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Chapter 2--The Evolution of Management Thinking

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1.

A historical perspective provides a narrower way of thinking a way of searching for patterns and determining whether they recur across time periods. True !alse

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"ocial forces refer to those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people. True !alse

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$olitical forces are aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people. True !alse

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Economic forces pertain to the availa&ility production and distri&ution of resources in a society. True !alse

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The early study of management as we know it today &egan with what is now called the technologydriven workplace. True !alse

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The classical perspective on management emerged during the 1)**+s. True !alse

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The humanistic perspective contains three su&fields- scientific management &ureaucratic organi.ations and administrative principles. True !alse

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!rederick /. Taylor developed "ystems Thinking and emphasi.ed the fourteen principles of management that should guide managerial &ehavior. True !alse

0.

"cientific management evolved with the use of precise procedures in place of tradition and rules of thum&. True !alse

1* A criticism of human relations management is that it ignores the social conte1t and workers+ needs. . True !alse

11 2ne of the criticisms of scientific management is it did not acknowledge variance among individuals. . True !alse 12 "tandardi.ation of work and wage incentives are characteristics of &ehavioral science. . True !alse 1# "cientific management developed a standard method for performing each 3o&. . True !alse 1% /ith clear definitions of authority and responsi&ility division of la&or is one of the si1 characteristics . of the ideal &ureaucracy. True !alse 1' Administrative acts and decisions recorded in writing is one of the si1 characteristics of the ideal . &ureaucracy. True !alse 1( !ayol4s unity of command principle emphasi.es that each su&ordinate receives orders from one and . only one superior. True !alse 1, 5nity of direction principle proposes that similar activities in an organi.ation should &e grouped . together under one manager. True !alse 1) The scalar chain is a hypothetical chain that provides hori.ontal links &etween unioni.ed workers in . different departments in an organi.ation. True !alse 10 "cientific management focuses on employee competence whereas administrative principles focus on . work flow through the organi.ation. True !alse 2* !ollett and 6arnard were early advocates of a more humanistic perspective on management that . emphasi.ed the importance of understanding human &ehavior needs and attitudes in the workplace as well as social interactions and group processes. True !alse 21 5nfortunately Mary $arker !ollett4s approach to leadership stressed the importance of engineering . techni7ues rather than people. True !alse 2

22 A social group within an organi.ation is part of the informal organi.ation. . True !alse 2# The 8awthorne studies resulted in the movement towards scientific management. . True !alse 2% The 8awthorne studies led to the early conclusion that positive human relations can lead to . significantly higher performance. True !alse 2' The human relations movement is also referred to as the dairy farm view of management meaning that . contented cows give more milk and satisfied workers will give more work. True !alse 2( Theory 9 proposes that organi.ations can take advantage of the imagination and intellect of all of their . employees. True !alse 2, According to :ouglas Mc;regor Theory < and Theory 9 provide two opposing views of workers . where Theory < recogni.es that workers en3oy achievement and responsi&ility while Theory 9 recogni.es that workers will avoid work whenever possi&le. True !alse 2) An assumption of Theory 9 is that the average human &eing has an inherent dislike of work and will . avoid it if possi&le. True !alse 20 The "ystems Thinking approach develops theories a&out human &ehavior &ased on scientific methods . and study. True !alse #* 2rgani.ation development is a specific set of management techni7ues &ased in the &ehavioral science . approach. True !alse #1 The scientific management perspective refers to the management thinking and practice that emphasi.es . satisfaction of employees4 &asic needs as the key to increased worker productivity. True !alse #2 The management science approach uses 7ualitative data in management decision making. . True !alse #

## The field of management that speciali.es in the physical production of goods or services refers to . operations management. True !alse #% =nformation technology is the most recent su&field of the 7uantitative perspective. . True !alse #' The term >7uants? refers to financial managers and others who &ase their decisions on comple1 . 7uantitative analysis under assumption that using advanced mathematics and technology can accurately predict how the market works. True !alse #( Contingency thinking is the a&ility to see &oth the distinct elements of a system or situation and the . comple1 and changing interaction among those elements. True !alse #, /hen the shop foreman receives and rewards valua&le suggestions from its workers and this leads to . continual improvement of production synergy has occurred. True !alse #) :iscerning circles of causality is an important element of systems thinking. . True !alse #0 Contingency theory suggests that managers are more successful if they learn the &est way to manage . and motivate their employees and then apply this knowledge in a universally consistent way. True !alse %* A contingency view argues that there is one &est way to manage an organi.ation. . True !alse %1 The inherent focus of T@M is on managing the total organi.ation to deliver 7uality to the customer. . True !alse %2 Although developed &y a Aapanese &usiness manager the 7uality movement is strongly associated with . American companies. True !alse %# 6enchmarking involves finding out what the customer wants. . True !alse

