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Mechanical Fuel-Gas Calculations & Handouts 2009 Codes

Compiled by: Dennis Maidon

Revised: September 21, 2010

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Revised: September 21, 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CONFINED/UNCONFINED SPACES .................................................................................................................................................................. 5 CLOSET/ALCOVE SPACES................................................................................................................................................................................ 5 LOUVERS AND GRILLS .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 NATURAL VENTILATION AREA ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6 ADJOINING SPACES ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

FIGURE 1 - ADJOINING SPACES .........................................................................................................................................7


OPENINGS BELOW GRADE ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

FIGURE 2 - OPENINGS BELOW GRADE ................................................................................................................................8


ENCLOSED PARKING GARAGES ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9 VENTILATION OF UNINHABITED SPACES ........................................................................................................................................................ 9 REQUIRED OUTDOOR VENTILATION AIR .......................................................................................................................................................10 COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOOD SIZING ...........................................................................................................................................................10 COMBUSTION AIR ........................................................................................................................................................................................11

INDOOR AIR .............................................................................................................................................................11 Figure 3 - All Air From Inside The Building ..........................................................................................................12 OUTDOOR AIR .........................................................................................................................................................12 Direct Openings ...................................................................................................................................................12 Horizontal Openings............................................................................................................................................12 Vertical Openings ................................................................................................................................................13 One-Permanent-Opening-Method ......................................................................................................................13
COMBINED USE OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR ..........................................................................................................................................14 MINIMUM DUCT SIZES .................................................................................................................................................................................16

FORCED-AIR WARM-AIR FURNACE ...................................................................................................................................16 Table 1 - Duct Sizes for Forced-air Warm-air Furnaces .......................................................................................17 HEAT PUMP ................................................................................................................................................................17 Table 2 - Duct Sizes for Heat Pumps....................................................................................................................17
FAST FACTS ..................................................................................................................................................................................................19 HYDROGEN SYSTEMS....................................................................................................................................................................................20

VENTILATION ...........................................................................................................................................................20 Natural Ventilation .............................................................................................................................................20


UNDERGROUND GAS PIPING BENEATH BUILDINGS .......................................................................................................................................22 AREA FORMULAS .........................................................................................................................................................................................23 IMPORTANT LINKS .......................................................................................................................................................................................24 MULTI-STORY VENTING ................................................................................................................................................................................25

FIGURE 5 - MULTISTORY GAS VENT DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR APPLIANCES AT INTERMEDIATE LEVELS, USING COMBINED VENT TABLES ........................................................................................................................................27 FIGURE 6 - PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN OF MULTISTORY VENTS USING VENT CONNECTOR AND COMMON VENT DESIGN TABLES .....................................................................................................................................................................28
IMPORTANT HVAC NEWS .............................................................................................................................................................................29 COMMON VENTING INTO AN EXTERIOR MASONRY CHIMNEY .......................................................................................................................31

Revised: September 21, 2010

INDEX...........................................................................................................................................................................................................33

Revised: September 21, 2010

CONFINED/UNCONFINED SPACES
CONFINED SPACE: A space having a volume less than 50 cubic feet per 1,000 British Thermal Units per hour (Btu/h) of the aggregate input rating of all appliances installed in the space. UNCONFINED SPACE: A space having a volume not less than 50 cubic feet per 1,000 Btu/h of the aggregate input rating of all appliances installed in that space. Rooms communicating directly with the space, in which the appliances are installed, through openings not furnished with doors, are considered a part of the unconfined space.

Fuel burning appliances installed in confined spaces must be provided with combustion air. 1. Add the input ratings of al fuel fired appliances in the room or space. 2. Determine the room volume by multiplying the actual height x width x depth. (LxWxH) 3. Take the room volume and multiply by 20 btuh/cf (1000 btuh / 50 cf = 20 btuh/cf). This gives the maximum btuh input for appliances to allow the space to be unconfined.

EXAMPLE: A room has an 80k Btu/h furnace and a 55k Btu/h water heater installed. The room is 20 ft. long, 20 ft wide and has a ceiling height of 12 ft. Formula: 50 ((L x W x H) / 1000) or 20(L x W x H) 80000 55000 -------135, 000 Btu/h Total in room ROOM DIMENSIONS Volume = LxWxH 20 x 20 x 12 = 7200 cu.ft. 7200 x 20 = 360k Btu/h allowed in room 50 (7200 / 1000) = 360k

This space in unconfined.


Re: NCFGC 501.8

CLOSET/ALCOVE SPACES
A closet or alcove shall be defined as a room or space having a volume less than 12 times the total volume of fuel-fired appliances other than boilers and less than 16 times the total volume of boilers.

Revised: September 21, 2010

Room volume shall be computed using the gross floor area and the actual ceiling height up to a maximum computation height of 8 feet. EXAMPLE: A room contains a furnace with a volume of 15 cu. ft. The room size is 5 feet wide, 6 feet long and 10 feet high. Is this room considered a closet or alcove? Room: 5 x 6 x 8 = 240 cu. ft. Furnace = 15 cu. ft. x 12 = 180 Since the room volume exceeds 180 cu. Ft., the room is not considered a closet or alcove. The furnace does not have to be listed for such installation. Re: NCMC 303.5

LOUVERS AND GRILLS


In calculating free area, the required size of openings shall be based on the net free area of each opening. If the free area through a design of louver or grille is known, it shall be used in calculating the size opening required to provide the free area specified. If the design and free area are not known, it shall be assumed that wood louvers will have 25 percent free area and metal louvers and grilles will have 75 percent free area. Louvers and grilles shall be fixed in the open position. EXAMPLE: A metal louver is 24 inches wide and 30 inches high. What is the free area of the louver? Formula: Metal Louver Free Area = 0.75(L x W) Wood Louver Free Area = 0.25(L x W) 0.75(24 x 30) = 540 sq. in. FA (Metal) 0.25(24 x 30) = 180 sq. in. FA (Wood) Re: NCMC 304.4.1.2, NCMC 709.1, NCFGC 304.10

