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OLEH : HEMY ANNERINA BINTI HAJA MYDIN PENASIHAT UNDANG-UNDANG AADK, KEMENTERIAN DALAM NEGERI

Merupakan Undang-undang Utama Yang Berkaitan Dengan Pengawalan Dadah Di Malaysia

Berkuatkuasa
Semenanjung Malaysia mulai

1 November
di

1952; dan
Sabah dan Sarawak pada

1 Jun 1978

mana kegunaan, pembuatan, penjualan dan pengimpotan semua jenis dadah dikawal.

1. 2.

Mengawal penggunaan segala jenis dadah; Membahagikan dadah kepada

kumpulan
3.

4.

mengikut tahap bahaya dan hukuman kumpulan-kumpulan dadah; Membezakan secara nyata antara pemilikan haram dan pengedaran; dan Memasukkan segala jenis dadah baru ke dalam Akta ini bagi tujuan mengawal pengeluaran, bekalan dan pemilikannya.

5.

Empat (4) kumpulan tersebut adalah seperti berikut:-

pengimportan, pengeksportan, pengilangan, penjualan dadah berbahaya tertentu;

dan membuat peruntukan khas berhubung bidang kuasa mahkamah terhadap kesalahankesalahan dan perbicaraan mahkamah.

Mana-mana jenis dadah yang disenaraikan di dalam Jadual Pertama Akta Dadah Berbahaya 1952. Seksyen 6 -Candu merah,daun koka,jerami popi dan ganja.

Hukuman: denda RM20000 atau dihukum penjara selama tempoh 5 tahun atau keduaduanya sekali.

(2) Tiada seorang pun boleh berada dalam pemiliknya, jagaannya atau pengawasannya,sebarang dadah berbahaya yang disabitkan di bawah Bahagian ini melainkan jika ianya diberi kuasa untuk memiliki, menjaga atau mengawasi dadah tersebut atau disifatkan sebagai telah diberi kuasa di bawah Akta ini atau peraturan yang telah dibuat di bawah Akta ini. (3) Hukuman: denda tidak lebih daripada RM100000 atau penjara selama tidak lebih daripada 5 tahun atau kedua-duanya sekali.

Memasukkan Dadah ke Badan Sendiri & Orang Lain


Peruntukkan di bawah Seksyen 15(a) ADB 1952.

Hukuman:
Penjara 2 tahun; atau, denda RM5,000 atau, kedua-duanya sekali.

Selain daripada kesalahan Seksyen 6B atau 39B, mahkamah boleh mengenakan hukuman yang diperuntukan di bawah Seksyen 6 Akta Penagih Dadah (Rawatan dan Pemulihan) 1983.

1)Jika didapati bersalah di bawah S,15, menjalani hukuman di atas kesalahan itu, 2) menjalani pengawasan oleh pegawai sebagaimana yang ditakrifkan di bawah Seksyen 2 Akta Penagih Dadah Rawatan dan Pemulihan bagi tempoh tidak kurang dari 2 tahun dan tidak lebih dari 3 tahun sebagaimana yang ditetapkan oleh mahkamah.

Seksyen 39A(1);berat dadah; hukuman penjara untuk tempoh tidak kurang 2 tahun tetapi tidak lebih 5 tahun, wajib sebat tidak kurang daripada 3 sebatan tetapi tidak lebih daripada 9 sebatan

Seksyen 39A(2); berat dadah; hukuman dipenjara seumur hidup atau untuk tempoh tidak kurang daripada 5 tahun dan wajib hukuman sebat tidak kurang 10 sebatan

Rekod sabitan terdahulu, pengakuan terdahulu, kemasukan ke dalam Pusat Pemulihan bagi Kesalahan Seksyen 10(2)(b), 15(1)(a) dan 31A dihukuman penjara dengan penalti lebih berat. (3) Satu sijil ditandatangani oleh Ketua Pengarah AADK untuk mengesahkan kemasukan ke dalam Pusat Pemulihan.

