (4.19), which yields
N

= (EA
o
x
)

= 0 (4.29)
which, for a prismatic beam, reduces to
N = EA
o
x
. (4.30)
Note the following points:
40 CHAPTER 4. BEAMS WITH AXIAL LOAD
The axial force in the beam is constant
As a result, (4.27) is a linear equation
If N = 0 and w
o
= 0 then (4.27) reduces to the usual beam equation
(EIw

= q
Chapter 5
Shear Deformations of Beams
Introduction
In many engineering applications the eect of shear in the calculation of beam deections is
neglected. This is a result of the customary assumption that plane sections originally plane
and perpendicular to the beam axis before deformation remain plane and perpendicular to
the beam axis after deformation (this is commonly called the plane sections remain plane
assumption). In some cases, however, shear deformations may be important. In these cases,
beam theory needs to be corrected to account for shear deformations. Timoshenko suggested
an approximate correction, which we will study
1
Before looking at the correction suggested by Timoshenko (sometimes called Tim-
oshenko beam theory to dierentiate it from the usual Bernoulli-Euler beam theory ), it is
helpful to review the calculation of shear stresses in beams
2
.
Review: Shear Stresses in Beams
Recall that beams subjected to transverse loading develop shear stresses in addition to axial
bending stresses. The presence of shear is usually illustrated by considering two beams,
labeled Case 1 and Case 2 in Fig. 1. Beam 1 is a solid beam of height 2h while beam 2
consists of two beams, each of height h, one on top of the other. If a load is applied as
shown, beam 1 develops the usual axial stress distribution. Each beam which constitutes
beam 2, however, develops its own axial stress distribution and there is slip at the interface
between them. This indicates that the shear stress is zero at the interface and that each
beam works independently. As a result,the beam in Case 1 is stier than that in Case 2. If
we nail the two constituents of beam 2 together, the nails will carry the shear stress at the
interface and the beam will become stier.
Figure 2 (a) shows the stress distribution in a beam with rectangular cross-section.
1
Reference: Gere, J. M. and Timoshenko, S. P., Mechanics of Materials, Brooks/Cole Engineering Divi-
sion, 1984.
2
The presentation and gures come from Timoshenkos book
41
42 CHAPTER 5. SHEAR DEFORMATIONS OF BEAMS
2h
Case 1 Case 2
Figure 5.1: Demonstration of the eect of shear. Note dierent axial stress distributions
indicated by the shaded areas.
The shear force acting in the cross-section shown is V . Figure 2 (b) shows the shear stresses
in the element m-n. Recall that shear stresses come in pairs acting in perpendicular planes,
so in this case we have a shear stress
xz
in the y z plane and an equal stress
zx
in the
x y plane (since
xz
=
zx
we will refer to both by ). The assumptions about the shear
stress distribution are:
is parallel to V .
distribution is uniform across the width of the cross-section.
Figure 3 (a) shows a side view of an element of beam of length dx, while Fig. 3 (b)
shows the front view of the cross-section. The bending stress distribution is given by

x
=
Mz
I
(5.1)
where M is the bending moment, and I is the moment of inertia of the cross-section. Notice
that a shear stress acts along the segment p-p
1
.
Considering the equilibrium of the segment p-p
1
-n-n
1
, we get that

F
x
=
_ h
2
z
1
Mz
I
b dz +
_ h
2
z
1
(M + dM)z
I
b dz b dx = 0, (5.2)
so
dM
dx
1
I
_ h
2
z
1
z dz = 0 (5.3)
but
dM
dx
= V (5.4)
43
Figure 5.2: Shear stress in a beam cross-section.
Figure 5.3: Beam element under shear stress
44 CHAPTER 5. SHEAR DEFORMATIONS OF BEAMS
then
=
V
I
_ h
2
z
1
z dz (5.5)
or
=
V Q
Ib
(5.6)
where
Q =
_ h
2
z
1
bz dz, (5.7)
the rst moment of the shaded area about the y axis.
Note that for a rectangular cross-section,
=
V
2I
_
h
2
4
z
2
1
_
(5.8)
so the shear stress distribution is parabolic. The shear stress is zero at z =
h
2
and z =
h
2
,
and it is maximum at z = 0.
Equations (7) and (8) can be used with some other cross-sectional shapes provided
that the appropriate expression for Q is adopted.
The Timoshenko Approximation
Since the shear stress varies parabolically over the cross-section, the shear strain, given by
=

G
, (5.9)
where G is the shear modulus of the material, must vary in the same manner. This has the
following implications:
Cross-sections become warped as shown in Fig. 4.
The maximum shear strain occurs at the neutral axis.
The shear strain is zero at points such as m
1
, p
1
, n
1
and q
1
, so sections there are normal
to the beam surface.
Warping of the cross-sections can be explained with the help of Fig. 5. An undeformed
beam segment is shown in Fig. 5(a). It has been divided into ve equal blocks as shown.
Upon the application of pure shear stress, each block deforms as shown in Fig. 5(b). The
farther a block is from the neutral axis, the smaller its shear strain, so the net result, shown
in Fig. 5 (c) is that
1
>
2
>
3
where
3
= 0 since it is the shear strain at the edge of the
cross-section.
If we let the height of the blocks go to zero and the number of blocks go to innity,
the prole of the section under pure shear becomes smooth as shown in Fig. 6 (a) (the
45
Figure 5.4: Cross-section warping due to shear stress.

1
2
3
c

=
0
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 5.5: (a) Division of longitudinal beam segment into nite blocks (b) Center block
under pure shear stress. (c) Visualization of shear deformations based on the nite blocks
46 CHAPTER 5. SHEAR DEFORMATIONS OF BEAMS
undeformed shape of the section is shown by the dashed rectangle). The contribution of
shear to the deection can now be visualized by rotating the element clockwise until the
deformed section is vertical at point m so that it coincides with the undeformed section
there. This is like enforcing the plane sections remain plane at point m. It can be sen
that the shear deformation will contribute to the deection of the beam. The slope of the
contribution of shear to the deection of the axis of the beam is equal to the maximum shear
strain
c
, which is also the shear strain at the neutral axis. Therefore,
dw
s
dx
=
c
(5.10)
where w
s
is the shear contribution to the deection.
(a) (b)

c
m
n

c
m
n
Figure 5.6: (a) Warping of the cross-section due to shear (b) Visualization of the contribution
of shear to beam deection (deformations are exaggerated).
Timoshenko proposed that
dw
s
dx
=

