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- Assignment 2
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Hypothesis Tests

Learning Objectives

1.

Learn how to formulate and test hypotheses about a population mean and/or a population proportion.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Be able to determine the size of a simple random sample necessary to keep the probability of

hypothesis testing errors within acceptable limits.

7.

null hypothesis

alternative hypothesis

Type I error

Type II error

one-tailed test

two-tailed test

p-value

level of significance

critical value

power curve

9-1

Chapter 9

Solutions:

1.

a.

H0: 600

Managers claim.

2.

b.

c.

The managers claim can be rejected. We can conclude that > 600.

a.

H0: 14

Ha: > 14

3.

4.

b.

There is no statistical evidence that the new bonus plan increases sales volume.

c.

The research hypothesis that > 14 is supported. We can conclude that the new bonus plan

increases the mean sales volume.

a.

H0: = 32

Ha: 32

b.

There is no evidence that the production line is not operating properly. Allow the production

process to continue.

c.

Conclude 32 and that overfilling or underfilling exists. Shut down and adjust the production

line.

a.

H0: 220

Ha: < 220

5.

Research hypothesis

b.

c.

Conclude < 220. Consider implementing the new method based on the conclusion that it lowers

the mean cost per hour.

a.

The Type I error is rejecting H0 when it is true. In this case, this error occurs if the researcher

concludes that the mean newspaper-reading time for individuals in management positions is greater

than the national average of 8.6 minutes when in fact it is not.

b. The Type II error is accepting H0 when it is false. In this case, this error occurs if the researcher

concludes that the mean newspaper-reading time for individuals in management positions is less

than or equal to the national average of 8.6 minutes when in fact it is greater than 8.6 minutes.

6.

a.

H0: 1

H a: > 1

b.

Claiming > 1 when it is not. This is the error of rejecting the products claim when the claim is

true.

9-2

Hypothesis Testing

c.

7.

a.

Concluding 1 when it is not. In this case, we miss the fact that the product is not meeting its

label specification.

H0: 8000

Ha: > 8000

8.

b.

Claiming > 8000 when the plan does not increase sales. A mistake could be implementing the

plan when it does not help.

c.

Concluding 8000 when the plan really would increase sales. This could lead to not

implementing a plan that would increase sales.

a.

H0: 220

Ha: < 220

9.

b.

Claiming < 220 when the new method does not lower costs. A mistake could be implementing

the method when it does not help.

c.

Concluding 220 when the method really would lower costs. This could lead to not

implementing a method that would lower costs.

a.

z=

b.

Area = .4830

x 0

/ n

19.4 20

2 / 50

= 2.12

c.

d.

Reject H0 if z -1.645

-2.12 -1.645, reject H0

10. a.

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

26.4 25

6 / 40

= 1.48

Area = .4306

p-value = .5000 - .4306 = .0694

c.

d.

Reject H0 if z 2.33

1.48 < 2.33, do not reject H0

11. a.

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

14.15 15

3 / 50

= 2.00

Area = .4772

9-3

Chapter 9

c.

d.

-2.00 -1.96, reject H0

12. a.

z=

x 0

/ n

78.5 80

12 / 100

= 1.25

p-value > .01, do not reject H0

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

77 80

12 / 100

= 2.50

p-value .01, reject H0

c.

z=

x 0

/ n

75.5 80

12 / 100

= 3.75

p-value 0

p-value .01, reject H0

d.

z=

x 0

/ n

81 80

12 / 100

= .83

p-value = .5000 + .2967 = .7967

p-value > .01, do not reject H0

Reject H0 if z 1.645

13.

a.

z=

x 0

/ n

52.5 50

8 / 60

= 2.42

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

51 50

8 / 60

= .97

9-4

Hypothesis Testing

c.

z=

x 0

/ n

51.8 50

= 1.74

8 / 60

14. a.

z=

x 0

/ n

23 22

10 / 75

= .87

p-value > .01, do not reject H0

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

25.1 22

= 2.68

10 / 75

p-value .01, reject H0

c.

z=

x 0

/ n

20 22

10 / 75

= 1.73

p-value > .01, do not reject H0

15. a.

H0: 1056

Ha: < 1056

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

910 1056

1600 / 400

= 1.83

c.

p-value .05, reject H0. Conclude the mean refund of last minute filers is less than $1056.

d.

Reject H0 if z -1.645

-1.83 -1.645, reject H0

16. a.

