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Shah waliullah Introduction: Qutb al-Din Ahmad ibn 'Abd al-Rahim, popularly known as Shah Wali Ullah (1 114-1

1 !11 "#-1 !$%, li&'d at a (riti(al )un(tur' o* +uslim history,' -ndia, wh'r' Shah Wali Allah was born and wh'r' h' li&'d and di'd, had 'n)oy'd th' p'a('*ul and prosp'rous rul' o* th' +u.hals *or mor' than $"" y'ars, /y th' tim' o* Shah Wali Allah, how'&'r, th' stat' had b'.un to disint'.rat' into a numb'r o* mutually hostil' prin(ipaliti's whi(h t'nd'd to (laim ind'p'nd'n(' o* th' ('ntral authority o* D'lhi on' a*t'r th' oth'rs$ Amon. th' n'wly 'm' 0uasi ind'p'nd'nt stat's, many w'r' not '&'n und'r +uslim (ontrol, 1ow'r and .lory in th' Sub-(ontin'nt o* -ndia w'r' b'in. .radually lost to th' risin. in*lu'n(' o* th' militant +aratha, Sikh and 2indu (ornrnuniti's, At that tim' +uslims in oth'r parts o* th' world too w'r' *ar *rom b'in. as('ndant, 3h' authority o* th' 4ttoman 5aliphs as a sup'r-pow'r alr'ady show'd si.ns o* w'akn'ss, Al- thou.h +uslims had a(hi'&'d a histori( &i(tory a.ainst th' /y6antium by (on0u'rin. 5onstantinopl' in 147#, y't th' dr'ad*ul *all o* th' +uslim 'm- pir' in Spain in 148$ was not too r'mot' an '&'nt in th'ir m'mory, -t was at this mom'nt o* utt'r d'spair and d'spond'n(y *or +uslims that Shah Wali Allah was born, d'9tro t'mpor', -t is p'rhaps at su(h hours that th' 1ro&id'n(' (hoos's to *a&our humanity and r'*orm'rs 'm'r.',4 3h' .'n'rations o* +uslims who su((''d'd Shah Wali Allah ow' a (onsid'rabl' d'bt to him in many ways, 3h' int'll'(tual and (ultural history o* th' +uslims o* th' Sub-(ontin'nt, and to som' '9t'nt, o* thos' in oth'r parts o* th' world in th' post-Wali Allah 'ra, (an hardly b' dis(uss'd without r'*'r'n(' to th' impa(t o* his r'*ormist id'as, +any 'du(ational, int'll'(tual and spiritual (urr'nts o* whi(h aros' -n -ndia in th' lat' 1:th ('ntury and whi(h subs'0u'ntly mad' any notabl' (ontribution in any bran(h o* -slami( s(holarship proudly tra(' th'ir ori.ins to th' s(hool o* Shah Wali Allah, 3h' most outstandin. ('ntr's o* traditional +uslim 'du(ation that *lourish'd in th' Sub-(ontin'nt durin. th' 18th ('ntury -D'oband, ;aran.i +ahal, <adwat al-'Ulama', Ali.arh, and oth'rs - ha&' all (laim'd th' int'll'(tual and spiritual in*lu'n(' o* Shah Wali Allah, 3h's' ('ntr's not only pro&id'd th' nu(l'i *or pur'ly 'du(ational pro.ramm's whi(h produ('d sp'(ialists in th' r'li.ious dis(iplin's and oth'r bran(h's o* knowl'd.', but also r'spond'd to th' n''ds o* spiritual trainin. and moral r'*orm o* th' so(i'ty at lar.', /'sid's, th' (ontribu- tion o* +uslim s(holars in &arious basi( -slami( s(i'n('s, su(h as 3a*sir= 2adith, ;i0h, Us1 1 al-;i0h, >alam, and oth'r au9iliary dis(iplin's su(h as philosophy, lo.i(, Arabi(', synta9, morpholo.y, and rh'tori(, was mad' almost '9(lusi&'ly by thos' s(holars whos' a(ad'mi( .'n'alo.y is tra('abl', dir'(tly or indir'(tly, to Shah Wali Allah, <'('ssity o* th' r'*ormation is wh'n th' down*all happ'ns in th' (ours' o* tim' and pla(', /ut th' r'*ormation is not m'ant to brin. som'thin. n'w, 3h'ir r'sponsibility is th' (ommunity ba(k to prop'r and stron. path, 3h' d'&iation o* +uslim Ummah, *ormidabl' (hall'n.'s that th'y *a(' and n'('ssity o* th' tim' ar' th' main th' r'asons o* th' pr's'n(' o* th' r'*orm'rs, 3h'y will b' th' .uidin. li.hts o* th' (ommunity, 3h' history

