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Fluid Power Fundamentals

A Hydraulic Machine

A larger hydraulic machine

O&K RH120 in Paraburdoo

Oil versus air (discussion)

OIL Needs pumps Accurate & precise Large force Low temperature Leaks not tolerable Expensive Elaborate AIR Needs compressors Inaccurate & imprecise Small force OK at high temperatures Leaks no problem Inexpensive Quick to set up

Relevant Physical Properties

Density (kg/m3) Water : 1000 Oil : 900 Air : 1.21 Specific Gravity Water : 1 Oil : 0.9 Air : 0.00121

Bulk Modulus

"p ! #$ "v V
P, V P+"p, V-"v

Viscosity is the measure of the internal friction of a fluid. This friction becomes apparent when a layer of fluid is made to move in relation to another layer. The greater the friction, the greater the amount of force required to cause this movement, which is called "shear. Shearing occurs whenever the fluid is physically moved or distributed, as in pouring, spreading, spraying, mixing, etc. Highly viscous fluids, therefore, require more force to move than less viscous materials.

V2 Force x

V1 Newton defined viscosity by using the above model:

V2 $ V1 dv F #% #% x dx
Force per unit Area

Viscosity is a measure of speed

Saybolt Viscosimeter
Measures viscosity in SUS or Saybolt Universal Seconds

Metric units for viscosity

Absolute Viscosity Centipoise or cP 1cP = 0.001 N-s/m2

Kinematic viscosity, &

% &# '

CentiStokes or cS 1cS = 10-6 m2/s

SUS - cS Relation
180 & [cS ] # 0.220 ( SUS $ SUS 135 & [cS ] # 0.220 ( SUS $ SUS SUS ) 100 SUS * 100

Oil with a specific gravity of 0.9 has an absolute viscosity of 25 cP. Calculate the kinematic viscosity in centistokes

% 25 ( 10 25 2 &# # m /s # cS ' 900 0.9


In short,

% &# +

Electro-hydraulic systems

Design Questions
, the system pressure? , the piston area?
??? Typically 7 - 15 MPa < 1 m/s when p-0 < 6 m/s at high p ??? ???

, the piston velocity? , the pump flow rate?

, the pump power requirements?

Bonus Point Question

V < 1 m/s in low pressure regions V < 6 m/s in high pressure regions WHY ??

Basic Formulae
Piston Area

F[N] A [mm ]# [MPa] p


Pump Flow Rate Pump power or

m m 2 Q [ ]# V[ ]A [m ] s s
3 m ![Watt]# Q W [ ]p [Pa] s l ! W[kW]# Q [ ]p [MPa] s

Laminar or Turbulent Flow

'du du Re # # % &

m/s Units ? m2/s

Hydraulic Pumps
, Piston Pumps/Motors (Swash-Plate Pumps) - high pressure, high-grade applications , Vane Pumps/Motors - medium pressure applications , Gear Pumps/Motors - low pressure applications

Gear Pump

Vane Pump

Swash Plate Pump

Pump Efficiencies

Control Valves
,Binary valves or directional control valves affect only the direction of the flow or turn it off completely ,Proportional valves or flow control valves vary the flow by varying the spool position ,Servovalves are similar to proportional valves but provide very high control precision ,Relief Valves divert the flow back to the reservoir if the pressure exceed a set value ,Check valves allow flow in one direction only

Directional Control Valves

These are referred to as n/p valves where n : Number of ports p : Number of positions these ports may have

4/2 Valve
4 2

1 3 2,4

From Pump Back to tank Output Ports

4/2 DCV NC

Solenoid with one winding Double Solenoid Solenoid with spring return Check valve Spring-loaded check valve

2/2 DCV

1 3
3/2 DCV NO

1 3
3/2 DCV NC

Fixed-Displacement Pump

4/2 DCV NC

Single-acting cylinder

Double-acting cylinder

Pressure Regulator


Double-acting cylinder

Pushing left

Pushing right

Single-acting cylinder

Regenerative Circuit - 1

The valve is centered. The cylinder is not moving.

Regenerative Circuit - 2

Retraction at normal speed

Regenerative Circuit - 3

Rapid Extension

Proportional Valves

Spool position is continuously controlled by the solenoid current

Proportional Valves

Spool position is continuously controlled by the solenoid current


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