s
V
GA
(5.11)
where V is the shear force, A is the cross-sectional area of the beam and G is the shear
modulus of the material. Therefore,
V
A
is the average shear stress on the cross-section of the
beam. Finally,
s
is a numerical factor (or shear coecient) by which the average shear
stress must be multiplied to obtain the shear stress at the centroid of the cross-section. The
shear coecient depends on the shape of the cross-section. For example, for a rectangular
cross-section,
s
=
3
2
.
Taking one derivative of (11) we get
d
2
w
s
dx
2
=

s
GA
dV
dx
=

s
q
GA
, (5.12)
47
where q is the distributed load on the beam.
Finally, the total deection of the beam is taken to be
w = w
b
+ w
s
(5.13)
where w
b
is the deection due to bending alone. Therefore,
d
2
w
dx
2
=
d
2
w
b
dx
2
+
d
2
w
s
dx
2
(5.14)
or
d
2
w
dx
2
=
M
EI


s
q
GA
(5.15)
which is commonly written as
d
2
w
dx
2
=
1
EI
_
M +

s
EI
GA
q
_
. (5.16)
So, given a particular problem, this equation can be integrated twice to evaluate the trans-
verse displacement of a beam considering the eect of shear deformations. From (16) we
can see that shear deformations can be important for materials with low shear modulus
(compared to Youngs modulus). This is often true in the case of composite materials.
48 CHAPTER 5. SHEAR DEFORMATIONS OF BEAMS
Chapter 6
Unsymmetric Bending
Introduction
So far we have considered beams that have cross-sections with at least one plane of symmetry,
which we have required to coincide with the plane of bending. In addition, the transverse
loading in the beam has always been required to act in the plane of bending. Therefore
the bending moment is perpendicular to the plane of bending. Under these conditions, the
beams deect exclusively in the plane of bending. Some examples of the cases treated so far
are shown in Fig. 1.
Plane of
Bending
Figure 6.1: Examples of cross-sectional shapes with one plane of symmetry.
We will now consider beams which bend in two planes simultaneously
1
. We will start
with the simplest case which is that of a beam with doubly symmetric cross-section, but
which is loaded by a transverse load which is not in the plane of bending. One such example
is shown in Fig. 2 (a).
1
Reference: Gere, J. M. and Timoshenko, S. P., Mechanics of Materials, Brooks/Cole Engineering Divi-
sion, 1984
49
50 CHAPTER 6. UNSYMMETRIC BENDING
z
y
x
x
L
P
z
y
n
n
M
M
M
y
z

A
(a)
(b)

Figure 6.2: Beam with doubly symmetrical cross-section subjected to a skew load.
Beams With Doubly Symmetric Cross-sections Under
Skew Loads
This case is relatively simple since the loading can be decomposed into components lying
in the two planes of symmetry of the cross-section as shown in Fig. 2 (b). Since the beam
equation derived previously is linear as long as the deections are small and the material
remains linear, the deection in each of the y and z axes can be calculated separately.
For bending in the x z plane we can use the familiar equation
EI
y
d
2
w
dx
2
= M
y
(6.1)
where w is the deection along the z axis. In the case of bending in the x y plane we have
EI
z
d
2
v
dx
2
= M
z
(6.2)
where v is the deection along the y axis (why is the sign dierent in this case?). Finally,
the total beam deection is given by the vector sum of w
y
and w
z
.
Note that the stress produced at point A is given by

x
=
M
y
z
I
y

M
z
y
I
z
. (6.3)
The neutral plane (plane of zero stress) can be found by setting
x
equal to zero. So, in the
case considered,
M cos z
I
y

M sin y
I
z
= 0 (6.4)
which yields
tan =
z
y
=
I
y
I
z
tan (6.5)
51
General Theory of Pure Bending
The general theory of pure bending refers to the treatment of beams with general cross-
sectional shape (symmetric and unsymmetric). Figure 3 shows some possible unsymmetric
cross-sectional shapes.
Figure 6.3: Examples of cross-sectional shapes with no planes of symmetry.
Figure 4 shows a general shape cross-section. The origin of the y-z axes is located
at the centroid of the area. The sign conventions for the curvatures
y
and
z
in the x-y
and the x-z planes respectively, are shown in Figure 5. The convention is such that positive
moments yield positive curvatures. From this gure, it is easy to see that

y
= d
2
v/dx
2
and
z
= d
2
w/dx
2
. (6.6)
y
z
A
M
z
M
y
Figure 6.4: Unsymmetric cross-section with non-principal centroidal axes.
Using the plane sections remain plane assumption, the axial strain at point A is given
by

x
=
z
z
y
y (6.7)
52 CHAPTER 6. UNSYMMETRIC BENDING
+
x
y
+
x
z
y z
Figure 6.5: Curvature sign convention.
so the axial stress is

x
= E (
z
z
y
y) (6.8)
The normal force can now be evaluated and, recalling that it must be zero for pure
bending, yields
N =
_
A

x
dA = 0 or
z
_
A
z dA
y
_
A
y dA = 0 (6.9)
which is automatically satised since the origin of the y-z axes is located at the centroid.
The moment about the y axis, M
y
is given by
M
y
=
_
A

x
z dA = E
z
_
A
z
2
dAE
y
_
A
yz dA (6.10)
or
M
y
= EI
y

z
EI
yz

y
(6.11)
where I
y
is the centroidal moment of inertia of the area about the y axis and I
yz
is the
product of inertia of the area.
Similarly,
M
z
=
_
A

x
y dA = E
z
_
A
yz dAE
y
_
A
y
2
dA (6.12)
or
M
z
= EI
yz

z
+ EI
z

y
. (6.13)
Solving for
y
and
z
we get

y
=
M
z
I
y
+ M
y
I
yz
E
_
I
y
I
z
I
2
yz
_
(6.14)
and

z
=
M
y
I
z
+ M
z
I
yz
E
_
I
y
I
z
I
2
yz
_
. (6.15)
Substituting(14) and (15) into (8) gives the expression for the stress
x

x
=
(M
y
I
z
+ M
z
I
yz
)z (M
z
I
y
+ M
y
I
yz
)y
I
y
I
z
I
2
yz
. (6.16)
53
Shear Stresses in Thin-Walled Beams Bent About Non-
principal Axes
In this section we consider the shear stress distribution in thin-walled beams when subjected
to bending about non-principal axes as shown in Fig. 6.6(a). The shear forces applied are V
y
and V
z
. In the treatment of thin-walled sections it is customary to neglect the shear stresses
which act in the through-thickness direction and to assume that the shear stresses act along
the mid-surface as shown in Fig. 6.6 (b). As customary, the origin of the y and z axes is at
the centroid of the cross-section. Note that the thickness of the section is a function of s.
y
z
x
a
b
c
d
V
y
V
z
s
a
b
c
d

dx
S
(a)
(b)
F
1
F
2
A
dA
t(s)
Figure 6.6: Shear stresses in a beam of thin-walled open cross-section
Consider the free-body diagram of the element abcd. The faces of the element which
face the x axis have area

