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opyrighted and protected by federal law. e to distribute or share with other Six Sigma effort has been made to ensure the accuracy however no guarantee is expressed or implied you have suggestions for improvement please free to contact 6ixSigma.org Watch the Video

8 Disciplines (8D) Problem Solving Process


Watch the Video

This Template should only be used by someone trained in the techniques presented

8D, or 8 Disciplines, is an 8 step problem solving methodology for both products and processes. It is best suited to existing prob defects where the cause is unknown. 8D is not suitable for problem prevention, problems of variation or waste elimination. Begin by clicking the 'Preliminary Data' hyperlink below. Then proceed sequentially through each Discipline (D0, D1 . . . D8)

The 8 Disciplines
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 Preliminary Data Team selection Problem Definition Contain problem Identify Root Cause Identify Corrective Action Implement Prevent Recurrence Congratulate Team 8D Summary Report

Notes: 1. There are several tabs in this workbook, with at least 1 tab dedicated to each of the eight disciplines. 2. Discipline 1 is D1, Discipline 2 is D2, etc. 3. When more than 1 tab is used for a given discipline, a D4-1, D4-2 . . . format is used. 4. Each tab contains the instructions, templates and decision tools appropriate for that discipline.

esented herein

sting problems involving nation.

. . D8)

D0 - Preliminary Data
Watch the Video 8D Instructions Next >>> Customer: Customer Address: Date of Failure: Time of Failure: Part Number or Description of Failed Item: Lot or Batch Number: Failure Rate: Tracking Number: Product Name:

D1 - Team Selection
Watch the Video 8D Instructions Next >>> Dept
Name Role Responsibilities

Champion

Ensure team has required resources. Remove roadblocks experienced by the team.

Process Owner Ensure right team members are on the team. Project Lead Pro(cess/duct) Supplier Pro(cess/duct) Customer SME's QA Other Completing the project. Ensure corrective actions do not conflict with required inputs Ensure corrective actions do not conflict with required outputs Technical or detailed product or process knowledge Ensure tools are used correctly and Root Cause is verified As needed

D2 - Problem Definition
Watch the Video 8D Instructions Answer the following questions and then summarize the results below.

What the problem IS


Who reported the problem?

What else it might be but IS NOT


Who did not report the problem?

More Info

WHO

Customer A & B
Who is affected by the problem? What is the product ID or reference number? What is (describe) the defect? Where does the problem occur? Where was the problem first observed? When was the problem first reported? When was the problem last reported? Why is this a problem?

Customer C
Who is not affected by the problem? What ID's or reference # are not affected? What is not the defect? Where is it not occurring but could? Where else might it occur? When was the problem not reported? When might it reappear? Why is this not a problem? Why is the problem urgent? How often is it not observed? How accurate is the measurement?

WHY HOW OTHER

WHEN

WHERE

WHAT

Why should this be fixed now? How often is the problem observed? How is the problem measured?

Can the problem be isolated? Replicated? Is there a trend? Has the problem occurred previously?

Customer: 0

Incident Date: 01/00/00

Part Number: 0

SCOPE

What is the start of the pro(cess/duct)? Lot #:

What is the end of the pro(cess/duct)? Application:

Failure Rate: 0.00%

PROBLEM ESCRIPTION

MISC
Based on answers to the questions above, please describe the problem and/or the opportunity

Note: the description of the problem should use a noun - verb format and not have any opinions, judgments, assumptions, presumed causes, solutions, blame or compound problems contained in it.

PROBLE DESCRIPT

Next >>>

More Info

Next >>>

D3 - Contain Problem
Watch the Video Use the Checklist and Risk Assessment below to manage the Containment Action These actions are temporary until permanent corrective action is taken 8D Instructions

Containment Checklist
Problem Definition Team selection Risk Assessment Containment recommendation Communication Plan Containment agreement Containment Action Taken Risk Assessment
Failure Severity 1-10 Occurrence 1-10 Detection 1-10 Risk Number Containment Action Taken

Yes Yes No No No No No

10

10

10

1000

Rating Severity Occurrence Detection

1 Nuisance or distraction Unlikely Detectible

5 Loss of primary function Moderate frequency Difficult to detect

Containment Recommendation (Describe)

Communication Plan

Audience
Person to reach

Objective
What are we seeking? Awareness, support, decision, advocate, advice, assistance

Delivery Method
Telecon, email, meeting, IM, Text, Videocon, etc.

Feedback Measure
How will we know the message was received? What are we doing & why?

Key Messag

Containment Agreement (Describe - Who, What, Where, When, Why, How)

Containment Action Plan

No.

Action Item
Noun + Verb

Deliverable
Be Specific

Date

Responsible
The Doer

Accountable
Ultimately Responsible

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

em

age the Containment Action orrective action is taken

Next >>>
Revised Severity 1-10 Revised Occurrence 1-10 Revised Detection 1-10 Risk Number

nment Action Taken

125

5 f primary function erate frequency ficult to detect

10 Loss of life or loss of significant $ Almost certain Cannot detect

Key Message
What does it mean to the person? What does the What support person need can the person to do expect from us? differently?