H0: 895

Ha: > 895

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

915 895

225 / 180

= 1.19

Area = .3830

9-5

Chapter 9

c.

Do not reject H0. We cannot conclude the rental rates have increased.

d.

Recommend withholding judgment and collecting more data on apartment rental rates before

drawing a final conclusion.

17. a.

H0: = 39.2

Ha: 39.2

b.

z=

x 0 38.5 39.2

=

= 1.54

/ n 4.8 / 112

c.

p-value > .05, do not reject H0. We cannot conclude that the mean length of a work week has

changed.

d.

z = -1.54; cannot reject H0

18. a.

H0: = 26,133

Ha: 26,133

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

7600 / 550

= 2.09

c.

p-value .05.

Reject H0; Collier County has a mean annual wage different from the state mean annual wage.

19.

H0: 14.32

Ha: > 14.32

z=

x 0

/ n

14.68 14.32

1.45 / 75

= 2.15

Area = .4842

p-value = .5000 - .4842 = .0158

p-value .05, reject H0. Conclude that there has been an increase in the mean hourly wage of

production workers.

20. a.

H0: 181,900

9-6

Hypothesis Testing

x

z=

c.

d.

p-value .01; reject H0. Conclude mean selling price in South is less than the national mean selling

price.

21. a.

b.

/ n

33,500 / 40

= 2.93

H0: 15

Ha: > 15

x

z=

c.

d.

22. a.

/ n

17 15

b.

4 / 35

= 2.96

H0: = 8

H a: 8

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

8.5 8

3.2 / 120

= 1.71

c.

Do not reject H0. Cannot conclude that the population mean waiting time differs from 8 minutes.

d.

x z.025 ( / n )

8.5 .57

(7.93 to 9.07)

23. a.

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

14 12

4.32 / 25

= 2.31

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 24

Using t table, p-value is between .01 and .025.

Actual p-value = .0147

c.

9-7

Chapter 9

d.

Reject H0 if t 1.711

2.31 > 1.711, reject H0.

24. a.

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

17 18

4.5 / 48

= 1.54

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 47

Area in lower tail is between .05 and .10

Using t table, p-value (two-tail) is between .10 and .20

Actual p-value = .1304

c.

d.

Reject H0 if t -2.012 or t 2.012

t = -1.54; do not reject H0

25. a.

t=

x 0

s/ n

44 45

5.2 / 36

= 1.15

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 35

Using t table, p-value is between .10 and .20

Actual p-value = .1282

p-value > .01, do not reject H0

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

43 45

4.6 / 36

= 2.61

Actual p-value = .0066

p-value .01, reject H0

c.

t=

x 0

s/ n

46 45

5 / 36

= 1.20

p-value (lower tail) is between .80 and .90

Actual p-value = .8809

9-8

Hypothesis Testing

26. a.

t=

x 0

s/ n

103 100

11.5 / 65

= 2.10

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 64

Using t table, area in tail is between .01 and .025

p-value (two tail) is between .02 and .05

Actual p-value = .0394

p-value .05, reject H0

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

96.5 100

11/ 65

= 2.57

p-value (two tail) is between .01 and .02

Actual p-value = .0127

p-value .05, reject H0

c.

t=

x 0

s/ n

102 100

10.5 / 65

= 1.54

p-value (two tail) is between .10 and .20

Actual p-value = .1295

p-value > .05, do not reject H0

27. a.

H0: 238

Ha: < 238

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

231 238

80 / 100

= .88

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 99

Using t table, p-value is between .10 and .20

Actual p-value = .1918

c.

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. Cannot conclude mean weekly benefit in Virginia is less than the

national mean.

9-9

Chapter 9

d.

t.05 = -1.66

df = 99

Reject H0 if t -1.66

-.88 > -1.66; do not reject H0

28. a.

H0: 3530

Ha: > 3530

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

3740 3530

810 / 92

= 2.49

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 91

Using t table, p-value is between .005 and .01

Actual p-value = .0074

c.

29. a.

p-value .01; reject H0. The mean attendance per game has increased. Anticipate a new all-time

high season attendance during the 2002 season.

H0: = 5600

Ha: 5600

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

5835 5600

520 / 25

= 2.26

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 24

Using t table, area in tail is between .01 and .025

Actual p-value = .0332

c.

p-value .05; reject H0. The mean diamond price in New York City differs.

d.

df = 24

t.025 = 2.064

2.26 > 2.064; reject H0

30. a.