A. Equilibrium yields

F
x
= F
2
F
1
+ t dx = 0 (6.17)
where t is the thickness at point c and
F
1
=
_

x
d

A and F
2
=
_

A
_

x
+
d
x
dx
dx
_
d

A (6.18)
so
=
1
t
_

A
d
x
dx
d

A. (6.19)
54 CHAPTER 6. UNSYMMETRIC BENDING
From equation (6.16),
d
x
dx
=
(
dMy
dx
I
z
+
dMz
dx
I
yz
)z (
dMz
dx
I
y
+
dMy
dx
I
yz
)y
I
y
I
z
I
2
yz
, (6.20)
but, according to the sign convention used as shown in Fig. 6.7,
dM
y
dx
= V
z
and
dM
z
dx
= V
y
(6.21)
so, nally we obtain
=
1
t(I
y
I
z
I
2
yz
)
_
V
z
_
I
z
_

A
z d

AI
yz
_

A
y d

A
_
+ V
y
_
I
y
_

A
y d

AI
yz
_

A
z d

A
__
, (6.22)
which is the nal expression for the shear stress.
M
M + dM
V
V + dV
z
x
y y
z z
z
y
M + dM
V
V + dV
y
x
z z
y y
y
M
z
z y
Figure 6.7: Axial stress resultants in the x-z and y-z planes
Chapter 7
Plastic Problems
Introduction
When metals are stressed beyond certain limit, the relation between stress and strain becomes
nonlinear, and Hookes law is no longer valid. For example, Figs. 7.1(a) and (b) show
schematics of typical stress-strain curves for hot rolled structural steel and cold rolled steel
respectively. The limit of linear elasticity for these materials is called the proportional limit.
This is the point when the stress-strain curve ceases to be linear. Since such limit is dicult
to determine accurately, especially in the case in Fig. 7.1(b) the concept of a yield stress
has been introduced as a criterion to determine the end of linearly elastic behavior. In Fig.
7.1(a), the yield stress is dened as the value of the stress plateau which immediately follows
yield. In Fig. 7.1(b) the yield stress is dened by the so-called 0.2% strain oset criterion as
indicated in the gure.

o
1
E
1
E
0.002
(a)
(b)
1
E
Figure 7.1: Examples of stress-strain curves.
Most structures are designed so that they remain linearly elastic during service. Many
instances exist, however, when it is necessary to study the behavior of structures or solids
55
56 CHAPTER 7. PLASTIC PROBLEMS
after yielding has occurred. For example:
Predict the behavior of the structures should an overload occur
Analysis of manufacturing processes involving cold work
Design of structures based on ultimate load rather than yield load.
In order to maintain simplicity, we will only consider structural elements which are
subjected to a uniaxial state of stress and undergo relatively small strains.
Approximation of Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curves
Generally, it is necessary to approximate a measured stress-strain curve to simplify analy-
sis and make it more systematic. Many approximations to stress-strain curves have been
proposed, some of which are presented in Fig. 7.2.
Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Fit This is the simplest approximation and is shown in Fig.
7.2(a). It contains two parameters: Youngs modulus E and a yield stress parameter

Y
. Note that the stress remains constant after yield.
Elastic-Linearly Hardening Fit This is a three parameter model and takes the eect
of strain hardening
1
into account, as shown in Fig. 7.2(b). The three parameters
are: Youngs modulus E, yield stress parameter
Y
and the post-yield slope E

. A
generalization of this model consists of using a piecewise linear approximation for the
whole stress-strain curve as shown in Fig. 7.2(c). This approximation is usually adopted
in commercially available numerical analysis codes.
Ramberg-Osgood Fit This three-parameter t belongs to the family of power-law ts and
is used when a smooth t may be desirable. It is given by the equation
=

E
_
1 +
3
7
_

Y
_
n1
_
.
The three parameters used are: Youngs modulus E, Ramberg-Osgood yield stress
Y
and the hardening exponent n. The parameters
Y
and n can be found by trial and
error. A good initial guess for
Y
is
o
. A good guess form n can be obtained by
plotting log( /E) vs log and tting a straight line through the data. The slope
of the line is equal to n.
1
Strain hardening simply means that the stress keeps rising with increasing strain after yield.
57

(a)

(c)

(d)

(b)
Y

1
E
Actual
Fit
Y

1
E
1
E
1
E

3
Figure 7.2: Approximation of stress-strain curves: (a) Elastic-perfectly plastic, (b) Bilinear,
(c) Multi-linear, (d) Ramberg-Osgood.
58 CHAPTER 7. PLASTIC PROBLEMS
L
Cross-section
y
z
dA=b(z)dz dz
b(z)
Figure 7.3: Beam with doubly symmetric cross-section.
Inelastic Bending
This section considers bending of a beam with doubly symmetric cross-section of height h
as shown in Fig. 7.3. The restriction of symmetry of the cross-section about the y axis will
become apparent later
2
. The material of the beam is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic,
with equal properties in tension and compression as shown in g. 7.4.
Kinematics
The assumption that plane sections originally perpendicular to the beams axis remain plane
and perpendicular to the deected axis will be retained. Furthermore, we will require that
the axial load in the beam be zero. Under these conditions, it has been shown that the axial
strain is given by

x
= z (7.1)
where = w

if the deection of the beam w is small.