NATURAL VENTILATION AREA


The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated. Formula: 0.04(LxW) EXAMPLE: A room is 24 feet long by 20 feet wide. What size ventilation opening is required to the outdoors? 0.04(24 x 20) = 19.2 Sq. ft. opening required Revised: September 21, 2010

Re: NCMC 402.2

ADJOINING SPACES
Where rooms and spaces without openings to the outdoors are ventilated through an adjoining room, the opening to the adjoining rooms shall be unobstructed and shall have an area not less than 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or space, but not less than 25 square feet. The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based on the total floor area being ventilated. An interior room in a building has no direct openings to the outdoors and its sole ventilation comes through and adjoining room. What size opening between the two rooms is required. Interior room size: 15 feet wide by 20 feet long Formula: L x W x 0.08 = Opening size required 15 x 20 x 0.08 = 24 sq. ft. Since the minimum size is 25 sq. ft, a 25 sq. ft. unobstructed opening is required. Re: NCMC 402.3

Figure 1 - Adjoining Spaces

Revised: September 21, 2010

OPENINGS BELOW GRADE


Where openings below grade provide required natural ventilation, the outside horizontal clear space measured perpendicular to the opening shall be one and one-half times the depth of the opening. The depth of the opening shall be measured from the average adjoining ground level to the bottom of the opening. Formula: Ventilation Opening Size= 0.04 (L x W) Clear Space = 1.5(d) EXAMPLE: A room below grade is 20 feet long by 18 feet wide. What size ventilation opening to the outside is required? If the opening is 4 feet in height, how far out should the horizontal clear space extend? Opening size: .04(20 x 18) = 14.4 sq. ft. Horizontal clear space: 1.5(4) = 6 feet

Figure 2 - Openings Below Grade

Re: NCMC 402.4

Revised: September 21, 2010

ENCLOSED PARKING GARAGES


Automatic operation of the system shall not reduce the ventilation rate below 0.05 cfm per square foot of the floor area and the system shall be capable of producing a ventilation rate of 1.5 cfm per square foot of floor area. Formula: 0.05(L x W) Capable: 1.5(L x W) EXAMPLE: An enclosed parking garage is 80 feet wide and 50 feet deep. What are the ventilation requirements for this garage? 0.05(80 x 50) = 200 Cfm minimum ventilation required 1.5(80 x 50) = 6000 Cfm (System must be capable of providing this much ventilation air)

Re: NCMC 404.2

VENTILATION OF UNINHABITED SPACES


Uninhabited spaces, such as crawl spaces and attics, shall be provided with natural ventilation openings as required by the North Carolina Building Code or shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust and supply air system. The mechanical exhaust rate shall be not less than 0.02 cfm per square foot of horizontal area and shall be automatically controlled to operate when the relative humidity in the space served exceeds 60 percent. Formula: 0.02(L x W) EXAMPLE: A crawl space for a house is 60 feet wide and 75 feet in length. What is the minimum amount of mechanical ventilation required? 0.02(60 x 75) = 90 Cfm

Re: NCMC 406.1

Revised: September 21, 2010

REQUIRED OUTDOOR VENTILATION AIR


Ventilation systems shall be designed to have the capacity to supply the minimum outdoor airflow rate determined in accordance with Table 403.3 based on the occupancy of the space and the occupant load or other parameter as stated therein. The occupant load utilized for design of the ventilation system shall not be less than the number determined from the estimated maximum occupant load rate indicated in Table 403.3. Ventilation rates for occupancies not represented in Table 403.3 shall be determined by an approved engineering analysis. The ventilation system shall be designed to supply the required rate of ventilation air continuously during the period the building is occupied, except as otherwise stated in other provisions of the code.

EXAMPLE: A small office building 2500 sq. ft. in size and has an occupant load of 24 people. The building has no conference rooms or reception areas. There are 3 water closets and 1 urinal located in the building. What is the total ventilation required? ((L x W)/1000)Persons per 1000 sq.ft. (Table 403.3) 2500 / 1000 = 2.5 * 7 = 17.5 (Round to 18) 18 * 20 Cfm = 360 Cfm for people Toilet rooms: 4 flushing fixtures * 75 Cfm = 300 Cfm for toilet rooms 360 Cfm + 300 Cfm = 660 Cfm ventilation air required Re: NCMC 403.3

COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOOD SIZING


Type I hoods for use over extra-heavy-duty cooking appliances shall not cover other appliances that require fire extinguishing equipment and such hoods shall discharge to an exhaust system that is independent of other exhaust systems. Commercial food service hoods shall exhaust a minimum net quantity of air determined in accordance with this section and Sections 507.13.1 through 507.13.4. The net quantity of exhaust air shall be calculated by subtracting any airflow supplied directly to a hood cavity from the total exhaust flow rate of a hood. Where any combination of heavy-duty, medium-duty and lightduty cooking appliances are utilized under a single hood, the exhaust rate required by Revised: September 21, 2010

this section for the heaviest duty appliance covered by the hood shall be used for the entire hood. EXAMPLE: A single-island canopy hood 16 feet in length contains 1 heavy-duty, 2 medium-duty and 3 light-duty cooking appliances. What is the exhaust rate required for this hood. The most restrictive type appliance is the heavy-duty. Looking at section NCMC 507.13.1, we see that a single island canopy hood requires 700 Cfm per linear foot of hood. 16 x 700 = 11,200 Cfm exhaust required Also not that section 507.15 states that each outlet shall not serve more than a 12-foot section of hood. Therefore; 2 outlets will be required for this hood. Re: NCMC 507.13