is bi. 'y'witn'ss o* th' pr's'n(' o* th' r'*orm'rs, 3h' &'rdi(t o* holy 1roph't +uhammad (1U/2% about th' r'*orm'rs (mu)addids% has b''n happ'nin.,1 Biography of Shah waliullah Qutb al-din Ahmad known as Shah Wali Ullah was born in 1114?1 "# *our y'ars b'*or' th' d'ath o* +u.hal 'mp'ror Auran.6'b ,2is .'n'alo.y (an b' tra('d ba(k to th' *amily o* pious >hali*ah o* -slam Umar al ;aroo0, 3h' *or'*ath'rs o* Shah wali Ullah ar' said to ha&' mi.rat'd to -ndia and *ound th'ir s'ttl'm'nt h'r' at Rohtak &illa.', wh'n th' 3atars start'd th' d'stru(tion in -ra0 and -ran ,2is .rand*ath'r Sh'ikh Wa)ihuddin was a military o**i('r in th' army o* Shah @ahan and a d''p lo&'r o* th' Quran , -n th' war o* su(('ssion, h' support'd Auran.6'b, Shah wali ullahs *ath'r sh'ikh Abdul Rahman was .r'atly lo&'d and r'sp'(t'd by th' p'opl' *or his pro*ound knowl'd.' o* th' traditions and -slami( )urisprud'n(', 3hat is why h' was 'ntrust'd by th' 'mp'ror Auran.6'b with th' d'li(at' and important task o* r'&isin. th' ;atawa-Alam.iri, 2' 'stablish'd a s(hool in D'lhi known as +adrassa Rahmania ,3h' *or'runn'r o* th' pr's'nt Darul-ulum D'band, Shah Wali Ullah soon mast'r'd th' di**'r'nt bran(h's o* l'arnin., 2' l'arnt th' Quran by h'art up to th' a.' o* t'n, At th' a.' o* 14 , h' r'ad a part o* bau6ayi and th' ma)or part o* +ishkawah, 2' .ot th' .raduation *rom Rahmania s(hool at th' a.' o* 17 th' pr's(rib'd syllabus o* th' s(hool lad .r'at str'ss on th' Qurani( studi's its l'ss'r aid *rom (omm'ntari's ,2' b'(am' th' t'a(h'r o* this &'ry s(hool o* his *ath'r at th' a.' 1 , 4nly two y'ars lat'r, on th' d'ath o* his *ath'r, ShahWali Ullah o((upi'd his *ath'rAs (hair in madrassa Rahmania, 2' pr'par'd his l'(tur's a*t'r '9t'nsi&' study o* &arious -slami( dis(iplin's and s(i'n('s, and pro&id'd .uidan(' on th' probl'ms o* &ari'd natur', -n th' y'ar 114#?1 #1 h' w'nt to th' 2i)a6 on a pil.rima.' and stay'd th'r' *or 4" months studyin. 2adith and ;i0h und'r su(h distin.uish'd s(holars as Abu al->urdi al-+adani, Wa*0 allah al-+akki an 3a)uddin al-Qali, 2' r'turn'd to D'lhi n 1147?1 ## wh'r' h' sp'nt th' r'st o* li*' in produ(in. num'rous works till his d'ath in 11 !?1 !# durin. th' r'i.n o* Shah Alam11, Political thoughts of Shah Wali Ullah Shah Wali Ullah *'lt th' impa(t o* d'(ay and d'(lin' in '&'ry walk o* li*', analy6'd th' (aus's o* down*all o* and su..'st'd th' ways and m'ans to arr'st th'm, ;irstly his aim was to r'stor' th' -slami( politi(al, 2is (ontinual att'mpts *or th' impl'm'ntation o* th' -slami( politi(s mad' a hu.' impa(t in history, Shah Wali Ullahs r'&olutionary r'li.ious l'd th' (ommunity to .'t th' (l'ar awar'n'ss about -slam and its rul's, 2' r'it'rat'd th' so&'r'i.nty o* Bod must ha&' to ob'y and th' traditions o* holy proph't and his un'0ual li*' must ha&' to b' imitat'd, 2is &i(tory o* li*' and balan('d attitud's towards th' issu's would b' *ound by th's' sour('s, 3h' r'al mission o* Shah Wali Ullah was to puri*y -slami( id'als o* all unh'althy in*lu'n('s and pro&idin. th'm a *r'sh int'll'(tual .round to m''t th' (hall'n.' o* th' tim', Shah WaliUllah '9plain'd som'*i(ant *a(tors whi(h should b' awar' about C 1, 3h' truth and Din ar' id'nti(al as both o* th'm sprin. *rom on' th' sam' $, 3h' ad&o(at's o* truth ha&' bl'ss'd th' 'arth in '&'ry a.' in &'ry nation, and as su(h, all o* th'm should b' r'sp'(t'd #, S'9ual anar(hy is a moral (rim' in '&'ry r'li.ious s'(t, - should b' (urb'd as mu(h as possibl'
1 HLAWI_!H"U#H!S_A$D_%"$!&I'U!I"$S

4, @ihad is a sa(r'd duty *or '&'ry +uslim, -t m'ans that is ord'r to d'*'nd th' san(tity o* prin(ipl's and poli(i's, on should (h'rish th' passions o* d'di(ation and d'&otion so mu(h so that on' s should lay down on'As li*' *or th'm,$ Philosophical Interpretation Shah Wali Ullahs philosophi(al int'rpr'tation (aus'd th' r'sur.'n(' o* -slami( r'&i&alism, 2is att'mpts to d'&iat' th' +uslim Ummah *rom th' in*lu'n(' o* non -slami( philosophi's and '9'.'s's mad' wid' impa(t in -slami( philosophi(al atmosph'r', -n th' sp'(i*i( (onditions o* -ndia, Shah Wali ullah (riti(i6'd th' .rass root'd in*lu'n(' o* 2indu mytholo.y and its philosophi(al int'rpr'tation whi(h was 'mbarrass'd by many int'll'(tuals, 3h'r'*or' h' (lari*i'd th' philosophi(al stand o* -slam, 1% 3h' Quran (alls *or a r'&olutionary syst'm o* li*', 3hos' who would *ollow it in l'tt'r and spirit, would r'ap th' sam' har&'st as was r'ap'd by th' (ompanions o* th' proph't o* -slam (1/U2% n th' 'ra o* th' *our pious (aliphs $% 3h' li*' o* +uhammad (1/U2% or th' uswah-i-rasul, should b' tak'n as an th' li*' o* th' thr'' pious (aliphs should b' 'mulat'd (Ali, th' *ourth (aliph is (onspi(uous by abs'n(' #% th' Shi a int'rpr'tation and pra(ti('s o* -slam should alto.'th'r b' dis(ard'd, as th'y ar' mis.uidin. to th' p'opl' at lar.' 4% 3h' b'tt'rm'nt o* on'As li*' and li*'-h'r'a*t'r is bas'd on th' *ollowin. *our moral imp'rati&'sC a% 1urity o* body and soul b% Worship o* only on' Bod throu.h pray'rs and oth'r r'(o.ni6'd rituals and pra(ti('s (% S'l*-r'straint or Dabt-i- na*s d% @usti('= th'r' (an b' no )usti(' in a so(i'ty wh'r' th' br'ad-'arn'rs, labor'rs and th' workin. (lass's ar' *or('d to work and ta9'd b'yond th'ir physi(al and m'ntal (apa(iti's 7% -n ord'r to r'sus(itat' th' r'&olutionary Qurani( syst'm o* li*', to is minut'st d'tails, impli(ations and rami*i(ations, on' has to *ollow th' moral and '(onomi( syst'ms, habits and b'ha&ior o* th' illustrious (ompanions o* +uhammad (1/U2%, Socio-economic thoughts Shah Wali Ullah tri'd to *ind out th' r'lationship b'tw''n so(ial 'thi(al and '(onomi( syst'm, 2' d's(rib'd th' spirituality that it has two asp'(tsC *irst, it is a p'rsonal r'lation o* man to .od, s'(ondly, it is mans own r'lation to his *'llow-b'in.s, Shah Wali Ullah 'mphasi6'd th' a(hi'&'m'nts o* so(ial )usti(' is a pr'r'0uisit' *or th' d'&'lopm'nt o* th' indi&idual, Al-Adl ()usti(', balan('%, in his is th' 'ss'ntial *'atur' o* th' harmonious d'&'lopm'nt o* th' human ra(', 3o narrat' th' so(io-politi(al th'ory, ShahWali Ullah us's th' t'rm -rti*a0 (d'&i('s%, 2' illustrat'd *our -rti*a0 to d'monstrat' th' so(io-politi(al '&olution o* man, 3h' *irst -rti*a0 pla('s human b'in.s in a((ordan(' with what Wali Ullah (alls a madhab al tabi - (natural law%, 3h' s'(ond r'lat's to th' or.ani6ation o* th' *amily, 3h' third d's(rib's th' politi(al institutions whi(h *orm (ity (Al-+adinah%,und'r *ourth -rti*a0 man l'arns to r'.ulat' d'&i('s and rul's to o&'r(om' th' (on*li(ts and ri&alry b'tw''n th' (iti's, #Shah Wali Ullah dis(uss's th' probl'ms