Constitutive Relations
When the material is in the elastic range, the stress
x
is related to
x
through Hookes law

x
= E
x
. This, combined with (7.1) yields the well-known relation
M = EI. (7.2)
The expression for the stress in the beam is

x
= E
x
= Ez =
Mz
I
. (7.3)
2
Recall that symmetry about the z axis, combined with the requirement that all forces act in this plane
of symmetry and all moments perpendicular to it guarantees that the deection of the beam will occur
exclusively along the z axis.
59

Y
Y
Y
Y
1
E
Figure 7.4: Assumed elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain curve.
60 CHAPTER 7. PLASTIC PROBLEMS

z
h/ 2
-h/ 2

z
h/ 2
-h/ 2
(a) (b)

Y
Figure 7.5: Strain and stress distributions if the material is elastic everywhere.
The strain and stress distributions are shown in Figs. 7.5(a) and (b) respectively. They are
both linear.
As the loading on the beam increases so does the curvature and eventually, the max-
imum stress in the beam reaches the yield stress
Y
, which occurs when the strain is
Y
as
shown in Fig. 7.4, for the rst time. At this time, the rst yield condition is

Y
=
Y
h
2
(7.4)
where
Y
is the yield curvature. Upon use of Hookes law (7.4) can be re-written and solved
for
Y
, yielding

Y
=
2
Y
Eh
or M
Y
=
2I
Y
h
. (7.5)
where the quantity M
Y
is called the yield moment. Note that in account of the symmetry of
the cross-section and of the stress-strain response of the material, yielding occurs at z = h/2
simultaneously.
Further increase in curvature causes the material to enter the plastic range, so that
the post yield strain and stress distributions are as shown in Fig. 7.6(a) and (b) respectively.
The assumption that plane sections remain plane still holds in the plastic range, hence the
strain varies linearly with z but the stress distribution is no longer linear. As the curvature
of the beam increases, the plastic regions move inwards from the edges of the beam towards
the neutral axis. Note that in account of symmetry, the stress distribution is symmetric
about the y axis. This means that the neutral axis of the beam remains located at z = 0,
something that would not be true if the cross-section was only symmetric about the z axis.
This restriction greatly simplies the analysis and it is the main reason the double symmetry
restriction on the cross-section was adopted. The moment is given by
M =
_
A

x
z dA (7.6)
61

z
h/ 2
-h/ 2

z
h/ 2
-h/ 2
(a) (b)

Y
h
h
Figure 7.6: Strain and stress distributions if some of the material in the beam has yielded.
where dA = b(z) dz as shown in Fig. 7.3. Hence
M = 2
_
_

h
0
Ez
2
b(z)dz +
_ h
2

Y
zb(z) dz
_
. (7.7)
For a rectangular section b(z) = b, a constant, so (7.7) reduces to
M = 2
_
Eb

h
3
3
+

Y
b
2
_
h
2
4

h
2
__
. (7.8)
The height of the elastic region

h can be easily determined by noticing that at z =

h,

x
=
Y
=
Y
/E, so that

h =

Y
E
. (7.9)
Substituting (7.9) into (7.8) yields the expression for the moment in terms of the
curvature
M =

Y
bh
2
4


3
Y
b
3E
2

2
(7.10)
Note that both the curvature and the moment are assumed to be positive in this
expression, and that changing the sign of does not change the sign of M. To account for
the sign of the curvature, (7.10) needs to be slightly modied as follows:
M = sgn()
_

Y
bh
2
4


3
Y
b
3E
2

2
_
. (7.11)
Note that as the moment approaches the value
M
u
=

Y
bh
2
4
(7.12)
which is called the ultimate moment of the beam and occurs when the elastic region disap-
pears and the stress distribution is as shown in Fig. 7.7.
62 CHAPTER 7. PLASTIC PROBLEMS

z
h/ 2
-h/ 2

Y
Figure 7.7: Stress distribution at the ultimate moment.
Note that, for a rectangular cross-section, the yield curvature and the yield moment
are given by

Y
=
2
Y
Eh
and M =

Y
bh
2
6
(7.13)
respectively. Using these expressions, the curvature of the beam can be written as follows

Y
= sgn(M)
1
_
3 2
|M|
M
Y
(7.14)
Example: Cantilever Beam
Chapter 8
Forces and Stresses in Solids
External Forces
Consider a body of general shape (sometimes called the solid mechanics potato) on which
a set of forces with resultants, F
1
. . . F
5
act, as shown in Fig. 8.1. These forces are called
external forces. External forces can be divided into two kinds:
1. Surface Forces These forces act on the boundary of the body. They are usually given
in terms of force per unit area. Note that concentrated forces are used for convenience
in Fig. 8.1. In actuality all forces act over a nite area. Examples include pressure,
reaction forces, etc.
2. Body Forces These forces act in the inside of the body. They are usually given in terms
of force per unit volume. Examples include gravity forces, centrifugal forces, etc.
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
5
x
y
z
Figure 8.1: External force resultants acting on an arbitrary body
If the body in Fig. 8.1 is in equilibrium, the forces F
1
. . . F
5
are not arbitrary. They
must satisfy the equilibrium conditions; that is, the vector sum of all forces as well as of
63
64 CHAPTER 8. FORCES AND STRESSES IN SOLIDS
all moments acting on the body have to have zero resultant. The equilibrium equations in
vector form are:

F = 0 and

M = 0, (8.1)
or if we consider the Cartesian frame shown, we can write the equations in component form:

F
x
= 0,

F
y
= 0,

F
z
= 0,

M
x
= 0,

M
y
= 0,

M
z
= 0. (8.2)
which are the familiar six equations of equilibrium.
Internal Forces
In order for a solid not to break when external forces are applied, it needs to develop internal
forces that keep it together. For example, consider the situation in Fig. 8.2. Here the body
has been split into two parts. If the body as a whole is in equilibrium, then each part must
also be in equilibrium. The force resultant F and the moment resultant M represent the
loads which act on the surface where the body was split. When the body is in one piece
these resultants arise from the cohesive forces in the material.
The operation of splitting a body in order to study the internal force and moment
resultants is very commonly done. For example, in beam analysis we often split a beam in a
plane perpendicular to its axis in order to calculate the shear force and the bending moment,
which are the internal loads which keep the beam together.
F
F
M
M
F
1
F
2
F
3
F
4
F
5
x
y
z
Figure 8.2: Detail of cohesive force resultants which keep the body together.
The force and moment resultants in Fig. 8.2 are the resultants or static equivalents of
a distributed cohesive force which acts over the areas generated by splitting the body. This
distributed load, of course, is measured in units of force per unit area. Now consider small
(innitesimal) elements of area as shown in Fig. 8.3. Each area element has two important
characteristics for our purposes: Its size, given by A and its orientation, given by the
65
outward unit vector n. A force F acts in each area element. This force is equal to the
value of the distributed load acting at the location of the small area times A. Now comes
an important concept: The traction at a point is dened by:
n
T
= lim
A0
F
A
. (8.3)
Note that
n
T
is a vector with units of force per unit area. The n on top of the T indicates
that the traction depends on the orientation of the outward normal of the area considered.
F
1
F
2
F
5
n
F
A
Figure 8.3: Denition of traction.
If the we extract a cube from the inside of the body that has its faces aligned with
the coordinate axes, then the components of the traction vector acting on each face with
normal along the positive direction of the axes are shown in Fig. 8.4. The tractions on each
of the faces are given by:
i
T
=
x
i +
xy
j +
xz
k (8.4)
j
T
=
yx
i +
y
j +
yz
k (8.5)
k
T
=
zx
i +
zy
j +
z
k (8.6)
where i, j and k are unit vectors along the x, y and z axes respectively.
The nine quantities
x
,
y
,
z
,
xy
,
yx
,
xz
,
zx
,
yz
and
zy
dene the state of stress
at a point.
x
,
y
and
z
are called the normal stresses and
xy
,
yx
,
xz
,
zx
,
yz
and
zy
are
called the shear stresses.
Subscript Order and Sign Convention
The meaning of the subscript in the normal stresses is obvious from the gure. The subscripts
in the shear stresses have the following order: The rst subscript indicates the orientation of
the face of the cube on which the shear component acts while the second subscript determines
the direction in which it points. For example, in Fig. 8.4,
xz
acts on the face that has normal
i and points along the z axis, but
zx
acts on the face that has normal k and points along
the x axis.
66 CHAPTER 8. FORCES AND STRESSES IN SOLIDS
x
y
z