H0: = 600

Ha: 600

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

612 600

65 / 40

= 1.17

df = n - 1 = 39

9 - 10

Hypothesis Testing

p-value is between .20 and .40

Actual p-value = .2501

c.

With = .10 or less, we cannot reject H0. We are unable to conclude there has been a change in the

mean CNN viewing audience.

d.

The sample mean of 612 thousand viewers is encouraging but not conclusive for the sample of 40

days. Recommend additional viewer audience data. A larger sample should help clarify the situation

for CNN.

H0: 47.50

31.

t=

x 0

s/ n

51 47.50

12 / 64

= 2.33

Degrees of freedom = n - 1 = 63

Using t table, p-value is between .01 and .025

Actual p-value = .0114

Reject H0; Atlanta customers are paying a higher mean water bill.

32. a.

H0: = 10,192

Ha: 10,192

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

9750 10,192

1400 / 50

= 2.23

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 49

Using t table, area in tail is between .01 and .025

p-value is between .02 and .05

Actual p-value = .0302

c.

33. a.

p-value .05; reject H0. The population mean price at this dealership differs from the national mean

price $10,192.

H0: 280

Ha: > 280

b.

c.

t=

x 0

s/ n

286.9 280

10 / 9

= 2.07

9 - 11

Chapter 9

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 8

Using t table, p-value is between .025 and .05

Actual p-value = .0361

c.

34. a.

p-value .05; reject H0. The population mean distance for the new driver is greater than the USGA

approved driver.

H0: = 2

H a: 2

b.

x=

c.

s=

d.

t=

xi 22

=

= 2.2

10

n

( xi x )

n 1

x 0

s/ n

= .516

2.2 2

.516 / 10

= 1.22

Degrees of freedom = n - 1 = 9

Using t table, area in tail is between .10 and .20

p-value is between .20 and .40

Actual p-value = .2518

e.

35. a.

b.

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. No reason to change from the 2 hours for cost estimating purposes.

z=

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.175 .20

.20(1 .20)

400

= 1.25

p-value = 2(.1056) = .2112

c.

d.

z.025 = 1.96

Reject H0 if z -1.96 or z 1.96

z = 1.25; do not reject H0

9 - 12

Hypothesis Testing

36. a.

z=

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.68 .75

.75(1 .75)

300

= 2.80

p-value .05; reject H0

b.

z=

.72 .75

.75(1 .75)

300

= 1.20

p-value > .05; do not reject H0

c.

z=

.70 .75

.75(1 .75)

300

= 2.00

p-value .05; reject H0

d.

z=

.77 .75

.75(1 .75)

300

= .80

p-value > .05; do not reject H0

37. a.

H0: p .40

Ha: p > .40

b.

p=

z=

189

= .45

425

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.45 40

.40(1 .40)

425

= 1.88

Area = .4699

p-value = .5000 - .4699 = .0301

c.

p-value .05; reject H0. Conclude more than 40% receive more than 10 e-mail messages per day.

9 - 13

Chapter 9

38. a.

H0: p = .64

Ha: p .64

b.

p=

z=

52

= .52

100

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.52 .64

.64(1 .64)

100

= 2.50

Area = .4938

p-value = 2(.5000 - .4938) = .0124

c.

p-value .05; reject H0. Proportion differs from the reported .64.

d.

Yes. Since p = .52, it indicates that fewer than 64% of the shoppers believe the supermarket brand

is as good as the name brand.

39. a.

H0: p = .70

Ha: p .70

b.

252

= .72

350

Wisconsin p =

z=

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.72 .70

.70(1 .70)

350

= .82

Area = .2939

p-value = 2(.5000 - .2939) = .4122

Cannot reject H0.

California p =

z=

189

= .63

300

.63 .70

.70(1 .70)

300

= 2.65

Area = .4960

p-value = 2(.5000 - .4960) = .0080

Reject H0. California has a different (lower) percentage of adults who do not exercise regularly.

9 - 14

Hypothesis Testing

40. a.

b.

p=

414

= .2702 (27%)

1532

H0: p .22

Ha: p > .22

z=

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.2702 .22

.22(1 .22)

1532

= 4.75

p-value 0

Reject H0; There has been a significant increase in the intent to watch the TV programs.

c.

41. a.

These studies help companies and advertising firms evaluate the impact and benefit of commercials.

H0: p .75

Ha: p < .75

b.

z=

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.72 .75

.75(1 .75)

300

= 1.20

Area = .3849

p-value = .5000 - .3849 = .1151

c.

42.

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. The executive's claim cannot be rejected.

