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Substation Operation and Maintenance

Table of Contents

C ONTENTS
1 Substations and Switchyards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction to Substations and Switchyards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Basic Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Substations: Protective Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Regulation, Monitoring, and Communication Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Switchyards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Switchyard Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Safety in Substations and Switchyards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hazards and Safety Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Support Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dangers and Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Safety Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transformer Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Transformers, Current Transformers, and Potential Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Transformer Cooling Systems, Self-Cooled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Transformers Cooling Systems, Forced Air/Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21 21 21 22 26 28 29 30 32 33 35 39 43 53 54 55 56 57 57 59 59 60 61 62 64 64 66 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 71 72

Power Transformers, Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Power Transformers, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53


Visual Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection of a Transformers Exterior Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection of a Transformers Sealing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection of a Transformers Cooling System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas and Oil Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing for Combustible Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing for Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing Oil Insulating Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tap Changers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No-Load Tap Changers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Tap Changers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tap Changer Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . De-Energizing, Isolating, and Grounding a Power Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tap Changer Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Condition of the Tap Changer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Operation of the Tap Changer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Operation of the Tap Changer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turns Ratio Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating the Turns Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identifying Bushing Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performing the Turns Ratio Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insulation Resistance Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii

Substation Operation and Maintenance


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Test Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

New Power Transformer Inspection and Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On-Car Inspections and Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moving a New Power Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On-Site Inspections and Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Purpose of Transformer Turns Ratio Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluating Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75 75 77 81 87 88 92 93 95

Power Transformer Turns Ratio Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Power Transformer Oil Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 The Purpose of Transformer Oil Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Oil Dielectric Test Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Dielectric Breakdown Strength Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Oil Sample Taking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Lab Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Power Transformer Insulation Resistance Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Purpose of Insulation Resistance Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Evaluating Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Transformer Temperature Indicator Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Indicator Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heater Circuit Testing, Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heater Circuit Testing, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Transformer Pressure Relay Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sudden Pressure Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fault Pressure Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing a Sudden Pressure Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing a Fault Pressure Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Breaker Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air-Magnetic and Air-Blast Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and Vacuum Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas-Blast and Gas-Puffer Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solenoid and Motor/Spring Operating Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pneumatic and Hydraulic Operating Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
113 113 115 118 120 124 127 127 132 134 138 143 143 146 148 152 157 157 160 162 163 166 169

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11

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Circuit Breaker Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 General Circuit Breaker Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Operating Mechanism Maintenance, Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

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Operating Mechanism Maintenance, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Air-Magnetic and Vacuum Breaker Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Oil Circuit Breaker Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

13

New Circuit Breaker Inspections and Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Receiving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post-Installation Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proof Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SF6 Gas Properties and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties of SF6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handling SF6 Gas and Its Decomposition Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cleanup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Bottle Hi-Pot Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vacuum Interrupter Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Principles, Precautions, and Preparations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hi-Pot Test Setup and Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Watching for Signs of Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Breaker Time-Travel Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose and Principles of Time-Travel Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Breaker Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Breaker Time Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Breaker Travel Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Breaker Time-Travel Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time-Travel Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drop-Bar Recorder Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Light-Beam Recorder Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital Timer/Analyzer Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Circuit Breaker Time-Travel Test Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time-Travel Recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contact Resistance Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Purpose of Contact Resistance Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Procedures and Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitors and Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Function of Capacitors and Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clearing Capacitor Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitor Bank Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitor Resistor and Insulator Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capacitor Capacitance Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

199 199 203 206 208 213 213 215 218 221 225 225 227 231 234 237 237 239 242 244 249 249 253 259 263 267 267 270 272 275 279 279 280 283 285 289 289 292 297 300 302

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Substation Operation and Maintenance


Shunt Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Series Reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

21

Voltage Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Regulator Operation, Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Regulator Operation, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Regulator Control, Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Regulator Control, Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field Control Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regulator Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overcurrent Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directional Overcurrent Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reclosing Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid-State Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

313 313 315 319 322 325 326 329 333 336 340 343 345 347 348 351 354 359 362 363 366 369 373 376 377 380 382 384 387 391 391 394 398 401 405 405 407 410 415

22

Protective Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

23

Protective Relays, Transmission Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351


Introduction to Protective Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Differential Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transfer Tripping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distance Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zoned Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pilot Wire Relaying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breaker Failure Relaying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

Control Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373


Control Functions, Modes, and Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution Feeder Fault Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transmission and Subtransmission Feeder Fault Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Station Fault Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source Circuit Fault Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routine Checks of Control Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