xy

yx

xz

zx

yz

zy
i
j
k
Figure 8.4: Traction components
The sign convention for the stress component is as follows. A stress component is
positive if the outward normal of the face in which it acts and the direction in which it points
have the same sign, otherwise it is negative. All components in Fig. 8.4 are positive.
Cauchys Formula
Now, what happens if the orientation of the area in which we are interested does not coincide
with the coordinate directions? In this case we have the situation shown in Fig. 8.5. In this
gure we consider an arbitrarily oriented area dA. The unit normal to this area is given by:
n = n
x
i + n
y
j + n
z
k (8.7)
where n
x
= n i, n
y
= n j and n
z
= n k are the direction cosines of n. Note that
n
2
x
+n
2
y
+n
2
z
= 1. The areas of the element in Fig. 8.5 which are aligned with the coordinate
axes are given by dA
x
= n
x
dA, dA
y
= n
y
dA, dA
z
= n
z
dA and the volume of the element is
dV =

2n
x
n
y
n
z
3
dA
3/2
.
The body force B and the traction
n
T
are given by
B = B
x
i + B
y
i + B
z
k (8.8)
n
T
=
n
T
x
i+
n
T
y
j+
n
T
z
k. (8.9)
Summing forces in the x direction we get:

x
dA
x

yx
dA
y

zx
dA
z
+ B
x
dV +
n
T
x
dA = 0
67
which, letting dA 0, yields
n
T
x
=
x
n
x
+
yx
n
y
+
zx
n
z
.
Repeating for the y and z directions,
n
T
y
=
xy
n
x
+
y
n
y
+
zy
n
z
n
T
z
=
xz
n
x
+
yz
n
y
+
z
n
z
or, in matrix form,
_

_
n
T
x
n
T
y
n
T
z
_

_
=
_

x

yx

zx

xy

y

zy

xz

yz

z
_

_
_

_
n
x
n
y
n
z
_

_
. (8.10)
This is Cauchys formula. Given the state of stress at a point and the orientation of a surface
passing through that point, it calculates the traction there.

xy

yx

xz

zx

yz

zy
T
n
n
dA
dA
dA
dA
x
z
y
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z
B
Figure 8.5: Element used for the derivation of Cauchys formula.
Note that the stress matrix represents the state of stress at a point. It is a function
of position (and time for a dynamic problem). The traction vector depends on the state of
stress and on the orientation of the plane of interest.
68 CHAPTER 8. FORCES AND STRESSES IN SOLIDS
i
j
k
+
zy zy,z
dz
+
xy xy,x
dx
+
y y,y
dy

zy

xy

y
B
y
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z
Figure 8.6: Traction components in the y direction.
Equilibrium
In order for the internal forces in the body to be in equilibrium, the stress components cannot
be arbitrary, they must satisfy the equations of equilibrium. Figure 8.6 shows the stress
components acting on a cube of material of dimensions dx by dy by dz which correspond to
the traction components along the y axis. The traction components in the x and z directions
have been omitted for clarity. Note that the magnitude of each stress component can change
going from one face of the cube to another. The change can be represented using Taylor
series expansions. Note that partial derivatives have been indicated by a comma followed by
a subscript. For example,

xy,x
=

xy
x
.
Terms of higher order than the linear have been omitted. The component of the body force
in the y direction has also been included. Summing forces in the y direction yields

F
y
=
y
dxdz
xy
dydz
zy
dxdy +
(
y
+
y,y
dy) dxdz + (
xy
+
xy,x
dx) dydz + (
zy
+
zy.z
dz) dxdy + B
y
dxdydz = 0
which gives

xy,x
+
y,y
+
zy,z
+ B
y
= 0
Equilibrium of forces in the x and z directions yields two more equilibrium equations
so that we obtain a set of three force equilibrium equations

x,x
+
yx,y
+
zx,z
+ B
x
= 0
69
c
x
+
xy xy,x
dx

xy
B
y
+
yx yx,y
dy

yx
y
dy
dx
B
x
Figure 8.7: Traction components in the x-y plane.

xy,x
+
y,y
+
zy,z
+ B
y
= 0 (8.11)

xz,x
+
yz,y
+
z,z
+ B
z
= 0.
Three more equilibrium equations can be obtained by considering moment equilib-
rium. Figure 8.7 shows the top view of the innitesimal block in Fig. 8.6. All traction
components in the x-y plane have been identied with arrows but only those which can
contribute to a moment about the z axis have been labeled. Summing moments about the
center of the element, point c, yields

xy
dydz
dx
2

yx
dxdz
dy
2
+ (
xy
+
xy,x
dx)dydz
dx
2
(
yx
+
yx,y
dy)dxdz
dy
2
= 0.
Dividing by dxdydz and letting dx, dy, dz 0 gives

xy
=
yx
.
Considering moment equilibrium about the x and y axes yields two more identities.
In summary, moment equilibrium indicates that

xy
=
yx

yz
=
zy
(8.12)

zx
=
xz
.
This indicates that the stress matrix in (8.10) is symmetric, so it has six independent entries.
70 CHAPTER 8. FORCES AND STRESSES IN SOLIDS
That is, the stress matrix can be written as
=
_

x

xy

xz

xy

y

yz

xz

yz

z
_

_ (8.13)
Linear Elastic Constitutive Relations
In order to generalize Hookes law to three dimensions, consider the blocks depicted in Fig.
8.8. Since the block in Fig. 8.8(a) has only the stress
x
applied to it, the strains in the
block will be