COMBUSTION AIR
INDOOR AIR Air from the same room or space. The room or space containing fuel-burning appliances shall be an unconfined space as defined in NCMC, Section 202. Number and location of openings. Two openings shall be provided, one within 1 foot of the ceiling of the room and one within 1 foot of the floor. Size of openings. The net free area of each opening, calculated in accordance with Section 708, shall be a minimum of 1 square inch per 1,000 Btu/h of input rating of the fuel-burning appliances drawing combustion and dilution air from the communicating spaces and shall be not less than 100 square inches. EXAMPLE: A room contains as 85k gas-fired direct-vent furnace and a 35k gas-direct direct-vent water heater. If the room is an unconfined space, what size openings are required for the room. 85k + 35k = 120, 000 120000 / 1000 = 120 Sq. In. free area for each opening Re: NCMC 702

Revised: September 21, 2010

Figure 3 - All Air From Inside The Building

OUTDOOR AIR Where all combustion and dilution air is to be provided by outdoor air, the required combustion and dilution air shall be obtained by opening the room to the outdoors. Openings connecting the room to the outdoor air shall comply with Sections 703.1.1 through 703.1.4. Two openings shall be provided, one within 1 foot of the ceiling of the room and one within 1 foot of the floor. Direct Openings The net free area of each direct opening to the outdoors, calculated in accordance with Section 709, shall be a minimum of 1 square inch per 4,000 Btu/h of combined input rating of the fuel-burning appliances drawing combustion and dilution air from the room. EXAMPLE: A room contains as 85k gas-fired direct-vent furnace and a 35k gas-direct direct-vent water heater. If the room is an unconfined space, what size openings are required for the room. 85K + 35K = 120,000 120 / 4 = 30 Sq. In. for free area each opening Re: NCMC 703.1.2

Horizontal Openings
The net free area of each opening, calculated in accordance with Section 709 and connected to the outdoors through a horizontal duct, shall be a minimum of 1 square inch per 2,000 Btu/h of combined Revised: September 21, 2010

input rating of the fuel-burning appliances drawing combustion and dilution air from the room. The cross-sectional area of the duct shall be equal to or greater than the required size of the opening. EXAMPLE: A room contains as 85k gas-fired direct-vent furnace and a 35k gas-direct direct-vent water heater. If the room is an unconfined space, what size openings are required for the room. 85k + 35k = 120k 120 / 2 = 60 Sq. In. free area for each opening. Re: NCMC 703.1.3, NCFGC 304.6.1 Vertical Openings The net free area of each opening, calculated in accordance with Section 709 and connected to the outdoors through a vertical duct, shall be a minimum of 1 square inch per 4,000 Btu/h of combined input rating of the fuel-burning appliances drawing combustion and dilution air from the room. The cross-sectional area of the duct shall be equal to or greater than the required size of the opening. EXAMPLE: A room contains as 85k gas-fired direct-vent furnace and a 35k gas-direct direct-vent water heater. If the room is an unconfined space, what size openings are required for the room. 85k + 35k = 120k 120 / 4 = 30 Sq. In. free area for each opening. Re: NCMC 703.1.4, NCFGC 304.6.1 One-Permanent-Opening-Method One permanent opening, commencing within 12 inches of the top of the enclosure, shall be provided. The appliance shall have clearances of at least 1 inch (25 mm) from the sides and back and 6 inches from the front of the appliance. The opening shall directly communicate with the outdoors or through a vertical or horizontal duct to the outdoors, or spaces that freely communicate with the outdoors (see Figure 304.6.2) and shall have a minimum free area of 1 square inch per 3,000 Btu/h of the total input rating of all appliances located in the enclosure and not less than the sum of the areas of all vent connectors in the space.

EXAMPLE: A room contains as 85k gas-fired direct-vent furnace and a 35k gas-direct direct-vent water heater. If the room is an unconfined space, what size openings are required for the room. 85k + 35k = 120k 120 / 3 = 40 Sq. In. free area for opening. Re: NCFGC 304.6.2
Revised: September 21, 2010

Figure 4 - Single Combustion Air Opening, All Air From The Outdoors

COMBINED USE OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR AIR


This section shall apply only to appliances located in confined spaces in buildings not of unusually tight construction. Where the volumes of rooms and spaces are combined for the purpose of providing indoor combustion air, such rooms and spaces shall communicate through permanent openings in compliance with Sections 702.3.1 and 702.3.2. The required combustion and dilution air shall be obtained by opening the room to the outdoors using a combination of indoor and outdoor air, prorated in accordance with Section 704.1.6. The ratio of interior spaces shall comply with Section 704.1.5. The number, location and ratios of openings connecting the space with the outdoor air shall comply with Sections 704.1.1 through 704.1.4. 704.1.1 Number and location of openings. At least two openings shall be provided, one within 1 foot of the ceiling of the room and one within 1 foot of the floor. Ratio of Direct Openings. Where direct openings to the outdoors are provided in accordance with Section 703.1, the ratio of direct openings shall be the sum of the net free areas of both direct openings to the outdoors, divided by the sum of the required areas for both such openings as determined in accordance with Section 703.1.2. Ratio of Horizontal Openings. Where openings connected to the outdoors through horizontal ducts are provided in accordance with Section 703.1, the ratio of horizontal openings shall be the sum of the net free areas of both such openings, divided by the sum of the required areas for both such openings as determined in accordance with Section 703.1.3. Revised: September 21, 2010

