Sie sind auf Seite 1von 53

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1: Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensities during specific hours of various places
in Delhi. Source: Urban Heat Island Assessment for a Tropical Urban Airshed in India,

by, Manju Mohan1, Yukihiro Kikegawa, B.R. Gurjar, Shweta Bhati, Anurag Kandya, Koichi OgawaPg- 21- 22

LIST OF PLATES
PLATE 1: Factors forming Urban Heat Islands, Source: www.epa.gov/hiri/resources/pdf/EPA_How_to_measure_a_UHI............Pg- 9

PLATE 2: Difference between surface runoff and evapotranspiration of an urban scape and a rural area. Source: Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics, http://www.epa.gov/heatisld/resources/pdf/BasicsCompendium.pdf........................Pg11

PLATE 3: Varying temperatures in a city. Source: www.Ecofinroofgarden.co.uk ..Pg- 13

PLATE 4: Heat Island Map of Delhi. Source: Manju Mohan, Yukihiro Kikegawa, B. R. Gurjar, Shweta Bhati1, Anurag Kandya, Koichi Ogawa, Delhi Experiments to Learn Heat Island Intensity, May 2008. .Pg- 20

PLATE 5: Benefits of trees. 1|Page

PLATE 6: Benefits of trees. Source: www.treesaregood.com ......................................................................................Pg- 28

PLATE 7: Difference between green roof and traditional roof. Source: http://www.greenroofguide.co.uk/benefits/ ...Pg- 29

PLATE 8: Intensive green roof. Source: http://www.greenrooftechnology.com/intensive-green-roof ...........................Pg31

PLATE 9: Extensive green roof. Source: http://www.watermaticltd.co.uk/resources/lawngreenroof.jpg ........................Pg- 31

PLATE 10: Modular Block green roof. Source: www.igbc.in Pg- 32

PLATE 11: Cooling by a green wall. Source: http://www.ftrctlb.com/sites/default/files/GREEN%20FACADE.jpg?1307406052 ....Pg- 33 PLATE 12: Green Faade. Source: http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/portlandgreenwall.jpg Pg- 34 2|Page

PLATE 13: Working of cool pavements. Source: Town of Gilbert, Cool Pavements Brochure, http://www.gilbertaz.gov/planning/urbanheatisland.cfm ........................................................Pg- 36

PLATE 14: Components of cool porous pavement. Source: Town of Gilbert, Cool Pavements Brochure, http://www.gilbertaz.gov/planning/urbanheatisland.cfm .........................................................Pg- 37

PLATE 15: Difference between cool roof and traditional roof. Source: Manual of Cool Roofs for Cool Delhi, Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). ......Pg- 38 PLATE 16: Difference between uncoated roof and coated roof. Source: http://whiteroofingsystems.blogspot.in/2012/09/how-cool-roofs-benefityou-and.html ............................................................................................................................................Pg- 39

CHAPTER 1
1.1 Introduction
As more and more people leave villages and farms to live in cities, urban growth results. The rapid growth of cities like, Chicago in the late 19th century, Tokyo in the mid twentieth, and Mumbai in the 21st century, can be attributed largely to rural-urban migration. This physical growth of urban

3|Page

areas as a result of rural migration and even sub-urban concentration into cities is known as Urbanization. 1 The rapid urbanization of cities has led to the replacement of landscapes and vegetation with roads, buildings and other types of infrastructure. Surfaces

that were once permeable and moist become impermeable and dry. 2 This development leads to the formation of urban heat islands---the phenomenon whereby urban areas experience warmer temperatures than their rural

surroundings.

1.2 Intent
As there is rapid urbanization in different cities of the world, the open areas and vegetation is decreasing and there is rise in temperatures of urban areas than their surrounding rural areas. Trees and other plants help cool the environment, making vegetation a simple and effective way to reduce urban heat islands. Trees and vegetation lower surface and air temperatures by providing shade and through evapotranspiration.
3

To

decrease

the

temperatures and also, to reduce the urban heat island effect in an urbanized city, the need of open spaces is felt. In a rapidly urbanizing area stress should be laid on increasing the percentage of open areas to that off built up area, also keeping in count of the percentage of vegetation that plays the major role in decreasing the temperatures of that particular urbanized area.

1.3 Need

1 2

www.wikipedia.org www.epa.gov/hiri/resources/pdf/BasicsCompendium.pdf 3 www.epa.gov/hiri/mitigation/trees.htm

4|Page

The rapid urbanisation has brought about temperature changes in areas of urban cities, i.e., formation of Urban Heat Islands, which have a major impact on the life of the population in a city. This has led to the study of formation of urban heat island formation and its impacts. The impacts, mostly having a negative effects on the society have made it compulsory to study and imply measures which help in mitigating the effects of heat islands. Also, since

many cities in the world, such as Delhi, are still developing and most of the construction and urbanisation still has to occur, mitigation and control of the Urban Heat Island effect is of great importance for the environmental sustainability of such cities.

1.4 Aim
To study the impact of heat islands with the help of secondary case studies and analyse measures to counter its effect.

1.5 Objective
To study the impact of urbanization over the microclimate of an urbanized space. To study the formation and causes of urban heat islands. To study, with the help of secondary case studies, the impacts of UHI effect. To provide key strategies to mitigate urban heat island effect.

5|Page

Need for Study

Study effect of urbanization on an urbanized area.

Analyzing the urban heat island effect of a city, with help of existing information.

Identifying the issues

Providing key strategies to counter UHI effect.

1.6 Methodology

1.7 Scope
The study covers UHI facts in Delhi and some international cities. Mitigation measures of UHI effect have been provided from measures of different cities as well as for Delhi only.