H0: p .24

Ha: p > .24

p=

z=

93

= .31

300

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.31 .24

.24(1 .24)

300

= 2.84

Area = .4977

p-value = .5000 - .4977 = .0023

p-value .05; reject H0. In 2003, an estimated 31% of people who moved selected to be convenient

to work as their primary reason. This is an increase compared to 1990.

9 - 15

Chapter 9

43. a.

H0: p = .48

Ha: p .48

b.

p=

z=

360

= .45

800

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.45 .48

.48(1 .48)

800

= 1.70

Area = .4554

p-value = 2(.5000 - .4554) = .0892

c.

44. a.

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. There is no reason to conclude the proportion has changed.

H0: p .50

Ha: p > .50

b.

p=

z=

285

= .57

500

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.57 .50

.50(1 .50)

500

= 3.13

p-value 0

c.

p-value .01; reject H0. Conclude Burger King fries are preferred by more than .50 of the

population.

d.

Yes; statistical evidence shows Burger King fries are preferred. The give-away was a good way to

get customers to try the new fries.

45. a.

H0: p = .44

Ha: p .44

b.

p=

z=

205

= .41

500

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.41 .44

.44(1 .44)

500

= 1.35

9 - 16

Hypothesis Testing

Area = .4115

p-value = 2(.5000 - .4115) = .1770

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. No change.

c.

p=

245

= .49

500

.49 .44

z=

.44(1 .44)

500

= 2.25

Area = .4878

p-value = 2(.5000 - .4878) = .0244

p-value .05; reject H0. There has been a change: an increase in repeat customers.

x =

46.

5

120

= .46

c

Ha : < 10

H0: 10

.05

10

Reject H0 if x 9.25

a.

When = 9,

z=

9.25 9

5 / 120

= .55

b.

Type II error

9 - 17

Chapter 9

c.

When = 8,

z=

9.25 8

5 / 120

= 2.74

Reject H0 if z -1.96 or if z 1.96

47.

x =

10

200

= .71

Ha : 20

H0: = 20

Ha : 20

.025

.025

x

c1

20

c2 = 20 + 1.96 (10 / 200 ) = 21.39

a.

= 18

z=

18.61 18

10 / 200

= .86

b.

= 22.5

z=

21.39 22.5

10 / 200

= 1.57

9 - 18

c2

Hypothesis Testing

c.

= 21

z=

21.39 21

10 / 200

= .55

48. a.

H0: 15

Ha: > 15

Concluding 15 when this is not true. Fowle would not charge the premium rate even though

the rate should be charged.

b.

Reject H0 if z 2.33

z=

x 0

/ n

x 15

4 / 35

= 2.33

Decision Rule:

Accept H0 if x < 16.58

Reject H0 if x 16.58

For = 17,

z=

16.58 17

4 / 35

= .62

c.

For = 18,

z=

16.58 18

4 / 35

= 2.10

49. a.

H0: 25

Ha: < 25

Reject H0 if z -2.05

z=

x 0

x 25

=

= 2.05

/ n 3 / 30

Decision Rule:

9 - 19

Chapter 9

Reject H0 if x 23.88

b.

For = 23,

z=

23.88 23

3 / 30

= 1.61

c.

For = 24,

z=

23.88 24

= .22

3 / 30

d.

50. a.

b.

The Type II error cannot be made in this case. Note that when = 25.5, H0 is true. The Type II

error can only be made when H0 is false.

Accepting H0 and concluding the mean average age was 28 years when it was not.

Reject H0 if z -1.96 or if z 1.96

z=

x 0

/ n

x 28

6 / 100

at

at

z = -1.96,

z = +1.96,

x = 26.82

x = 29.18

Decision Rule:

Accept H0 if 26.82 < x < 29.18

Reject H0 if x 26.82 or if x 29.18

At = 26,

z=

26.82 26

6 / 100

= 1.37

At = 27,

z=

26.82 27

6 / 100

= .30

9 - 20

Hypothesis Testing

At = 29,

z=

29.18 29

6 / 100

= .30

At = 30,

z=

29.18 30

6 / 100

= 1.37

c.

Power = 1 -

at = 26,

When = 26, there is a .9147 probability that the test will correctly reject the null hypothesis that

= 28.

51. a.

b.

Accepting H0 and letting the process continue to run when actually over - filling or under - filling

exists.