Assigned Due date Failure


Who will deliver the message Completion date

Consult
Advisor or Consultant

Inform
Needs to Know

Notes

Next >>>

D4 - 1 Identify Root Cause


Watch the Video Select one or more tools below to help identify Root Cause 8D Instructions

Root Cause Tool


IS / IS NOT Fault Tree Process Map 5 Why's Multi Vari FMEA Pareto Fish Bone Inter-relationship Diagram Current Reality Tree Scatter Plots Concentration Chart Design of Experiments Tree Diagram Brainstorming Regression Analysis Artificial Neural Networks Component Search M M L L H M L L M M L L H L L L H L

) use use f a o c t t o ity ase en cti tiv ty ro o e c i n ( m x e d u e j F ss le ir in ne sub qu of sX mp e t f e e o v r o i R y i C e el uit ilit qu ol To Tim Ab Lev Int Re
H M L L M H L M L M L L H L L L M M L = Low H H L M H M L L H M H L H L L H H H L L L M L M L M L L L L L L H L L L M = Medium M L H H L M H H M L M H L H H H L H H = High M H L L L M L M M M L L M M M L L L

se

am l Te a on d as cti e n ( die u s u F s t e S sX ors ire t c u a q Re #F fu eo se)


M M L L M H H M H L L L L H L L H H

D4 - 2 IS / IS NOT
Watch the Video

Root Cause List 8D Instructions

Complete the 'Problem Definition' on tab D2 Before Proceeding

What the problem IS


Who reported the problem?

What else it might be but IS NOT


Who did not report the problem?

More Info
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

WHO

Customer A & B
Who is affected by the problem?

Customer C
Who is not affected by the problem?

0
What ID's or reference # are not affected?

WHAT

What is the product ID or reference number?

0
What is (describe) the defect?

0
What is not the defect?

0
Where is it not occurring but could?

WHERE

Where does the problem occur?

0
Where was the problem first observed?

0
Where else might it occur?

0
When was the problem first reported?

0
When was the problem not reported?

WHEN

0
When was the problem last reported?

0
When might it reappear?

0
Why is this a problem?

0
Why is this not a problem?

WHY

0
Why should this be fixed now?

0
Why is the problem urgent?

0
How often is the problem observed?

0
How often is it not observed?

HOW

0
How is the problem measured?

0
How accurate is the measurement?

Can the problem be isolated? Replicated? Is there a trend? Has the problem occurred previously?

OTHER

Customer: 0

Incident Date:

Part Number: 0

SCOPE

What is the start of the pro(cess/duct)? 0 Lot #: 0

What is the end of the pro(cess/duct)? 0 Application: 0 Failure Rate: 0.00%

OBLEM CRIPTION

MISC
Based on answers to the questions above, please describe the problem and/or the opportunity

PROBLEM DESCRIPTIO
0

Highlight the differences between IS and IS NOT and identify possible causes

More Info

START HERE Differences


Customer A & B are long time customers, Customer C is not

Changes
Customer C added in the last month

Date & Time


1 month ago

Possible Ca

New customer onboar process Possible Cause 2 Possible Cause 3 Possible Cause 4 Possible Cause 5 Possible Cause 6 Possible Cause 7 Possible Cause 8 Possible Cause 9 Possible Cause 10 Possible Cause 11 Possible Cause 12

Select "+" when both "IS" and "IS NOT" are expla

Ne on w c bo us ar tom di ng er pr oc es s

auses

Ca us e

Ca us e

ib le

ib le

Po ss

Po ss

Possible Cause

customer onboarding ess ble Cause 2

ble Cause 3

ble Cause 4

ble Cause 5

ble Cause 6

ble Cause 7

ble Cause 8

ble Cause 9

ble Cause 10

ble Cause 11

ble Cause 12 + Total 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

RESULTS
Based on IS / IS NOT, the most likely causes(s) are:
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 +
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Cause
New customer onboarding process Possible Cause 2 Possible Cause 3 Possible Cause 4 Possible Cause 5 Possible Cause 6 Possible Cause 7 Possible Cause 8 Possible Cause 9

Po ss

ib le

Ca us e

10 11 12

0 0 0

Possible Cause 10 Possible Cause 11 Possible Cause 12

"IS" and "IS NOT" are explained by the Possible Cause. Select "-" when "IS" or "IS NOT" is explained by the Possible Cause.

Ca us e

Ca us e

Ca us e

Ca us e

Ca us e

ib le

ib le

ib le

ib le

ib le

Po ss

Po ss

Po ss

Po ss

Po ss

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0 0 0

Po ss
0 0 0

ib le

Ca us e

10

Possible Cause.

Po ss ib le Ca us e 11
0 0 0

Po ss ib le
0 0 0

Ca us e

12

D4 - 3 Fault Tree
Watch the Video Root Cause List 8D Instructions Using the basic fault tree symbols on the left, construct a fault tree here

Example:
Light Doesn't Turn On

Event

Logic "AND" Gate

Switch

Logic "OR" Gate

No

Contacts

Basic Event

Failure Not

Equipment

Repairman Not

Connector TOP Event: failure or undesirable state "AND" Gate: output produced if all inputs co-exist "OR" Gate: output produced if any input exists "Basic" Event: initiating event

fault tree here

Instructions:
Step 1: Identify Failure (TOP Event) Step 2: Identify first level contributors Step 3: Link contributors to Failure using logic gates Step 4: Identify second level contributors Step 5: Link second level contributors to Failure using logic gates Step 6: Repeat Step 4 and Step 5 for subsequent level contributors Step 7: Review all "Basic Events" for likely Root Cause

Bulb

Bulb Burned

Bulb Not

D4 - 4 Process Map

Watch the Video Using the basic flow chart symbols on the left, construct a high level process m Root Cause List 8D Instructions Start Start Process Step 1 Receive Order
Match Order price to quote

Example:

Problem: processing orders takes longer than corporate standard

Process Step 2 Return to customer


Decision

No

Price Match?