1.8 Limitations

6|Page

Primary case studies could not be carried out because of lack of resources.

The dissertation limits itself to secondary case studies, as research on UHI effect requires heavy complex equipments like satellite imaging and thermal image sensors which are not readily available.

Time has been a limitation, as work in this field is still being updated.

7|Page

1.8 Research Ideas


Due the rapid urbanization of cities the built up area has increased as compared to the open areas, as a result the microclimates of the urbanized areas have gone up. Resulting in the formation of urban heat islands. There are many impacts of heat islands on the environment, which further have impacts on the community life of people living in such areas. A secondary case study of UHI formation in its different zones will help in concluding the cause of formation of heat islands in city. As Delhi is a developing city, studying different measures to counter heat island mitigation in Delhi will help in betterment of the citys inhabitants and its further growth.

8|Page

CHAPTER 2 Urban Heat Islands

Introduction
Many urban and suburban areas experience rise in temperatures compared to their surrounding rural areas; this difference in temperature is what constitutes an Urban Heat Island, and these warmer urban areas are called Urban Heat Islands. The annual mean air temperature of a city with one million or more people can be 1 to 3C warmer than its surroundings, and on a clear, calm night, this temperature difference can be as much as 12C. 4 All cities and towns, irrespective of their size, produce heat islands, though the effect often decreases as city size decreases.

2.1 Surface Urban Heat Islands


On a hot, sunny summer day, the sun can heat up, exposed urban surfaces, like roofs and pavement, to temperatures 27 to 50C hotter than the air, while shaded or moist surfacesoften in more rural surroundingsremain close to air temperatures.5 Surface urban heat islands are typically present day and night, but are always strongest during the day when the sun is shining. This is because the materials used in the urbanscape absorb heat and release them and night. The heat released by these materials leads in the formation of so called Surface Urban Heat Islands. The intensity of these heat island

Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics

9|Page

depends on the properties of material used, i.e., the materials, ability to absorb and radiate heat. On average, the difference in daytime surface temperatures between developed and rural areas is 10 to 15C whereas the difference in night time surface temperatures is typically smaller, at 5 to 10C. The magnitude of surface urban heat islands varies with seasons, due to changes in the suns intensity as well as ground cover and weather. As a result of such variation, surface urban heat islands are typically largest in the summer. 5

2.2 Atmospheric Urban Heat Islands


Warmer air in urban areas compared to cooler air in nearby rural

surroundings is a phenomenon defined as atmospheric urban heat islands. These heat islands are divided into two different types: Canopy Layer Urban Heat Islands are the ones which exist in the layer of air where people live, i.e., trees and roofs. (Figure 1) Boundary Layer Urban Heat Islands start from the rooftop and treetop level and extend up to the point where urban landscapes have no influence on the atmosphere. (Figure 1) Atmospheric urban heat islands are often weak during the late morning and throughout the day and become more intense after sunset due to the slow release of heat from urban infrastructure. The timing of this peak, however, depends on the properties of urban and rural surfaces, the season, and prevailing weather conditions. from the ground to below the tops of

10 | P a g e

Atmospheric heat islands vary much less in intensity than surface heat islands. On an annual mean basis, air temperatures in large cities might be 1 to 3C warmer than those of their rural surroundings.5

Plate 1

Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics

11 | P a g e

Source: www.epa.gov/hiri/resources/pdf/EPA_How_to_measure_a_UHI Above : Factors contributing to formation of Urban Heat Islands. Mesoscale : Shows the effect of UHI in the entire city and its surrounding

rural areas; also the formation of Urban Boundary Layer (UBL). Microscale : Shows the effect of UHI at micro level in a city, also the formation of Urban Canopy Layer (UCL).

2.3 Relation of Surface and Air Temperatures


Surface temperatures have no direct, but significant, influence on air

temperatures, especially that are close to the surface called the urban canopy layer. For example, open areas like; parks and vegetated areas, which typically have cooler surface temperatures [(because of evapotranspiration (discussed below in section 2.4.1)] occurring in such areas), contribute to cooler air temperatures. Dense, built-up areas, on the other hand, typically lead to warmer air temperatures, because air mixes within the atmosphere, though, the relationship between surface and air temperatures is not constant, and air temperatures typically vary less than surface temperatures across an area.

2.4 Formation of Urban Heat Islands


12 | P a g e

2.4.1 Reduced Vegetation in Urban Areas


In rural areas, vegetation and open land typically dominate the landscape. Trees and vegetation provide shade, which helps lower surface temperatures. They also help reduce air temperatures through a process called

evapotranspiration, in

which plants release water to

the surrounding air,

dissipating ambient heat. Whereas in urban areas the surface is characterized by dry, impervious surfaces, such as conventional roofs, sidewalks, roads, and parking lots. As cities develop, more vegetation is lost, and more surfaces are paved or covered with buildings. The change in ground cover results in less shade and moisture to keep urban areas cool. Built up areas evaporate less water, which contributes to elevated surface and air temperatures.6

Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics

13 | P a g e

Plate 2: Difference between surface runoff and evapotranspiration of an urban

scape (left) and a rural area (right). Source: Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics Highly developed urban areas (left), which have more percentage of impervious surfaces, have less natural ground surface cover, moisture available for evapo-transpiration cover (right). than This

which

has lesser

impervious

characteristic contributes to higher surface and air temperatures in urban areas, resulting in the formation of Urban Heat Islands.

