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Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD

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Basics of Ultrasound Imaging
April 2014
Department of Electronics & Communications Engineering,
Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Mustafa Karaman, Ph.D
Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD
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Ultrasound B-Scan Image: Liver
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Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Imaging System
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Ultrasonic Imaging
Tissue-wave interaction
Transducer design
Analog and digital electronic design
Array signal processing (beamforming)
Signal and image processing
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Acoustic Applications
Medical Imaging (non-invasive diagnosis)
Nondestructive testing (NDT)
Underwater acoustics (sonar)
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Medical Imaging
non-invasive observation of internal structures
of human body
: Based on interaction between tissue &
energy (x-rays, electric fields, ultrasound, etc.)
Different forms of energy/radiation
imaging of different characteristics of tissue
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Medical Ultrasound
represents mechanical properties of tissue
has no harmful biological side effect
allows real-time imaging
offers small-size, low-cost systems
complementary diagnostic tool
+ (will) provide real-time 3D imaging
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Medical Ultrasound Waves
Longitudinal waves: 2-15 MHz
Transverse waves
high attenuation in tissue
not used
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Ultrasound Parameters
water
fat
bone
liver
kidney
muscle
soft tissue
Speed
(m/s)
1480
1440
4080
1550
1560
1590
1540
Attenuation
(dB / MHz cm)
0.0025
0.56
12.0
0.95
1.1
1.8
0.81
Impedance
1.48
1.36
7.80
1.66
1.63
1.71
1.62
) / 10 (
2 6
s m kg
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Ultrasound Parameters
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Frequency & Wavelength
f
c
=
In soft tissue: C = 1540 m/s
f
(MHz) (mm)
3.0 0.51
5.0 0.31
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Reflection
2
1 2
1 2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

= I
Z Z
Z Z
Power reflection coefficient:
Reflection between X and Soft tissue Z = 1.62
X I I
2
water + 0.452 0.020
fat + 0.087 0.008
bone - 0.656 0.430
liver - 0.003 9.6e-6
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Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD
scattering
16
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Reflection (Pulse-echo) & Transmission Modes
TX
Mode
(t>r/c)
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A Sample Pulse-echo Signal
s(t)
S(w)
3.5Mhz, 40%BW
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Attenuation in Pulse-Echo
R
e I I
o 2
0

=
F loss
(MHz) (dB/cm) (dB)
3.5 2.8 112
5.0 4.0 160
R
I
I
0
=
Medium Attenuation: Diffraction Attenuation:
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Attenuation TGC
Attenuation: compensated by TGC amplifier
Gain: Operator controlled at discrete
range segments
range
g
a
i
n
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TGC Applied to B-Scan Image
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Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Imaging System
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Transducers
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PZT: Lead Zirconate Titanate
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PZT: Lead Zirconate Titanate
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Z
PZT
~30x10
5
g/cm
2
s
Z
SKIN
=~1.7x10
5
g/cm
2
s
Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD
CMUT
25
v
out
V
dc
~
v
ac
Generated Acoustic Wave
Incident Acoustic Wave
Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD
Trasnsducer Bandwidth
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Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD
Trasnsducer Bandwidth
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Beamforming
Perhaps the most important building block.
Probably the most expensive building block.
30 - 50% of parts & labor of a scanner
Forming transmit/receive beams
Scan image plane (reconstruct image).
This slide is from K. Thomenius presentation.
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Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD
Focusing
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steering
32
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Scan (Beam) Lines
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Beamforming = steering + focusing
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T
r
a
n
s
d
u
c
e
r
s

&

S
c
a
n

F
o
r
m
a
t
s
Transducer
Array
A
c
tiv
e
S
u
b
a
rra
y
S
c
a
n

L
i
n
e
B
e
a
m
Transducer Array = Active Subarray
S
c
a
n

L
i
n
e
B
e
a
m
Transducer
Array
Active
Subarray
S
c
a
n

L
i
n
e
Beam
Linear Array Curvi-Linear Array Phased Array
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End of Session-1
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Basics of Ultrasound Imaging
Session 2
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Transducer
Array
A
c
tiv
e
S
u
b
a
rra
y
S
c
a
n

L
i
n
e
B
e
a
m
Transducer Array = Active Subarray
S
c
a
n

L
i
n
e
B
e
a
m
Transducer
Array
Active
Subarray
S
c
a
n

L
i
n
e
Beam
Linear Array
Curvi-Linear Array Phased Array
Recall From Session-1:
Transducers & Scan Formats
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Recall From Session-1: Beamforming
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PSF
Point Spread Function
Image of a point reflector (target)
Also called LSF (line spread function)
2D cross-sectional image of line reflector (target)
Represents the spatial impulse response of the
(linear) imaging system.
Used to characterize
transducer response (radiation pattern, beam
pattern)
the image quality of the system.
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r

u
(r,u)
D/2
x
dx
Observation
point
Geometry for driving PSF
-D/2
Excitation Pulse: p(t)
Aperture
u