Substation Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substation DC Control System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Components and Electrochemical Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell and Battery Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substation Battery Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voltage and Resistance Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specic Gravity Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Integrity and Capacity Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impedance Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26

vi

27

Substation Battery Chargers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charger Functions and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Freshening Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Float and Equalizing Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Charger Inspection and Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Substation Battery, Cell and Charger Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Replacing Battery Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary Battery and Auxiliary Battery Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspecting New Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Placing New Cells on the Battery Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preparing Electrical Contact Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Making Intercell Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery Charger Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taking the Existing Charger Out of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installing a New Charger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

419 419 420 421 424 426 429 429 429 432 432 436 436 437 438 439 440 440 441

28

vii

Substations and Switchyards

C HAPTER

Substations and Switchyards


Electricity is a necessity of modern life. Transmission and distribution (T&D) systems provide electricity to consumers wherever and whenever it is needed. Two of the major components of a typical T&D system are substations and switchyards. This chapter examines the role that substations and switchyards play in a T&D system and discusses some of the equipment that is commonly used in substations and switchyards. Security and safety precautions associated with substations and switchyards are also covered when appropriate.

Introduction to Substations and Switchyards


Major Components of a Transmission and Distribution System
The major components of a transmission and distribution system typically include transmission lines, distribution lines, substations, and switchyards. Transmission lines carry electricity from the generating plant where it is produced, and distribution lines carry electricity to the houses, ofces, and industries where it is used. The distances between generating plants and consumers are often too great to allow electricity to be carried directly from the plants to the consumers. To carry electricity over long distances, Figure 1-1. Substation. transmission and distribution systems need voltage changing substations, which are referred to in this program as substations. An example of a substation is shown in Figure 1-1. At substations, voltage is increased for efcient transmission over long distances or decreased for distribution to nearby customers. Besides changing voltage for transmission or distribution, a transmission and distribution system must also be able to ensure that users will continue to receive electricity even if part of the system fails. To meet this rquirement, circuits

Figure 1-2. Switchyard.

Substations and Switchyards Shunt reactors are used to improve substation efciency by adding inductive load to counterbalance capacitive loads. A shunt reactor, like the one shown in Figure 1-33, looks like a power transformer, except that the bushings on a shunt reactor are connected with the source circuit; there are no major connections leading out of a shunt reactor (such as the secondary connections on a power transformer).

Monitoring Equipment
Monitoring equipment is used to provide a means of watching substation equipment and systems for problems so that they can be limited and corrected. Commonly used types of monitoring equipment include potential transformers, current transformers, meters, and relays.

Figure 1-32. Capacitor bank.

Bushings

Source circuit

Potential transformers
Potential transformers are devices that reduce line voltage to a proportionally lower and safer voltage for metering and relaying. A potential transformer, like the one shown in Figure 1-34, normally has a large porcelain bushing that insulates the higher voltage conductor going into the transformer. The transformer itself is usually enclosed in a metal housing. The output wires of the transformers are enclosed in conduit to protect them. These wires connect to meters or relaying equipment in a control house. Potential transformers come in many shapes and sizes. They are sometimes difcult to distinguish from other devices such as some current transformers and surge arrestors. For this reason, potential transformers are often identied in substations by signs like the one shown in Figure 1-35.

Shunt reactor

Figure 1-33. Shunt reactor.

Bushing

Transformer housing

Current Transformers
Conduit In contrast to potential transformers, which reduce line voltage, current transformers reduce Figure 1-34. Potential transformer. line current to a proportionally lower current for metering or relaying. Current transformers can look like potential transformers or surge arrestors. One identifying feature on the current transformer shown in Figure 1-36 is a large canister on top of the bushing with a conductor

11

Power Transformers, Part 1 are not always forced-oil/forced-air cooled. Power transformers with other kinds of cooling systems can also be gas sealed. Figure 3-36 shows a gas-sealed, self-cooled/forced-air-cooled power transformer. The cooling system is recognizable by the combination of the radiator and the fan.