2istory o* -slam, 1ro*, +asudul 2asan

Dn(y(lop'di( sur&'y o* -slami( (ultur'

o* human r'lations, d'&'lopm'nts o* (ultur' and (i&ili6ations, a.ri(ultur', art o* irri.ation, (ulti&ation, in(l'm'n(y o* w'ath'r and s'asons and 'stablishm'nt o* stat' and duti's o* stat's lik' th' 'radi(ation all sorts o* so(ial '&ils, ',.,, .amblin., adult'ry, usury , brib'ry 't(, 2' indi(at'd th' balan('d so(io-'(onomi( syst'm and r'mark'd th' (aus's o* d'(lin' o* +uslim Ummah C Ea*t'r a (ar'*ul analysis - ha&' (om' to th' (on(lusion that th'r' ar' two main *a(tors r'sponsibl' *or th' d'(lin' o* th' +uslim (ultur', ;irst, many p'opl' ha&' abandon'd th'ir own o((upations and ha&' b'(om' parasit's on th' .o&'rnm'nt, 3h'y ar' a .r'at burd'n on th' publi( '9(h'0u'r, Som' o* th's' ar' soldi'rs= som' (laim th'ms'l&'s to b' m'n o* .r'at l'arnin. and, thus, d''m it th'ir to .'t r'.ular *inan(ial h'lp *rom th' stat', 3h'r' ar' not a *'w who .'t r'.ular donations, Bi*ts and r'wards *rom th' (ourt as a matt'r o* past (ustom, su(h as *or '9ampl', po'ts and (lowns, +any o* th' p'opl' b' to th's' .roups do not (ontribut' anythin. to th' w'l*ar' o* so(i'ty, y't th'y ar' allow'd to su(k its blood, S'(ondly, th' .o&'rnm'nt has l'&i'd an '9orbitant rat' o* ta9 on th' a.ri(ulturists, (ulti&ators, and trad'rs, Add'd to this is th' (ru'l o* tr'atm'nt m't'd out to th' ta9-pay'rs by .o&'rnm'nt o**i(ials at th' tim' o* (oll'(tin. th' ta9's, 3h' p'opl' .roan und'r th' h'a&y w' o* ta9's whil' th'ir '(onomi( position d't'riorat' sat an armin. sp''d, 3his is how th' (ountry has (om' to ruinF,4 Shah Wali Ullah (riti(i6'd th' (on('pt o* po&'rty whi(h was (ommon amon. +uslims that th'y b'li'&'d th' po&'rty is lo&'d by Bod and ha&' no .ood +uslim should mak' an '**ort to b'(om' ri(h, 2' points outC E-slam t'a(h's that this stron. (on('ntrat'd indi&iduality, sharp'n'd and st''l'd throu.h a li' o* a(ti&' '9p'ri'n(', should not b'(om' obs'ss'd with s'l*-a..randi6'm'nt= it should rath'r b' d'&ot'd to th' s'r&i(' o* Bod and throu.h this to th' .ood o* mankind, -slam n'&'r pr'a(h's its *ollow'rs to submit th'ms'l&'s to an oppr'ssi&' so(ial syst'm, -t is so(ial )usti(' rath'r than po&'rty whi(h is 'ulo.i6'd by th' 2oly proph't- )usti(' whi(h not only sa*'.uards an indi&idual a.ainst an attitud' o*' and s'l*-(on('it, but d'&'lops n him a pow'r to spurn th' t'mptations, brib's, and snar's with whi(h an uns(rupulous rulin. (li0u' tri's (yni(ally to (orrupt th' and (hara(t'r o* th' sub)'(tsF -slami( '(onomi( syst'm is un'0ual, 3h' p'r*'(tion o* transmission o* th' mon'y and its distribution to so(i'ty, th's' ar' important *a(tors w'r' (onsid'r'd by -slam, Ubadullah Sindhi summari6'd his '(onomi( thou.htC 1, 3h' w'alth ori.inat's *rom labor $, 3h' labor'rs and *arm'rs ar' th' *ountains o* labor and (ons'0u'ntly o* w'alth= th' (i&i( and (i&il li*' d'p'nds on th' (oop'ration o* th' labor'rs and th' *arm'rs, 5hrist had on(' obs'r&'d that Gyou will not 'at, i* you do not 'arn, -n th' sam' way, Shah Wali Ullah was o* th' opinion that on' who would not work *or on's nation or (ountry, would not b' 'ntitl'd to .'t anythin. *rom th' national w'alth #, 3h' d'ns o* .amblin. and th' ('nt'rs o* d'bau(h'ry should alto.'th'r b' smash'd, b'(aus' in th'ir pr's'n(', th' syst'm o* distribution o* w'alth (ould not b' or.ani6'd on and sound lin's, -nst'ad o* in(r'asin. th' national w'alth, su(h '&il pra(ti('s h'lp (on('ntrat' w'alth into *'w hands 4, 3h' labor'rs, *arm'rs and thos' who r'nd'r int'll'(tual s'r&i('s to th' so(i'ty, ri.htly and ri(hly d's'r&' a pr'tty shar' *rom th' national w'alth whi(h th'y produ(', 3h' *or('d whi(h hind'r th' p'r*orman(' o* th' workin. (lass's, should b' (rush'd m'r(il'ssly 7, A .o&'rnm'nt whi(h do not prop'rly and )ustly mana.' th' syst'm o* pri('s, wa.'s or salari's o* th' workin. (lass's, should b' up-root'd !, 3h' workin. (lass's should not b' '9ploit'd= '&'ryon' should b' paid on th' prin(ipl' o* mutual (oop'ration , 3h' produ(tion and in(om' whi(h is not bas'd on mutual (oop'ration is not &alid