%% A process where&y companies find out how others do something &etter than they do and then try to . imitate or improve on it refers to outsourcing. True !alse %' The implementation of small incremental improvements in all areas of the organi.ation on an ongoing . &asis refers to continuous improvement. True !alse %( "i1 "igma refers to an innovation mindset used widely &y =ndian companies that strives to meet . customers+ immediate needs 7uickly and ine1pensively. True !alse %, "upply chain management refers to the se7uence of suppliers and purchasers covering all stages of . processing from o&taining raw materials to distri&uting finished goods to consumers. True !alse %) Customer relationship management systems collect and manage large amounts of data a&out customers . and make them availa&le to employees. True !alse %0 A supply chain is a network of multiple &usinesses and individuals that are connected through the flow . of products or services. True !alse '*. An innovation mindset that strives to meet customers+ immediate needs 7uickly and ine1pensively is referred to asA. kai.e n. 6 3ust-in. time control. Ctotal 7uality manageme nt. :. 3ugaad. E <9 . Theory.

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'1.

ABnC DDDDD perspective provides a &roader way of thinking a way of searching for patterns and determining whether they recur across time periods. A. 6 . C . : . E . anal ytic al futurist ic system atic method ical historic al

'2.

DDDDD forces refer to those aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people. A. " oc ial 6 $oli . tical C Eco . nom ic :Tech nolo gical E Eeg . al

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/hich of these forces comprises unwritten common rules and perceptions a&out relationshipsF A. Econo mic forces 6 $olitical . forces C "ocial . forces : Eegal forces . E $ersonal . forces

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Aessica is a recent college graduate who is seeking a 3o& that includes telecommuting shared 3o&s fle1time and organi.ation-sponsored sa&&aticals. 6ased on this information Aessica most likely &elongs to which demographic groupF A. 6a &y 6o om er 6 ;enera . tion < C ;enera . tion 9 : ;enera . tion G E Tween . er

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/hich of these forces pertain to the availa&ility production and distri&ution of resources in a societyF A. " oc ial 6 $oli . tical C Eco . nom ic :Tech nolo gical E Eeg . al

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"trong anti-American sentiments in many parts of the world e1emplify the effect ofA. economic forces. 6. political forces. C demographic forces. . : technological forces. . E human relations . forces.

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DDDDD is the most current management perspective. A. Total 7uality managem ent 6 Contingency . views C "ystems theory . : 2pen . Bcolla&orativeC innovation E Classical . perspective

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The nineteenth and early twentieth centuries saw the development of which management perspectiveF A. The human relations moveme nt 6 The &ehavioral sciences approach C The classical . perspective :The 7uantitative management approach E The T@M . approach

'0.

/hich of these perspectives emphasi.ed a rational scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organi.ations efficient operating machinesF A. The 8umanistic $erspective 6 The 6ehavioral "ciences Approach . C. The Classical $erspective :. The T@M approach E The @uantitative Management . Approach

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/hich of these is a su&field of the classical management perspective that emphasi.ed scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving la&or productivityF A. The human relations movement 6 The &ehavioral sciences approach . C. The T@M approach : The 7uantitative management . approach E The scientific management . movement

(1.

!rank ;il&reth felt that efficiency e7uated withA. one &est way to do work. 6leadership flows from the top down. C procedures and policies. : scientific managemen t. E &ureaucrac . y. 0

(2.

Time and motion studies that resulted in drastic reduction in the time patients spent on the operating ta&le were pioneered &y DDDDD. A. Edwar d :emin g 6 8enry . ;antt C Ma1 /e&er . : Mary $arker . !ollett E !rank . ;il&reth

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/ho is considered the Hfirst lady of managementFH A. Mary $arke r !ollet t Eillian ;il&reth Carly !iorona Ma1ine /e&er Anne Adams

6 . C . : . E .