Guage

Regulators

Regardless of the type of cooling system that a gas-sealed power transformer has, the gas seal system works in basically the same way. The simpliGas cylinder ed illustration in Figure 3-37 represents the sealing system of a gas-sealed power transformer. Figure 3-35. Gas cylinder, regulators, gauges, The components of the sealing system are a gas and pressure relief device. cylinder, two pressure regulators, two gauges, and a pressure relief device. The windings in a gas-sealed power transformer are completely covered by oil. The rest of the enclosure is lled with gas, which is supplied through tubing from the cylinder. The regulators ensure that gas is supplied at a pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure. This slight positive pressure keeps air and moisture from leaking into the enclosure. When the transformer is operating, the windings heat the oil, causing it to expand. As the expanding oil compresses the gas, the pressure inside the enclosure increases. If the pressure rises enough to exceed a predetermined high value, the relief device releases gas from the transformer enclosure to atmosphere. The release of gas continues until pressure returns to an acceptable value.

Guage

Radiators

Gas cylinder

Figure 3-36. Gas-sealed power transformer, Example 2.


Tubing

Guage Oil

Windings When the transformer becomes cooler, for Regulators example, during a period of reduced load, the oil also becomes cooler, and it contracts. As the oil contracts, the pressure inside the transformer Gas cylinder enclosure drops. If the pressure falls below a predetermined low value, a regulator adds gas from the Pressure relief device cylinder to the enclosure until the pressure returns Figure 3-37. Simplied representation of a to an acceptable value.

gas-sealed power transformer.

The regulators and the relief device in a gas-sealed power transformer regulate gas ow. The gauges indicate pressure. For example, the gauge shown in Figure 3-38 indicates the pressure inside the gas cylinder. As gas in the cylinder is used, the cylinder pressure drops. A low pressure reading means that the gas is running out, and the cylinder may need to be replaced.

49

Power Transformers, Part 2 Next, both selector switch A and selector switch B are rotated clockwise, so that selector switch B slides over to tap 2, and selector switch A slides across tap N to the opposite end of the tap. (Selector switch A remains on tap N.) Since current is not owing through selector switch B, there is no arcing as the switch changes taps. Then, transfer switch B is closed, so that current ows across the reversing switch and the raise tap, labeled R, from left to right through a portion of the tapped winding, across tap 2 and selector switch B, across transfer switch B, and out lead X0. Current continues to ow across the neutral tap, across selector switch A, across transfer switch A, and out lead X0. Transfer switch A is then opened to interrupt current ow through selector switch A. Both selector switch A and selector switch B are rotated clockwise, so that selector switch A slides over to tap 2, and selector switch B slides across tap 2 to the opposite end of the tap. Once selector switch A is on tap 2, transfer switch A is closed, so that current again ows across selector switch A and transfer switch A and out lead X0. This completes the tap change. The new tap position is shown in Figure 4-18. With the reversing switch in the Raise position and the selector switches on tap 2, a portion of the tapped winding is added to the secondary winding. This changes the ratio of secondary turns to primary turns and effectively raises the secondary voltage. The rst tap position that adds turns to the secondary winding is called one-raise. As the selector switches are moved clockwise to the other taps, turns are added to the secondary to raise the secondary voltage. When all of the tapped windings are added, the tap changer is at the fullraise position. Figure 4-19 shows the tap changer at full-raise. To lower the secondary voltage, the selector switches are rotated counterclockwise back to the neutral tap. Then, the reversing switch slides from the Raise position (R) to the Lower position (L), and the selector switches rotate counterclockwise from tap N to tap 4. Figure 4-20 shows the new tap position called: on-lower.
Figure 4-19. Tap changer at full-raise position.

Figure 4-18. Tap changer at one-raise position.

When the reversing switch is in the Lower position, and the selector switches are on tap 4, current ows from left to right across the secondary winding, across the reversing switch and the Lower tap, from right to left through part of the tapped winding, across tap 4 and the selector switches, across the transfer switches, and out lead X0.

65

Power Transformer Insulation Resistance Testing between the high voltage winding and ground to be tested. Although the low voltage winding is not included in this test, current leakage to the low voltage winding could affect the resistance measurement. To avoid this problem, a lead is connected to the guard (G) terminal of the megohmmeter and the low voltage (X) terminal of the transformer. The guard diverts current that leaks to the low voltage windings so that this leakage current is not included in the test measurement.