x
=

x
E

y
=
z
=
x
=

x
. (8.14)
Similarly, for the block in Fig. 8.8(b),

y
=

y
E

x
=
z
=
y
=

y
, (8.15)
and for the block in Fig. 8.8(c),

z
=

z
E

x
=
y
=
z
=

z
. (8.16)
In the case of the block in Fig. 8.8(d), the state of stress is pure shear, so no normal
strains will develop and

xy
=
1
G

xy
. (8.17)
Since the material considered is isotropic, the relation between the other two shear strains
and stresses will be

yz
=
1
G

yz

xz
=
1
G

xz
. (8.18)
If the material is subjected to a multi-axial state of stress, the stress-strain relation
will be given by the superposition of equations (8.14)-(8.18). Thus,
_

xy

yz

xz
_

_
=
_

_
1
E

E
0 0 0

E
1
E

E
0 0 0

E
1
E
0 0 0
0 0 0
1
G
0 0
0 0 0 0
1
G
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
G
_

_
_

xy

yz

xz
_

_
. (8.19)
Note that even though the stress was previously shown to be a 3 3 matrix, it is often
convenient to represent it as a six-dimensional vector when writing the constitutive equations.
71
y
z
x
y
z

x
x
z

y
y
x
y
z

z
x
y

xy

xy

xy

xy
(a)
(d)
(c)
(b)
Figure 8.8: Stress-strain relations for an isotropic material.
72 CHAPTER 8. FORCES AND STRESSES IN SOLIDS
Chapter 9
Kinematics of Solids in Cartesian
Coordinates
Strain Components
This section discusses the kinematics of solids in Cartesian coordinates. The objective is
to nd the strain-displacement relations or, in other words, the expressions for the strains
developed during deformation of a solid body in terms of the displacements of the points in
the body.
Consider a reference state of a body which is dened by zero displacement as shown
in Fig. 9.1. Usually, this corresponds to the position of the body when it is unloaded. Two
points m and n dene an innitesimal line segment of length ds. The coordinates of point m
are (x, y, z) while those of n are (x+dx, y +dy, z +dz). After the body is loaded it moves to
the current state, also shown in Fig.9.1. The points m and n now occupy positions m

and
n

and the line segment between them has a new length ds

. The coordinates of location m

are now (x

, y

, z

). The displacement components of point m in the x, y and z directions


are u, v and w respectively. The gure indicates that the displacement is due to both rigid
body motion and deformation of the body.
It is clear form Fig. 9.1 that
x

= x + u
y

= y + v (9.1)
z

= z + w.
Also note that
ds
2
= dx
2
+ dy
2
+ dz
2
ds
2
= dx
2
+ dy
2
+ dz
2
. (9.2)
From (1.1), partial dierentiation
1
with respect to x, y and z gives
x

,x
= 1 + u
,x
x

,y
= u
,y
x

,z
= u
,z
(9.3)
1
Partial dierentiation will be indicated by using a comma followed by subscripts. For example, u
,x
=
u
x
73
74 CHAPTER 9. KINEMATICS OF SOLIDS IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES
x
y
z
m
n
m
n
u
v
w
(x,y,z)
ds
ds*
(x*,y*,z*)
Reference State
Current State
Figure 9.1: Deformation of a body in Cartesian coordinates.
and similarly for y

and z

. Also from (9.3)


dx

= x

,x
dx + x

,y
dy + x

,z
dz = (1 + u
,x
)dx + u
,y
dy + u
,z
dz. (9.4)
A similar procedure yields the expressions for dy

and dz

. Substituting these expressions


into the equation for ds
2
in (9.2) gives the following expression
ds
2
ds
2
= 2
x
dx
2
+ 2
y
dy
2
+ 2
z
dz
2
+ 2
xy
dxdy + 2
xz
dxdz + 2
yz
dydz (9.5)
where

x
= u
,x
+
1
2
_
u
2
,x
+ v
2
,x
+ w
2
,x
_

y
= v
,y
+
1
2
_
u
2
,y
+ v
2
,y
+ w
2
,y
_

z
= w
,z
+
1
2
_
u
2
,z
+ v
2
,z
+ w
2
,z
_
(9.6)

xy
= u
,y
+ v
,x
+ u
,x
u
,y
+ v
,x
v
,y
+ w
,x
w
,y

xz
= u
,z
+ w
,x
+ u
,x
u
,z
+ v
,x
v
,z
+ w
,x
w
,z

yz
= v
,z
+ w
,y
+ u
,y
u
,z
+ v
,y
v
,z
+ w
,y
w
,z
Note that the quantity ds
2
ds
2
does not depend on the rigid motion of the body
2
and,
as a result, is a measure of the deformation of the body. The quantities
x
,
y
,
z
,
xy
,
xz
,
and
yz
are called the components of strain. Note that these expressions are valid for large
deformations of the body since no assumptions regarding the magnitude of u, v and w were
made.
2
Rigid body motion has, by denition, ds
2
ds
2
= 0.
75
Linear Strains
In many structural engineering problems the deformations of the components under con-
sideration are very small. This provides an opportunity to greatly simplify the expressions
(9.6). The linear or innitesimal strain expressions are obtained by neglecting all terms of
higher order than linear in the displacements which gives

x
= u
,x

y
= v
,y

z
= w
,z
(9.7)

xy
= u
,y
+ v
,x

xz
= u
,z
+ w
,x

yz
= v
,z
+ w
,y
.
This simplication introduces two restrictions on the deformations pictured in Fig. 9.1
1. The length of ds

has to be almost the same as the length of ds.


2. The orientation of ds

cannot be very dierent from the orientation of ds.