1*

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The three su&fields of the classical perspective includeA. 7uanti tative mana geme nt &ehav ioral scienc e and admin istrati ve mana geme nt. &ureaucratic organi.ation 7uantitative management and the human relations movement. administrative management &ureaucratic organi.ation and scientific management. scientific management 7uantitative management and administrative management. E none of . these.

11

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DDDDD is considered the Hfather of scientific management.H A. 6. C. : . E . !rank 6. ;il&reth Elton Mayo 8enry ;antt :ouglas Mc;regor !rederick /. Taylor

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/hich of the following is a &ar graph that measures planned and completed work along each stage of production &y time elapsedF A. Time and /ork chart 6 ;antt chart . C Time and . Motion chart :$roduction and :elivery chart E ;il&reth . chart

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!rederick Taylor4s contri&utions were in the field ofA. 6 . C. : . E . scientific managemen t. human resource management. human relations. 7uantitative management. total 7uality management.

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/hich of the following is not a criticism of scientific managementF A. 6. C. :. E .

=t does not appreciate t of work. =t does not appreciate the higher needs of workers. =t does not appreciate the careful study of tasks and 3o&s. =t does not acknowledge variance among individuals. =t tends to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ide suggestions.

(0.

"tandardi.ation of work and wage incentives are characteristics ofA. &ureaucr atic organi.a tions. scientific management. 7uantitative management.

6 . C .

: administrative . management. E &ehavioral . science. ,*. /hich of these is a ma3or criticism of scientific managementF A. =t ignored the social conte1t of work. 6 =t ignored the impact of compensation . on performance. C . : . E . =t overemphasi.ed individual differences. =t overemphasi.ed the intelligence of workers. =t emphasi.ed the social conte1t of work.

1#

,1.

The assem&ly line is most consistent with which of the following general principles of managementF A. 5nity of command :ivision of work

6 . C. Authority :. "calar chain E @uality . management ,2.

The &ureaucratic organi.ations approach is a su&field within the DDDDD. A. classical perspective 6. systems theory C scientific management . : learning organi.ation . E management science . view

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According to /e&er4s ideas on &ureaucracy organi.ations should &e &ased on which of theseF A. $ersonal loyalty 6 $ersonal references . C Iational authority . :. !amily ties E Charismatic . authority

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/hereas scientific management focused on DDDDD administrative principles approach focused on the DDDDD. A. individual productivityJ total organi.ation 6. organi.ation productivityJ individual effort C efficient proceduresJ management &y principle . :. employee a&ilityJ employee loyalty E employee competenceJ work flow through the . organi.ation 1%

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Archies4 Anti7ues =nc. is characteri.ed &y separation of management from ownership and &y clearly defined lines of authority and responsi&ility. These characteristics are consistent with the principles ofA. scien tific mana geme nt. 6&ureaucrati c organi.atio ns. Cadministrat ive manageme nt theory. :human resource manageme nt. E all of . these.

,(.

All of the following are characteristics of /e&erian &ureaucracy e1ceptA. la&or is divided with clear definitions of authority and responsi&ility that are legitimi.ed as official duties. 6 positions are organi.ed in a hierarchy of authority with each position under the authority of a higher one. C all personnel are selected and promoted &ased on technical . 7ualifications. : administrative acts and decisions are recorded in writing. . E management is the same as the ownership of the . organi.ation.

1'

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Ma1 /e&er felt selection of employees should &e &ased on DDDDD. A. educati on 6. competence C. connections : political skills . E efficient . systems

,).

Matri1 :ress :esigns operates using the concept of empowerment where employees act independently and with management facilitating rather than controlling workers. These 7ualities represent which management approachF A. 6 . C . : . E . Administrativ e principles approach 6ureaucratic approach "cientific management approach 8umanistic approach 6ehavioral sciences approach

,0.

$ositions organi.ed in a hierarchy of authority is an important characteristic ofA. 6 . C . : . E . scientific managemen t. &ureaucratic organi.ations. 7uantitative management. the human relations movement. total 7uality management.

1(

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5$" is successful in the small package delivery market. 2ne important reason for this success is the concept ofA. glo&ali.ation. 6. employee fle1i&ility. C. loose standards. :. &ureaucracy. E non-&ureaucratic organi.ational . system.

)1.

Mary $arker !ollett contri&uted to which fieldF A. 6 . C . : . E . 8umanistic approach "cientific management approach Total 7uality management approach @uantitative approach to management "ystems approach to management

)2.