Ratio of Vertical Openings. Where openings connected to the outdoors through vertical ducts are provided in accordance with Section 703.1, the ratio of vertical openings shall be the sum of the net free areas of both such openings, divided by the sum of the required areas for both such openings as determined in accordance with Section 703.1.4. Ratio of interior spaces. The ratio of interior spaces shall be the available volume of all communicating spaces, divided by the required volume as determined in accordance with Sections 702.2 and 702.3. 704.1.6 Prorating of indoor and outdoor air. In spaces that utilize a combination of indoor and outdoor air, the sum of the ratios of all direct openings, horizontal openings, vertical openings and interior spaces shall equal or exceed 1. EXAMPLE: A room which is a confined space contains 2-115k gas-fired furnaces and 1-150k gas fired furnace. There is also 3-35k gas fired water heaters located in the space. We are not able to get the openings by a single method. 115 + 115 + 150 + 35 +35 = 450k Btu/h (Total Load) Required Ventilation: Direct Openings to the outdoors: 450 / 4 = 113 Sq. In. Horizontal Openings: 450 /2 = 225 Sq. In. Vertical Openings: 450 / 4 = 113 Sq. In. Indoor Air: 450 /1 = 450 Sq. In. Available Ventilation: Direct openings to the outdoors = 35 Sq. in. Horizontal Openings = 60 Sq. In. Vertical Openings: 40 Sq. In. Interior Spaces: 70 Sq. in. 35 / 113 = .31 60 / 225 = .27 40 / 113 = .35 70 / 450 = .16 .31 + .27 + .35 + .16 = 1.09 (Since the ratio exceeds 1, this provides enough combustion air) 115 + 115 + 150 + 35 +35 = 450k Btu/h (Total Load) Required Ventilation: Direct Openings to the outdoors: 450 / 4 = 113 Sq. In. Horizontal Openings: 450 /2 = 225 Sq. In. Vertical Openings: 450 / 4 = 113 Sq. In. Indoor Air: 450 /1 = 450 Sq. In. Revised: September 21, 2010

Available Ventilation: Calculating the room with different opening sizes. Direct openings to the outdoors = 15 Sq. in. Horizontal Openings = 35 Sq. In. Vertical Openings: 70 Sq. In. Interior Spaces: 25 Sq. in.

15 / 113 = .13 35 / 225 = .16 70 / 113 = .62 25 / 450 = .06 .13 + .16 + .62 + .06 = .97 (Since the ratio is less than 1, more combustion air must be provided) Re: NCMC 704

MINIMUM DUCT SIZES


Forced-air warm-Air Furnace The minimum unobstructed total area of the outdoor and return air ducts or openings to a forced-air warm-air furnace shall be not less than 2 square inches per 1,000 Btu/h output rating capacity of the furnace and not less than that specified in the furnace manufacturer's installation instructions. The minimum unobstructed total area of supply ducts from a forced-air warm-air furnace shall not be less than 2 square inches for each 1,000 Btu/h output rating capacity of the furnace and not less than that specified in the furnace manufacturer's installation instructions. Exception: The total area of the supply air ducts and outdoor and return air ducts shall not be required to be larger than the minimum size required by the furnace manufacturer's installation instructions. With the addition of a cooling coil the sizing criteria shall be based on 6 square inches for each 1 000 Btu/h Output. EXAMPLE: A 115k Btu/h oil-fired furnace without air conditioning is being installed. What is the minimum duct size required. 115 * 2 = 230 Sq. In duct required.

Revised: September 21, 2010

Table 1 - Duct Sizes for Forced-air Warm-air Furnaces Table based on 6 square inches per 1000 Btu/hr Heat Pump SIZE / TONS BTU / H 1 12000 1 18000 2 24000 2 30000 3 36000 3 42000 4 48000 4 54000 5 60000

REQUIRED SQ. IN. 72 108 144 180 216 252 288 324 360

ROUND DUCT / INCHES 10 12 14 16 18 18 20 22 22

Heat Pump The minimum unobstructed total area of the outdoor and return air ducts or openings to a heat pump shall be not less than 6 square inches per 1,000 Btu/h output rating or as indicated by the conditions of listing of the heat pump. EXAMPLE: A 4-ton heat pump is being installed. What is the minimum duct size required? There is approximately 12,000 Btu is each ton of cooling. 12 *4 = 48 * 6 = 288 Sq. In. duct required
Table 2 - Duct Sizes for Heat Pumps
Table based on 2 square inches per 1000 Btu/hr Warm Air Furnace BTU/H REQUIRED Sq. In. 24000 48 30000 60 36000 72 42000 84 48000 96 54000 108 60000 120 66000 132 72000 144 80000 160 100000 200 120000 240 150000 300 200000 400 ROUND DUCT In. 8 10 10 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 16 18 22 24

1 ton AC = 12000 Btu/H 1 Ton AC = 400 CFM Formula for Area of Circle: r2 Formula for Area of Rectangle: L x W Formula for Volume of Room: L x W x H PROBLEM: A 3 -ton heat pump requires what size return air duct when 1-dimension of 30-inches is known.