Connections for Testing the Resistance Between the Low Voltage Winding and Ground
The connections for testing the insulation resistance between the low voltage winding and ground are illustrated in Figure 8-18. One test lead is connected to the earth (-) terminal of the megohmmeter and to a transformer case ground. Another test lead is connected to the line (+) terminal of the megohmmeter and to the low voltage (X) terminal of the transformer. A lead is also connected between the guard (G) terminal of the megohmmeter and the high voltage (H) terminal of the transformer to divert current that leaks to the high voltage winding so that this leakage current is not measured.

Figure 8-18. Connections for testing insulation resistance between the low voltage winding and ground.

Connections for Testing the Resistance Between the Low Voltage Winding and the High Voltage Winding
The connections for testing the resistance between the low voltage winding and the high voltage winding are illustrated in Figure 8-19. One test lead is connected to the earth (-) terminal of the megohmmeter and to the high voltage (H) terminal of the transformer. Another test lead is connected to the line (+) terminal of the megohmmeter and to the low voltage (X) terminal of the Figure 8-19. Connections for testing insulation transformer. A lead is also connected between the resistance between the low voltage winding guard (G) terminal of the megohmmeter and a and the high voltage winding. transformer case ground to divert current that leaks to ground so that this leakage current is not measured. Core ground

Connections for Testing the Insulation Resistance Between the Transformer Core and Ground
A transformer core to ground test is a type of insulation resistance test that is typically performed after a transformer has been moved or after any work has been done inside a transformer. As illustrated in Figure 8-20, a core ground connects the core that the windings are wound around to the

Core

Tank, or case ground

Figure 8-20. Transformer core and core ground.

121

Circuit Breaker Operation is no current ow. Circuit breakers are designed to take advantage of these momentary absences of current ow to help extinguish arcs.

Classication of Circuit Breakers


Circuit breakers are generally classied according to the dielectric mediums they use to help extinguish arcs. Four mediums that are commonly used for this purpose are air, oil, vacuum and gas. Figures 11-4 and 11-5 show two types of breakers that use air as a dielectric medium. The air-magnetic breaker (Figure 11-4) uses air and a magnetic eld to help extinguish arcs. The air-blast breaker (Figure 11-5) uses a highpressure blast of air. Figure 11-6 shows an oil breaker. In an oil breaker, the contacts are submerged in insulating oil, which helps extinguish the arc. Figure 11-7 shows a vacuum breaker. A vacuum breaker encloses its contacts in a vacuum, which
Figure 11-5. Air-blast breaker. Figure 11-4. Air-magnetic breaker.

Figure 11-6. Oil breaker.

Figure 11-7. Vacuum breaker.

Figure 11-8. Gas-blast breaker.

Figure 11-9. Gas-puffer breaker.

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Circuit Breaker Operation As illustrated in Figure 11-21, a gas-puffer breaker interruptor is enclosed in a pipe-like tank, which is lled with low-pressure SF6 gas. The Bushings interruptor is an insulated tube that houses the breakers interrupting mechanisms and insulates Interruptor them from the outer tank. The interruptors main features (Figure 11-22) include a stationary contact assembly, a moving contact assembly with a non-conducting nozzle, and a chamber where gas is compressed during the operation of the breaker. Each of the contact assemblies includes main contact ngers and arcing contact ngers. When the circuit breaker is closed, the current path is through the stationary contact assembly, the main contact ngers and the moving contact assembly. When the breaker trips (Figure 11-23), the moving contact assembly moves away from the stationary assembly and the main contact ngers separate. Arcing does not occur, however, because the circuit is still complete through the arcing contacts. As the moving contact assembly moves away from the stationary assembly, the SF6 gas in the compression chamber is compressed. Compressing the gas increases its dielectric strength. Eventually, the moving contact assembly moves so far that the arcing contact ngers separate, and an arc forms (Figure 11-24). When the arcing ngers separate, the compression chamber opens, and thehigh-pressure gas ows through the arc to the low pressure areas of the interruptor. The dielectric strength of the high-pressure gas weakens the arc. As the gas ows through the arc, the arc is lengthened and cooled, until it eventually extinguishes at a current zero.
Low pressure SF6 gas Tank

Figure 11-21. Gas-puffer breaker.


Nozzle Main contact ngers

Stationary contact assembly Arcing contact ngers

Moving contact assembly

Compression chamber

Figure 11-22. Gas-puffer breaker interruptor closed.