Yes

Enter order in system

Stop

Confirm order with customer

Stop

Possible Root Cause of order delay: cannot find quote to match price Connector

a high level process map

orate standard

Instructions:
Step 1: Construct process map Step 2: Identify areas where: Handoffs occur Data is transformed Special attention is required Inputs are not clear Outputs are not clear Instructions are not clear Specialized training is required The process is confusing Spec limits are poorly defined Unusual behavior is required Inconsistency exists Step 3: Identify potential Root Cause

ote to match price

D4 - 5 Why's
Watch the Video By asking successive 'Why's' the team may be able to identify Root Cause Root Cause List 8D Instructions What is the failure? The car won't start

Therefore

Therefore

Why did this occur? It ran out of gasoline

Is Confirmation Necessary? Yes No

How is this confirmed?

Therefore

Why did this occur? I forgot to fill it up No

How is this confirmed? Yes

Therefore

Why did this occur? The fuel gage is not working No

Yes

How is this confirmed? Fuel gage testing

Therefore

Why did this occur? I forgot to have it repaired No Why did this occur? I didn't put it on the repair list when it broke Root Cause

Yes

How is this confirmed? Maintenance records

How is this confirmed? Yes

Cause

Instructions:

STEP 1 : Define the problem. What is the product, process or service tha STEP 2 : Ask: Why did this occur?

is this confirmed?

STEP 3 : Answer: Does this reason need to ne confirmed? If No proceed If Yes, then record how confirmation was made. STEP 4 : Repeat Step 2 & 3 until Root Cause is identified.

is this confirmed?

is this confirmed? gage testing

STEP 5 : Verify Root Cause by starting at the probable Root Cause and co it to the previous cause using 'Therefore' STEP 6 : Repeat Step 5 until you reach the problem

is this confirmed? tenance records

STEP 7 : If there is a logical connection between each pair of statements to the problem then you have likely found the Root Cause

is this confirmed? See D6

ocess or service that has failed.

med? If No proceed to next 'Why?'

e Root Cause and connecting

pair of statements back he Root Cause

D4 - 6 Multi Vari
Watch the Video Root Cause List 8D Instructions STEP 1 : Define the problem. What is the product, process or service that has failed STEP 2: Using a Families of Variation (FOV) tree, identify the potential root causes to be included in the study - see below STEP 3: Determine the number of Time-to-Time samples required (Cell: I42) STEP 4: Determine the number of Unit-to-Unit samples required (Cell: F42) STEP 5: Determine the number of Within samples required (Cell: C42) STEP 6: Multiply the results in 3, 4 and 5 to determine the total number of units to be studied (Cell: L42) STEP 7: Develop the data collection plan (Row 47). This should be automatically created for you. STEP 8: Collect data (Column H beginning at cell H48) & select alpha risk (Cell: I178) STEP 9: Analyze results (Cell: I203)

Families of Variation Tree Failure (Unit)

Within Unit
Example: Widget to Widget Line

Between Units
to Line Shift

Over Time
to Shift

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Sub-Total:

WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 5

to WU1 to WU2 to WU3 to WU4 to WU5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Sub-Total:

BU1 BU2 BU3 BU4 BU5 5

to BU1 to BU2 to BU3 to BU4 to BU5

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Sub-Total:

OT1 OT2 OT3 OT4 OT5 5

to OT1 to OT2 to OT3 to OT4 to OT5

Data Collection Plan


Time Between Within Data

OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1

BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1

WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5

15.2038 14.5407 17.7464 -5.9591 1.5015

OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT1 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT2 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3

BU2 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU2

WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1

5.085 2.0017 14.327 13.4002 8.4973 10.5661 2.3631 14.3202 11.2544 5.6699 8.2522 6.56 10.6228 10.9 7.6223 12.7573 4.7375 12.5654 12.4333 8.7628 9.9244 0.1141 -1.4824 15.8033 12.5319 -6.1473 6.2406 11.2063 8.9289 9.2612 10.7074 22.8168 1.5132 12.6059 15.3474 0.6442 7.5193 -1.5645 1.1046 15.1475 10.3788 9.0094 11.1262 14.5717 17.9293 6.3712 11.5806 12.0327 9.6751 3.6259 10.6511

OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT3 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT4 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5

BU2 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU2 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU1 BU2 BU2

WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2

19.4126 7.0036 3.0633 8.8978 19.1382 4.8535 16.7445 15.347 4.86 13.5403 9.183 4.6844 10.4372 15.7935 7.7077 11.0995 6.3901 1.4156 9.106 12.138 -0.4652 17.8094 9.6149 3.7846 14.7737 12.027 13.0729 16.7324 16.2477 10.4786 9.1015 14.4461 6.3935 -0.1846 8.2401 14.105 20.253 3.4503 14.7921 7.6012 12.0057 5.6789 9.9809 8.1625 5.8427 7.9791 8.847 9.0764 0.7376 11.3831 15.9762

OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5 OT5

BU2 BU2 BU2 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU3 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU4 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5 BU5

WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5 WU1 WU2 WU3 WU4 WU5

13.5327 24.2123 6.8937 15.8558 3.0716 12.708 12.113 18.9813 3.9473 11.3194 17.0748 18.656 15.4013 16.6658 12.9875 11.3974 7.8947 3.0871

Time Time [a]: Obs [n]: 1 2 3 4 5 yk Units [b]: 1

Between Units [b]: 5

Within Obs [n]:

a=

0.05

Time [a]: Time [a]: Time [a]: Time [a]: Time [a]: 15.2038 9.9244 6.3712 12.138 5.8427 14.5407 0.1141 11.5806 -0.4652 7.9791 17.7464 -1.4824 12.0327 17.8094 8.847 -5.9591 15.8033 9.6751 9.6149 9.0764 1.5015 12.5319 3.6259 3.7846 0.7376 43.0333 36.8913 43.2855 42.8817 32.4828 1838.84 1055.132 14.7737 12.027 13.0729 16.7324 16.2477 72.8537 11.3831 15.9762 13.5327 24.2123 6.8937 71.998

A=

yk2 1851.865 1360.968 1873.635 1 2 3 4 5 yk yk


2

B=

5.085 2.0017 14.327 13.4002 8.4973 43.3112

-6.1473 6.2406 11.2063 8.9289 9.2612 29.4897

10.6511 19.4126 7.0036 3.0633 8.8978 49.0284

Units [b]: 2

C=

D=

1875.86 869.6424 2403.784 5307.662 5183.712 10.5661 2.3631 14.3202 11.2544 5.6699 44.1737 10.7074 22.8168 1.5132 12.6059 15.3474 62.9907 19.1382 4.8535 16.7445 15.347 4.86 60.9432 10.4786 9.1015 14.4461 6.3935 -0.1846 40.2351 15.8558 3.0716 12.708 12.113 18.9813 62.7297

1 2 3 4 5 yk

Units [b]: 3

Time - Time Between Within

yk2 1951.316 3967.828 3714.074 1618.863 3935.015

s2within =

32.37

Contribution

1 2 3 4 5 yk yk
2

8.2522 6.56 10.6228 10.9 7.6223 43.9573

0.6442 7.5193 -1.5645 1.1046 15.1475 22.8511

13.5403 9.183 4.6844 10.4372 15.7935 53.6384

8.2401 14.105 20.253 3.4503 14.7921 60.8405

3.9473 11.3194 17.0748 18.656 15.4013 66.3988

Units [b]: 4

Std Dev

98.2% 5.69

Note: high % contribution may indicat

1932.244 522.1728 2877.078 3701.566 4408.801 12.7573 4.7375 12.5654 12.4333 8.7628 51.2563 10.3788 9.0094 11.1262 14.5717 17.9293 63.0154 7.7077 11.0995 6.3901 1.4156 9.106 35.7189 7.6012 12.0057 5.6789 9.9809 8.1625 43.4292 16.6658 12.9875 11.3974 7.8947 3.0871 52.0325

1 2 3 4 5 yk

Units [b]: 5

yk2 2627.208 3970.941

1275.84 1886.095 2707.381

yk 225.7318 215.2382 242.6144 260.2402 285.6418 yk2 50954.85 46327.48 58861.75 67724.96 81591.24

- see below

125 < < < Total Data Points Required

12,092.70

12,218.41

12,943.50

16180.72

SS 125.71 725.09 3,237.21 4,088.02

df 4 20 100 124 s2between =

MS 31.43 36.25 32.37 32.97 0.78

Fcalc 0.87 1.12

Fcrit 2.87 1.68

Significant No No

s2time - time =

-0.193

Contribution Std Dev

2.4% 0.88

Contribution Std Dev

-0.6% #NUM!

ibution may indicate that the family is, or contains, the root cause

D4 - 7 Failure Modes and Effects Ana

Watch the Video Complete the FMEA (columns A:I) and select the high scoring Risk Priority Number (RPN)'s as p Root Cause List 8D Instructions
Process Step / Potential Failure Potential Failure Input Mode Effects Potential Causes

What is the process step or input under investigation?

In what ways does the Key Input go wrong?

What is the impact on the Key Output Variables (Customer Requirements)?

S E V E R I T Y

What causes the Key Input to go wrong?

O C C U R R E N C E

Current Controls

What are the existing controls and procedures (inspection and test) that prevent either the cause or the Failure Mode?

D E T E C T I O N

R P N

Match Order price to Quote price

Cannot find correct quote

Delay in entering order

Quote filing not properly organized Customer references wrong quote

None

128

Price doesn't match

Delay in entering order

Create new quote or return Order to customer

64

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

RESULTS
Based on the FMEA, the most likely causes(s) are:
Order 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 RPN
128 64 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Cause
Quote filing not properly organized Customer references wrong quote 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Effects Analysis

ber (RPN)'s as potential root causes (refer to Cell A24 in this tab)

Actions Recommended

Resp.