1oliti(al o* Shah Wali Ullah An analyti(al studyAbdul Rashid /hat

:, 3h' workin. hours o* th' workin. (lass's should b' *i9'd, 3h'y should .'t tim' to impro&' upon th'ir moral and spiritual li*' 9. 4n' o* th' .r'at'st m'ans o* mutual (oop'ration id trad', (omm'r('and busin'ss, <o busin'ssman is allow'd to indul.' in bla(k-mark'tin., smu..lin., hoard in and pri('" rais', 't(,, similarly, th' .o&'rnm'nt is prohibit'd to ta9 th'm b'yond th'ir (apa(ity 10. 3h' busin'ss whi(h h'lps (on('ntrat' w'alth into *'w hands and hind'rs th' (ir(ulation o* in th' so(i'ty, is harm*ul and it would b' (h'(k'd, 11. 3h' royal, aristo(rati( or lu9urious syst'm o* li*' or standard o* li&in. whi(h hind'rs distribution o* w'alth in so(i'ty, should b' (rush'd as 'arly as possibl', Theory of Shah Wali Ullah : Shah Wali Ullah was a proli*i( writ'r and wrot' '9t'nsi&'ly on ;i0h and 2adith, 2' '&'ntually wrot' 71 books= $# in Arabi( and $: in 1'rsian, Amon. his *amous works ar' th' 2u))at-ullah-il-/ali.hah and -6alat-ul->hi*a, 2' ros' to b' a .r'at s(holar o* -slami(

studi's, 'ndow'd with saintly 0ualiti's, So .r'at was his d'di(ation to work that a((ordin. to his tal'nt'd son Shah Abdul A6i6C H,,,h' was rar'ly ill and on(' h' sat down to work a*t'r -shra0 (post-sunris' pray'rs% h' would not (han.' his postur' till midday', 2' was a r'al .'nius, an int'll'(tual .iant who s't hims'l* to th' mission o* 'du(atin. th' mis.uid'd +uslim mass's with th' tru' spirit o* -slam, 2is was th' task o* th' r'&i&al o* -slam in th' sub(ontin'nt whi(h had b''n (loud'd with mysti( philosophy and to brin. it out in its pristin' .lory, 2' was a humbl' d'&ot'' to this (aus', who r'sist'd all t'mptations o* p'rsonal .lory, Shah Waliullah introdu('d s'&'ral r'*orms in r'li.ious and '(onomi( sph'r's, 2' was *irst to translat' th' 2oly Quran in a popular', a pra(ti(' whi(h was lat'r us'*ully *ollow'd by oth'rs, 2is own son, Shah Abdul A6i6, translat'd th' 2oly /ook into Urdu, th'' o* +uslim mass's in -ndia, 3h'r' had b''n a (on*li(t b'tw''n orthodo9 -slam r'&i&'d und'r +u)addid-Ali*-Sani, (hampion'd by Auran.6'b and h't'rodo9y introdu('d by Akbar and (hampion'd by Dara Shikoh, 3h' r'i.n o* orthodo9 Auran.6'b had (r'at'd a&'rsion to Su*ism and had l'd to th' ad&'nt o* '9tr'm' puritanism, Shah Waliullah stru(k a m'an b'tw''n th' two '9tr'm's and r'tain'd th' &irtu's o* both,
Rar' amon. -slami( s(holars, Shah Waliullah (ombin'd in hims'l* a mast'ry o* kalam and tasawwu*, th' two str'ams o* that ha&' b''n th' primary modulators o* -slami( history o&'r th' last thousand y'ars, -n his 'n(y(lop'di( knowl'd.' and th' br'ath o* his &ision h' was without p''rs, Awar' that s'(tarian di**'r'n('s in ;i0h and madhab w'r' t'arin. th' (ommunity apart, h' att'mpt'd a synth'sis o* 2ana*i and Sha*iAi s(hools o* )urisprud'n(' bas'd on th' ('ntral th'm's o* adl ()usti('% and ihsan (.ood d''ds towards *'llow humans%, -n this r'sp'(t alon', h' stands tall amon. a hand*ul o* .r'at s(holars who mast'r'd di**'r'nt s(hools o* ;i0h and to synth'si6' th'm, -t was Shah WaliullahAs su(('ssors who laid th' *oundation o* th' ;i0h that is pra(ti('d in -ndia and 1akistan today, 3h' Shah was awar' that ind'p'nd'nt was mu66l'd amon. l'arn'd m'n, that th' spirit o* i)tihad was asl''p, and +uslims had lon. a(('pt'd ta0lid (to *ollow, to 'mulat', to (opy% as th' .o&'rnin. prin(ipl' o* r'li.ious li*', -n his