The principle that similar activities in an organi.ation should &e grouped together under one manager is the essence of the classical perspective known asA. unity of command . 6 division of work. . C unity of direction. . :. scalar chain. E 7uality . management.

1,

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The use of speciali.ation to produce more and &etter work with the same level of effort is consistent with the administrative management principle ofA. unity of comm and. 6 unity of . direction. C . : . scalar chain. division of work.

E none of . these )%. ;ene1 :ynamics is a &allistics company that uses the unity of command scalar chain and division of work principles. These are part of which management philosophyF A. 6 . C . : . E . Administrativ e principles approach 6ureaucratic approach "cientific management approach 8umanistic approach 6ehavioral sciences approach

1)

)'.

The DDDDD refers to a chain of authority e1tending from top to the &ottom of the organi.ation and including every employee. A. unity of comm and division of la&or unity of direction scalar chain none of these

6 . C . : . E . )(.

Mary $arker !ollett thought of leadership as DDDDD rather than techni7ues. A. 6 . C. : . E . system s top managers people efficiencies floor managers

),.

A key finding in the 8awthorne studies was which of theseF A. 6 . C . : . E . "tronger lighting increased productivity. More money resulted in increased productivity. $roductivity declined in all e1periments. 8igher temperatures reduced productivity. 8uman relations increased productivity.

10

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Chester 6ernard felt that DDDDD could help a poorly managed organi.ation. A. &ureaucracy 6. line managers C. efficiencies :. informal relations E topKdown flow of . information

)0.

The findings provided &y the 8awthorne "tudies provided the impetus for the DDDDD despite flawed methodology or inaccurate conclusions. A. 6 . C . : . E . classical perspective humanistic perspective scientific management &ureaucratic organi.ations contingency perspective

0*.

A social group within an organi.ation is part of theA. formal organi.ati onal structure. informal organi.ation. scalar chain. reorgani.ation process. top management level.

6 . C. : . E . 01.

A significant contri&ution of Chester 6arnard was the concept ofA. 6 . C . : . E . 2* &ureaucracy. the informal organi.ation. total 7uality management. scientific management. traditional theory of authority.

02.

The human resources perspective of management links motivation theories with DDDDD. A. top manage ment employee tasks

6 . C floor managers . :. efficiencies E profit . ma1imi.ation 0#.

A Hdairy farmH view of management i.e. contented cows give more milk so satisfied workers will give more work was espoused &yA. huma n relatio ns mana geme nt.

6 human resource perspective. C&ehavioral science approach. :management science perspective. E none of . these. 0%. Maslow4s hierarchy of needs started with which of these needsF A. 6. C. : . E . Estee m Eove "afety $hysiologic al 6elongingne ss

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Tommy &elieves his employees are responsi&le creative and a&le to work with minimal direction. 8e is aA. 6. C. :. E . theory < manager. theory 9 manager. theory G manager. theory A manager. contingency theory manager.

0(.

Theory < and Theory 9 was developed &y DDDDD. A. :ougl as Mc;r egor 6 8enry . ;antt C Ma1 /e&er . : Mary $arker . !ollett E !rank . ;il&reth

0,.

6eth 6rant production supervisor at Trustworthy Tools Mfg. =nc. &elieves that her employees dislike work avoid responsi&ility and therefore they need to &e controlled and directed. 6eth is aA. theory < manager . theory 9 manager. realistic manager. theory G manager. theory A manager.

6 . C . : . E .

22

0).

According to :ouglas Mc;regor the classical perspective on management is consistent with which of the followingF A. Theor y< mana ger 6 Theory 9 . manager C Theory G . manager : Theory A . manager E Lone of . these

00.

The &ehavioral sciences approach is &ased on which of the following disciplinesF A. 6 . C . : . E . Anth ropol ogy Economi cs "ociolog y $sycholo gy All of these

2#

1**.

2rgani.ational development is one specific set of management techni7ues &ased in the DDDDD approach. A. mana geme nt scien ce 6 systems . theory C &ehavioral . sciences : scientific manageme nt E 7uantitati . ve

1*1.

The !orestville !ree.e is regionally known for its employee training programs. Managers at the !ree.e conduct research to determine the &est candidate interviewing techni7ues. This involves the use of which management approachF A. Administrative principles approach 6. 6ureaucratic approach C 6ehavioral sciences approach . :. 8umanistic approach E "cientific management . approach

1*2.