2.4.2 Effects of Urban Materials


Properties of urban materials, in particular solar reflectance (the ability of a material to reflect light), thermal emissivity (the ability of the surface of a material to emit energy in the form of radiation), and heat capacity, also have an effect on urban heat island development, as they determine how the suns energy is reflected, emitted, and absorbed. Solar energy is composed of ultra-violet (UV) rays, visible light, and infrared energy, each reaching the Earth in different percentages: five percent of solar 14 | P a g e

energy is in the UV spectrum, including the type of rays responsible for sunburn; 43 percent of solar energy is visible light, in colours ranging from violet to red; and the remaining 52 percent of solar energy is infrared, felt as heat. Energy in all of these wavelengths contributes to urban heat island formation.7 Solar reflectance, or albedo, is the percentage of solar energy reflected by a surface. Higher the albedo percentage of a material, higher will be its solar reflectance and lesser will be its absorbing ability. It has been found that much of the suns energy is found in the visible wavelengths, so, solar reflectance has a mutual connection with a materials colour. Darker the surface, it will tend to have lower solar reflectance values than that of surfaces with lighter colour. Urban areas have surface materials for roofing and paving which have a lower albedo than those in rural areas. As a result, built up areas generally reflect less and instead absorb more of the suns energy. This absorbed heat increases surface temperatures and contributes to the formation of surface and atmospheric urban heat islands. But, solar reflectance is the main factor that determines a materi als surface temperature, thermal emittance, also plays a role in determining a materials surface temperature. Thermal emittance is a measure of a surfaces ability to release energy in the form of heat. But the most important thing is that, surfaces with high emittance values stay cooler, because they release heat more readily. Most construction materials, with metal being an exception, have high thermal emittance values, as a result, this property makes metal it of great interest to those installing cool roofs.

Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics

15 | P a g e

Another important property that affects heat island development is a materials heat capacity, which means the ability of a material to store heat. For eg: Many building materials, such as steel and stone, have higher heat capacities than rural materials, such as dry soil and sand. So, it has been found that, cities are typically more effective at storing the suns energy as heat within their infrastructure. City centres of metropolitan areas can absorb and store twice the amount of heat compared to their surrounding rural areas during the daytime. Plate 3: Shows varying temperatures in a city and its surroundings as a result, making cities an Urban Heat Island.

Source: www.Ecofinroofgarden.co.uk

2.4.3 Urban Geometry


An additional factor that has an effect on urban heat island development, particularly at night, is urban geometry, which refers to the dimensions and spacing of buildings within an urbanised area. Urban geometry has effects on 16 | P a g e

wind

flow,

energy

absorption,

and

a surfaces ability to return

long -wave

radiation back to space. Since, the surfaces and structures in developed areas are at least partially obstructed by either objects or neighbouring buildings, the heat absorbed by the surface of materials gets trapped by the

obstructions as a result these structures become huge thermal masses, making the air above urbanised areas typically warmer than air over rural areas, especially at night (because, urban materials release most of their absorbed heat at night). As a result, the night time atmospheric heat islands can have serious health problems for urban residents during summers. Urban canyons are narrow streets formed by lined tall buildings. During the day, urban canyons can have tremendous effects. On one hand, tall buildings create shade, reduce surface and air temperatures whereas on the other, when sunlight reaches surfaces in the canyon, the suns energy is reflected and absorbed by building walls, which further lowers the citys overall albedo, as the total solar reflectance of the shaded surfaces decreases and more heat is absorbed by them which can increase temperatures. At night, urban canyons generally hinder cooling, as these buildings and structures obstruct and trap the heat that is being released from urban infrastructure. Urban Canyons also alter air quality, where locally stagnant air concentrates pollutants near ground level creating health discomforts.

2.4.4 Weather
Winds and clouds have a major influence on the formation of heat islands. Under the calm and clear sky weather conditions the intensities of heat islands are high. During the period of winds blowing the hot air on the surface mixes up with the wind and gets lowered and in the presence of clouds (when the clouds are increasing), they reduce the radiative cooling at night, 17 | P a g e

reducing the heat island magnitudes. So, as there is variations in the patterns of season there is change in the frequency and magnitude of heat islands.

2.4.5 Geographic Location


The factors like climate and topography of an area and its rural surroundings affect the formation of heat islands. For example: When there are water bodies, of cooler temperatures, close to an area they, generate winds that help in transporting the heat away from that area, thus affecting the intensity of heat island. Also, in case of cities closer to mountains, the wind is either blocked by the mountains in the city or wind patterns are created that pass through that city, thus, local terrain of a city has a major influence in the formation of heat islands.

2.4.6 Time of Day or Season


Seasons play a role too in affecting the intensity of heat islands. In case of cities located in tropical climates, the dry season favours large heat island magnitudes. Cities with multiple seasons have higher heat island intensities

during summer and lower during the monsoon seasons.

2.5 Summary
Urban Heat Islands are a result of urbanisation in a city. As discussed in the above chapter, the population, urban geometry, geological conditions, time of

18 | P a g e

day or season of the area and properties of urban materials are the factors which govern the temperature of the city. Next chapter will tell about the impacts of urban heat islands.

19 | P a g e

CHAPTER 3 Impacts of Heat Islands

3.1 Impacts of Urban Heat Islands


The increase in temperatures by urban heat islands, particularly during the summer, results in majorly affecting a citys environment and quality of life. It has been noted that some heat island impacts are positive, i.e., such as winter seasons are not much colder, but, most of the impacts are negative that include the following: Increased energy consumption (negative during summers) (positive during winters). Increased emissions of air pollutants. Compromised human health and comfort. Impaired water quality.

3.1.1 Increased Energy Consumption


Increased summertime temperatures in cities increases energy demand during peak periods , which generally occur on hot, summer weekday afternoons, when offices and homes are running cooling systems, lights, and appliances. This peak urban electric demand increases 1.5 to 2 percent for every 0.6C increase in summertime temperature.8 The increasing temperatures over the last several decades, means that the increased demand for electricity by the urban population, is used to make up for the urban heat island effect. The increase

Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics

20 | P a g e

in energy consumption also has resulted in burning of more fossil fuels, thus resulting in more carbon emissions.