in(isi&' analysis o* -slami( history, h' tra('d th' and d'&'lopm'nt o* taqlid, 2' h'ld that i)tihad was 'ss'ntial i* +uslims w'r' to (on*ront th' a(ut' probl'ms o* th' a.', (i)tihad is a ri.orous and ind'p'nd'nt appli(ation o* th' Shariah by a (omp't'nt s(holar who analy6's and o**'rs solutions to th' paramount issu's o* th' a.'%, With this (on&i(tion, h' s't out to trans*orm th' 'ntir' sp'(trum o* +uslim li*', in(ludin. its r'li.ious, so(ial, politi(al, and military asp'(ts, 2is ma)or works in(lud' +ussa*a, -6alah, 2u))ah, /uddor ' /a6i.ah, 3a*h''mat ' -lahiyah, +usawwa and +usa**a, -n his writin.s, h' atta(k'd th'olo.i(al ri.idity alon. s'(tarian lin's, '9('ssi&''ntation and disa.r''m'nts amon. s(holars, so(ial dis'as's su(h as drinkin., prostitution and .amblin., (orrupt so(ial (ustoms su(h as la&ish marria.'s, '9tra&a.ant ban0u'ts and pr'&'ntion o* widow marria.'s, '9('ssi&' atta(hm'nt to 'sot'ri( do(trin's and shi*tin. th' *o(us o* worship *rom Bod to .ra&' worship, (orruption o* th' rulin. (ir(l's in(ludin. '9('ssi&' ta9ation, arm'd oppr'ssion o* p'asants, drinkin. and d'bau(h'ry, 3o (ombat th' rampant (orruption pr'&al'nt in th' land, Shah Waliullah pr's'nt'd a &ision o* -slam as a (ompl't' way o* li*' bas'd on th' QurAani( in)un(tion to 'n)oin what is .ood, *orbid what is '&il, and b'li'&in. in Bod, 2' to in*us' in th' so(i'ty r'(titud' bas'd on th' '9ampl' o* th' 1roph't and th' 'arly 5ompanions, -t is *or th' br'adth o* his s(holarly r'a(h, his in(isi&' analysis o* th' '&ils o* th' a.', and his att'mpts at a r'(onstru(tion o* -slami( li*' in th' sub(ontin'nt, that th' Shah 'arn'd th' titl' o* +u)addid, Shah Waliullah was th' *irst in th' sub(ontin'nt to translat' th' Quran into th' 1'rsian' that was wid'ly spok'n amon. th' l'arn'd (ir(l's in -ndia at that tim', -t was his initiati&', and his '9ampl', that lat'r inspir'd translations o* th' QurAan into Urdu and oth'r -ndian's, 2is sons w'r' th' *irst to translat' th' QurAan into Urdu, 2' train'd a lar.' numb'r o* s(holars and t'a(h'rs whos' in*lu'n(' in north'rn -ndia and 1akistan was *'lt throu.hout th' 18th ('ntury, 3h' introdu(tion o* a n'w m'thodolo.y in th' und'rstandin. and ap- pli(ation o* th' r'&'lational .uidan(' 'mbodi'd in th' Qur'/n is anoth'r r'markabl' (ontribution o* Shah Wali Allah, 3h' prin(ipl's o* Qur'/ni( '9'.'sis, whi(h h' has s't *orth in his mast'rly work, al-;mI6 al->abir, introdu('d a n'w dim'nsion in th' s(i'rl(' o* ta*sir,l 2' 'mphasis's a dir'(t approa(h to th' Qur'an whi(h was *a(ilitat'd by him *or post'rity by his r'nd'rin. o* th' Di&in' t'9t into 'asy 1'rsian pros', /y p'r*orrn- in. this s'r&i(' Shah Wali All#h ush'r'd in a n'w 'ra o* und'rstandin. th' Qur'/n, 3h' (ompr'h'nsion o* its m'anin.s *rom th'n onward b'(am' 'asily a(('ssibl' to th' (ommon man,1: 1rior to Sh/h Wali All#h, th' 0u'stion o* th' p'rmissibility to translat' th' Qur'/n had lar.'ly r'main'd an unr'sol&'d issu', 3h' notion that th' Qur'an may not b' translat'd had r'nd'r'd Qur'ani( s(holarship, to a .r'at '9t'nt, an '9(lusi&' domain o* th' sp'(ialists, Shah Wali Ullah took a bold initiati&' and translat'd th' Qur'an into 1'rsian, th' *ran(a o* th' +uslim lit'rati in th' Sub(ontin'nt, 3his had a whol'som' impa(t on th' r'li.ious li*' o* +uslims, -t b'(am' in(r' possibl' *or ordinary p'o- pl' to und'rstand th' t'a(hin.s o* th' Qur'/n, 3h'y w'r' h'lp'd in this by th' works o* a .rowin. numb'r o* s(holars who (on('ntrat'd th'ir '**orts on '9pli(atin. th' m'ssa.' o* th' Qur'an, 3his was a h'althy d'&'lopm'nt, 'sp'(ially in th' non-Arabi( sp'akin. lands,Althou.h )urists had always r'.ard'd th' Qur'/n as th' primary sour(' o* l'.al do(trin's, y't th' )urists o* th' lat'r p'riod .'n'rally t'nd'd to (on*in' th' &'rs's (ontainin. in)un(tions o* l'.al import to *i&' hundr'd or a littl' mor', 3h'y did not (onsid'r it n'('ssary *or a mu)tahid to mast'r th' r'st o* th' &'rs's, D&'n m'n lik' Abu 2rimid