Actions Taken S E V E R I T Y

What are the actions for Who is responsible What are the reducing the for the completed actions occurrence of the recommended taken with the cause, or action? recalculated RPN? improving detection? Introduce formal Customer Service quote filing system Manager Make all customers quotes available online

O C C U R R E N C E

D E T E C T I O N

R P N

Rating

Filing system

32

High
Online quote system 8 2 2 32

IT Dept

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Low

Rating

Severity

Occurance

10

Hazardous without warning

Very High and almost inevitable

8 6 4 2

Loss of primary function Loss of secondary function Minor defect No effect

High repeated failures Moderate failures Occasional failures Failures unlikely

Detection

Cannot detect or detection with very low probability

Remote or low chance of detection Low detection probability Moderate detection probability Almost certain detection

D4 - 8 Pareto
Watch the Video Complete the Pareto and select the high count causes as potential root causes Root Cause List 8D Instructions Chart Title:
Count Defect 1 Defect 2 Defect 3 Defect 4 Defect 5 Defect 6 Defect 7 Defect 8 Defect 9 Defect 10 Total

Pareto Chart Example


% Count Cume % Cume

26 15 6 7 2 2 2 1 1 1 63

41% 24% 10% 11% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 100%

26 41 47 54 56 58 60 61 62 63

41% 65% 75% 86% 89% 92% 95% 97% 98% 100%

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Defect 1 Defect 2 Defect 3 Count % Count Cume % Cume 26 41% 26 41% 15 24% 41 65%

Defects that account for 80% of ob

ential root causes

Pareto Chart Example

Defect 3 Defect 4 Defect 5 Defect 6 Defect 7 Defect 8 Defect 9 6 10% 47 75% 7 11% 54 86% 2 3% 56 89% 2 3% 58 92% 2 3% 60 95% 1 2% 61 97% 1 2% 62 98%

Defect 10 1 2% 63 100%

ount for 80% of observed frequencies are treated as Root Cause

D4 - 9 Fish Bone

Watch the Video Identify possible causes of the problem and when finished, select all those believed to be potentia Root Cause List 8D Instructions

Measurement

People

Environment

Methods

elieved to be potential root causes

Instructions: Materials

STEP 1 : Define the problem. What is the product, process

STEP 2 : Starting with 'Materials' or any other label, ask: is might contribute to the problem. Record it next STEP 3 : Repeat asking "is there anything about materials Record each result next to an arrow.

Problem
STEP 4 : Repeat Step 2 & 3 for each successive category.

STEP 5 : Identify the candidates that are the most likely Ro

STEP 6 : If further "screening" is necessary, assess the like and "Implement" matrix, selecting items marked

Machines

he product, process or service that has failed.

y other label, ask: is there anything about materials that em. Record it next to one of the arrows under Materials.

ng about materials that might contribute to the problem" arrow.

cessive category.

e the most likely Root Cause

ary, assess the likely Root Causes using the "Impact" cting items marked 1, then 2 . . . 4 as priorities.

D4 - 10 Inter - Relationship Diagram


Watch the Video Using the basic Inter-Relationship Diagram Symbols on the left, construct an Inter-Relationship Diagram here Root Cause List 8D Instructions

Instructions: Problem:
Example

We don't use a structured methodology to solve difficult problems - why? Step 1: Develop the problem statement Step 2: Identify issues related to the problem Step 3: Arrange the issues in a circle Step 4: Identify cause and effect (C&E) relationships: A. Use any issue as a starting point B. Pair it with any other issue C. For every pair of issues determine: i. If there is no cause and effect relationship ii. If there is a weak cause and effect relationship ii. If there is a strong cause and effect relationship Step 5: If there is a C&E relationship, identify which is the cause and which is the effect Step 6: Draw a 1 headed arrow (only) pointing to the effect Step 7: For each issue, record the arrows "in" and "out"

IN: 0

OUT: 1.5

IN:

OUT:

IN: 0

OUT: 2

Don't think it will help


IN: 3 OUT: 0

Want to avoid
embarrassment

Don't know any methods

Strong (1 point)
IN: 1 OUT: 1 IN: 1 OUT: 0

Weak (1/2 point)

Afraid to ask questions

Methodology is too slow

Possible Root Causes: 1. Want to avoid embarrassment 2. Don't think it will help

Step 8: Issues with the highest "out" are possible Root Causes

D4 - 11 Current Reality Tree

Watch the Video Using the basic Current Reality Tree symbols on the left, construct a Current Reality Tree h Root Cause List 8D Instructions Standard Practices
Undesirable Effect

UDE Viewed as a tool for the inexperienced &

Connector

AND" Competent people don't need Standard People want to be viewed as Standard Practices

Standard Practices

No system create and update

Standard Practices are not valued by the

ree
Current Reality Tree here

Instructions:
Step 1: List the undesirable effects (UDE's) related to the situation (up to 10) Step 2: Identify any two UDE's with a relationship Step 3: Determine which UDE is the cause and which is the effect Step 4: Continue connecting the UDE's using "if-then" logic until all UDE's are connected. Additional causes can be added using "and" logic Step 5: Clarify relationships using adjectives Step 6: Continue this process until no other causes can be added to the tree Step 7: UDE's with no preceeding entities are the likely Root Causes