3.1.2 Air Quality and Greenhouse Gases


As discussed in Section 3.1.1, higher temperatures can increase energy

demand, which generally causes higher levels of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. As, most electricity is produced from burning fossil fuels, thus, most power plants release pollutants like sulphur dioxide (SO2), various nitrogen oxides, etc, so these pollutants have been proven to be harmful to human health and contribute to major air quality problems such as acid rain. Also, fossil fuel powered plants emit greenhouse gases, for example: carbon dioxide (CO2), which is a major contributor towards global warming.

3.1.3 Human Health and Comfort


Increase in daytime surface temperatures, reduction in night time cooling, and higher air pollution levels due to the formation of urban heat islands can affect human health as they cause general discomfort, respiratory diseases, heat cramps and exhaustion, non-fatal heat stroke, and heat-related mortality (Chicago, 1995). The impact of heat waves can be worsened by these urban heat islands. Heat waves are periods of abnormally hot, and often humid, weather. Sensitive populations, such as children, older adults, and those with existing health conditions, are at particular risk from these events. 21 | P a g e

3.1.4 Water Quality


Pavement and rooftop surfaces that reach temperatures 27C to 50C higher than air temperatures transfer this excess heat to storm water. 9 Which forms surface urban heat islands and results in degradation of the quality of water, so, when the rain comes before the pavement has a chance to heat up, runoff temperatures from the rural and urban areas are differed by less than 2C.10 When this heated storm water generally drains into storm sewers, it raises water temperatures as it is released into big water bodies like, streams, rivers, ponds and lakes. Change in water temperature affects all types of aquatic life, especially the metabolism and reproduction of many aquatic species. Rapid temperature changes in aquatic ecosystems resulting from warm storm water runoff causes imbalance in the ecological system, which also is a major worry to the earths inhabitants.

3.2 Summary
In the above chapter it has been discussed, that, the formation of heat islands is a result of high temperatures in a city. The rise in temperatures, encourages energy demand, increasing carbon

emissions, as a result degrading the air quality and causing various health problems. The rise in temperatures during summers can also result in heat strokes.

Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies Urban Heat Island Basics

22 | P a g e

The rise in temperature results in warming up of surface which causes the storm water to heat up which can affect the aquatic life, disturbing the ecological balance.

CHAPTER 4 Case Study- DELHI

4.1 Introduction
The secondary case study is a part of a research project Implementation and Validation of Numerical Models for Heat Island Studies in Mega-city Delhi

23 | P a g e

conducted jointly by Indian Institute of Technology (Delhi and Roorkee) and Meisei University, Tokyo. The study comprises of observations which include, temperature observations, wind speed, and urban heat island intensities, at 4 different times on each day from 25th May, 2008- 28th May, 2008, of different parts of Delhi. As the emergence of satellite cities around Delhi, which have developed from earlier small towns and villages, now there are no villages around, so for the identification of intense heat islands, the areas with large open spaces have been taken as rural surroundings. The facts and observations from the case study will help in finding out the UHI formation, their root causes (which maybe, urban geometry, population, anthropogenic activities, geological conditions, etc.) As discussed in the 3rd chapter, the various impacts of urban heat islands, the mitigation of such effects in cities has become a necessity. The conclusions from this case study will help to frame out the various measures to counter the urban heat island effect for Delhi. As it is, Delhi being a developing city, most of the construction still has to occur, so, the mitigation measures for heat island formation will help in betterment of Delhi, its population and future generation of the city.

Plate 4: Shows the Heat Island Map of Delhi.

24 | P a g e

Source: Manju Mohan, Yukihiro Kikegawa, B. R. Gurjar, Shweta Bhati1, Anurag Kandya, Koichi Ogawa, Delhi Experiments to Learn Heat Island Intensity, May 2008.

25 | P a g e

Table : Urban Heat Island (UHI) intensities during specific hours of various places in Delhi:

Day S.no Time May 2008 1. 3:00 am 25

of

Max. UHI (C)

Wind Speed (km/s) Calm

Warm decreasing

pockets order

in with

Name of station Bhikaji Cama Sitaram Bazar Janak Puri Sitaram Bazar Bhikaji Cama Adarsh Nagar Sitaram Bazar Janak Puri Sitaram Bazar Bhikaji Cama Adarsh Nagar Janak Puri Noida Lajpat Nagar Rohini CP CP Noida Badarpur Sitaram Bazar Chirag Delhi CP Noida CP Noida CP Bhikaji Cama Loni Permanaud Dwarka Majnu ka Tila Bhikaji Cama CP Bhikaji Cama

4.1

2. 3. 4.

3:00 am 3:00 am 3:00 am

26 27 28

4.2 4.6 5.6

Calm Calm- 0.6 Calm

5.

9:00 am

25

4.6

Calm- 1.8

6. 7. 8. 9.

9:00 am 9:00 am 9:00 am 3:00 pm

26 27 28 25

6.4 5.1 5.3 6.3

0.4- 1.3 Calm- 0.8 Calm Calm- 0.4

10. 11.

3:00 pm 3:00 pm

26 27

3.8 7.6

0.5- 1.3 0.5- 1.5

26 | P a g e

12. 13.

3:00 pm 9:00 pm

28 25

6.7 2.8

Calm- 1.1 0.5- 1.8

CP Loni Dwarka Dwarka Bhikaji Cama Sitaram Bazar Sitaram Bazar Bhikaji Cama Badarpur CP Bhikaji Cama CP Bhikaji Cama

14. 15. 16.