al-Bha6ali (d, 7"7 -1 11 1% did not (onsid'r that n'('ssary,l. 3hus th' *i'ld was l'*t op'n, to a (onsid'rabl' '9t'nt, to pr'a(h'rs and story-t'll'rs who l't loos' th'ir ima.ination to '9plain th' m'anin. o* th' Qur'an, ;urth'r, th' (lassi(al '9'.'t's t'nd'd to narrow down th' s(op' o* Qur'rini( &'rs's by assi.nin. rath'r stri(tly a ('rtain (ont'9t to 'a(h &'rs' o* th' Qur'an, Shah Wali Allah r')'(ts this t'nd'n(y and (onsid'rs it tantamount to unduly (onstri(tin. th' Qur'$n whi(h, by th' natur' o* thin.s, has a wid' and uni&'rsal appliJation,JJ Shah Wali A11$h's p'r&asi&' approa(h to th' Qiir'an, on(' a.ain, 'm- phasis's its appli(ation to th' 'ntir'ty o* human and '9p'ri'n(', 3h'r' is a .r'at d'bt whi(h th' stud'nts o* th' Qur'/n a*t'r Shrih Wali Allah's tim' ow' to him, 3his (onsists in his (lassi*i(ation o* th' main th'm's o* th' Di&in' /ook, A*t'r a p'n'tratin. and (ompr'h'nsi&' sur- &'y o* th' (ont'nts o* th' Qur'.n, h' (lassi*i's th'm und'r *i&' sub)'(tsC (i% ahkdm (in)un(tions%= (ii% mukhdsamah (dial'(ti(s%= (iii% tadhkir bi dld' Alldh (r'mindin. man o* th' Di&in' *a&ours%= (i&% tadhkir bi ayydm Alldh (r'mindin. man o* Bod's int'r&'ntions in history)= and (&% tadhkir bi al-mawt wa md ba'd ul-rnawt (r'mindin. man about d'ath and th' li*' th'r'a*t'r%, 3hanks to this (lassi*i(ation, many misund'rstandin.s o* th' stud'nts o* th' Qur'an disapp'ar'd and a numb'r o* probl'ms as r'.ards th' s'0u'n(' o* th' &'rs's, th'ir int'r-r'lationship and th'mati( (oh'r- 'n(', w'r' sol&'d, ;or no stat'm'nt o((urrin. in th' Qur'an *alls outsid' th' s(op' o* th's' *i&' (at'.ori's, 3his, ind''d, (onstitut's a .r'at a(hi'&'m'nt o* Shah Wali Allah in th' *i'ld o* ta*sir, 3h' s'(ond h'adin. in th' (lassi*i(ation o* Shah Wali Allah nam'lyC 'dial'(ti(s', is worthy o* parti(ular noti(', +any 'ulamd' had b''n n'.l'(tin. this important th'm' o* th' Qur'$n and thus w'r' unabl' to appr'(iat' th' dis(ours' o* th' R'&'lation addr'ss'd to all manlund who must b'lon. to 'ith'r o* th' *ollowin. (at'.ori'sC (i% th' *aith*ul, (ii% th' p'opl' o* th' /ook, (iii% th' polyth'ists or ath'ists, and (i&% th' hypo(rit's,$1 Anoth'r sour(' o* (on*usion *or many stud'nts o* th' Qur'ani( '9'.'- sis prior to Wali Allah was th' &a.u'n'ss o* th' notion o* mJtashdbih,JJ 3his put mor' or l'ss an 'mbar.o on human mind to '9'rt its'l* on many &'rs's o* th' Qur'an and att'mpt to .rasp th'ir tru' m'anin. and*i- (ation, ;or th'r' r'main'd an appr'h'nsion amon. th' s(holars that th'ir und'rstandin. o* th' /ook was lik'ly to b' 'rron'ous as it (ould b' in (on- *ll(t with th' mutashiibih, whl(h its'l* was not (l'arly d'*in'd, Shah Wali Allah 'mphasi6'd th' 'ss'ntial (ompr'h'nsibility o* all th' &'rs's o* th' Qur'an, in(ludin. thos' assi.n'd by th' '9'.'t's to th' (at'.ory o* mu- taJhdbih,JJ -n short, th' (ontribution h' mad' to a b'tt'r undkrstandin. o* th' m's- sa.' o* th' Qur'/n and its appli(ation to th' li&'s o* (ommon +uslims and th' pursuit o* its knowl'd.' by stud'nts oth'r than thos' sp'(iali6'd in th' Qur'an was ind''d .r'at and sin.ular, As a r'sult o* his '**orts in this b'hal*, an in(r'asin. numb'r o* ordinary +uslims b'.an to approa(h th' Qur'an with (on*id'n(' and 'nthusiasm, 3h'y th'n('*orth tr'at'd it as a uni&'rsal m'ssa.' addr'ss'd to all mankind and not m'r'ly as a (od' o* law (ontainin. (ommandm'nts and prohibitions *or th' us' o* a *'w sp'(ialists o* law, 'Ubayd Allah Sins, on' o* th' most promin'nt '9po- n'nts o* Shah Wali Allah's philosophy, '9pr'ss'd th' &i'w that a*t'r b'in. imbu'd with th' philosophy o* Shah Wali Allah, on' (an und'rstand th' o&'rall m'ssa.' o* th' Qur'an dir'(tly *rom its t'9t and (an b' satis*i'd with it without b'in. (omp'll'd to s''k any '9t'rnal aid,$4 Shah Wali Allah's approa(h to th' S(i'n(' o* 2adith is (hara(t'ri6'd by his &i'w that th' Sunnah is 'ss'ntially a (omm'ntary on th' Qur'an it- s'l*, rath'r than som'thin. ind'p'nd'nt o* it, An int'nsi&' and pro*ound analysis o* th' 1roph't's traditions l'd him to s'' an or.ani( r'lationship b'tw''n th' Qur'/n and th' Junnah,JJ ;urth'r, h' out th' ratio- nal and b'n'*i('nt (onsid'rations und'rlyin. th' dir'(ti&'s o*