Company doesn't enforce use of

ndard Practices

Standard Practices

system in place to reate and update

tandard Practices e not valued by the

D4 - 12 Scatter Plot
Watch the Video Follow the directions on the right to complete the Scatter Plot Root Cause List 8D Instructions Data Points X Y 38.26 2.081381 91.23 4.706895 106.29 3.649935 268.31 9.622546 470.63 25.962171 216.82 7.124237 307.75 7.199636 213.78 9.542106 352.17 16.402771 128.26 10.687631 125.44 9.089371 185.70 11.430855 119.93 5.731392 158.64 7.569877 186.30 9.673238 292.41 17.305745 338.46 19.560302 405.83 27.898421 227.94 15.441851 285.26 19.425977 192.43 12.254396 248.85 30.174186 512.06 37.54775 545.07 48.281938 186.95 20.595593 208.56 17.888325 182.72 19.081187 459.35 40.326252 414.24 30.300325 276.57 31.892381 254.89 22.175021 368.50 22.243916 203.20 11.651808 363.92 29.876299 46.60 3.377931 506.60 45.387671 225.27 14.434076 340.61 28.64869 193.25 14.264056 170.16 9.112769 161.13 10.187908 131.80 11.596628 279.55 20.186701
70 60 50 40

Y
30 20 10 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

161.96 512.89 807.69 177.67 539.72

11.07718 29.678582 59.404809 12.047774 45.28834

Instructions:
Step 1. Enter data in columns A & B (Cells: A9 & B9) Step 2. Position the red lines parallel to the existing 'best fit' line so that all data points are between the red lines Step 3. Identify the upper and lower spec for 'Y' Step 4. Calculate the vertical distance between the red lines: R Step 5. Conclude: 'X' is a root cause when: (Upper Spec - Lower Spec) * 0.2 > = R

Upper Spec: Lower Spec: R:

60 20 26

X: Not Root Cause


700 800 900

D4 - 13 Concentration Chart
Watch the Video The Concentration Chart may point to a particularly problematic area Root Cause List 8D Instructions STEP 1 : Define the problem. What is the product, process or service that has failed. STEP 2 : Draw a diagram of the item under consideration. A sketch, engineering drawing or process map works well. STEP 3 : Plot the frequency and location of errors on the diagram. STEP 4 : Based on the results, identify potential root causes. STEP 5 : If additional analysis is needed, try using: a. FMEA b. Fault Tree c. 5 Why's d. Multi Vari e. Scatter Plot

orks well.

D4-14

D4 - 14 Design of Experiments
23 Factorial Design with up to 5 Replicates Watch the Video Root Cause List 8D Instructions
Factors A -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 ave ave + effect 24.13 45.46 21.33 B -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 25.49 44.09 18.60 C -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 30.98 38.60 7.62 AB 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 32.00 37.58 5.58 Interations AC 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 33.63 35.96 2.33 BC 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 34.03 35.56 1.53 ABC -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 34.52 35.07 0.55 1 16.3 29.7 27.0 52.3 20.8 36.7 34.0 64.0 Response Replications 2 14.8 29.6 27.9 51.3 19.8 37.6 33.9 63.0 3 15.3 29.0 27.6 51.0 18.7 37.6 33.4 63.7 4 5 Sum 46.40 88.30 82.50 154.60 59.30 111.90 101.30 190.70 Average 15.47 29.43 27.50 51.53 19.77 37.30 33.77 63.57

A Effect
50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 ave ave + 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

B Effect
50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 ave ave +

C Effect

ave -

ave +

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D4-14

AB Interaction
80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 AA+ 60.00
BB+

AC Interaction
60.00
CC+

BC Interaction

40.00 20.00 0.00 AA+

40.00 20.00 0.00 BB+

CC+

REGRESSION MODEL Y Axis Intercept A: B: C: AB: AC: BC: ABC: 34.79 10.67 9.30 3.81 2.79 1.17 0.77 0.27 Sources SS A 2730.67 B 2075.76 C 348.08 AB 187.04 AC 32.67 BC 14.11 ABC 1.81 Error 6.28 Total 5396.42 df 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 16 23 MS F 2730.67 6957.11 2075.76 5288.56 348.08 886.83 187.04 476.54 32.67 83.23 14.11 35.94 1.81 4.62 0.39 F table Significant 4.49 Yes 4.49 Yes 4.49 Yes 4.49 Yes 4.49 Yes 4.49 Yes 4.49 Yes

a 0.05

CODED VALUES FOR EACH FACTOR A: 0.55 Predicted Response B: 1 = 56.86 C: 1

A:

UNCODED High Low 180 160

CODED High ? 1 0.55

Low -1

TO FIND AN UNCODED FACTOR SETTING REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE A GIVEN RESPONSE: 1. Select factor settings for 2 of the 3 factors and enter them in as "coded values" (Cells B56, B57 2. From the Excel Ribbon above select Data > What-If Analysis > Goal Seek 3. In the dialogue Box, Set Cell D57 . . . 4. To value = whatever Response value you desire 5. By changing cell B56 or B57 or B58 (whichever one was left blank from 1. above) 6. Select OK then OK 7. Enter the uncoded equivalent of 'High' in cell B63 and the 'Low' in cell C63. See answer in 8. b