Revised: September 21, 2010

3 tons = 42,000 Btu/h cooling 42 x 6 = 252 Sq. In. free area required 252 / 30 = 8.4 Minimum rectangular duct size required = 30 x 8.4

30 inches

8.4 inches

Revised: September 21, 2010

FAST FACTS
Access: Opening attic AC: BTU/h AC: Air Flow Access: Opening under floor Air Capacity: 10 Joists Air Capacity: 8 Joists Air changes: Limited spraying spaces Air changes: Ozone gas generator Appliances: Height above source of Ignition Appliances: Suspended in public garage Brazing: alloys maximum phosphorus content Brazing: materials melting point Condensate: Minimum pipe size Confined Space: volume < 50cf/1000bth aggregate input rating Connectors: Double-wall connector length/chimney height Connectors: Single-wall connector length/chimney height Connectors: Vent connector minimum upward slope Conversion burners Cooking Appliances: Oil-burning Cooking Appliances: Solid fuel-fired Coverings and linings Dampers - Ceiling Radiation Dampers - Smoke Dampers: Combination Fire/Smoke Dampers: Fire Dryers: Duct length Flexible Dryers: Duct length Metal Dryers: Duct length - Transition Dryers: Duct termination above grade Dryers: Makeup air Ducts: Support Commercial Ducts: Flexible air connector maximum length Ducts: Flexible air ducts - test standard Ducts: Minimum Dimension Combustion Air Duct Ducts: Sizing for Heat Pump & Air Conditioning Ducts: Sizing for Warm Air furnaces Ducts: Support One- and two-family dwellings and townhouses Filters: Liquid adhesive coatings flash point Floor Furnace_ Clearances - Grade (Without exception) Floor Furnace_ Clearances - Sides (without exception) Furnaces: Electric Furnaces: Gas-fired Furnaces: Oil-Fired Furnaces: Solid Fuel 20x30 12,000 Btu/Ton 400 Cfm/Ton 22x30 525 cfm 375 cfm 6/hr 6/hr 18 8 0.05% >1000 100% 75% ANSI Z21.8 UL 896 UL 2162 ASTM E 84 UL 555C UL 555S UL 555/UL 555S UL 555 Not Allowed 45 8' 12 100 sq in 10 14 UL181 3 6 SqIn / 1K Btu/h Cooling 2 SqIn/1K Btu/h Input 64 325 6 inches 12 inches UL 1995 ANSI Z21.47/UL 795 UL 727 UL 391 M306.3 M306.4 M918.10 M918.10 M502.7.2 M502.9.9 FG305.3 M304.5 FG403.10.1 FG403.10.1 M307.2.2 Def Mech FG503.10.9 FG503.10.9 FG503.10.8 M919.1 M917.1 M917.1 M604.3 M607.3 M607.3 M607.3 M607.3 M504.6 M504.6.1 M504.6 M504.6 M504.5 M603.10 M603.6.2.1 M603.6.1 M708.1(2) M918.3 918.2 M603.10.1 M604.1 M910.4 M910.4 M926.1 FG618.1 M918.1 M918.1

Revised: September 21, 2010

Gas test: <5 psi Pressure/Minutes to test Gas test: 5 psi Pressure/Minutes to test Gas Vent: Type BW min termination above bottom of furnace Gas: Natural Gas: Undiluted Propane Grease Duct: Material Stainless Steel Grease Duct: Material Steel Grease Duct: Minimum velocity (Type I) Grease Hood: Clearance Type I to combustibles Grease Hood: Material Stainless Steel (Type I) Grease Hood: Material Stainless Steel (Type II) Grease Hood: Material Steel (Type I) Grease Hood: Material Steel (Type II) Grease Hood: Type I minimum termination above roof Gypsum Assembly Hydrogen: Testing duration Hydrogen: Testing duration systems > 24000cf Hydrogen: Testing systems < 125 psig Hydrogen: Testing systems > 125 psig Louvers: Metal Louvers: Wood ODS: Oxygen Depletion Switch: Minimum Cutoff Passageway: Attic Passageway: Attic floor Passageway: under floor Return Air Grill (Face velocity) Sauna Room: Controls Sauna Room: Opening Sauna Room: Timer Support Equipment: Crawl space Support Equipment: Suspended Temperature: Minimum indoor temp. 3 above floor

10 Psi / 10 Min 50 Psi / 10 Min 12 1000 Btu/Cf 2500 Btu/Cf .044/18ga .055/16ga 500fpm 18 .037/20MSG .024/24ga .043/18MSG .030/22ga 40 125 1/2 hr/500cf 24 hrs 1 mwp 110% mwp 0.75 0.25 0.18 30h x 22w 24 22h x 36w 450 fpm 194F 4 x 8 Max 1 Hour 4 6 68

FG406.4.1 FG406.4.1 FG503.6.7

M506.3.1.1 M506.3.1.1 M506.3.4 M507.9 M507.4 M507.5 M507.4 M507.5 M506.3.12.1 M602.2 FG705.3.5 FG705.3.5 FG705.3.1 FG705.3.2 M709.1 M709.1 FG621.6 M306.3 M306.3 M306.4 M918.10 M914.4 M914.5 M914.4.1 M304.9.3 M304.9.2 M309.1

HYDROGEN SYSTEMS
VENTILATION Natural Ventilation
Indoor locations intended for hydrogen-generating or refueling operations shall be limited to a maximum floor area of 850 square feet and shall communicate with the outdoors in accordance with Sections 703.1.1.1 and 703.1.1.2. The maximum rated output capacity of hydrogen generating appliances shall not exceed 4 standard cubic feet per minute of hydrogen for each 250 square feet of floor area in such spaces. The minimum cross-sectional dimension of air openings shall be 3 inches. Revised: September 21, 2010