Decision Rule: Reject H0 if z -1.96 or if z 1.96 indicates

Accept H0 if 15.71 < x < 16.29

Reject H0 if x 15.71 or if x 16.29

For = 16.5

z=

16.29 16.5

.8 / 30

= 1.44

9 - 21

Chapter 9

16.29

16.5

c.

d.

The power curve shows the probability of rejecting H0 for various possible values of . In

particular, it shows the probability of stopping and adjusting the machine under a variety of

underfilling and overfilling situations. The general shape of the power curve for this case is

1.00

.75

.50

Power

.25

.00

15.6

15.8

16.0 16.2

16.4

Possible Values of u

52.

c = 0 + z.01

= 15 + 2.33

At = 17 z =

16.32 17

4 / 50

4

50

= 16.32

= 1.20

At = 18 z =

16.32 18

4 / 50

= .5000 - .4985 = .0015

= 2.97

Increasing the sample size reduces the probability of making a Type II error.

9 - 22

Hypothesis Testing

53. a.

b.

Critical value for test:

c = 0 + z.05

= 100 + 1.645

119.51 120

At = 120 z =

75 / 40

75

40

= 119.51

= .04

c.

At = 13 z =

119.51 130

75 / 40

= .88

d.

c = 0 + z.05

= 100 + 1.645

At = 120 z =

113.79 120

75 / 80

75

80

= 113.79

= .74

At = 130 z =

113.79 130

75 / 80

= 1.93

Increasing the sample size from 40 to 80 reduces the probability of making a Type II error.

( z + z ) 2 2

54.

n=

55.

n=

56.

At 0 = 3,

( 0 a ) 2

( z + z ) 2 2

( 0 a ) 2

= 214

(10 9) 2

= 325

(20 22) 2

= .01.

z.01 = 2.33

At a = 2.9375, = .10.

z.10 = 1.28

= .18

n=

( z + z ) 2 2

( 0 a ) 2

= 108.09 Use 109

(3 2.9375) 2

9 - 23

Chapter 9

57.

At 0 = 400,

= .02.

z.02 = 2.05

At a = 385,

= .10.

z.10 = 1.28

= 30

n=

58.

( z + z ) 2 2

( 0 a )

= 44.4 Use 45

(400 385) 2

At 0 = 28,

= .05. Note however for this two - tailed test, z / 2 = z.025 = 1.96

At a = 29,

= .15.

z.15 = 1.04

=6

n=

59.

( z / 2 + z ) 2 2

(0 a )

= 324

(28 29) 2

At 0 = 25,

= .02.

z.02 = 2.05

At a = 24,

= .20.

z.20 = .84

=3

n=

60. a.

( z + z ) 2 2

( 0 a )

= 75.2 Use 76

(25 24) 2

H0: = 16

Ha: 16

b.

z=

x 0

/ n

16.32 16

.8 / 30

= 2.19

Area = .4857

p-value = 2(.5000 - .4857) = .0286

p-value .05; reject H0. Readjust production line.

c.

z=

x 0

/ n

15.82 16

.8 / 30

= 1.23

Area = .3907

p-value = 2(.5000 - .3907) = .2186

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. Continue the production line.

9 - 24

Hypothesis Testing

d.

For x = 16.32, z = 2.19; reject H0

For x = 15.82, z = -1.23; do not reject H0

Yes, same conclusion.

61. a.

b.

H0: = 900

Ha: 900

x z.025

935 1.96

180

200

935 25

(910 to 960)

c.

d.

z=

x 0

935 900

=

= 2.75

/ n 180 / 200

62. a.

b.

H0: 45,250

Ha: > 45,250

z=

=

= 2.71

6300 / 95

/ n

p-value .01; reject H0. Conclude New York City has higher mean salary.

63. a.

b.

H0: 37,000

Ha: > 37,000

t=

x 0

s/ n

5200 / 48

= 1.47

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 47

Using t table, p-value is between .05 and .10

Actual p-value = .0747

c.

p-value > .05, do not reject H0. Cannot conclude mean greater than $37,000. A larger sample is

desirable.

9 - 25

Chapter 9

H0: = 6000

64.

Ha: 6000

t=

x 0

s/ n

5812 6000

1140 / 32

= .93

Degrees of freedom = n 1 = 31

Using t table, area in tail is between .10 and .20

p-value is between .20 and .40

Actual p-value = .3581

Do not reject H0. There is no evidence to conclude that the mean number of freshman applications

has changed.

65. a.