Page 72

D4-14
8. So ... A = 1 coded and A = 175.5 uncoded

Page 73

D4-14

Instructions:
Step 1: Identify the factors of interest (3 Max) Step 2: Assign each one as A, B and C Step 3: Based on the settings of A, B & C beginning in cells B9, C9 & D9, run the experiment and record the response in cell I9 Step 4: Repeat step 3 for all A, B & C combnations Step 5: Repeat the above for each Replicate and record responses beginning in J9 Step 6: Select the alpha risk level in cell O51 Step 7: Determine Root Cause for Main Effects (A, B, C) and interactions (AB, AC, BC, etc. beginning in cell M48 ("Yes" is significant) Step 8: For Uncoded values see instructions H62

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D4-14

HIEVE A GIVEN RESPONSE: "coded values" (Cells B56, B57 and B58)

nk from 1. above)

in cell C63. See answer in 8. below . . .

Page 75

D4 - 14 Tree Diagram
Watch the Video Root Cause List 8D Instructions

Problem

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

Cause

ee Diagram

Instructions:
Step 1: Define the problem. Place it at the top. Step 2: Ask: 'What causes this?" or "Why did this happen?" Brainstorm all possible answers and write each below the problem Step 3: Determine if all items from Step 2 are sufficient and necessary. Ask: "are all items at this level necessary for the one on the level above?" Step 4: Using each item from Step 2, repeat Step 2 & 3. In other words, treat each response from Step 2 as the new problem and repeat Step 2 & 3 Step 5: Repeat the process until specific actions can be taken Step 6: Identify Root Cause

h below the problem

t and necessary. he one on the level above?"

. In other words, treat m and repeat Step 2 & 3

D4 - 16 Brainstorming
Watch the Video Root Cause List 8D Instructions

Step 1: Warm up . . . ask each particpant to describe their ideal job. Examples: professional golfer, photographer, travel co Step 2: Then, describe the problem you are trying to solve to the group Step 3: Ask "What could be causing this problem?" Step 4: Have participants write down their suggestions on sticky notes Step 5: When all suggestions are received, seek clarification so everyone else understands Step 6: Arrange all ideas into "logical" or "like" groups - use an Affinity Diagram Step 7: Remove duplicate ideas and infeasible answers Step 8: Select most likely Root Cause

al golfer, photographer, travel consultant, etc.

D4 - 17 Regression Analysis
Watch the Video GB 11,528 240 37 89 104 262 212 209 344 125 123 181 117 155 182 286 331 396 223 279 188 243 183 204 178 449 405 270 249 360 198 355 46 220 333 189 166 157 129 Docs 56,291,839 1,172,747 256,936 725,230 1,540,736 863,173 792,843 1,315,431 1,229,587 1,019,737 1,262,217 421,386 835,398 1,427,470 1,483,527 1,835,340 1,672,662 1,114,091 1,608,812 887,604 1,256,176 996,818 1,014,372 1,384,045 2,294,320 1,988,651 1,617,172 1,310,009 1,759,851 616,722 1,465,105 203,325 908,955 1,155,898 735,376 514,246 941,943 465,914 GB Docs Known 500 3,000,000 Docs GB Predicted 2,220,208.4 693.4 Regression Equation: Docs = 204486.843 + 4031.443 * GB R = 0.8164 Confidence 95% e.g. 95%
2

3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000

Docs

671,045

1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 100 200 300

GB

R adj

273 158 501 174 378 547 41 74 177 538 494

1,099,136 666,556 2,307,524 626,189 1,762,608 2,109,892 182,682 262,055 1,248,915 2,152,805 2,281,354

Regression Analysis
Watch the Video Root Cause List 8D Instructions

Instructions:
Step 1. Enter variable names in cells A1 (X) and B1(Y) Step 2. Enter data in columns A & B (1000 data points max) Step 3. Select the Confidence Level of the analysis (Cell D22) Step 4. Enter a known X (cell D25) and observe the predicted Y (cell F25) and the prediction interval (cells H25 & I25) or . . . Step 5. Enter a known Y (cell D27) and observe the predicted X (cell F27)

400

500

600

Notes:
1. The Regression Equation, R2 and R2adj are located below the plot = 0.8124

4486.843 + 4031.443 * GB

Prediction Interval Lower 1,688,920.0 Upper 2,751,496.8

D5 Identify Corrective Action


8D Instructions Describe and summarize the Root Cause and Corrective Actiion Watch the Video

Likely Root Cause 1: Corrective Action 1: Likely Root Cause 2: Corrective Action 2: Likely Root Cause 3: Corrective Action 3:

LRC 1 CA 1

LRC 2 CA 2

LRC 3 CA 3

Action
Next >>>

nd Corrective Actiion

Next >>>

D6 Implement and Verify


8D Instructions STEP 1 The 3 Corrective Actions: 1. CA 1 2. 3. CA 2 CA 3 Implement the Corrective Action and Validate Effectiveness Watch the Video