The management science perspective emerged after /orld /ar == to treat pro&lems associated withA. modern glo&al warfare. 6 environmental issues. . C employee involvement. . :. ;ermany. E improving . manufacturing.

2%

1*#.

/hich of these refers to the management thinking and practice that emphasi.es satisfaction of employees4 &asic needs as the key to increased worker productivityF A. 6 . C . : . E . "cientific management perspective 8uman resource perspective Management science perspective 6ehavioral sciences approach 8uman relations movement

1*%.

/ithin his role as a financial accountant Ioger uses the capital asset pricing model and other mathematical tools to help clients keep track of their finances. /hich perspective or approach does Ioger apply most at his workF A. @uantitative perspective 6. @ualitative perspective C. 8umanistic approach : 6ehavioral science approach . E "cientific management . approach

1*'.

The DDDDD emphasi.ed the importance of understanding human &ehaviors needs and attitudes in the workplace as well as social interactions and group processes. A. humanistic perspective 6 classical perspective . C scientific . management : &ureaucratic . organi.ations E contingency . perspective

2'

1*(.

Most early interpretations of the 8awthorne studies argued that the factor that &est e1plained increased output was DDDDD. A. mo ney 6 days . off C human . relation s : lightin . g E free . food

1*,.

The management science perspective applies all of the following to managerial pro&lems E<CE$TA. 6 . C. : . E . statistics. 7ualitative techni7ues. mathematics. 7uantitative techni7ues. all of these are correct.

1*).

2perations research grew out of /orld /ar == groups and is &ased on DDDDD. A. group dynamics 6 employees in crisis . C production in . tur&ulent times : . E . mathematical e7uations a humanistic approach

2(

1*0.

/hich of the following refers to financial managers and others who &ase their decisions on comple1 7uantitative analysis under assumption that using advanced mathematics and technology can accurately predict how the market worksF A " . te m s 6 9u . ppi es C @ . ua ls : @u . ant s E !i . ns

11*.

The most recent su&field of the 7uantitative perspective is DDDDD which is reflected in management information systems designed to provide relevant information to managers in a timely and cost-efficient manner. A. operations research 6 operations management . C information technology . :. systems thinking E infrastructure . development

2,

111.

The teamwork philosophy is &ased in part on the assumption that five people working together can produce more than five people working individually. This philosophy is consistent with the concept of DDDDD. A. tra nsf or ma tio n entro py syne rgy feed& ack 7uali ty

6 . C . : . E . 112.

!rom the 10'*s until today which management perspective has remained the most prevalentF A. "yste ms 6 @ualitati . ve C "cientific manageme nt : @uantitat . ive E 8umanist . ic

2)

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;eorgia an airline CE2 often looks for patterns of movement within the airline industry focusing on the 7ualities of rhythm flow direction shape and networks of relationships. This type of activity referred to as DDDDD thinking allows ;eorgia to see the structures that underlie comple1 situations within the industry and company. A. 6 . C . : . E . syste ms 7ualitativ e 7uantitati ve conceptu al contingen cy

11%.

1* M 1* N 2' reflects which of theseF A. 6. C . : . E . Entrop y "ynergy 2pen system Closed system /e&erian math

11'.

=t is often difficult to make decisions a&out su&systems &ecause they are DDDDD. A. interdepen dent 6. independent C managed differently . : filled with . employees E organi.ationally . &ased

20

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After decades of &eing a manager Aeffrey has learned that an organi.ational structure that is effective for one company is likely to &e ineffective for a different company. This knowledge reflects which current management perspectiveF A. "ystems thinking 6. Contingency view C Total 7uality management . :. 6enchmarking E "cientific management . view

11,.

DDDDD specifies a goal of no more than #.% defects per million parts. A. 6e nc h ma rki ng 6Total 7uality manag ement C "i1 . sigm a :6alanc ed scorec ard E Auga . ad

#*

11).