(1)Pegawai perubatan bertindak di atas permintaan pegawai polis yang tidak rendah daripada Sarjan untuk membuat pemeriksaan terhadap orang yang ditangkap (A)sah pegawai polis menghendaki orang ditangkap untuk memberi contoh air kencing bagi tujuan pemeriksaan,sekiranya Doktor tidak dapat melaksanakannya. (B) gagal memberi contoh air kencing, disabitkan denda tidak lebih RM10,000 atau penjara tidak lebih 4 tahun atau keduaduanya sekali.

Peruntukan baru dimasukkan pada 15 Februari 2014 Membenarkan seorang pegawai sains yang diambil bekerja oleh kerajaan untuk menganalisis apa-apa sampel biologi yang diambil untuk pemeriksaan ke atas orang yang ditangkap.

2) Possession

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Di mana/bagaimana dadah ditemui atau dirampas: dalam pemilikan fizikal- ditangan/disorokan dalam seluar/bag/ bungkusan yang dipegang
Dalam Dalam

kenderaan

rumah/bilik/ premis
terbuka/ open space

Tempat

. But mere custody and control is not sufficient to establish possession for the purpose of the Act, there has to be established knowledge of such drug by the respondent.

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Chan Pean Leon v PP [1956] 22 MLJ 237 (Crim Appeal) Stephens Digest (9th Edition pg. 3004); A movable thing is said to be in the possession of a person when he is so situated to it that he has power to deal with it as owner to the exclusion of all other persons, and when the circumstances are such that he may be presumed to intend to do so in case of need.

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Leow Nghee Lim v PP [1956] 2 MLJ 28

The primary legal meaning of possess is to have possession, as distinct from ownership. This is well illustrated by the popular phrase for a sheriffs agent, A man in possession, who really has only custody. Shakespeare more accurately called him a bum bailiff. In this Ordinance custody is distinguished, and I think possession means possession irrespective of whether the possessor is the beneficial owner.

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Possession is not ownership mens rea possession (with knowledge) No definition of possession under DDA 1952 Definition based on decided cases/ dictionary Possession comprises of 2 elements: 1)physical- prosecution must proved the accused was in possession of the drug Chan Pean Leong v PP [1956] 22 MLJ 237- he must be situated with respect to the thing that he can deal with it as if it belonged to him-eg- have it in his pocket/ lying on the table in front of him.

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2) Mental : -prosecution must prove that the accused has at least a general knowledge of the drug in his possession. Knowledge is proven by inference of surrounding circumstances

- Mens rea cannot be proved by direct evidence. Inference from his conduct and surrounding circumstances. PP v Badrulsham Bin Baharom- ..knowledge which is an element of his state of mind such element must be judged from his outward acts or omission
20

Foo Jua Eng v PP [1966] 1 MLJ 197 Inference: From behaviours The thing is so obvious he must have known it. DPP v Brooks [1974] 2 All ER 840 at pg. 842 (Privy Council):

In the ordinary use of the word possession, one has in ones possession whatever is, to ones custody or under ones physical control.
21

PP v Abd. Rahman Akif [2007] 4 CLJ 337The Federal Court held that the respondent all along knew about the drug found in the car based on the following evidence: Respondent was the only person in the car at the material time The drugs was found hidden under the drivers seat and front passenger seat The car was in possession of respondent 7 months prior to his arrest (Examples of conduct where knowledge can be inferred)
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TRAFFICKING

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Section 39B. Trafficking in dangerous drug. (1) No person shall, on his on behalf or on behalf of any other person, whether or not such other person is in Malaysiatraffic in a dangerous drug;

offer to traffic in a dangerous drug; or


do or offer to do an act preparatory to or for the purpose of trafficking in a dangerous drug. (2) Any person who contravenes any of the provisions of subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence against this Act and shall be punished on conviction with death
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THE METHOD OF PROVING THE OFFENCE

a) Presumed Trafficking by relying on statutory presumption under section 37 (da) DDA 1952 based on the amount of drug possessed by the accused (where possession is direct)
b) Actual Trafficking By adducing direct evidence of trafficking as defined under section 2 of the DDA (18 acts of trafficking)).

