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Tittle: A Plan to Keep Carbon in Check Author: Rober H. Socolow and Stephen W.

Pacala

A: List the major ideas, Concepts or key points-point by point - Getting gag rip on greenhouse gases is daunting but doable. The Technologies already exist. But there is no time to lose. - Humanity can emit only so much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere before the climate enters a state unknown in recent geologic history and goes haywire. Climate scientists typically see the risks growing rapidly as CO2 levels approach a doubling of their pre-18th Century value. - To make the problem manageable, the required reduction in emission can be broken down into wedges an incremental reduction of a size that matches available technology. - At the present rate of growth, emissions of carbon dioxide will double by 2006. Even if the world then takes action to level them off, the atmospheric concentration of the gas will be headed above 560 parts per million, double the preindustrial value a level widely regarded as capable of triggering severe climate changes. But if the world flattens out emissions beginning now and later ramps them down, it should be able to keep concentration substantially below 560 ppm. - Holding carbon dioxide emissions constant for 50 years, without choking off economic growth, is within our grasp. - 15 ways to make a wedge: - Increase fuel economy of two billion cars from 30 to 60 mpg - Drive two billion cars not 10000 but 5000 miles a year (at 30 mpg)

- Cut electricity use in homes, offices and stores by 25 percent - Raise efficiency at 1600 large coal fired plants from 40 to 60 percent - Replace 1400 large coal fired plants with gas fired plants - Install CCS at 800 large coal fired power plants - Install CCS at coal plants that produce hydrogen for 1.5 billion vehicles - Install CCS at coal to syngas plants - Add twice todays nuclear output to displace coal - Increase wind power 40 fold to displace coal - Increase solar power 700 fold to displace coal - Increase wind power 80 fold to make hydrogen for cars - Drive two billion cars on ethanol, using one sixth of world cropland - Stop all deforestation - Expand conservation tillage to 100 percent of cropland - 39 percent U.S. share of global carbon emissions in 1952 - 23 percent U.S. share in 2002 the U.S. share of global emissions can be expected to continue to drop

B: Summarize the AUTHORs main point or idea- at LEAST 1-2 paragraphs This article is about how we can achieve the daunting task of stabilizing our climate. At the present rate of growth, emissions of carbon dioxide will double by 2006. Even if the world then takes action to level them off, the atmospheric concentration of the gas will be headed above 560 parts per million, double the preindustrial value a level widely regarded as capable of triggering severe climate changes. But if the world flattens out emissions beginning now and later ramps them down, it should be able to keep concentration substantially

below 560 ppm. There are 15 ways to make a wedge, using wedges to conceptualize the variety of methods that can be implemented to reduce carbon emissions.

C: Write a reaction paragraph to the article stating your own thoughts on the topic, using specific citations from the article to support your views. After reading the article, I think that people should take an action to help reduce the carbon emission. Its not even harmful to human but its also harmful to other living species. We should think for our future, we dont want to have a future with nothing left in the Earth. I think the government should have a hand to help reduce the emission too because emission is also because of the government, they should not allowed the companies release emission too much. So they must fix their mistake no matter what. So What? 15 ways to make a wedge Reduce carbon emission What If? Everyone helps reduce the carbon emission? -> There are such many benefits What Does This Remind Me Of? This reminds me of that Im one part of the Earth; I should take the action to help reduce emission. Says Who? Robert H. Socolow & Stephen W. Pacala