=n DDDDD every situation is viewed as uni7ue. A. a unive rsalist view

6a . contingency view C a case . view :a scientific management view E none of . these 110. =n order to determine how to deal with a pro&lem employee "haron evaluated the employee the pro&lem and the conte1t in which the pro&lem occurred. "he is applying which of the following perspectivesF A. 6 . C . : . E . 12*. $artici pative view 5niversalist view Autonomy view Contingency view 8umanist view

A consultant who recommends the effectiveness of sensitivity training to every organi.ation he serves is violating the &asics of which of the following perspectivesF A. Efficiency perspective 6 5niversalist . perspective C Contingency . perspective : "cientific management . perspective E @uantitative . perspective #1

121.

/hich of the following is often considered the Hfather of the 7uality movementFH A. 6 . C . : . E . /e &er ;il&r eth !olle tt :emi ng ;ehr ke

122.

DDDDD focuses on managing the whole organi.ation to deliver 7uality to customers. A. 6. C. : . E . 6ureaucracy Theory G Management-&y-o&3ective Total 7uality management 2rgani.ation-customer relationship

12#.

Elements of T@M includeA. empl oyee detac hme nt. 6 focus on . profits. C &enchmar . king. :accidental improvem ent. E all of . these.

#2

12%.

DDDDD is a process where&y companies find out how others do something &etter than they do and then try to imitate or improve on it. A. T @ M 6 Conti nuous impro veme nt C6enc hmar king :Emp ower ment E M6 . 2

12'.

The implementation of small incremental improvements in all areas of the organi.ation on an ongoing &asis is referred to asA. 6. C. : . E . &enchmarki ng. empowerment. systems theory. contingency perspective. continuous improvement.

12(.

/hich of the following refers to managing the se7uence of suppliers and purchasers covering all stages of processing from o&taining raw materials to distri&uting finished goods to consumersF A. 6. C . :. E . E-commerce E-&usiness "upply chain management Onowledge management Customer relationship management

##

12,.

/hich of the following uses the latest information technology to keep in close touch with customers and to collect and manage large amounts of customer dataF A. "upply Chain Managemen t 6 Eearning 2rgani.ations . C "cientific Management . : Customer Ielationship . Management E The 8umanistic . Approach

12).

/hich of the following is identified as a recent trend that has staying powerF A. Corpora te takeover s 6. 8edging C. =nsourcing : Ielationship . management E Task . management

120.

According to the Manager4s "hoptalk of chapter 2 which of the following is not in the top five contemporary management toolsF A. Colla&orative innovation 6 Mission and vision statements . C. 6enchmarking :. "trategic planning E Customer relationship . management

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1#*.

According to the Manager4s "hoptalk of chapter 2 Eatin American e1ecutives are more less to use tools such asA. customer segmentation and &usiness process reengineering. 6 consumer ethnography and . corporate &logs. C. downsi.ing. : activity-&ased management and . virtual teams. E scenario planning and lean . operations.

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1#1.

Scenario - Britney Marr The opportunity to gain a foothold in the snack cracker industry had 3ust &een found. 6ritney Marr an account e1ecutive manager for 6aked /heat =ndustries had developed an interest in wheat crackers two months ago when one of her newly hired account e1ecs Amy 6ender had convinced her a&out the high margins and promising future associated with that market. Marr had always &elieved that if you do your homework in hiring the &est people then it only makes sense to listen to their recommendations and implement their suggestions. Marr had given her approval to 6ender to e1plore opportunities to move into this promising new market. This morning 6ender had reported that the Aackson Corporation had severed its contract with !eel ;ood Crackers =ncorporated. Apparently the !eel ;ood salesman had shared sensitive information a&out Aackson at a cocktail party. 6ender had already esta&lished a good relationship with !eel ;ood &uyers and so recogni.ed this as an opportunity to e1pand her market into wheat crackers. Marr4s &ehavior provides an e1ample ofa. &. c. d. e. division of organi.ation. the principle of inversion. unity of direction. all of these.

the use of scalar

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1#2.

Scenario - Britney Marr The opportunity to gain a foothold in the snack cracker industry had 3ust &een found. 6ritney Marr an account e1ecutive manager for 6aked /heat =ndustries had developed an interest in wheat crackers two months ago when one of her newly hired account e1ecs Amy 6ender had convinced her a&out the high margins and promising future associated with that market. Marr had always &elieved that if you do your homework in hiring the &est people then it only makes sense to listen to their recommendations and implement their suggestions. Marr had given her approval to 6ender to e1plore opportunities to move into this promising new market. This morning 6ender had reported that the Aackson Corporation had severed its contract with !eel ;ood Crackers =ncorporated. Apparently the !eel ;ood salesman had shared sensitive information a&out Aackson at a cocktail party. 6ender had already esta&lished a good relationship with !eel ;ood &uyers and so recogni.ed this as an opportunity to e1pand her market into wheat crackers. Marr4s management style reflects a &elief ina. &. c. d. e. theory 9. developing her employees through control. grieving theory. all of these. none of these.