Where ducts are used, they shall be of the same cross-sectional area as the free area of the openings to which they connect. In such locations, equipment and appliances having an ignition source shall be located such that the source of ignition is not within 12 inches of the ceiling. EXAMPLE: An indoor area that has a floor area of 825 Sq. Ft. is to be used as a hydrogen generation area. What is the maximum output capacity that is allowed in this area? 4(825 / 250 ) = 13.2 Cu. Ft. maximum capacity allowed Two Openings Two permanent openings shall be provided within the garage. The upper opening shall be located entirely within 12 inches of the ceiling of the garage. The lower opening shall be located entirely within 12 inches of the floor of the garage. Both openings shall be provided in the same exterior wall. The openings shall communicate directly with the outdoors and shall have a minimum free area of 1/2 square foot per 1,000 cubic feet of garage volume. EXAMPLE: The area above has dimensions of 30 feet in length, 27.5 feet wide and 12 feet ceilings. What size openings are required for the space. ((L x W x H) / 1000) * .5 = Opening size ((30 x 27.5 x 12) / 1000) * .5 = 4.95 Sq. Ft. per opening Re: NCFGC 703.1.1.1 Mechanical Ventilation Design. Indoor locations shall be ventilated utilizing air supply inlets and exhaust outlets arranged to provide uniform air movement to the extent practical. Inlets shall be uniformly arranged on exterior walls near floor level. Outlets shall be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or the roof. Ventilation shall be by continuous mechanical ventilation system or by a mechanical ventilation system activated by a continuously monitoring natural gas detection system, or for hydrogen, a continuously monitoring flammable gas detection system, each activating at a gas concentration of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL). In all cases, the system shall shut down the fueling system in the event of failure of the ventilation system. The ventilation rate shall be at least 1 cubic foot per minute per 12 cubic feet of room volume. EXAMPLE: The area above has dimensions of 30 feet in length, 27.5 feet wide and 12 feet ceilings. What size openings are required for the space. (L x W x H) / 12 = Required Cfm (30 x 27.5 x 12) / 12 = 825 Cfm of ventilation air required. Re: NCMC 502.16.1

Revised: September 21, 2010

UNDERGROUND GAS PIPING BENEATH BUILDINGS


NCFGC 404.11 Piping underground beneath buildings. Piping installed underground beneath buildings is prohibited except where the piping is encased in a conduit of wrought iron, plastic pipe, or steel pipe designed to withstand the superimposed loads. Such conduit shall extend into an occupiable portion of the building and, at the point where the conduit terminates in the building, the space between the conduit and the gas piping shall be sealed to prevent the possible entrance of any gas leakage. Where the end sealing is capable of withstanding the full pressure of the gas pipe, the conduit shall be designed for the same pressure as the pipe. Such conduit shall extend not less than 4 inches outside the building, shall be vented above grade to the outdoors, and shall be installed so as to prevent the entrance of water and insects. The conduit shall be protected from corrosion in accordance with Section 404.8.

Typical Under floor Gas Pipe Detail

Revised: September 21, 2010

AREA FORMULAS

Revised: September 21, 2010

IMPORTANT LINKS
ASHRAE www.ashrae.org www.ncdoi.com/OSFM/Engineering/CodeServices/engineering_codeservices _interpretations.asp www.ncdoi.com/OSFM/Engineering/BCC/engineering_bcc_home.asp

Code Interpretations

NC Building Code Council

NC Building Inspectors Association

www.ncbia.org

NC Code Officials Qualification Board

www.ncdoi.com/OSFM/Engineering/COQB/engineering_coqb_home.asp

NC Department of Insurance

www.ncdoi.org/OSFM

NC Ellis Cannady Chapter IAEI

www.nciaei.org/

NC Mechanical Inspectors Association NC State Board of Examiners of Electrical Contractors NC State Board of Examiners of Plumbing, Heating and Fire Sprinkler Contractors NC State Board of Refrigeration Examiners

www.ncmia.com

http://www.ncbeec.org

www.nclicensing.org

www.refrigerationboard.org/wp/

Revised: September 21, 2010

Multi-Story Venting

Revised: September 21, 2010

A multiple-story vent system serves gas appliances at two or more different levels of a building. In designing multiple-story vent systems, use the Vent Connector and Multiple-Appliance Vent Tables. When properly designed, such multiple-story vent systems will function satisfactorily when combinations of one appliance to all appliances on the system are operating. Figures 5 and 6 illustrate the major principles of multiple-story installation, which are as follows: The overall system should be divided into smaller simple combined vent systems for each level, using a minimum total vent height for each level as illustrated. Each vent connector from the appliance to the common vent should be designed from the Vent Connector Table as in multiple-appliance vent systems. For sizing of the common vent section, the Common Vent Table is used. The common vent for each system must be sized large enough to accommodate the accumulated total input of all appliances discharging into it, but should NEVER be smaller in area than the largest section below it. The vent connector from the first floor or the lowest appliance to the common vent is designed as if terminating at the first tee or interconnection. The next lowest appliance is considered to have a combined vent that terminates at the second interconnection. The same principle continues on to the highest connecting appliance, with the top-floor appliance having a total vent height measured to the outlet of the common vent. The multiple-story system has no limit in height, as long as the common vent is sized to accommodate the total input. Common vent height must always be computed as the distance from the outlet of the connected appliance to the lowest part of the opening from the next interconnection above. If the connector rise is inadequate, increase connector size, always making sure of maximum available connector rise. Be sure that the air supply to each appliance is adequate for proper operation. A separation of appliance rooms from occupied areas and provision for outside air supply is necessary. If an air shaft is used for installation of the common vent, be sure that sufficient space is provided for fittings, clearance to combustibles, and access for proper assembly. These calculations apply ONLY when the entire system is constructed of listed double-wall Type B Vent materials.

Revised: September 21, 2010

Figure 5 - MULTISTORY GAS VENT DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR APPLIANCES AT INTERMEDIATE LEVELS, USING COMBINED VENT TABLES

Revised: September 21, 2010

Figure 6 - PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN OF MULTISTORY VENTS USING VENT CONNECTOR AND COMMON VENT DESIGN TABLES

Revised: September 21, 2010

IMPORTANT HVAC NEWS


The following was an excerpt from the December 2009 State Board of Examiners of Plumbing, Heating & Fire Sprinkler Contractors newsletter.