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c) Presumed Possession, trafficking by way inference (overt acts) Where only elements of control and custody can be proven by direct evidence. Reliance on section 37(d) of the DDA 1952 is essential.

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Section 2 Trafficking includes the doing of any of the following acts, that is to say, manufacturing, importing, exporting, keeping, concealing, buying, selling, giving, receiving, storing, administering, transporting, carrying, sending, delivering, procuring, supplying or distributing any dangerous drug otherwise than under the authority of this Act or the regulations made under the Act;

27

Mahkamah Rayuan Nasaruddin Daud & Anor v PP [2010] 8 CLJ 21 di mana Mahkamah Rayuan telah berkata seperti berikut:

To prove the offence of trafficking the prosecution could prove affirmatively that an accused was in possession of the proscribed drugs and then invoke the presumption of trafficking under s. 37(da) of the DDA, or it could establish its case of trafficking by proving any of the acts of trafficking as defined under s. 2 of the DDA.
28

Section 37(a)- (k) of DDA 1952 provides 11 types of presumptions Shall be deemed / shall be presumed

The common one- section 37(d) & s. 37(da) The burden of proof on the defence to rebut the statutory presumption is on the balance of probability. Look at section 4(2) EA 1950- whenever it is directed by this Act that the court shall presumed a fact, it shall regard the facts as proved unless and until it is disproved

Section 37(b) DDA 1952:

a person, until the contrary is proved, shall be deemed to be the occupier of any premises, if he has, or appears to have, the care and management of such premises.

Seksyen 37 (d)
Any person who is found to have had in custody or under his control anything whatsoever containing any dangerous drug shall until the contrary is proved, be deemed to have been in possession of such drug and shall until the contrary is proved, be deemed to have known the nature of such drug

Section 37(g)

If any dangerous drug is found to be concealed in any premises, it shall be presumed, until contrary is proved, that the said drug is so concealed with the knowledge of the occupier of the premises;

Section 37(k)

If a person is charged for an offence of consuming a dangerous drug or administering a dangerous drug to himself or suffering any other person to urine of the person charged as a result of a urine test conducted under section 13A, the person shall be presumed, until the contrary is proved, to have consumed the drug or to have administered the drug to himself or to have suffered any other person to administer the drug to him in contravention of this Act or its regulations.
(offence under section 15(1)(a) DDA 1952)

Di bawah Seksyen 37(da) Akta Dadah Berbahaya 1952 memperuntukkan; 1. 15 gram atau lebih heroin; 2. 15 gram atau lebih morfin; 3. 15 gram atau lebih monoacetylmorfin; 4. sejumlah 15 gram atau lebih campuran heroin, morfin,
monoacetylmorfin atau sejumlah 15 gram atau lebih campuran dua diantaranya; 5. 1,000 gram atau lebih candu masak; 6. 1,000 gram atau lebih candu mentah;

7. sejumlah 1,000 gram atau lebih campuran candu masak dan candu mentah; 8. 200 gram atau lebih kanabis (ganja); 9. 200 gram atau lebih resinkanabis (ganja); 10. sejumlah 200 gram atau lebih campuran kanabis dan kanabis resin; 11. 40 gram atau lebih kokain; dan 12. 2,000 gram atau lebih daun koka.

Penanaman
1.

(Cultivation)

Seseorang yang didapati menanam mana-mana pokok candu mentah, daun koka, jerami popi atau ganja boleh didakwa di bawah Seksyen 6B ADB 1952; 2. Pihak Pendakwa perlu membuktikan tanpa keraguan yang munasabah bahawa orang berkenaan memiliki

any receptacle in which, any plant, from which raw opium, coca leaves, poppy straw or cannabis may be obtained, is planted or cultivated; dan 3. Hukuman : penjara seumur hidup dan sebat tidak
kurang 6 kali sebatan