Recall from elementary mechanics of solids that the linear strain of the line mn is
given by
=
ds

ds
ds
(9.8)
which, for || << 1 gives
ds
2
=
1
2
(ds
2
ds
2
) =
x
dx
2
+
y
dy
2
+
z
dz
2
+
xy
dxdy +
xz
dxdz +
yz
dydz.
If l, m and n are the direction cosines of ds then dx = l ds, dy = mds and dz = nds so that
=
x
l
2
+
y
m
2
+
z
n
2
+
xy
lm +
xz
ln +
yz
mn. (9.9)
is the strain of an arbitrarily oriented line of length ds.
Compatibility Conditions
Note that if u, v and w in (9.6) are given as continuous functions of x, y and z then all strain
components can be easily calculated. The converse, however, is not true. If
x
,
y
,
z
,
xy
,

xz
,
yz
are given as arbitrary functions of x, y and z then we have six equations to solve
for the three displacement components. This, in general, cannot yield a valid solution for u,
v and w unless the strain components are related in some way. In other words, the strains
cannot be prescribed arbitrarily.
76 CHAPTER 9. KINEMATICS OF SOLIDS IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES
a
bc
d
a
b c
d
a
b c
d
a
b c
d
(a)
(c) (d)
(b)
Figure 9.2: The signicance of compatibility.
For example, Fig. 9.2(a) shows a plane body on which the triangle abcd has been
scribed. Figures 9.2(b), (c) and (d) show the same body after it has been deformed. If the
strain components are not related appropriately, then the situation in Fig. 9.2(b), where the
material has crossed over itself or the situation in Fig. 9.2(c) where a gap has appeared may
result. The only acceptable strain eld is the one which produces smooth displacement elds
such as the one shown in Fig. 9.2(d).
Compatibility Conditions for Linear Strains
From equations (9.7) note that

x,yy
= u
,xyy

y,xx
= v
,yxx

xy,xy
= v
,xxy
+ u
,xyy
.
If the displacement eld is to be continuous and smooth, then

x,yy
+
y,xx
=
xy,xy
.
Similar arguments yield six compatibility equations:

x,yy
+
y,xx
=
xy,xy

z,xx
+
x,zz
=
xz,xz
77

y,zz
+
z,yy
=
yz,yz
(9.10)
(
yz,x
+
xz,y
+
xy,z
)
,x
= 2
x,yz
(
yz,x

xz,y
+
xy,z
)
,y
= 2
y,zx
(
yz,x
+
xz,y

xy,z
)
,z
= 2
z,xy
.
At this point it seems that the strain-displacement relations are still not balanced
because we now have 12 equations, six form (9.7) and six from (9.10) but only nine unknowns,
three displacement components and six strain components. It can be shown, however that
only three of the compatibility equations are independent so that in reality we have nine
independent equations for nine quantities.
78 CHAPTER 9. KINEMATICS OF SOLIDS IN CARTESIAN COORDINATES
Chapter 10
Bending of Rectangular Plates
Introduction
Plates are at structural members which have one dimension (the thickness, t) which is
much smaller than the in-plane dimensions. For example, in the plate shown in Fig. 10.1,
t << a and t << b, but a and b can be of the same order. For simplicity, we will consider
rectangular plates only since they can be analyzed using Cartesian coordinates. The problem
which will be considered, shown in Fig. 10.1, can be stated as follows: A at, rectangular
plate of given dimensions a, b, and t, lies in the x-y plane with its edges aligned with the
coordinate axis. The support conditions at the edges are given. The plate is made of an
isotropic and homogeneous linearly elastic material with Youngs modulus E and Poissons
ratio and is subjected to a transverse pressure p(x, y). Find the transverse deection of
the plate as well as the stress and strain in the plate.
p(x,y)
a
b
x,u
y,v
z,w
t
Figure 10.1: A plate under transverse loading.
79
80 CHAPTER 10. BENDING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES
Kinematics
Dene the mid-surface of the plate as the surface which bisects the thickness and let it
lie in the x-y plane as shown in Fig. 10.1 when the plate is unloaded. The displacement
components of any point in the plate along the x, y and z axes are u, v and w respectively.
The simplest set of plate kinematics are based on the following assumptions, all of
which have been discussed with regards to beam bending:
1. Shear deformations are negligible
2. The thickness of the plate does not change during loading
3. The plate is initially perfectly at
4. The deection of the plate is small
5. Plane sections originally perpendicular to the middle surface remain plane and per-
pendicular to the middle surface after deformation
6. Intermediate class of deformation kinematics are sucient to describe the motion of
points in the plate.
Note that assumption 5 is a direct result of assumption 1 and implies that the through
thickness shear strains will be zero. That is,
xz
=
yz
= 0.
Let the displacement components of the middle surface of the plate be (u, v, w). From
assumptions 2, 5 and 6 ( u. v, w) can be related to (u, v, w) as follows:
u = u w
,x
z
v = v w
,y
z (10.1)
w = w
The strain-displacement relations for intermediate deformations are

x
= u
,x
+
1
2
w
2
,x

y
= v
,y
+
1
2
w
2
,y
(10.2)

xy
= u
,y
+ v
,x
+ w
,x
w
,y
Substituting (10.2) into (10.3) yields the following expressions for the strain compo-
nents of a point in the plate:

x
=
o
x
+
x
z

y
=
o
y
+
y
z (10.3)

xy
=
o
xy
+ 2
xy
z
81
y
x
1/
x
y
x
1/
y
Figure 10.2: Normal curvatures of a plate.
where

o
x
= u
,x
+
1
2
w
2
,x

o
y
= v
,y
+
1
2
w
2
,y

o
xy
= u
,y
+ v
,x
+ w
,x
w
,y

x
= w
,xx
(10.4)

y
= w
,yy

xy
= w
,xy
.
The quantities
o
x
,
o
y
and
o
xy
are the membrane strains of the plate, while
x
,
y
correspond to the curvatures of the plate as shown in Figs. 10.2 and
xy
represents the twist
of the plate.
Stress Resultants
The stresses in the plate produce a set of force and moment intensities resultants as shown
in Fig. 10.3(a) and (b) respectively. The quantities N
x
, N
y
and N
xy
are the in-plane force
intensities and are given by
N
x
=
_
t/2
t/2

x
dz, N
y
=
_
t/2
t/2

y
dz, N
xy
=
_
t/2
t/2

xy
dz. (10.5)
82 CHAPTER 10. BENDING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES
N
M
x
x
M
y
M
xy
N
y
N
xy
M
xy
N
xy
Q
y
Q
x
Figure 10.3: Stress resultants in a plate.
The quantities Q
x
and Q
y
are the through-thickness shear force intensities and are given by
Q
x
=
_
t/2
t/2

xz
dz, Q
y
=
_
t/2
t/2

yz
dz. (10.6)
Note that the force intensities have units of force per unit length. The quantities M
x
, M
y
and M
xy
are the moment intensities and are given by:
M
x
=
_
t/2
t/2

x
z dz, M
y
=
_
t/2
t/2

y
z dz, M
xy
=
_
t/2
t/2

xy
z dz. (10.7)
Note that the moment intensities have units of moment per unit length.
Constitutive Behavior
In addition to the assumptions made in the kinematics, the through-thickness normal stress