9:00 pm 9:00 pm 9:00 pm 8:00 am

26 27 28

5.1 4.2 8.3

Calm Calm- 1.4 Calm

Badarpur Dwarka Noida CP Moti Nagar Sitaram Bazar Sanjay Van Adarsh Nagar Dwarka Rohini

17.

(pre rain) 10:00 (rain) 12:00 pm (post rain) am

26

3.7

0.3- 2.7

18.

26

2.2

0.9- 3.8

19.

26

2.5

0.5- 2.7

Source: Urban Heat Island Assessment for a Tropical Urban Airshed in India, by, Manju Mohan1, Yukihiro Kikegawa, B.R. Gurjar, Shweta Bhati, Anurag Kandya, Koichi Ogawa.

The data in the above table was observed in May 2008 in Delhi, which is a typical summer month.

4.2 Conclusions
The main results and conclusions of the study are as follows: The urban heat island intensity in Delhi is found to be significantly high during summer days for both afternoon (3.8C to 7.6C at 3 PM) and night hours (2.8C to 8.3C at 9 PM) in comparison to early morning

27 | P a g e

hours at the time of occurrence of minimum temperature (4.1C to 5.6C). The 3 top ranking UHI locations amongst the entire measurement network in the city are commercial areas namely CP, Sitaram Bazar and Bhikaji Cama Place. Other pockets with reasonably high UHI are

residential or mixed use namely Noida, Dwarka, Janakpuri, Kaushambi, Adarsh Nagar etc. The impact of meteorological parameters such as wind speed and direction as well as atmospheric stability was observed on the intensity and location of the urban heat island hotspots. Comparison with maximum and average UHI of other cities of the world revealed that UHI in Delhi is comparable to other major cities of the world such as London, Tokyo and Beijing. A relationship of maximum UHI and population showed that UHI in Delhi are lower than UHI obtained for North-American and European cities with lower population than Delhi. Lower anthropogenic heat fluxes of Delhi due to a developing economy with climatic and population structure differences can be attributed for lower UHI in Delhi. However, rising population and change in Land Use Land Change and associated anthropogenic activities call for strategic mitigation measures in the city to prevent further strengthening of heat island effect.10 Urban heat islands exist wherever high population and built up areas exist, so the temperatures in these areas are higher and thus urban

: Urban Heat Island Assessment for a Tropical Urban Airshed in India, by, Manju Mohan1, Yukihiro Kikegawa, B.R. Gurjar, Shweta Bhati, Anurag Kandya, Koichi Ogawa
10

28 | P a g e

heat island effect is felt. In the above case study, mostly the green areas in the city were observed to have the lowest temperatures. UHI range for the high populated and built up area was observed from 4.1C to 5.6C at 3:00 am, 4.6C to 6.4C at 9:00 am, 3.8C to 7.6C at 3:00 pm, and 2.8C to 8.3C at 9:00 am. Thus, daytime hours 3:00 pm, 9:00 am also showed significant UHI along with night hours (3:00 am and 9:00 am). (see table) The major UHI zones found were that of commercial centers and densely populated residential areas such as Sitaram Bazar, Connaught Place (CP), Bhikaji Cama and Noida. While lowest temperatures were observed in green areas of Sanjay Van and Hauz Khas District Park. The dense urban canopy of Sitaram Bazar and surrounding localities with major commercial complexes, densely populated residences and some of the busiest traffic intersections is the major cause behind high magnitudes of UHI in the above area. Connaught Place is a major commercial complex with shops and offices. Bhikaji Cama is also a

commercial complex with a major traffic intersection close to the area. Lack of open spaces, use of urban materials that absorb and radiate heat, closely packed structures and also the anthropogenic heat fluxes in the above areas have led to the formation of intense urban heat islands. The lower sky view factor in such dense built up areas emit less long wave radiation and trap heat at late night hours which results into development of higher temperatures in these areas, since there are heavy traffic zones in the vicinity the heat released from the vehicles also add to the increased magnitude of these areas.

29 | P a g e

Urban heat island intensity is also correlated to the prevailing geological conditions. In the above case study winds of speed up to 3.8 m/s (see table) were observed, but the night hours were marked by calm conditions.

For example, the major UHI spots lie in the zone of downwind direction during hours such as 9:00 pm on 25th May, 9:00 am on 26th May and 3:00 pm on 27th May.

The case study also covered days of rainfall which helps in comparison between rainfall period and the normal summer period. (Morning hours of 26th May experienced rainfall from 9:00 am to 11:00 am). This time period was thus marked by zero incident direct solar radiation because of the cloud cover and prevalent winds.

The maximum heat island intensity decreased from 8:00 am (3.7C) to 10:00 am (2.2C) and again increased at 12:00 pm (2.5C) and later at 3:00 pm (3.8C). Thus difference in UHI between the rainfall period and rest of the period is visible, where the UHI is 2.2C during rainfall whereas the overall period had a maximum of 8.3C. (see table).

In the case study, significant magnitudes of UHI were observed at unstable daytime hours also, this is because buildings decrease the sky view factor and thus heat emitted by building material due to radiation to cooler sky is trapped. This phenomenon is prominent during night, but for some areas of Delhi the urban geometry plays a great role in trapping heat. Even though there are prevalent winds and over sky

conditions there is no temperature uniformity because of the intense human activity with local anthropogenic heat emissions and varying land use, land cover in urban areas. Thus, resulting in high magnitudes of

30 | P a g e

urban heat island intensity even during day time. Commercial areas like CP are influenced by heat emissions from anthropogenic activities.