Main contacts separate Gas comnpressing in chamber

Arcing contacts still meet

Figure 11-23. Gas-puffer breaker interruptor main contacts open.

Arc

Figure 11-24. Gas-puffer breaker interruptor arcing contacts open.

167

New Circuit Breaker Inspections and Tests rod travel velocity, and a variety of other circuit breaker operating characteristics. Figure 13-27 is an illustration of typical time-travel traces. The time-travel test is typically performed for several types of breaker operations. The traces for Timing rod each operation can be analyzed to determine how the breaker is performing in comparison with the manufacturers specications. If the breakers Transducer performance does not fall within acceptable ranges, the breaker must be properly adjusted before it can be put in service. Figure 13-26. Transducer and timing rod on an oil

Contact Resistance Test


Resistance in the closed contacts of a circuit breaker can have a number of causes, including arcing deposits, a loose or incomplete connection, or pitting from repetitive arcing. Contact resistance creates heat that can reduce the life of the contacts and possibly even lead to breaker failure. The purpose of contact resistance testing is to detect unacceptably high contact resistance levels before failure occurs. In principle, the test is performed by passing a direct current through the closed contacts of the breaker and measuring the voltage drop across the contacts (Figure 13-28). The test instrument uses the current and voltage values to calculate and display the contact resistance.

circuit breaker.

Figure 13-27. Time-travel traces.

If the contact resistance exceeds an acceptable limit, the contacts may have to be cleaned or replaced. Figure 13-28. Performing a contact resistance

Insulation Resistance Test


When a circuit breakers contacts are open, the breakers insulation should provide a high resistance to prevent current from owing. The purpose of insulation resistance testing is to detect unacceptably low levels of insulation resistance before poor or weakened insulation results in failure. In principle, the test is performed by applying a high DC voltage to one of the breakers bushing terminals with the breakers contacts open (Figure 13-29). Then, leakage current is measured either to

test.

Figure 13-29. Performing an insulation resistance test.

211

Substation Operation and Maintenance the power factor in this case by using capacitor banks, such as the one shown in Figure 20-8. The capacitor banks offset the excessive demand for inductive power, and thus bring the power factor closer to unity. Excessive demand for non-working capacitive power also results in a lower power factor than desirable. In this case, instead of increasing power output to meet the demand for capacitive power, the utility can improve the power factor by using shunt reactors. The shunt reactors offset the excessive demand for capacitive power. Figure 20-9 shows an example of a typical shunt reactor.

Figure 20-8. Capacitor bank.

Clearing Capacitor Banks


The main steps for safely clearing a capacitor bank for maintenance are similar to the steps taken to clear any other device in a substation. These steps include de-energizing, isolating, testing for dead, and grounding. However, a capacitor bank is different from other devices in a substation in that it stores an electrical charge even after the bank has been separated from its source of energy. Because of this ability to store a charge, some special safety Figure 20-9. Shunt reactor. precautions are required when clearing a capacitor bank.

De-Energizing and Isolating a Capacitor Bank


A capacitor bank is de-energized by electrically separating the bank from its source of energy. Figure 20-10 is a simplied illustration of a section of a substation that includes an energized threephase bus, a three-phase circuit breaker, three single-phase disconnect switches, and a three-phase capacitor bank. In this example, the capacitor bank is de-energized by opening the circuit breaker.
Capacitor bank Disconnect switches

A capacitor bank is isolated by physically Circuit separating the bank from its source of energy. As breaker illustrated in Figure 20-11, the capacitor bank in this example is isolated by opening the three single- Figure 20-10. Substation capacitor bank. phase disconnect switches. Opening these switches provides a visible break between the source of energy and the capacitor bank. The actual switching devices that are operated and the sequence in which they are operated vary with the design of the substation. In general, a capacitor bank is switched out only after 294

Voltage Regulators

Isolating the Regulator


After the bypass switch is closed, the regulator can be isolated from the circuit. This is done by opening the regulator source and load disconnect switches. The disconnect switch that is opened rst depends on the design of the system and on company procedures. The specic procedure for switching a regulator out of service may vary. For example, the type of switch shown in Figures 22-47 and 22-48 enables the regulator to be both bypassed and isolated in one switch operation. The switch in this example is made up of two bars. When the switch is closed, one bar connects the source circuit to the source lead of the regulator. The other bar connects the load lead of the regulator to the load circuit. The two bars are separated by insulators.