z
will be assumed to be zero. The material will be assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic
and linear elastic so that Hookes law holds. Therefore,
83

x
=
E
1
2
(
x
+
y
)

y
=
E
1
2
(
y
+
x
) (10.8)

xy
=
E
2(1 + )

xy
The simplest plate bending theory is obtained by restricting the cases considered to
plates which carry no in-plane forces, that is to cases where N
x
= N
y
= N
xy
= 0. Substituting
(10.4) into (10.9) and into (10.5) and enforcing the condition of zero in plane-forces yields
the following equations
N
x
=
Et
1
2
(
o
x
+
o
y
) = 0
N
y
=
Et
1
2
(
o
y
+
o
x
) = 0 (10.9)
N
xy
=
Et
2(1 + )

o
xy
= 0
These three equations indicate that, in the absence of in-plane forces,
o
x
=
o
y
=
o
xy
=
0. Therefore, the expressions for the strain components reduce to

x
=
x
z,
y
=
y
z,
xy
= 2
xy
z. (10.10)
Principle of Virtual Work
Under the current set of assumptions, the principle of virtual work is given by
_
V
(
x

x
+
y

y
+
xy

xy
)dV = W
ext
(10.11)
where the left hand side of the equation is the internal virtual work and W
ext
is the external
virtual work. V represents the volume of the plate. Substituting from (10.10) and breaking
up the integral over the volume yields
_
a
0
_
b
0
_
t/2
t/2
(
x
z
x
+
y
z
y
+ 2
xy
z
xy
) dz dy dx =
_
a
0
_
b
0
pwdy dx. (10.12)
Substituting from (10.7) yields the principle of virtual work in terms of moment intensities
and curvatures
_
a
0
_
b
0
(M
x

x
+ M
y

y
+ 2M
xy

xy
pw) dy dx = 0 (10.13)
84 CHAPTER 10. BENDING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES
Substituting (10.4) into (10.9) and into (10.7) yields the following expressions for the
moment intensities in terms of the curvatures
M
x
= D(
x
+
y
)
M
y
= D(
y
+
x
) (10.14)
M
xy
= D(1 )
xy
where
D =
Et
3
12(1
2
)
. (10.15)
Substituting (10.15) into (10.13) yields
_
a
0
_
b
0
{D[(
x
+
y
)
x
+ (
y
+
x
)
y
+ 2(1 )
xy

xy
] pw} dy dx = 0 (10.16)
or, substituting from (10.5),
D
_
a
0
_
b
0
[(w
,xx
+ w
,yy
)w
,xx
+ (w
,yy
+ w
,xx
)w
,yy
+ 2(1 )w
,xy
w
,xy
] dy dx
_
a
0
_
b
0
pwdy dx = 0. (10.17)
Integrating the rst integral by parts yields
_
D
_
b
0
[(w
,xx
+ w
,yy
)w
,x
(w
,xx
+ w
,yy
)
,x
w] dy
_
a
0
+
_
D
_
a
0
[(w
,yy
+ w
,xx
)w
,y
(w
,yy
+ w
,xx
)
,y
w] dx
_
b
0
+
_
D(1 )
_
b
0
[w
,xy
w
,y
w
,xyy
w] dy
_
a
0
+ (10.18)
_
D(1 )
_
a
0
[w
,xy
w
,x
w
,xxy
w] dx
_
b
0
+
D
_
a
0
_
b
0
[(w
,xxx
+ w
,yyxx
+ w
,yyyy
+ w
,xxyy
+ 2(1 v)w
,xxyy
) p]wdy dx = 0.
The rst four lines of this equation give the boundary conditions whereas the last line gives
the governing dierential equation for bending of plates by noting that w is arbitrary. This
dierential equation is
D(w
,xxxx
+ 2w
,xxyy
+ w
,yyyy
) = p (10.19)
or, using the double Laplacian operator
D
4
w = p (10.20)
85
The boundary terms evaluated at the sides of the plate with x = 0 and x = a yield
the following conditions:
D
_
b
0
(w
,xx
+ w
,yy
)w
,x
dy = 0
_
b
o
M
x
w
,x
dy = 0.
This implies that either w
,x
is prescribed or M
x
= 0.
D
_
b
0
(w
,xx
+ w
,yy
)
,x
+ (1 )w
,xyy
)wdy = 0
_
b
0
Q
x
wdy = 0.
This implies that either w is prescribed of Q
x
= 0
D(1 )
_
b
0
w
,xy
w
,y
dy = 0
_
b
0
M
xy
w
,y
dy = 0.
This implies that either w
,y
is prescribed or M
xy
= 0.
Similar reasoning for the sides with y = 0 and y = b yields: either w
,y
is prescribed
or M
y
= 0, either w is prescribed or Q
y
= 0 and either w
,x
is prescribed or M
xy
= 0.
Some common boundary conditions, say in the sides with x = 0 and x = a are:
Simple support: w = 0 and M
x
= 0 along the edge. The rst condition implies that
w
,y
= w
,yy
= 0. Therefore, the boundary conditions in terms of w are w = 0 and
w
,xx
= 0. The rst condition implies that w
,y
= 0.
Clamped support: Both w = 0 and w
,x
= 0 along the edge. Note that the rst condition
implies that w
,y
= 0.
Free end: M
x
= Q
x
= M
xy
= 0. This leads to an inconsistency since three independent
conditions appear to be valid, but only two conditions per side can be prescribed. This
problem can be resolved by noticing that Q
x
and M
xy
can be combined as shown in Fig.
10.4. This gure considers a segment of an edge of length 2dy. Figure 10.4(a) shows
the original system of loads. In Fig. 10.4(b) the twisting moment has been replaced by
statically equivalent couples. Figure 10.4(c) shows the resulting situation in the center
part of the segment, which has length dy. The resultant force intensity in this central
segment, R
x
is shown in Fig. 10.4 and is given by
R
x
= Q
x
M
xy,y
.
Hence the boundary conditions for the free edge are
M
x
= 0 w
,xx
+ w
,yy
= 0
R
x
= Q
x
M
xy,y
= 0 w
,xxx
+ (2 )w
,xyy
= 0.
86 CHAPTER 10. BENDING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES
dy dy
Q
M
xy
M
xy
+ M dy
xy,y
dy
x
dy
( (
dy
M
M
xy
+ M dy
xy,y
xy
Q
x
Q
x
M
M
xy
+ M dy
xy,y
xy
Q
x
-M
xy,y
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 10.4: Derivation of the equivalent transverse shear force intensity used to enforce
boundary conditions at a free edge.