4.3 Future for Delhi


The maximum UHI i.e., 8.3C was observed in the above case study matches with the range of London (8C, Year 2003)11, Beijing (7.9C , Year 2002) and Tokyo (8.1C, Year 1992). But, these cities were then developed, whereas Delhi is still developing. So, Delhi still being a developing city with mixed land use and having many scattered green areas, is likely to have lower anthropogenic heat releases than the developed economies. But because, urban heat island intensity is related to population, and the built-up area of Delhi has witnessed an increment from 540.7 km to 791.96 km.12 Thus, with rising population and rapidly increasing built up areas, it is necessary to imply strategies to counter the increasing magnitudes of heat islands.

4.4 Summary
The chapter involved carrying out conclusions from a secondary case study, which had concluded the different heat island pockets of Delhi. The areas with high heat island intensities were taken up and the factors for formation of heat islands in those areas were concluded from the data carried out in the case study. As discussed in the 3rd chapter, the impacts of heat islands are harmful and in the 4th chapter it was discussed that Delhi is still developing, the next chapter will discuss different measures to counter heat island formation.

11 12

http://static.london.gov.uk/mayor/environment/climate-change/docs/UHI_summary_report.pdf

31 | P a g e

CHAPTER 5 MEASURES TO MITIGATE HEAT ISLAND EFFECT

5.1 Introduction
Urban areas, like Delhi have varied micro climates. The urbanisation, i.e., the transformation of natural open landscapes, into asphalt roads, streets, houses, big public buildings, and industrial buildings has brought changes in the climate of such cities, because of radiation of heat from surfaces, trapping of heat by the urban geometry and also the release of anthropogenic heat due to complex human activity. Since many cities in the world, such as Delhi, are still developing and most of the construction and urbanisation still has to occur, mitigation and control of the Urban Heat Island effect is of great importance for the environmental sustainability of such areas.

5.2 Measures of Mitigation of Heat Island Effect


The following are the solutions to counter the urban heat island effect: Increasing the vegetative surface area. Implementing use of materials with high percentage of albedo. Other methods.

32 | P a g e

5.2.1 Increasing the vegetative surface area 5.2.1.1 Increase in vegetative cover
Planting trees and increasing the vegetative cover are the two very simple ways of reducing the urban heat island effect. Urban green belts are considered lungs of any city as they help in purifying the air by removing the most harmful pollutants. As urbanisation is increasing the cutting up of open green lands has been a major and increasing problem across the world. The development and excessive population has led to the descent in open areas and green belts in cities. Plants and trees provide a number of benefits and examining the increasing pollution and heat islands, it has become necessary to increase the green cover around a city. The following are the benefits of trees: Trees absorb and deflect sunlight which cools the air, therefore is a measure of countering heat islands. Trees act as natural water filters as they help in reducing surface runoff, soil erosion as and the flooding. evaporation They increase by the the rate of

evapotranspiration,

increases

increased

number of leaves, therefore dispersing heat. Half a hectare of trees produce enough oxygen for 18 people every day and keeps pollutants in check. Trees filter airborne pollutants and reduce the conditions causing

asthma. 33 | P a g e

Trees planted around a home reduce cooling and heating costs by as much as 30 percent.13

Trees act as barriers as they absorb sound waves, reducing noise pollution.

Trees planted in outdoors act as green outdoor activities.

spaces which,

encourage

Figures 5 and 6: Show the benefits of trees.

Source: Akbari, 1992

13

www.treesaregood.com

34 | P a g e

Source: www.treesaregood.com

5.2.1.2 Green Roofs and Green Walls


The dense urban canopy of cities consists of structures having rooftops with materials such as , concrete, having the property of absorbing the solar radiation during the day and then radiating the absorbed radiation into the atmosphere, which results in heating up of the surrounding air and thus, the formation of heat islands. Replacing the conventional concrete rooftops with vegetative roofs, or rooftops with green cover can help in lowering the magnitude of surface heat islands. These vegetative rooftops not only lower the air temperature but also help in bringing down the energy consumption of buildings. Plate 7: Shows difference between a green roof and a traditional roof.

35 | P a g e

Source: http://www.greenroofguide.co.uk/benefits/ In the traditional roof, the rooftop surface is generally concrete which absorbs the suns solar heat and then radiates at night increasing magnitudes of UHI, whereas in a green roof due to the presence of vegetation, very less heat is absorbed, Bevapotranspiration occurs, therefore, cooling the surroundings. There are three distinct types of green roofs 1. Intensive Green Roofs Intensive green roofs are those vegetative roof systems which feel and function like gardens as, they can accommodate large trees, shrubs, etc. Plate 8: Shows an intensive green roof.

36 | P a g e

Source: http://www.greenrooftechnology.com/intensive-green-roof 2. Extensive Green Roofs Extensive green roofs are those vegetative roofs which are only used for their environmental benefits. They may contain a vegetative cover of succulent plants, grasses and plants that are drought-resistant. Plate 9: Shows an extensive green roof.

Source: http://www.watermaticltd.co.uk/resources/lawngreenroof.jpg 3. Modular Block Green Roofs. Modular block systems of vegetative roofs are made of portable units arranged on the rooftops. The portable units consist of a certain soil depth and low growing plant species.

37 | P a g e

Plate 10: Shows modular block roofing system.

Source: www.igbc.in There are many advantages of green roofs which are as follows: Reduce urban heat island effects. Absorb air pollution therefore, purifying the atmosphere. Protect under lying roof material by the elimination of exposure to the suns harmful rays, thus, decreasing the solar acceptance of the roof. They offer an attractive alternative to traditional roofs. Insulate a building from extreme temperatures. Reduces noise transfer from outdoors.