th' 1roph't (p'a(' b' upon him%,$! 2' also took not' o* th' s'&'r' (riti(ism mad' a.ainst Ah1 al-Sunnah by th' rationalists, partly und'r th' impa(t o* 2'l- l'nisti( philosophy in th' (lassi(al p'riod o* -slami(, 2' ad&o(at'd th' traditional point o* &i'w o* th' *orm'r and support'd it with stron. ra- tional ar.uJn'nts,'J Shah Wali Allah adopt'd a m'thod o* int'rpr'tin. th' traditions o* th' 1roph't in whi(h h' has shown an '&olutionary pro('ss in th' li&'s o* all 1roph'ts *rom -brahim upto +uhammad (p'a(' b' upon th'm%, in that th'y r'('i&'d Di&in' .uidan(' .radually and (omm'nsurat' with th' onward pro.r'ss o* human (i&ili6ation, 2' look'd upon th' t'a(hin.s o* all 1roph'ts as a (ontinuous (omm'ntary on th' '&'r-un*oldin. pro('ss o* r'&'al'd .uidan(''K: +or'o&'r, unlik' many oth'r )urists, Shah Wali Allah did not assi.n to i)md' ((onJ'nsus%JJ a (at'.ori(al position as an in- d'p'ndant sour(' o* law, 2' rath'r has a r'stri(t'd (on('ption o* i)m(i', 2' r'(o.ni6's th' bindin. (hara(t'r o* th' (ons'nsus bas'd on th' rulin.s o* th' 'arly (aliphs, 'sp'(ially Abii /akr, 'Umar and 'Uthm/n, th' thr'' imm'diat' su(('ssors (* th' 1roph't (p'a(' b' upon him%, on any int'rpr'- tation o* th' Qur'iin or th' Sunnah, 2' .rants this sp'(ial status to th's' 5ompanions on .rounds o* th'ir (los' asso(iation with th' 1roph't and th'ir t'mporal pro9imity to him, Any oth'r (ons'nsus whi(h took pla(' at any lat'r p'riod is, in his opinion, not o* th' sam' (ons'0u'n(' in as mu(h as it do's not bind +uslims o* any oth'r 'ra or ar'a to any parti(ular &i'w,#" 3hus, Shiih Wali Allah .a&' i)md' a som'what diminish'd position, A((ordin. to him, i)ma ' is an '9planatory sour(' and an auth'nti( int'rpr'- tation o* th' Qur'/n by thos' whos' und'rstandin. is l'ss *allibl' than o* oth'rs *or th' r'asons w' ha&' stat'd 'arli'r,#1 3h' *ourth sour(' o* law, a(- (ordin. to th' .'n'rally h'ld &i'w o* )urists, is 0iyds (analo.y%, A.ain, this is not r'(o.ni6'd by Shiih Wali Allah as an ind'p'nd'nt sour(' b'(aus' it is int'.ral to our pro('ss o* und'rstandin. th' Qur'an and its int'rpr'tations that ar' 'ith'r 'mbodi'd in th' Sunnah or (an b' d'ri&'d *rom th' (oll'(ti&' und'rstandin. o* th' 5ompanions in th' /'st Dra (khayr al-0urJn%,#$ -n th' *i'ld o* law and )urisprud'n(', Shah Wali Allah's r'markabl' .'nius is r'*l'(t'd in his ability to r'(on(il' th' di**'rin. &i'ws *ound amon. +uslims and '9plainin. th'm with r'*'r'n(' to th' basi( prin(ipl's that may b' d'du('d *rom th' Qur'an and ar' also plausibl' on rational .rounds, 2' m'ntions this as a .r'at Di&in' *a&our to him,## Shah Wali Allah did not und'rtak' this synth'ti( '9'r(is' in th' domain o* law alon', but it is a distin(ti&' mark o* his works on th'olo.y and mysti(ism as w'll, 3his is '&id'nt, *or instan(', *rom his synth'si6'd &'rsion o* th' do(trin's o* wahdat al-wu)ud (unity o* '9ist'n('% and wahdat al-shuh(d (unity o* mani*'Jtation%,JJ Shah Wali Allah's (ontribution to th' d'&'lopm'nt o* a n'w '-lm al- >aldm is p'rhaps th' most ori.inal (ompon'nt o* his 'ntir' int'll'(tual l'.a(y, -t l'*t a d''p impr'ssion on th' subs'0u'nt +uslim s(holasti(s and 'stablish'd an alto.'th'r n'w tradition in this *i'ldL -n ord'r to ass'ss this (ontribution it is important to (ompar' it with th' stat' o* kaliim b'*or' Wali Allah's tim', -n this (onn'(tion w' must (ast a .lan(' at its .'n'sis and d'&'lopm'nt in th' 'arly -slami( p'riod, 3h' '&olution o* (lassi(al >aliim *rom th' 'nd o* th' s'(ond ('ntury hi)rah on- wards took pla(' mainly in r'spons' to th' int'll'(tual (hall'n.'s pos'd by th' 2'll'ni( m'taphysi(s, 3h' '9pansion o* th' +uslim Stat' b'yond th' Arabian 1'ninsula, and th' r'sultant int'ra(tion b'tw''n +uslim int'll'- .'ntia and th' 1'rsian and /y6antin' (i&ilisations and Br''k .a&' ris' to a numb'r o* int'll'(tual d'bat's, 4n' o* th' main (ons'0u'n('s o* th's' d'bat's was that a numb'r o* n'w 0u'stions b'.an to b' pos'd, 3h's' 0u'stions b'tray'd an attitud' o* sk'pti(ism towards som' o* th' &'ry basi(postulat's o* -slami( world&i'w, +uslim s(holars a(('pt'd this (hall'n.' and r'spond'd to it &i.orously, 3h'y d'l&'d d''p in

th' 2'll'ni( int'll'(- tual l'.a(y, and not only arti(ulat'd th' position o* -slam in r'spons' to th' n'w 0u'stions, but also und'rtook a (riti(al '9amination o* th' Br''k lo.i( and oth'r important tools o* th'ir dial'(ti(s, -n this pro('ss th' s(holars o* -slam to 'stablish th' sup'riority o* th' -slami( w'ltan(haaun. on th' on' hand, and to '9pos' th' *alla(i's und'rlyin. ('rtain assumptions o* Br''k philosophy, on th' oth'r,#! 3h's' +uslim s(holars, known as mutakallimiin, r'sort'd to arti(ulat- in. th'ir position in th' int'll'(tual t'rms whi(h th'y shar'd with th' main '9pon'nts o* Br''k philosophy, As th's' dis(ussions w'nt on, a distin(t (orpus o* knowl'd.' 'm'r.'d and th' bulk o* lit'ratur' thus produ('d by +uslim s(holars (am' to b' known as '-lm al->aldm, -n this pro('ss th'r' app'ar'd on th' int'll'(tual s('n' a .ala9y o* s(holars who (on- tribut'd to th' d'&'lopm'nt o* '-lm al-kaldm and in th' (ours' o* tim' di&'rsi*i'd thos' dis(ussions, <otabl' amon. th'm w'r' su(h luminari's as al-@uwayni (d, 4 :11":7,% al-Bha6/li, al-Ash'ari (d, #$418#! A,2,%, al- +aturidi, (d, ###1844%, al-Shahrastsni, (d, 74:1117#%, and many oth'rs, 3h' last promin'nt r'pr's'ntati&' o* th's' int'll'(tual .iants was ;akhr al-Din al-R/6i (d, !"!?1$"8%,JJ 3h' lat'r mutakallimiin d'&'lop'd th'ir th'm's in s(holasti( dis(us- sions mor' or l'ss on th' sam' patt'rn as w'r' s't *orth by th's' pion''rs, 2ow'&'r, with th' passa.' o* tim', >uldm b'(am' a and st'ril' dis- (iplin' with littl' (ont'mporan'ous r'l'&an(', -t b'(am' *ashionabl' *or +uslim s(holars to b' imm'rs'd in hi.hly *ormalis'd dis(ussions o* a th'- or'ti(al natur' in utt'r disr'.ard o* th'ir diminishin. &alu' *or th'ir own 'thos,#: 3his was th' stat' o* >aldm wh'n Shah Wali Allah mad' his d'but in th' -slami( a(ad'mia, 2' at on(' r'alis'd th' *utility o* th' pr'&al'nt *ormulations o* >aldm and *'lt th' pr'ssin. n''d o* introdu(in. a n'w approa(h in this dis(iplin', 4n' (om's a(ross his r'marks about this dir' n''d in his pr'*a(' to 2u))at Alldh al-/dli.hah in th's' proph'ti( t'rmsC MN3lh' musta*ld N+uhammadanO shari'ah has now r'a(h'd th' thr'shold o* an 'ra in whi(h it is d'stin'd to app'ar in th' p'r*'(t .arm'nt o* d'monstrati&' proo*M,#8 ;or this n'w dis(iplin' o* >aldm whi(h h' nam'd 'ilm asrdr al-din ('S(i'n(' o* th' Subtl' +'anin.s o* R'li.ion'%, h' *ormulat'd his own *ram'work whi(h h' d'ri&'d *rom th' prin(ipl's 'nun(iat'd in th' Qur'/n and th' Junnah,J' Sh/h Wali All/h 'stablish'd th's' prin(ipl's on th' basis o* solid 'mpiri(al '&id'n(', 3hus h' pro&id'd *r'sh and sustainabl' rational *oundations *or this dis(iplin' alon. with th' sp'(ulati&' r'asonin. o* th' (lassi(al mutakallimiin, 3h' main sub)'(t o* hJs >aldm is an 'n0uiry into th' w'al and wisdom und'rlyin. th' in)un(tions o* -slam, 3h' most r'markabl' and ori.inal trait o* his dis(ours' is that h' r'lat's th' 'ntir' body o* in)un(tions to th' *undam'ntal ob)'(ti&' o* th' uni&'rsal mission o* th' 1roph'ts and +'ss'n.'rs o* Bod, nam'ly, pr'parin. man to (ount'nan(' th' Ultimat' R'ality, 3his pr'dominant ob)'(ti&' in th' Di&in'ly ordain'd 1roph'ti( disp'nsation is to b' r'alis'd throu.h th' puri*i(ation o* th' soul and r'*ormation o* morals whi(h pro&id' th' sol' .uarant'' *or human sal&ation and 't'rnal bliss,