H0: 30

Ha: < 30

b.

t=

x 0

s/ n

29.6 30

1.8 / 50

= 1.57

Degrees of freedom = 50 1 = 49

Using t table, p-value is between .05 and .10

Actual p-value = .0613

c.

66.

p-value > .01; do not reject H0. Cannot conclude miles per gallon is less than 30.

H0: 125,000

Ha: > 125,000

t=

x 0

s/ n

12,500 / 32

= 2.26

Degrees of freedom = 32 1 = 31

Using t table, p-value is between .01 and .025

Actual p-value = .0154

p-value .05; reject H0. Conclude that the mean cost is greater than $125,000 per lot.

67. a.

H0: = 3

H a: 3

9 - 26

Hypothesis Testing

b.

x=

c.

s=

d.

t=

xi

= 2.8

n

( xi x )

n 1

x 0

s/ n

= .70

2.8 3

.70 / 10

= .90

Degrees of freedom = 10 - 1 = 9

Using t table, area in tail is between .10 and .20

p-value is between .20 and .40

Actual p-value = .3902

e.

68. a.

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. There is no evidence to conclude a difference compared to prior

year.

H0: p .50

Ha: p > .50

b.

p=

c.

z=

64

= .64

100

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.64 .50

.50(1 .50)

100

= 2.80

p-value = .5000 - .4974 = .0026

p-value .01; reject H0. College graduates have a greater stop-smoking success rate.

69. a.

H0: p = .6667

Ha: p .6667

b.

p=

c.

z=

355

= .6502

546

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.6502 .6667

.6667(1 .6667)

546

= .82

9 - 27

Chapter 9

70. a.

p-value > .05; do not reject H0; Cannot conclude that the population proportion differs from 2/3.

H0: p .50

Ha: p > .50

b.

p=

c.

z=

67

= .6381 (64%)

105

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.6381 .50

.50(1 .50)

105

= 2.83

p-value .01; reject H0. Conclude that the four 10-hour day schedules is preferred by more than

50% of the office workers.

71. a.

b.

p=

330

= .825

400

H0: p = .78

Ha: p .78

z=

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.825 .78

.78(1 .78)

400

= 2.17

c.

72.

p-value .05; reject H0. The on-time arrival record has changed. It is improving.

H0: p .90

Ha: p < .90

p=

z=

49

= .8448

58

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.8448 .90

.90(1 .90)

58

= 1.40

p-value > .05; do not reject H0. Claim of at least 90% cannot be rejected.

73. a.

H0: p .47

Ha: p < .47

9 - 28

Hypothesis Testing

b.

p=

c.

z=

44

= .352

125

p p0

p0 (1 p0 )

n

.352 .47

.47(1 .47)

125

= 2.64

d.

74. a.

p-value .01; reject H0. The proportion of foods containing pesticides has declined.

H0: 72

Ha: > 72

Reject H0 if z 1.645

z=

x 0

/ n

x 72

20 / 30

= 1.645

Solve for x = 78

Decision Rule:

Accept H0 if x < 78

Reject H0 if x 78

b.

For = 80

z=

78 80

20 / 30

= .55

c.

For = 75,

z=

78 75

20 / 30

= .82

d.

For = 70, H0 is true. In this case the Type II error cannot be made.

e.

Power = 1 -

9 - 29

Chapter 9

1.0

.8

P

o

w

e

r

.6

.4

.2

72

76

78

80

74

Possible Values of

Ho False

82

84

H0: 15,000

75.

At 0 = 15,000, = .02.

z.02 = 2.05

At a = 14,000, = .05.

z.10 = 1.645

n=

( z + z ) 2 2

( 0 a ) 2

= 218.5 Use 219

(15, 000 14, 000) 2

H0: = 120

76.

Ha: 120

At 0 = 120,

At a = 117,

= .02.

n=

b.

( z / 2 + z ) 2 2

(0 a )2

z.02 = 2.05

= 44.7 Use 45

(120 117) 2

Reject H0 if z -1.96 or if z 1.96

z=

x 0 x 120

=

/ n 5 / 45

Solve for x .

At z = -1.96, x = 118.54

At z = +1.96, x = 121.46

9 - 30

Hypothesis Testing

Decision Rule:

Accept H0 if 118.54 < x < 121.46

Reject H0 if x 118.54 or if x 121.46

For = 118,

z=

118.54 118

5 / 45

= .72

Other Results:

If is

117

118

119

121

122

123

z

2.07

.72

-.62

+.62

+.72

-2.07

9 - 31

.0192

.2358

.7291

.7291

.2358

.0192

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