The dense urban canopy of cities consists of urban canyons, i.e. narrow streets formed by the tall buildings lying close to each other. The presence of urban canyons means that the walls of the structures lying in the canyon absorb 38 | P a g e

heat but when they radiate it back to the atmosphere, the heat radiated does not gets cooled down because of no winds, it gets trapped between the

buildings and thus forms urban heat islands, causing discomfort. To counter the effect of heat island effect in such canyons, use of green walls is important. A green wall is a vertical garden, so when the suns rays fall on it, the plants reflect the light absorbing very less heat. As less heat is absorbed, less heat is radiated back, so there is no rise in temperatures due to the surface of a green wall and hence, no rise in magnitude of heat islands. Green walls are made up of climbing plants either growing directly on a wall or, specially designed supporting structures, such as cables. Green walls can be installed inside a building as well to cut down a buildings cooling load and thus, minimising the carbon emissions from the building.

Plate 11: Shows the cooling of surroundings by a green wall.

Source: http://www.ftrctlb.com/sites/default/files/GREEN%20FACADE.jpg?1307406052 39 | P a g e

Green walls if applied to the walls of structure facing the suns rays, for example, on the west side (as it faces the evening sun) can reduce the solar heating most effectively. The advantages of green walls are as follows: They reduce UHI effect. If applied on appropriate walls they help in bringing down the energy consumption of a building, thereby decreasing the carbon emissions. The vegetative cover of green walls helps in purifying the surrounding air from pollutants. It elongates the life of materials used on the walls as it protects the surface from the harmful UV rays of sun. It increases the aesthetic value of a building. The vegetative cover on a green wall acts as a sound insulator, thus, insulates the interior from outside noise. Plate 12: A typical green facade.

40 | P a g e

Source: http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/portlandgreenwall.jpg

5.2.2 Implementing use of materials with high percentage of albedo


The property of material used in an urbanscape plays a major role in the change of temperatures of an urbanised area. In urban cities, there are many roads, buildings, and streets that have surfaces with materials having high solar acceptance. The surfaces having high solar absorption, means that they absorb most of the heat and then radiate the heat back to the atmosphere, resulting in increment of temperatures of the area and thus formation of Urban Heat Islands. For example, dark coloured roofs, being dark in colour absorb most of the heat, thus resulting in increase of cooling energy bills, reduce indoor comfort in summers and then finally add heavily to heat island effect. To mitigate the urban heat island effect it is therefore necessary to choose the material that has the ability to reduce the temperatures of its for

surroundings,

bring down buildings cooling loads and thus helping

countering heat island effect. Albedo of a material is defined as the amount by which the material can

reflect the sunlight, also known as the solar reflectance of a material. Higher the albedo of a material, lesser will it absorb the heat and thus will not radiate much heat back to the atmosphere.

41 | P a g e

Therefore, the material with higher value of albedo should be used so that it does not absorb any heat but rather reflect back to the atmosphere.

5.2.2.1 Use of Cool Roof/ Pavers


Cool roofs/pavements materials have two very important properties, that are: 1. 2. High Albedo/Solar Reflectance High Thermal Emittance

Cool materials because of having special properties have the ability to reflect heat of the entire solar spectrum (except UV), i.e., visible light and infrared rays, Having high thermal emittance means that radiating away any absorbed heat, which makes cool materials good example of application as a material in the landscape. Also, due to less absorption of heat, the cool materials have reduced

expansion and contraction, therefore they have a long life span. Cool Pavements Cool pavements, because they utilize colour of materials, their porosity and processes that increase solar reflectivity, as a result they reduce surface heating and also promote cooling through increased evaporation. Pervious materials such as pavers, stone, blocks and interlocking concrete pavements with high-albedo reflective material reduce heat absorption from the sun and as a result emit lower heat than standard materials.

42 | P a g e

The use of cool paving materials helps to reduce the heating of roads, sidewalks and parking lots as a result of reduced heat absorption, therefore helping in countering of heat island effect. Plate 13: Shows the working of cool pavements.

Source: Town of Gilbert, Cool Pavements Brochure Cool pavements have lower heating levels and emit their stored heat more quickly during evening and early nighttime hours than standard pavement. The rapid cooling helps to reduce the nighttime heat island effect. Rubberized pavements have been found to be cooler at night than concrete surfaces. Also, rubberized pavements are both cooler in the day and at night than standard asphalt pavements. Use of porous pavements Porous pavements are cool pavements that retain water with the help of porous concrete or asphalt pavements, also having a stone recharge bed. During rain, water drains through the porous asphalt or concrete surface into the stone infiltration bed, providing storm water storage.

43 | P a g e

These paved surfaces are designed to have infiltration rates of about inch of water per hour and reduce the total peak volume of runoff.14 When water passes through the porous pavement surface, it is temporarily stored in the storm water recharge bed, and then is absorbed into the subsoil. As a result runoff of water are reduced or eliminated. Plate 14: A type porous pavement, showing its layers of components.

Source: Town of Gilbert, Cool Pavements Brochure Cool Roofs Cool roofs are those roofs which reflect most of the incident light falling on the surface and then effectively radiating any absorbed heat back to the atmosphere, instead of transferring heat to the interior of the building. As a result, the roof stays cooler, does not have high surface temperatures and keeps the building at lower temperatures and thus helping in countering the heat island effect.

14

Brochure on the Use of Cool Pavements to Reduce the Urban Heat Island Effect, prepared by the Town of Gilbert.

44 | P a g e

Plate 15: Shows the difference between a traditional roof and a cool roof.

Source: Manual of Cool Roofs for Cool Delhi, Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) Types of Cool Roofs 1. Roof Coatings Roof coatings of cool roofs are divided into two categories Field-applied coatings that can be applied directly on a newly constructed roof or an existing roof. Factory-applied coatings that are applied on materials of roofs before they are supplied.