HVAC SYSTEM DESIGN AND INSTALLATION STANDARDS FURTHER DEFINED For many years it has been the Boards position that our HVAC licensees should not only be selling heating and air conditioning equipment; they should also be selling COMFORT. It has also been a long standing Board policy that the only way for a licensee to determine the proper sizing of equipment for a residential or commercial building is to perform a thorough load calculation. The widely accepted old rule of thumb, 600 sq. ft. to the ton or some variation of that, is not acceptable and has never been acceptable. The large majority of developers, builders, homeowners, and general contractors base their decisions solely on price with little, if any, consideration given to the size of equipment or type of system being installed. The Board has investigated numerous complaints involving a contractor who has installed a single system, without any type of automated zoning, to serve a two story home or larger, not based on logic but based on offering the uninformed customer a low price. There have also been numerous complaints involving licensees who have installed a single system for a two story home with manual dampers. This configuration requires that the occupant have the knowledge and physical ability to crawl around the attic or the crawlspace seasonally to adjust air flow, again all based on offering the lowest price possible. Consider this: When having to seasonally adjust manual dampers, how does the homeowner know when the air flow is properly adjusted? The reality is they have no means of determining or verifying that the air flow is correct. These philosophies, based solely on providing the lowest price, were flawed from the beginning and licensees of this Board (should) know there is no way to maintain a reasonable comfortable temperature difference either room to room or floor to floor using either of these design and installation methods. HVAC contractors who invest the time and effort necessary to properly design a system that will provide year-round comfort for the occupants are admittedly at a competitive disadvantage with regards to pricing. However, the contractor who fails to properly design and install an adequate system is also placing himself/ herself at a huge disadvantage by jeopardizing their reputation and their license. While the customer may initially be pleased with the low cost, that customer quickly becomes displeased with a system that doesnt heat and/or cool their home efficiently and effectively. When consumers cannot maintain reasonable comfort levels in their homes, they either learn to live with this deficiency or they file complaints with our Board. Last year the five Administrative Officers employed by this Board investigated more than 600 complaints. A large majority of those complaints (about 80%) were related to heating and air conditioning installations. The Board and its staff are required by North Carolina General Statutes to investigate every complaint filed with the Board. For a number of years, the Board has used electronic digital temperature and humidity monitors, as well as flow hoods, to assist the investigators in determining if a system is designed, installed, and operating properly. This practice will continue, with contractors responsible for

Revised: September 21, 2010

improperly designed, installed, or poorly performing systems being subject to disciplinary action by the Board. In order to further address these issues and communicate the Boards position on the matter more clearly, the following rules have been passed, and will become effective (mandatory) on January 1, 2010: 21 NCAC 50 .0505 GENERAL SUPERVISION AND STANDARD OF COMPETENCE (d) Every newly installed residential heating system, air conditioning system or both shall be designed and installed to maintain a maximum temperature differential of 4 degrees Fahrenheit room-to-room and floor to- floor. On multilevel structures, contractors are required to either provide a separate HVAC system for each floor or to install automatically controlled zoning equipment for each level with individual thermostats on each level to control the temperature for that level. The seasonal adjustment needed to maintain the 4 degree Fahrenheit room-to-room and floor-to-floor maximum temperature differential shall not be accomplished through the use of manual dampers. (e) All licensed HVAC contractors are required to perform a thorough room-by-room load calculation for all new residential structures prior to installing heating systems, air conditioning systems, or both which calculations shall be specific to the location and orientation where the HVAC system or equipment is to be installed. A written record of the system and equipment sizing information shall be provided to the owner or general contractor upon request and a copy shall be maintained in the job file of the licensee for a minimum of six (6) years. (f) When a furnace, condenser, or air handler in an existing residential heating or air conditioning system is replaced, the licensed HVAC contractor is required to perform a minimum of a whole house block load calculation. When a furnace, condenser or air handler in a residential heating or air conditioning system is replaced, it is the responsibility of the licensee to ensure that all systems and equipment are properly sized. The licensee may utilize industry standards, reference materials, evaluation of the structure, and load calculations. A written record of the system and equipment sizing information shall be provided to the homeowner, owner or general contractor upon request and a copy shall be maintained in the job file of the licensee for a minimum of six (6) years. If a load calculation was not performed or if a load calculation was performed and it is later determined by the Board that the unit installed was undersized or oversized, the installation will be considered as evidence of incompetence.

Excerpt from the December 2009 State Board of Examiners of Plumbing, Heating & Fire Sprinkler Contractors newsletter.

Revised: September 21, 2010

COMMON VENTING INTO AN EXTERIOR MASONRY CHIMNEY


In Wake County, a fan-assisted Category I furnace with an input rating of 85,000 Btu/h is being installed into an external masonry chimney. The chimney height is 15 feet. There is already a 100,000 Btu/h furnace with a draft hood venting into the same chimney. The liner for the chimney is an 8 x 8 clay liner. Is it permissible to vent the new furnace into the same chimney? Winter Design Temperature: 20F Sections 504.3.20 of the NCMC states that we must use Tables 504.3(6) and 504.3(7) for the clay-tilelined exterior masonry chimney. All of the following conditions must be met: 1. Vent connector is a Type-B double wall. 2. At least one appliance is draft hood equipped. 3. The combined appliance input rating is less than the maximum capacity given in Table 504.3(6a) for NAT+NAT or Table 504.3(7a) for FAN+NAT. 4. The input rating of each space-heating appliance is greater than the minimum input rating given by Table 504.3(6b) for NAT+NAT or Table 504.3(7b) for FAN+NAT. 5. The vent connector sizing is in accordance with Table 504.3(3).