Bypass switch

Source disconnect switch

Load disconnect switch

Figure 21-46. Regulator bypass switch closed.

Source circuit Bars separated by insulators

Load circuit

By opening the switch, three switching operations are completed in one action. The rst operation Regulator Regulator load lead source lead is bypassing the regulator. When the switch is opened, a spring operated plate (Figure 21-48) Figure 21-47. Disconnect switch. moves into the space where the switch was. The plate connects the source circuit to the load circuit, Load circuit and the regulator is bypassed. contact For the second operation, the regulator is isolated from the source circuit. When the switch is opened, there is a visible separation between the source circuit and the regulator source lead. For the third operation, the regulator is isolated from the load circuit. When the switch is opened, there is a visible separation between the regulator load lead and the load circuit.
Source circuit contact Plate

Figure 21-48. Disconnect switch opened.

Physically Disconnecting the Regulator


Generally, single-phase regulators in a substation are grouped in three-phase banks, as shown in Figure 21-49. To remove one of the regulators, all three units must be taken out of service. After the regulators have been switched out of service, they are tagged, tested for dead, and grounded according to company procedures. To remove the regulator, its conductors are disconnected from the regulator terminals. In Figure 21-50, one of the conductors has been marked

Figure 21-49. Three single-phase regulators.

333

Protective Relays, Transmission Systems The specic voltage-to-current ratio setting for a distance relay is affected by several considerations. For example, a distance relay in substation A can be set for a voltage-to-current ratio that would cause the relay to operate for a fault anywhere on the section of line between substations A and B. With this setting, however, the relay might trip for a fault near substation B but between substations B and Figure 23-37. Fault between substations B and C. C (Figure 23-37). This type of relay operation is undesirable, because the basic approach to transmission line protection is to isolate only the section of line in which a fault occurs. For a fault between substations B and C, a relay in substation B should open a breaker in substation B, and, possibly by transfer tripping, also open a breaker in substation C to isolate the fault. If a distance relay in substation A operates, it would isolate the section of line between substations A and B, even though that section of line does not have to be isolated to remove the fault from the system.

Zoned Protection
To prevent undesirable operations, a distance relay is generally set to protect approximately 90% of a line section. This protected section is typically referred to as Zone 1 (Figure 23-38). To protect line sections between substations, additional Zone 1 sections can be set up (Figure 23-39). However, with this type of protection, approximately 10% of each line section is left unprotected. A common way to provide complete protection for line sections is to use a distance relay in each substation that provides Zone 1 protection in the opposite direction (Figure 23-40). This arrangement provides overlapping protection for each line section between substations. In addition to Zone 1 protection, a distance relay may also provide Zone 2 and Zone 3 protection. For example, as illustrated in Figure 23-41, Zone 2 protection from substation A covers the line section between substations A and B, as well as part of the line section between substations B and C. Zone 3 protection from substation A covers the line sections between substations A and B, substations B and C, and part of the line section beyond substation C.
Figure 23-38. Zone 1 protection.
Unprotected line sections

Figure 23-39. Multiple Zone 1 protection.

= Overlapping protection

Figure 23-40. Overlapping Zone 1 protection.

Figure 23-41. Zone 2 and Zone 3 protection from substation A.

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Substation Operation and Maintenance


Sensing Equipment

Sensing equipment is equipment that changes a condition such as voltage or current to a value or signal that can be measured. For example, potential transformers (Figure 24-1) change, or transform, line voltage to a proportionally lower voltage for measurement. Another example of sensing equipment is a current transformer. Current transformers (Figure 24-2) transform line current to a proportionally lower current for measurement.

Figure 24-1. Potential transformer.

Figure 24-2. Current transformer.

Measuring Equipment

The signals from sensing equipment are typically sent to measuring equipment and controlling equipment. Measuring equipment measures the signal provided by sensing equipment and indicates the value of the condition being sensed. For example, a meter such as the ammeter shown in Figure 24-3 indicates the value of current it receives from a current transformer. Another example of measuring equipment is a recording meter, such as the one shown in Figure 24-4. A recording meter measures signals from sensing equipment and records the values of the signals over a period of time.

Figure 24-3. Ammeter.

Figure 24-4. Recording meter.