45 | P a g e

Plate 16: Shows difference between an uncoated roof and coated roof.

Source: http://whiteroofingsystems.blogspot.in/2012/09/how-cool-roofs-benefityou-and.html

2. Modified Bitumen It is the type of cool roofs in which bitumen is modified with plastic and layered with reinforcing material and then is topped with a surfacing material. The modified bitumen cool roof is finished off with a coating of high solar reflectance.

3. Broken China Mosaic Terracing Broken pieces of glossy glazed (white in color) are embedded in wet mortar, providing an inexpensive and conductive cool roofing option. 4. Slate or Tile

46 | P a g e

Commonly used for residential buildings, slate and tile products are available with high solar reflectance properties also offering different cool colors. Properties of high solar reflectance of these roofing materials make them a good example of Cool Roofs. Benefits of Cool Roofs: Help in mitigation of heat island effect. Conserve energy and enhance thermal comfort. Reduce energy demand of a building. Eliminate smog formation as a result, improve air quality. Reduce heat as a result, also reduce health problems such as heat stroke.

5.2.3 Other Methods

Energy Efficiency In the recent past there has been sudden growth of energy use, resulting in increased carbon emissions. Carbon emission into the atmosphere is a major factor that causes the temperatures to rise and other problems like depletion of the ozone layer. Judiciously using the energy majorly helps in reducing heat islands. So there is a necessity of efficient energy planning to reduce heat discharges. Using of central air conditioning units for buildings help in reducing heat discharge sources (as the radiator of a central air conditioner located at one place.), as a result heat island effect is lowered. 47 | P a g e is

In

individual

houses,

shading

the

air

conditioning

units

helps

in

reducing heat islands. More use of public transport and car pooling can majorly lower the anthropogenic activity, helping in controlling the heat impacts on a city.

5.4 Summary
The mitigation of urban heat island is necessary to because of its severe threat to human health. So, the chapter discussed about the different

measures that can be taken up to counter the effect.

48 | P a g e

CHAPTER 6 GLOSSARY

6,1 ABBREVIATIONS
1. UHI- Urban Heat Island 2. UCL- Urban Canopy Layer 3. UBL- Urban Boundary Layer

6.2 DEFINITIONS
1. Albedo- The ratio of the reflected solar energy to the incoming solar energy. 2. Anthropogenic Heat- The heat released in the atmosphere due to various human activities in a city. 3. EvapotranspirationThe loss of water from the soil both by

evaporation and by transpiration from the plants growing in the soil. 4. Infiltration- The process in which water enters the soil. 5. Microclimate- The distinctive climate of a small-scale area. 6. Sky View Factor- The extent of sky observed from a point as a proportion of the total possible sky hemisphere. 7. Solar Reflectance- The ratio of reflected flux to the incident flux.

49 | P a g e

8. Storm Water- Rainwater that runs off from rooftops and streets of a city. 9. Thermal Emissivity- The ability of a material to radiate the absorbed energy. 10. Urban Boundary Layerlevel Layer of air from the rooftop and treetop

extending up to the point where urban landscapes have no

influence on the atmosphere. 11. Urban Canopy Layer- Layer of air from the ground to below the tops of trees and roofs.

12. Urban Canyons- The narrow streets formed by tall buildings in an urban area. 13. Urban Geometry- The basic layout of the built up mass in a city. 14. Urban Heat IslandUrban areas having significant temperature

differences from their surrounding rural areas. 15. Urban PlumeRising hot air in the atmosphere formed by the

presence of urban heat islands.

50 | P a g e

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. H. Akbari, S. Konopacki, M. Pomerantz, Cooling Energy Savings

Potential of Reflective Roofs for Residential and Commercial Buildings in the United States, Journal of Energy, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1999, pp. 391-407. doi:10.1016/S0360-5442(98)001054 2. Brochure on the Use of Cool Pavements to Reduce the Urban Heat Island

Effect, prepared by the Town of Gilbert. Retrieved from: http://www.gilbertaz.gov/planning/urbanheatisland.cfm 3. Cool Roofs for Cool Delhi: Design Manual, Bureau of Energy Efficiency

(BEE). Provided by: Environmental Design Solutions (EDS), New Delhi. 4. Urban Street Trees: 22 Benefits of Trees. Retrieved from:

http://www.michigan.gov.pdf 5. Manju Mohan, Yukihiro Kikegawa, B. R. Gurjar, Shweta Bhati1, Anurag

Kandya, Koichi Ogawa, Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 2012 Pages: 127138 doi:10.4236/acs.2012.22014 Published Online April 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/acs)

51 | P a g e

6.

Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of StrategiesUrban Heat Island

Basics. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/heatisld/resources/pdf/BasicsCompendium.pdf 7. http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/resources/pdf/CoolPavementReport_Former%

20Guid e_complete.pdf 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. http://www.bgu.ac.il/CDAUP/plea/canyon.html http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/voogt.html http://www.treesaregood.com http://www.saveourplanet.org http://www.igbc.in/site/igbc/index.jsp http://www.coolroofs.org http://eetd.lbl.gov/ http://heatisland.lbl.gov/ http://www.ftrctlb.com/sites/default/files/GREEN%20FACADE.jpg?1307406052 http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/portland-greenwall.jpg http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/portland-greenwall.jpg http://www.watermaticltd.co.uk/resources/lawngreenroof.jpg http://www.greenroofguide.co.uk/benefits/ www.epa.gov/hiri/resources/pdf/EPA_How_to_measure_a_UHI www.Ecofinroofgarden.co.uk

52 | P a g e

53 | P a g e