STEP 3 Tukey Quick Test: 1: Select a sample of 8 from the process with the defect 2: Implement the first Corrective Action from the above list 3: Select a second sample of 8 from the process 4: Rank the sample readings from low to high 5: Identify each as either 'good' or 'bad' 6: Verify Root Cause then return to 1. above for next Corrective Action STEP 4 Sample Set 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

STEP 2 Verifying Root Caus 1. Design of Experiem 2. Hypothesis Testin 3. Components Swap 4. Regression Analys 5. On/Off Switching 6. Process Capability 7. Tukey Quick Test 8. Control Charts 9. Sampling

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Reading

Good/Bad Bad Bad Bad Good Good Good Good Good Bad Good Good Good Good Good Good Good

Beginning at Sample 1, # 1 and moving down the list, the number of consecutive Bad units = 3

Beginning at Sample 2, # 16 and moving up the list, the number of consecutive Good units =

Total 'End Count'

10

Based on the Total 'End Count of 10, there is 99% confidence that the likely Root Cause is an actual Root Cause

Next >>>

ying Root Cause can be accomplished using a variety of tools, such as, but not limited to: sign of Experiements pothesis Testing mponents Swapping gression Analysis /Off Switching ocess Capability key Quick Test (see Step 3) ntrol Charts mpling

in Sample 1

in Sample 2

confidence

Next >>>

D7 Prevent Recurre
Ensure Corrective Actions Prevent Watch the Video 8D Instructions Low Control Low Effort Verbal * Written * Visual * SPC * Mistake

All preventive measures must address People, Product, Process Error Suggested Prevention / CA People:
Misunderstanding Unaware (of task, etc.) Misidentification Inexperience Inadvertent Caused by Delay Lack of Standards Malfunction Forgetfulness Incomplete Too complex Difficult to understand Poor Design/sequence Unfamiliar with process No transparency Unaware of process Inputs not understood Outputs not understood Poor Spec Limits Not formalized Inconsistent use Lack of process training Poor/no documentation Variation Poor decision rules Unexpected behavior Incomplete Too complex Misunderstood Poor Design/sequence New Unaware 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1, 4, 5, 6, 8 7, 14, 17, 22 2, 4 Any Visual CA 7 5, 6, 9 27 7, 9 31 30 8, 30 30 1, 5, 8, 9, 12 1, 3, 5, 9 2, 10 5, 7, 9 5, 7, 9 25 11 5 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 5, 23, 24 12 5, 9, 36 35 29, 34 1, 5, 7, 8, 9 34, 36 1, 5, 7, 8, 9 1

Process:

Product:

Inputs not understood Outputs not understood Consistency of use Training Documentation

5, 7, 29 5, 7 5 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 12 5, 7, 8, 9, 12

D7 Prevent Recurrence

e Corrective Actions Prevent Recurrence Watch the Video High Control High Effort

Visual * SPC * Mistake Proofing * New Design

Step 1: Capture error (Root Cause) from D6 Step 2: Locate Root Cause in 'Error' column on the left Step 3: Select one or more numbers from 'Suggested Prevention' Step 4: Look up associated action in columns on the right Step 5: Apply these preventions where failure could possibly have occurred but didn't Step 6: Document when prevention was put in place and person responsible

Prevention (document here)

Typical Prevention Corrective Action (CA) 1 2 Verbal 3 4 5 6 7 8 Written 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Visual 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 SPC & 25 VOC 26 27 28 29 Mistake 30 Proofing 31 32 33 34 New 35 Design

New Design

36

Next >>>

Next >>> Typical Prevention Corrective Action (CA) Verbal instruction Shadowing Audio recording Mentoring / Coaching Standard Operating Procedure Standard Work Checklist Technical manuals Work Instructions Announcement / Memo Document Control Playbook Andon lights Status indicators Transparent containers & dispensers Layout templates Orientation Illustrations Color Signage Pictures/Placards Observation Early warning systems Process Control Pre-Control Customer Specifications Kitting Go / No-Go Position Locators Lock-in's Lock out's Shadow Boards Takt Time Simplification Additional features

White Sheet design

D8 Congratulate Team
Watch the Video 8D Instructions Step 1: Team lead gathers team together Step 2: Team lead and management summarize achievements Step 3: Management congratulated team Step 4: 8D report is signed

Describe Activities

Next >>>

8D Summary Report
D0 WHO IS EFFECTED BY THE PROBLEM? Customer: 0 Address: 0 Date of Failure: 0 Time of Failure: 0 Part No.: 0 Product Name: 0 D1 TEAM MEMBERS Champion: 0 Team Leader: 0 Process Owner: 0 Supplier: 0 Customer: 0 SME: 0 QA: 0 Other: 0 PICTURE OR SKETCH OF FAILURE Tracking Number: 1st Person to report problem: Product Manager: Value Stream Manager: Description of use: 8D Report Number: D2 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION 0 0 0 0 0 0

D3 INTERIM CONTAINMENT ACTIONS 0

D4 ROOT CAUSE LRC 1 LRC 2 LRC 3 D5 CORRECTIVE ACTION CA 1 CA 2 CA 3 D6 CORRECTIVE ACTION IMPLEMENTATION & DATE 1. 2. 3. D7 ACTIONS TAKEN TO PREVENT RECURRENCE 0
Date Verified Yes Yes Yes

D8 TEAM RECOGNITION 0

APPROVAL

Name

Signature

Date