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PSF
( / )
Signal at the observation point:
( / )
( , ) cos
Assume paraxial case: cos 1 &
1
( , ) ( / )
For CWexcitation: ( )
( , )
D
D
jwt
w
j
jw t c jwt
c
D D
p t c
s t dx
r
s t p t r c dx
r
p t e
s t e dx e e dx

=
~ ~
=
=
= =
}
}
} }
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PSF
2
( , )
( , ) /
w
j
jwt jwt
c
jwt
D
w
j
c
D
j
D
s t
h w e e dx e
e
e dx
e dx

| |
= =
|
\ .
=
=
}
}
}
Temporal frequency response
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Near & Far Fields
2 2
2
2
2
2 sin
2
1 sin
[1 ( ) ( ) ...]
r x rx
x x
r
r r
r O x O x
u
u
= +
= +
= + + +
2
2
[1 ( ) ( )] Near-Field (Fresnel)
/ Far-Field (Fraunhofer)
[1 ( )]
sin
r O x O x
r D
r O x
r x

u
~ + +
>>
~ +
~
Distance from source point to observation point:
r

u
(r,u)
x
dx
Aperture
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One-Way PSF
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 / sin
2 / sin
( , )
(sin , )
(sin ) ( )
{ ( )}
sin / sin
/ sin
j
D
j r
j x
D
j x
D
D
h w e dx
h w e e dx
h a x e dx
F a x
D
t

t
t u

t u

u
u
t u
t u

=
=
=
=
=
}
}
}

(r,u)
dx
Aperture
Function
a
D
(x)
u
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(sin ) (sin )
t r
h h u u =
One-Way (Tx & Rx) PSF
Transmit and receive responses of an
aperture are identical.
Transmit and receive beam patterns (PSFs)
of a transducer are identical.
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3dB width
main lobe
side lobes
1/ 2
PSF for D=16
sin(8 sin )
(sin )
0.5 sin
h
t u
u
t u
=
Sinu
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Aperture & Sampled Aperture (Array)
d
(r,u)
r

u
1
2 3 N
Continious
Aperture
Function
Sampled
Aperture
Function
d
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PSF of Sampled Aperture (Array)
1
sin( sin )
2
(sin ) exp( sin )
sin( sin )
N
n
Nd
h j nd
d
t
u
t

u u
t

=
= =

Note that: It is a periodic sinc()-like function with


a period of sinu=2/d.
Sampling in one FT domain corresponds to periodicity
in the other FT domain.
This results in repeated main lobes, so called
grating lobes.
To avoid grating lobes, choose ds/2
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Array PSF with Grating Lobes
main lobe
3dB beam width
first side lobe
side lobes
Grating lobe
grating lobe
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Two-Way PSF
2
(sin ) (sin ) (sin )
sin( sin )
(sin ) (sin )
sin( sin )
sin( sin )
(sin )
sin( sin )
t r
t r
TR
h h h
Nd
h h
d
Nd
h
d
u u u
t
u

u u
t
u

t
u

u
t
u

=
= =
| |
|
=
|
|
\ .
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( )
( )
sin 0.5 16 sin
(sin )
sin 0.5 sin
h
t u
u
t u

=
One-Way PSF
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Two-Way PSF
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Two-Way Pulsed PSFs
R: 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D
a
r
r
a
y

(
N
=
1
6
,

d
=

/
2
)
-0.5
0.0
+0.5
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Mesh Plot of Two-Way PSFs
1D
2D
3D
4D
5D
6D
7D
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Effective Aperture
) (sin ) (sin
)} ( ) ( {
)} ( { ) (sin
) ( ) ( ) (
u u
u
r t
r t
e
r t e
h h
x a x a F
x a F h
x a x a x a
=
=
=
=
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Aperture Apodization
Array Channels
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Apodized PSF
) (sin ) (sin
]} [ ] [ { ) (sin
u u
u
h W
n a n w F h
a
=
=
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Effect of Apodization on PSF
Xtr & Rcv Hamming Window
Xtr & Rcv Uniform Window
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Depth of Focal Zone
focal point
depth of focal zone

2
2
8 8
no
f
D
r
r ~
|
.
|

\
|
~ A
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F/number Apodization
Range
D
2D
f/number = R
focal
/ D
effective,
D
effective
= D * cosu
Used for improved focal zone.
Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD
f/number apodization
63
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Effective Aperture Size
r
u
(r,u)
D
steering angle
focal point
D cos u
effective aperture
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Aperture Apodization
increases depth of focal zone
suppresses side lobes
reduces point resolution
(increases main lobe width)
reduces T/R power (SNR)
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Pulse-Echo Ultrasound Imaging System
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Output Signal of Beamformer
(Beamformed A-scan)
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Beamformer Output