Controlling Equipment

Controlling equipment detects the signals it gets from sensing equipment, and, if a signal is different from a preset value, provides a signal that operates various other equipment. An example of controlling equipment is an overcurrent relay, such as the one shown in Figure 24-5. An over current relay detects current that it receives from a current transformer. If the current 376

Substation Operation and Maintenance If alternating current to the charger is interrupted for any reason, the battery will instantly provide direct current to the steady, continuous loads and, as required, to the intermittent loads. It will continue to supply the loads until alternating current is restored or until the battery is fully discharged.

Cell Components and Electrochemical Action


Substation battery maintenance and testing are more likely to be performed properly when the worker knows the construction of the battery cells, how the cells work, and what can go wrong with the cells and why. This section describes the components and electrochemical action of a typical lead-acid substation battery cell.

Components of a Lead-Acid Cell


Battery cells used in substations are typically lead-acid cells. The external components of a typical lead-acid cell (Figure 25-10) include a container, which is often called a jar, positive and negative terminal posts, and a vent with a ame arrestor. The ame arrestor shields explosive gases at the vent from external sparks or ames. The internal components include a liquid called an electrolyte, conductive lead-based plates, and non-conductive separators. The electrolyte is composed of sulfuric acid and water.

Figure 25-10. Components of a lead-acid cell.

Figure 25-11 shows a cell that has been disassembled so that the plates and separators can be seen. The plates are arranged so that the negative plates and the positive plates alternate. A cell always has one more negative plate than positive, and the plates at each end of the cell are negative. This is because each positive plate needs a negative plate on each side of it in order to function efciently. All the positive plates are mechanically and electrically linked together by a bus bar and connected to Figure 25-11. Disassembled lead-acid cell. one of the terminal posts. The negative plates are also linked together, and they are connected to the other terminal post. The non-conductive separators insulate the negative and positive plates from each other. The most widely used cell plate design is a type called the pasted plate, although there is a variety of other designs. The pasted plate uses porous lead compounds for the chemically active portions of the plate. This material is too soft to hold together by itself, so it is typically pasted onto a metal grid (Figure 25-12). 396

Figure 25-12. Plate grid and lead.

Substation Operation and Maintenance terminal of cell 7 is connected to the positive terminal of cell 8.
Negative terminals Positive terminals

To begin the cell replacement procedure, the jumpers are connected to cells 6 and 8 and to the new cell (Figure 28-3). One end of a jumper Bad cell is connected to the negative terminal of cell 6, and the other end of the jumper is connected to the positive terminal of the new cell. One end of a second jumper is connected to the positive Figure 28-2. Typical cell arrangement - one bad terminal of cell 8, and the other end of that jumper cell. is connected to the negative terminal of the new cell. The jumpers are connected to the terminal so Positive Negative that they will not interfere with the removal and reinstallation of the intercell connecting straps. With the jumpers in place, the bad cell is then disconnected from the battery by removing the intercell connecting straps between cells 6 and 7 and between cells 7 and 8. Because the new cell is connected in parallel, no arcing occurs when the intercell connecting straps are disconnected from the bad cell. Next, the bad cell is removed from the battery rack, and the new cell is put in its place (Figure 28-4).

New cell

Figure 28-3. Jumper connections to bypass bad cell.

Once the new cell is in place, it is connected to the adjacent cells in the battery. The intercell connecting straps are reinstalled, connecting the negative terminal of cell 6 to the positive terminal of the new cell, and the positive terminal of cell 8 to the negative terminal of the new cell. Then, both jumper cables are removed. Connecting a new cell in parallel with the old cell makes it possible to remove and replace a bad cell on a battery that is Figure 28-4. New cell installed between cells 6 and 8 with temporary jumper connections only. still in service.
Bypassing a Cell Using a Diode and Jumpers
New cell Combustible gas detector Jumber with diode Diode Ohmmeter

As shown in Figure 28-5, the equipment required for bypassing a cell using a diode and jumpers includes a jumper with a diode that is connected in line with the jumper, and two jumpers without diodes. Also shown in Figure 28-5 are a combustible gas detector, an ohmmeter, and the new cell to be installed in place of the bad cell. Some companies require that a combustible gas detector be used whenever work is performed on 432

Jumpers without diodes

Figure 28-5. Equipment for bypassing a cell using a diode and jumpers.