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PURPOSE: The main purpose of this lab is to measure the power output of a Francis turbine and to compare this to the theoretical power output. Another purpose of the lab is to check turbine scaling laws.

PROCEDURE: Set the flow rate to a low level. Set the brake at some level and measure the brake load using the load cell and the rotor speed using a tachometer. Repeat for various brake settings. Set the flow rate to a high level and repeat the experiment.

REPORT: Using the measured data, calculate the brake torque and the bucket speed: then calculate the brake power output of the turbine. Plot Power P versus RPM for each flow rate. Plot Power Coefficient CP versus Speed Coefficient C S. Compare Actual Power with

MEASUREMENTS The brake power output of the turbine is: P = T where T is the torque on the rotor and is the

rotational speed of the rotor. The torque is: T = L d where L is load measured by the brake load cell and d is the moment arm of the cell from the rotor axis. The rotor speed is measured using a tachometer. The scaling laws make use of the blade tip speed VB and the jet speed VJ. The blade tip speed is: VB = R The jet speed is approximately: VJ = VN/Sin[] where Q is the volumetric VN = Q/(2Rh) flow rate through the

turbine, is the inlet guide vane angle, R is the blade tip radius and h is the depth of the rotor. For the lab turbine, RIN is about 40mm, ROUT is about 20mm, h is about 5mm and d is approximately 15cm. The flow rate Q is measured using a V Notch Weir.

The power output of the turbine is: P = T where T is the torque on the rotor and is the

rotational speed of the rotor. The torque is: T = (Q VT R) where VT is the tangential flow speed. The tangential flow speeds at inlet and outlet are: VIN = VN Cot[] VOUT = VB + VN Cot[]

where is the inlet guide vane angle and is the blade outlet angle. For the lab turbine, is approximately 15o and is approximately 150o.

For turbines, we are interested mainly in the power of the device as a function of its rotational speed. The simplest way to develop a nondimensional power is to divide power P by something which has the units of power. The power in a flow is equal to its dynamic pressure P times its volumetric flow rate Q: P Q So, we can define a power coefficient CP: CP = P / [P Q]

For a Francis turbine, P is: P = VJ VJ / 2 To develop a nondimensional version of the rotational speed of the turbine, we can divide the tip speed of the blades R by a flow speed U. For a Francis turbine, the flow speed U is equal to the jet speed VJ. So, we can define a speed coefficient CS: CS = R / VJ

RUN

BRAKE LOAD

ROTOR RPM

RUN

BRAKE LOAD

ROTOR RPM

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