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1##.

Scenario - Britney Marr The opportunity to gain a foothold in the snack cracker industry had 3ust &een found. 6ritney Marr an account e1ecutive manager for 6aked /heat =ndustries had developed an interest in wheat crackers two months ago when one of her newly hired account e1ecs Amy 6ender had convinced her a&out the high margins and promising future associated with that market. Marr had always &elieved that if you do your homework in hiring the &est people then it only makes sense to listen to their recommendations and implement their suggestions. Marr had given her approval to 6ender to e1plore opportunities to move into this promising new market. This morning 6ender had reported that the Aackson Corporation had severed its contract with !eel ;ood Crackers =ncorporated. Apparently the !eel ;ood salesman had shared sensitive information a&out Aackson at a cocktail party. 6ender had already esta&lished a good relationship with !eel ;ood &uyers and so recogni.ed this as an opportunity to e1pand her market into wheat crackers. !rom a "ystem4s theory perspectivea. &. c. d. e.

Marr should inc Marr should listen to and reward her people well to increase synergy. the Aackson account was lost &ecause !eel ;ood was too closed to its environm all of these. none of these.

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Scenario - Britney Marr The opportunity to gain a foothold in the snack cracker industry had 3ust &een found. 6ritney Marr an account e1ecutive manager for 6aked /heat =ndustries had developed an interest in wheat crackers two months ago when one of her newly hired account e1ecs Amy 6ender had convinced her a&out the high margins and promising future associated with that market. Marr had always &elieved that if you do your homework in hiring the &est people then it only makes sense to listen to their recommendations and implement their suggestions. Marr had given her approval to 6ender to e1plore opportunities to move into this promising new market. This morning 6ender had reported that the Aackson Corporation had severed its contract with !eel ;ood Crackers =ncorporated. Apparently the !eel ;ood salesman had shared sensitive information a&out Aackson at a cocktail party. 6ender had already esta&lished a good relationship with !eel ;ood &uyers and so recogni.ed this as an opportunity to e1pand her market into wheat crackers. Contingency theory recommendsa. &. c. d. e.

Marr should ma 6ender. the goal of every manager should &e high return on investment so Marr should 6ender should focus on her e1pertise recogni.ing the potential risk of failure w all of these. none of these.

1# ABnC DDDDD perspective provides a &roader way of thinking a way of searching for patterns and '. determining whether they recur across time periods. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1# DDDDD refer to the aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people. (. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD #0

1# DDDDD refer to the influence of political and legal institutions on people and organi.ations. ,. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1# DDDDD pertain to the availa&ility production and distri&ution of resources in a society. ). DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1# A management perspective that emerged during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that 0. emphasi.ed a rational scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organi.ations efficient operating machines is called DDDDD. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% DDDDD is considered the Hfather of scientific management.H *. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% /e&er4s vision of organi.ations that would &e managed on an impersonal rational &asis is called aBnC 1. DDDDD. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% A su&field of the classical management perspective that focused on the total organi.ation rather than 2. the individual worker delineating the management functions of planning organi.ing commanding coordinating and controlling is called DDDDD. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% According to !ayol similar activities in an organi.ation should &e grouped together under one #. manager. This administrative principle is known as DDDDD. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% A management perspective that emerged around the late nineteenth century that emphasi.ed %. understanding human &ehavior needs and attitudes in the workplace is referred to as aBnC DDDDD. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% A management perspective that suggests 3o&s should &e designed to meet higher-level needs &y '. allowing workers to use their full potential is called aBnC DDDDD. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% 2rgani.ational development is one specific set of management techni7ues &ased in the DDDDD (. approach. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% A management perspective that emerged after /orld /ar == and applied mathematics statistics and ,. other 7uantitative techni7ues to managerial pro&lems is referred to as aBnC DDDDD. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD %*

1% DDDDD refers to the field of management that speciali.es in the physical production of goods or ). services. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1% The concept that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts is known as DDDDD. 0. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1' The DDDDD view of management is an integration of the case and universalist viewpoints. *. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1' The process &y which companies find out how others do something &etter than they do and then try to 1. copy andKor improve it is known as DDDDD. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1' DDDDDD refers to the se7uence of suppliers and purchasers covering all stages of processing from 2. o&taining raw materials to distri&uting finished goods to consumers. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1' DDDDD collect and manage large amounts of data a&out customers and make them availa&le to #. employees ena&ling &etter decision making and superior customer service. DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD 1' Eist three of the &asic ideas of scientific management. %.

