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Color Models

Arka Prokash Mazumdar


Color
Its all electromagnetic (EM) radiation
Different colors correspond to radiation of
different wavelengths
Intensity of each wavelength specified by
amplitude
We perceive EM radiation with in the 400-700
nm range
Between infra-red and ultraviolet
Visible Light
Wavelength
Most light we see is not just a single
wavelength
A combination of many wavelengths
Referred to as a spectrum
Wavelength
Representation of color on screen display is
RGB. (additive color)
Printers use CMY(K), (subtractive color)
Human Eye
Human Eye
3 different types of cone receptors in the
fovea of retina
S, M, and L
blue, green, and red sensors
Peak sensitivities are located at
approximately:
445nm, 535nm, and 575nm
for the "average" observer
Human Eye : Absorption of Light
Physical properties of light
This distribution may indicate:
1. Dominant wavelength (frequency): the color
of the light (hue)
2. Brightness (luminance): intensity of the light
(value)
3. Purity (saturation): the degree of vividness
(mix with white)
CIE Standard
International Commission on Illumination
(Commission Internationale de LEclairage)
(1931)
Color matching functions
Tested with 440,545 and 580nm
CIE: Experiment
CIE space
CIE space
Irregular 3D volume
shape is difficult to
understand
Chromaticity diagram
the same color of the
varying intensity (Y) should
all end up at the same
point
Color Models
RGB model
Color monitor, color video cameras
CMY model
Color printer
HSI model
Color image manipulation
XYZ (CIE standard, Y directly measures the
luminance
YUV (used in PAL color TV)
YIQ (used in NTSC color TV)
YCbCr (used in digital color TV standard BT.601)
RGB
Standard
RGB color space
CMY color model
Passive displays (e.g. color inkjet printers) absorb light
instead of emitting it
Combinations of cyan, magenta and yellow inks are
used
This is a subtractive color model.
Source: www.hp.com
CMY
CMY and CMYK
RGB to CMY model
The conversion from RGB to CMY is given by the formula
Example 11.2: The red colour is written in RGB as (1,0,0). In CMY it is written
as
that is, magenta and yellow.
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

1
1
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
b
g
r
y
m
c
(
(
(

(
(
(

=
(
(
(

b
g
r
y
m
c
1
1
1
HSV/HIS model
HSV is a non-linearly transformed (skewed)
version of RGB cube
Hue: quantity that distinguishes color family, say red
from yellow, green from blue
Saturation (Chroma): color intensity (strong to weak).
Intensity of distinctive hue, or degree of color
sensation from that of white or grey
Value (luminance)/I(intensity): light color or dark color
HSV/HSI model
H
dominant
wavelength
S
purity
% white
I
Intensity
HSV/HSI model
Hue is defined as an angle
0 degrees is RED
120 degrees is GREEN
240 degrees is BLUE
Saturation is defined as the percentage of distance from the
center of the HSI triangle to the pyramid surface.
Values range from0 to 1.
Intensity is denoted as the distance up the axis fromblack.
Values range from0 to 1
HSV/HIS model
HSV/HIS model
RGB to HSI

>
s
=
G B if 360
G B if
u
u
H

+
+
=

2 / 1 2
1
)] )( ( ) [(
)] ( ) [(
2
1
cos
B G B R G R
B R G R
u
)] , , [min(
) (
3
1 B G R
B G R
S
+ +
=
) (
3
1
B G R I + + =
RG sector :
) 1 ( S I B =
(

+ =
) 60 cos(
cos
1
H
H S
I R

) ( 3 B R I G + =
HSI to RGB

120 0 < s H
GB sector :
) 1 ( S I R =
(

+ =
) 60 cos(
cos
1
H
H S
I G

) ( 3 G R I B + =
HSI to RGB

120 = H H

240 120 < s H
BR sector :
) 1 ( S I G =
(

+ =
) 60 cos(
cos
1
H
H S
I B

) ( 3 B G I R + =
HSI to RGB

240 = H H

360 240 < s H
The HSI Color Models
Comparisons: RGB, CMY, HSI
YUV/YIQ
YUV: for PAL and SECAManalog video
Also used in CCIR 601 standard for digital video
Y (luminance) is the CIE Y primary
Y = 0.299R + 0.587G + 0.114B
Chrominance:
defined as the difference between a color and a
reference white at the same luminance
YUV/YIQ
It is be represented by U and V
The color differences:
U = B Y; V = R Y
YIQ is defined by the National Television
System Committee (NTSC)
Similar to YUV
YCbCr
Y: luminance
Cb: Chrominance of Blue
Cr: Chrominance of Red
Digital equivalent of YUV, used for digital TV
8 bit for each component
in range of 0-255
YCbCr
Used in MPEG video compression standards
Y = 0.257*R + 0.504*G + 0.098*B + 16
Cr = 0.439*R - 0.368*G - 0.071*B + 128
Cb = - 0.148*R - 0.291*G + 0.439*B + 128