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Daniel Brown ET703, Spring 2013 ADDIE Paper February 6, 2013 Introduction The ADDIE model is a term used

to explain a systematic approach to instructional system development and design, also referred to as ISD (Gustafson and Branch, 2002). The term ADDIE is an acronym that refers to the different stages, which are: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The ADDIE model was meant to describe the components of the instructional design model; however, many individuals use it as a model for creating instruction (Brown and Green, 2006). Background of ADDIE No one person has been credited for the creation of the ADDIE model, but it evolved through oral transgression; however, there are three prominent models that helped guide the evolution of ADDIE. During the 1970s, Thiagarajan and Briggs developed a model that was more primitive and only provided a basic ADE approach (Molenda, 2003). At the same time, the United States military worked to create an ISD model that was very similar to ADDIE because they wanted to find a more efficient way to train their new troops. Branson, a worker at the Center for Educational Technology at Florida State University, worked with the military to create a model that later became known as IPISD or Interservice Procedures for Instructional System Development. This model was similar to the ADDIE model. Brandons model followed the stages of analyze, design, development, implementation, and control. The first real distribution of the ADDIE model was in a figure by Grafinger on the basics of instructional system development for the American Society for Training and Development in 1988; however, it was only referred to as a process within an ISD model rather than as a model itself (Molenda, 2003). Other sources including Rossett in 1987 and Clarks Big Dogs ISD Page in 1995 also refer to the ADDIE model as the ISD model and not as the acronym itself (Molenda, 2003 and Clark, 1995). While the basis of the ADDIE model has been around for several years, it was not until recently that the most prominent instructional design model became well publized and more standardized. In present day, ADDIE is one of the most prominent instructional design models to lead people through the creation and evaluation of various types of instruction. It is important to consider that a series of models should be used when creating instructional design content (Brown and Green, 2006). Instructional design professionals recommend that you use multiple instructional design models; to decide which one best fits the scenario that users are currently working with. ADDIE Description As mentioned earlier, the stages of ADDIE include: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The stages should be completed in sequential order and while it may seem inconsequential at the time instructional

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designers are recommended not to skip any of the stages. If stages are skipped then it could result in an overall unsuccessful project. The analysis stage is the first stage that instructional designers, who are using the ADDIE model, should consider. This stage is the most important since it creates the foundation and determines the necessary steps for the next phases of development (Information Association, 2011). During the analysis stage, the designer should consider the learning problems, the objectives, the desired outcome, project deadlines, and delivery options. Demographics about the target audience should also be considered including the learners needs, existing knowledge, and constraints. To help with the analysis stage, the instructional design can choose to perform a needs analysis, content and context analysis, and a learner analysis. There are various ways including: surveys, questionnaires, interviews, and observations to collect the analysis. There is no one right way to gather the data since each instructional design project has different problems, goals, objectives, and constraints. It is essential to make sure that the appropriate questions are asked to truly gauge the learners current skill level and select the most appropriate delivery option. The next step after performing a complete analysis is the design stage, which, will build off of the analysis in the previous phase. The learning objectives and goals of the project should be fully understood to successfully complete this phase. During this phase, the instructional designer typically chooses the content and the appropriate medium for the project. A combination of wireframes, storyboards and mockups are often created to help finalize the way that content will look in a readable format. Since the clients are paying for the project, it is essential to get their approval and take in any suggestions during this stage. Not getting client feedback during this stage is one of the most common and biggest mistakes that an instructional designer makes (Brown and Green, 2006). If feedback is not requested from the client during this stage, the timeline could not be made because the designer may have to restart to ensure the client is satisfied with the overall project. The next step in the ADDIE model is the development stage. During the development phase, instructional designers join the rest of the design team to turn the mockups and prototypes created in the previous phase to produce the learning content. Content is written, graphics are created, and computer programs can be developed or customized. Technical individuals may be brought in during this step to help create custom software, setup or customize learning manage systems, or create other customized solutions. It is important to consider that everything may not always work as planned, so the instructional design team will need to adjust to find the best solution that matches the intent, they proposed in the previous stage. Once the learning content is finalized and debugged, then it should be presented to the client again to get their approval. It is not uncommon for the client to approve the learning materials for the first time, since the design stage should have provided a blueprint of what will be expected (Brown and Green, 2006). After completing the development stage and the client approves of the work, the next stage the instructional designer should go through is the implementation phase. During this phase, a plan is developed for the implementation of the remaining part of the project and the procedures for training both the teachers and learners and delivering the final product becomes established. Training the teachers involves making sure they