1' Eist the three assumptions associated with Mc;regor4s Theory <. '.

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1' :iscuss the advantages and disadvantages of Taylor4s "cientific Management. (.

1' The writings of !ayol Taylor and /e&er provide the foundation for modern management. =dentify the ,. school of thought associated with each writer and compare the focus that each writer takes in relation to the organi.ation.

1' 6riefly descri&e what happened in the 8awthorne "tudies and e1plain the results and conclusions of ). these studies.

1' :escri&e the assumptions &ehind Mc;regor4s Theory < and Theory 9. 8ow do the theories relate to 0. the classical perspective on management and early human relations ideasF

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1( 6riefly descri&e systems theory including synergy. *.

1( :iscuss the differences &etween the case view the universalist view and the contingency view. 1.

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Chapter 2--The Evolution of Management Thinking Oey


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1##. 6 1#%. E 1#'. historical 1#(. "ocial forces 1#,. $olitical forces 1#). Economic forces 1#0. classical perspective 1%*. !rederick /. Taylor 1%1. &ureaucracy 1%2. administrative principles 1%#. unity of direction 1%%. humanistic perspective 1%'. human resources perspective 1%(. &ehavioral sciences 1%,. management science perspective 1%). 2perations management 1%0. synergy 1'*. contingency 1'1. &enchmarking 1'2. "upply chain management 1'#. Customer relationship management systems or CIM systems 1'%. Any three of the following develop standard methods for doing each 3o&J select workers with appropriate a&ilitiesJ train workers in standard methodsJ support workers and eliminate interruptionsJ and provide wage incentives. 1''. B1C =ndividuals have an innate dislike of work and will try to avoid itJ B2C Most people must &e coerced to get them to put out a reasona&le level of effortJ and B#C The typical person prefers to &e told what to do. 1'(. The advantages of scientific management included the standardi.ation of work the systematic study of work the linking of performance and pay and improved productivity. The disadvantages included its failure to consider the social conte1t within which work took place and its failure to appreciate workers4 needs other than their need for money. 1',. !ayol is associated with the Administrative "chool focusing on the manager level. Taylor is associated with "cientific Management and focused on the work level. /e&er is associated with the 6ureaucratic Model and his focus was on the level of the organi.ation. 1'). 8arvard researchers working under the direction of Elton Mayo were studying the effects of various lighting conditions on worker performance at the /estern Electric plant in 8awthorne =llinois. Each time an e1perimental change was made performance improved regardless of the change. The early conclusion was that workers perceived that their work was important enough to hire researchers to work with them and this recognition of importance was sufficient to motivate improved performance. This conclusion led to the development of the 8uman Ielations Movement stressing the importance of satisfied happy workers. Iecent analysis suggests that money may have &een the single most important motivating factor. 1'0. Iefer to E1hi&it 2.% in the te1t for the assumptions &ehind each theory. Mc;regor &elieved that the classical perspective was &ased on Theory < assumptions a&out workers. 8e also felt that a slightly modified version of Theory < fit early human relations ideas. 8e proposed Theory 9 as a more realistic view of workers for guiding management thinking.

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1(*. "ystems theory suggests that an organi.ation can &e considered a system composed of a num&er of interrelated su&systems. These su&systems include people structure technology and goals. A change in one su&system results in a rippling effect on the other su&systems. Managed properly the su&systems work well together and produce more as a whole system than the parts could produce working alone. This is synergy. 1(1. These viewpoints relate to the applica&ility of management principles. The case view holds that every situation is uni7ue thus there are no universal principles. Conversely the universalist view &elieves that the same management principles will work across every situation in every organi.ation. The contingency view is an integration of these two i.e. while there are no universal principles there are common patterns and characteristics. The manager4s task is to identify what principles will work when &ased on an analysis of key contingencies.

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