=
=
r
N
n
n n
c r t t p t A t s
1
) / ) ( ( ) ( ) ( t

= =
=
t r
N
k
N
n
k n n k
c r t t t p t A t A t s
1 1
) / 2 ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( t t
Receive Beamforming:
T/R Beamforming (synthetic):
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Wavefronts With/out Focusing
Row-1: No focusing, Row-2: Xtr focusing, Row-3: Xtr & Rcv focusing
(N=64)
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End of Session-2
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Basics of Ultrasound Imaging
Session 3
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Sector Scan
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Scan-Conversion
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Scan-Conversion
u o A + =
A + =
A + =
/ ) (
/ ) (
/ ) (
1 2 1
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1
C C C C
r d B B B C
r d A A A C
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Scan-Conversion
sinu
R
a
n
g
e

(
r
)
x
y
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Logarithmic Compression
To view regions with different contrast
levels on the same display range
a = 10
db_floor/20
; % a=0.01 for
db_floor=-40;
x = x / xmax;
if x()<a then x() = a
y = 20 log
10
(x)
40 dB < dB_floor < 60 dB
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Image Resolution
Axial (range) resolution
Lateral (azimuth) resolution
Point resolution
Contrast resolution
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Aixal & Lateral Resolution
R: 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D
a
r
r
a
y

(
N
=
1
6
,

d
=

/
2
)
-0.5
0.0
+0.5
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Resolution of B-Scan Image
a
x
i
a
l
lateral
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Axial & Lateral Resolution
Axial (Range) Resolution
o pulse shape
o pulse width
o Xducer bandwith
Lateral (Azimuth) Resolution
o array size
o frequency & BW
o apodization
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Point Resolution
capability of resolving point targets
o main lobe width
3 dB resolution: FWHP of main lobe
6 dB resolution: FWHM of main lobe

no
f
D
r
FWHM 22 . 1 22 . 1 ~ ~
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Contrast Resolution
capability of resolving regions with different
contrast levels
o ratio of power in main lobe to power
in side lobes
Contrast-to-Nose-Ratio:
2
2
2
1
2 1
o o

+

= CNR
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Delay & Amplitude Quantization
Delay & Amplitude Quantization
side lobe level contrast resolution
RMS Array/Delay Quantization Errors/ Main Lobe Amplitude
m=fs/fo=32, N=128 - 59 dB
RMS Signal-amplitude Quantization Sidelobe Level / Max Image
Amplitude
N=128, B=8 bits -74 dB
(Peterson & Kino IEEE Trans. UFF, July 1984)
N m
d
6
t
c =
N
B
a
3 2
1
= c
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Real-Time Imaging Constraint
s
firing
c xRange
x
frame
firings
x
s
frames
1
/ 2
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
192
1
/ 1540 / 20 . 0 2 20
s
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
frame
firings
s
firing
s m m x
x
frame
firings
x
s
frames
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Beam Space Sampling
max
max max
sin
/ 2
sin 2
sin
sin 2
u
u
u
u
e
e
N
N
B = =
A
>
N B
N N N N N
e r t
2
2
2 / 1 45 sin sin
0
max
>
= = =
= = u
179 128 > = B N
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Issues
volumetric scan hardware
digital systems ADC cost
flow imaging correlation proces.
phase aberration resolution
motion artifacts resolution
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Dimension of a Transducer Array
This slide is from K. Thomenius presentation.
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3-D Imaging using 2-D Arrays
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Why 2D?
This slide is from K. Thomenius presentation.
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Volumetric Imaging
# of array channels (NxN) Hardware
32x32 =1K, 64x64 =4K, 128x128 =16K
2D sparse arrays with 256 channels currently
available for 3D/4D imaging.
For ergonomic scanning, the number of
cables should be limited by 256 512.
# of Beam lines Frame rate
New scanning methods needed.
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91
Doppler Frequency
u cos 2
0
f
c
v
f f
d
= = A
v: flow velocity (?)
Af = fd: average Doppler frequency
c: ultrasound velocity
fo: ultrasound frequency
u: angle between beam and velocity
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Correlation Processing
Differential phase/delay
Phase of complex correlation coeff.
Index of max of RF correlation func.
Estimation of motion, phase aberration, flow

=
k
n n
k
n n
k
n n
n n
k s k s k s k s
k s k s
*
1 1
*
*
1
1 ,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (

+ +
+
=

k
n n
k
n n
k
n n
n n
m k s m k s k s k s
m k s k s
m
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
1 1
1
1 ,

Basics of Ultrasound Imaging Mustafa Karaman, PhD


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RF Correlation
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Non-Aberrated Wavefronts
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Phase Aberration
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Phase Aberration
Row-1: No aberration., Row-2: 1x aberration., Row-3: 2x aberration
(N=64)
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Motion!
Maximum Velocity of Heart
Heart Valve cm/s =0.44mm 20 frames/s
normal 30 cm/s 680 /s 34 /frame
higher 60 cm/s 1360 /s 68 /frame
abnormal 100 cm/s 2270 /s 134 /frame
Heart Wall 1-15 cm/s 20-340 /s 1-17 /frame
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End of Session-3