Chimney Area: 64 Sq. In. Total Input: 185,000 Btu/h

Since a mixed system (FAN+NAT) is being installed, use Table 504.3(7a) to determine the maximum appliance input rating. With a vent height of 15 feet and a chimney size of 64 inches, the maximum input rating that can be installed into the chimney is 611,000 Btu/h. Use the 63 inch column since it is smaller than 64 inches. Since the Winter Design Temperature is 20F, use the section of Table 504.3(7b) that gives the design criteria of 17 to 26F. With a chimney height of 15 feet, the minimum allowable input rating for each appliance cannot be less than 296,000 Btu/h. The furnace input rating of 85,000 Btu/h is less than the minimum value so, this requirement is not satisfied and an alternative venting method must be used such as a Type-B vent or a listed chimney liner.

Revised: September 21, 2010

CHANGES
9/15/2010: Thanks to Marshall Perry (Greensboro, NC). Changed the room size in Confined/Unconfined Spaces so the dimensions for the room and the example would match. 9/21/2010: Added the Common venting into an exterior masonry chimney example.

Revised: September 21, 2010

INDEX
adjoining room .............................................................................. 7 alcove

Definition ...............................................................5
automatically controlled ............................................................... 9 Changes....................................................................................... 32 closet

NC State Board of Examiners of Electrical Contractors .....................................................24 NC State Board of Refrigeration Examiners ........24 Plumbing, Mechanical & Fire Sprinkler ...............24
listed .............................................................................................. 6 load calculation ............................................................................ 30 louvers & grilles

Definition ...............................................................5
combustion air ....................................................................... 11, 15 Combustion Air

Indoor Air ............................................................11 Outdoor Air .........................................................12


Commercial Hood........................................................................ 10

free area ................................................................6 sizing ......................................................................6


maximum temperature differential ............................................. 30 mechanical exhaust ....................................................................... 9 Minimum Duct Sizes ................................................................... 16

calculations..........................................................11
Common vent .............................................................................. 26 COMMON VENTING ................................................................... 31 confined space ....................................................................... 14, 15

forced-air warm-air furnace ................................16 Heat Pump ...........................................................17


Multi-Story Venting ..................................................................... 25 NAT+NAT ..................................................................................... 31 NATURAL VENTILATION ................................................................ 6 NCFGC 304.10 ................................................................................ 6 NCFGC 304.6.1 ............................................................................. 13 NCFGC 304.6.2 ............................................................................. 13 NCFGC 404.11 .............................................................................. 22 NCFGC 501.8 .................................................................................. 5 NCFGC 703.1.1.1 .......................................................................... 21 NCMC 303.5 ................................................................................... 6 NCMC 304.4.1.2 ............................................................................. 6 NCMC 402.2 ................................................................................... 7 NCMC 402.3 ................................................................................... 7 NCMC 403.3 ................................................................................. 10 NCMC 404.2 ................................................................................... 9 NCMC 406.1 ................................................................................... 9 NCMC 502.16.1 ............................................................................ 21 NCMC 507.13 ............................................................................... 11 NCMC 702 .................................................................................... 11 NCMC 703.1.4 .............................................................................. 13 NCMC 704 .................................................................................... 16 NCMC 709.1 ................................................................................... 6 Outdoor Air

Definition ...............................................................5
dampers ...................................................................................... 29

manual.................................................................29
Direct Openings .................................................................. 7, 14, 15 external masonry chimney .......................................................... 31 FAN+NAT ..................................................................................... 31 Formula

Adjoining Spaces ...................................................7 Area .....................................................................23 Clear Space ............................................................8 Confined/Unconfined Spaces ................................5 Enclosed Parking Garage .......................................9 Metal Louver Free Area .........................................6 Natural Ventilation Area .......................................6 Ventilation of Uninhabited Spaces ........................9 Ventilation Opening Size .......................................8 Wood Louver Free Area ........................................6
free area ............................................................................. 6, 11, 13 gas pipe ....................................................................................... 22 grilles .............................................................. See Louvers & Grilles Horizontal Openings ............................................................... 14, 15 HVAC license ............................................................................... 29 HVAC SYSTEM DESIGN ................................................................ 29 Hydrogen

Direct Openings ..................................................12 Horizontal Openings ...........................................12 Vertical Openings ...............................................13


outdoors ............................................. 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 15, 16, 21, 22 State Board of Examiners of Plumbing, Heating & Fire Sprinkler Contractors ............................................................................. 30 Toilet rooms................................................................................. 10 Type B Vent.................................................................................. 26 Type-B.......................................................................................... 31 unconfined space ......................................................................... 11

generating capacity .............................................20 Ventilation - two openings ..................................21


Indoor Air .................................................................................... 15 interior room ................................................................................. 7 Links ............................................................................................ 24

ASHRAE................................................................24 Code Interpretations ...........................................24 NC Building Code Council ....................................24 NC Building Inspectors Association .....................24 NC Code Officials Qualification Board .................24 NC Department of Insurance ..............................24 NC Ellis Cannady Chapter IAEI .............................24 NC Mechanical Inspectors Association ................24

Definition ...............................................................5
underground ................................................................................ 22 vent connector............................................................................. 26 Vent Connector ............................................................................ 26 Vent Tables .................................................................................. 26 Ventilation

adjoining spaces ....................................................7 enclosed parking garages ......................................9 natural ventilation area .........................................6 openings below grade ...........................................8

Revised: September 21, 2010

required outdoor air............................................10 uninhabited spaces ...............................................9

Vertical Openings......................................................................... 15 Winter Design Temperature ........................................................ 31

Revised: September 21, 2010