Crucial attempts 4n' o* main (ontributions o* Wali Ullah is his d''p-root'd study about th' li*' o* &arious +uslim so(i'ti's and 'mpir's *rom so(iolo.i(al point o* &i'w, 2' tri'd th' b'st *or th' '9ist'n(' o* +u.hal Dmpir' and to r'stor' th' s'ns' o* unity o* (ommunity, Anoth'r .ra&' probl'm whi(h h' *a('d that is th' r'li.ious di**'r'n('s *rom &arious +uslim *a(tions, 'sp'(ially (on*li(ts b'tw''n Sunnis and shias, Shah Wali Ullah was an9ious to r'du(' th' Sunni- Shia di**'r'n('s to a minimum, 3his was possibl' only i* th' l'ad'rs o* two s'(ts approa(h'd th' probl'm in a (atholi( spirit,Shah Wali Ullah opin's that an unh'althy (onditions whi(h had impa(t in +uslim b'li'*s, thou.hts, pra(ti('s, morality, (ultur' and so(io-politi(al administrati&', lay in two thin.sC1% 3h' trans*'r o* politi(al authority *rom th' (aliphs to absolut' monar(hs=and$% 3h' irrational *ollowin. o* -slam in th' abs'n(' o* -)itihad, <'ith'r th' s(holars o* -slam (ould ad)ust th' n''ds and d'mands o* tim' with Shariatnor Shariat (ould b' int'rpr't'd in su(h a national way as to sol&' th' issu' and probl'ms whi(h naturally (ropp'd up with th' passa.' o* tim', Letters to Leaders Shah Wali Ulah (riti(i6'd (ont'mporary politi(s and h' su**'r'd *or th' d'(lin' o* +u.hal 'mpir', A*t'r th' d'ath o* Auran.6'b, his su(('ssors (ould not (ontrol th'ir sup'riority w'll, Sha Wali Ullah wrot' th' l'tt'rs to l'ad'rs to 's(ap' th' +u.hal 'mpir' and +uslims and non +uslims *rom atta(ks o* @ats and +arathas, 3hos' l'tt'rs ar' .ood do(um'ntary proo* to know th' (ont'mporary politi(al syst'm and h' bra&'ly (riti(i6'd th' +u.hal rul'rsC7 4h AmirsI Do you not *'ar BodL (2ow is that% you ha&' so (ompl't'ly thrown yours'l* into th' pursuit o* mom'ntary pl'asur's, and ha&' n'.l'(t'd thos' p'opl' who w'r' (ommitt'd to you (ar', 3h' r'sult is that stron. ar' d'&ourin. th' (w'ak% p'opl'P,, All your m'ntal *a(ulti's ar' dir'(t'd towards pro&idin. yours'l&'s with sumptuous *ood and so*t skinn'd and b'auti*ul wom'n *or 'n)oym'nt and pl'asur', Qou do not turn your att'ntion to anythin. '9('pt .ood (loth's and*i('nt pala('s /ut thos' l'ad'rs did not (onsid'r'd att'mpts o* Shah Wali Ullah, 2is l'tt'r to Ahmad Shah Abdali is th' most important, -n this l'tt'r shah Wali Ullah moti&at's that .r'at warrior to 's(ap' th' Ummah *rom d'(lin' and to .i&' th'm th' stron. position to stand upon th'ir own l'.sC E-n th's' days th'r' is no kin. '9('pt your ma)'sty who wi'lds authority, and pow'r, and (omp't'nt to d'*'at th' armi's o* th' ka*irs, -t is, th'r'*or', obli.atory upon your ma)'sty to in&ad' -ndia and (rush th' ka*irs lik' th' +arathas in ord'r to lib'rat' th' down trodd'n +uslims *rom th'ir (hains, -* Bod *orbid, th' .rip o* ku*r r'mains *irm, th' +uslims will *or.'t -slam and b'(om' su(h a nation that (annot di**'r'n('s b'tw''n -slam and un -slam, -t is a .r'at (alamity, whi(h (annot b' .'ttin. rid o* throu.h any pow'r '9('pt on' that is b'stow'd upon you by Bod,F Shah Wali Ullahs some famous works 1% 2u))athullahi-l-bali.ha $% -6alatul-khi*a

A history o* +uslim philosophy-&C11 +,+,Shari*

#% 3ha&ilul-ahadih 4% ;ai6ul-kabir 7% /udur al-ba6i.hah Shah Wali Ullah translat'd th' 2oly Quran into 1'rsian d'spit' th' pr')udi(' a.ainst translations o* 2oly Quran, Conclusion Shah Wali Ullah was proli*i( warrior o* -slam, 2' bra&'ly (hall'n.'d th' probl'mati( (ont'mporary situations, Shah Wali Ullah did not h'sitat' to analysis th' *ormidabl' politi(al atmosph'r', 2is 'n(y(lop'di( knowl'd.' and st'adin'ss in pra(ti(al li*' ar' th' .r'at mod'ls *or th' +uslim world, As Allamah +uhammad -0bal r'marks h' was th' *irst +uslim to *''l th' ur.' *or r'thinkin. th' whol' syst'm o* -slam without any way br'akin. away *rom its past,