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are familiar with the curriculum, outcomes, method of delivery, and any testing procedures. Learners must be prepared to use any new hardware or software. All of the learning material should also be disbursed. A project may easily fail at this point if the project has not been properly implemented (Molenda, 2003). Problems that could arise include: the failure of learning materials being delivered on time or technical difficulties. For example, software cannot be installed on the computers in that lab that is planning to be used for training. The final step of the ADDIE model is to evaluate the overall quality and effectiveness of the instructional design and project. Evaluation typically consists of two parts: a formative evaluation and a summative evaluation. The formative evaluation takes place early in the design process to try to discover any problems that may arise to reduce the number of unexpected setbacks later in the project. Many instructional designs make the mistake of only evaluating the project at the end; however, evaluation should take place during every step of the ADDIE model (Molenda, 2003). Summative evaluation is collected after the project has been implemented and it allows for the complete analysis of the project. The reason that we perform evaluations is so that we can get feedback and return to the previous appropriate step to make the project better next time (Brown and Green, 2006). Once the evaluation is complete, the process continues through the process again to help improve the learning material. Pros and Cons Just like any other instructional design model, there are many advantages and disadvantages of the ADDIE model. The main advantage of the model is that it provides a very structured guideline for designing a project. The ADDIE model is cost efficient and if chosen for the appropriate project will almost always guarantee success if followed correctly. Another advantage is that ADDIE provides consistency, since everyone that follows the model must execute the same phases in the same sequence (Information Association, 2011). The main advantage of ADDIE is that it straightforward and is easy to use for new instructional designers as well as multimedia-based training (Kruzse, 2005). Most importantly, this design model uses rapid prototyping so designers are able to catch design flaws while they are typically easier to fix. Overall, the ADDIE helps the instructional designers with risk management because of the analysis phase and formative evaluation. There are several shortcomings that some individuals dislike about the ADDIE model. One of the main disadvantages is that the model is too linear and not flexible enough to manage dynamic content. The ADDIE model is also very time consuming and is not ideal for large projects that have short time frames. The model can get overly complicated when designing courses as you began adding additional goals and objectives. ADDIE is unrealistic in some situations due to shifting opportunities, resources and time frames. Most importantly, many learning programs are developed with goals and objectives to meet the timeframe, budget, and simple post test evaluation; however, they fail to evaluate if any behavioral changes actually occurred. Differences in Description When reviewing the ADDIE model there are many subtle differences between them. The reason that there are so many different models is that many people used it

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as a framework and slightly changed the model to better fit the product and their design style. Instructional design teams began assigning the processes within each step to another stage of the ADDIE model. ADDIE Assistance A one-sentence description of each ADDIE stage can help individuals as they design instructional content. First the analysis stage, the instructional designers should perform a needs, learners, and tasks analysis as well as question the clients, trainees, and learners if possible. During the design phase, the team should define the goals and objectives, and create storyboards, mockups, and other appropriate prototypes. Next the development stage, the team should work to turn the prototypes into the actual learning material while revising based on review by the client. During the implementation phase, the group should train the facilitators and present the learning materials to their target audience. Finally, the evaluation stage is when feedback should be received so further modifications can be made to help improve the overall project. Conclusion The ADDIE model is one of the most popular processes for creating instructional design today. Every phase of ADDIE has a different characteristic and it must be followed sequentially for model to work successfully. It is unknown when ADDIE was first devised; however, it wasnt until the mid-1980s that the model began to formally evolve into the streamline approach that we know today. There are many advantages and disadvantages of the ADDIE model, just like all other instructional design models. The main advantage is that everyone follows the same steps, there is a high success rate if followed correctly, and it is easy to follow. The disadvantage is that it is very time consuming and is too linear; however, both advocates and critics agree that the ADDIE model is the best choice for beginning instructional designers.

ADDIE PAPER References

Brown, A. & Green, T (2006). The Essential of Instructional Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Clark, D. (1995). Big Dogs ISD Page. Available at http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat1.html#model. Retrieved February 2, 2013. Gustafson, Kent L. and Brand, Robert M. 2002. What is Instructional Design? In Reiser, Robert A. and Dempsey, John V. (eds) Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. Columbus: OH, Merrill Prentice Hall. Information Association. (2011). Instructional design: Concepts, methodologies, tools and applications. (Vol. 1, pp. 106-107). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. Kruse, Kevin (2005). Introduction to Instructional Design and the ADDIE Model. Retrieved February 2, 2012. Website: http://www.transformativedesigns.com/id_systems.html Molenda, M. (2003). In Search of the Elusive ADDIE model. Performance Improvement, 42(5), 34-36. (at http://www.indiana.edu/~molpage/In%20Search%20of%20Elusive%20ADDIE.pdf )