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CLINICAL DENTISTRY AND RESEARCH 2012; 36(2): 41-44

TEMPORARY FLEXIBLE REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE: A CLINICAL REPORT


Tevfik Yavuz, DDS
Research Assistant, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Seluk University Konya, Turkey

ABSTRACT
Missing tooth, replacement a must and it becomes best if a denture patient wearing is comfortable. Innovation of flexible dentures, flexibility combined with strength and light weight provides total comfort and great looks. Features of these prostheses are good retention, aesthetically superb and virtually invisible, excellent strength, easy in handling, no involvement of metal, noninvasive procedures, comfort. All of these factors become important when producing long-term provisional prostheses during implant or complex restorative cases, or when used for permanent removable appliances. This case study presents that the patient with long missing dentition in upper anterior region can be temporary treated esthetically and comfortably with flexible removable partial dentures.

Filiz Aykent, DDS, PhD


Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Seluk University, Konya, Turkey

Correspondence Tevfik Yavuz, DDS


Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Seluk University, 42079, Konya, Turkey Phone : +90 332 2231190 Fax: +90 332 2231190 E-mail: drtevfikyavuz@gmail.com

Key words: Flexible Denture, Provisional Prostheses, Removable Partial Denture.


Submitted for Publication: 09.13.2011 Accepted for Publication : 02.02.2012

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INTRODUCTION When tooth extraction is unavoidable the resulting mutilation causes patients a great deal of anxiety that tends to be even more intense when esthetic appearance is compromised. This problem can be solved with making temporary denture. After the surgical area has healed this temporary denture is replaced by permanent denture. If the missing area requires long span fixed partial bridge, the edentulous patient can treated with a removable partial denture (RPD). There are several types of RPDs.1,2 All of them use standard denture teeth as replacements for the missing natural teeth.1 The differences between them are the materials used to support the denture teeth and retain the RPD in the mouth.1,3 The application of nylon-like materials to the fabrication of dental appliances has been seen as an advance in dentistry.1 This material generally replaces the metal, and the pink acrylic denture material used to build the framework for standard RPDs.1,4 Thermoplastic materials for dental prostheses, Valplast (Valplast Int. Corp.-USA) and Flexiplast (Bredent - Germay), were first introduced to dentistry in the 1950s.1Both materials were similar grades of polyamides (nylon plastics). Since their introduction, there has been a continued interest in thermoplastic dental materials.1,5,6 Acetal was first proposed as an unbreakable thermoplastic resin RPD material in 1971. It was during this period that Rapid InjectionSystems developed the first tooth-colored clasps with a thermoplastic fluoropolymer.7 In 1992 The Flexite Company developed and patented the first pre-formed tooth-color claps known as Clasps-Eze. This product, made of a nylon material, is available in pink and clear color shades and currently sold worldwide.1 Thermoplastic resins are used for a broad variety of applications from removable flexible partial dentures preformed partial denture clasps, fiber reinforced fixed partial dentures, provisional crowns and bridges, obturators and speech therapy appliances, orthodontic retainers and brackets, impression tray8 and border molding materials9, occlusal splints, sleep apnea appliances, and implant abutments. Thermoplastic resins and co-polymers have many advantages over conventional resin systems.1 2. Metal ,monomer and acrylic free 3. Can be used for patients allergic to conventional acrylic restorations. 4. Lightweight, strong and durable 5. Flexible dentures are almost unbreakable and can be made thinner than traditional acrylic dentures, providing more comfort and confidence for the patient. 6. Flexible dentures have just the right degree of flexibility and will not warp or become brittle. 7. The material used can provide translucency that blends with the natural tone of tissue for a more natural appearance. All of these factors become important when producing long-term provisional prostheses during implant or complex restorative cases, or when used for permanent removable appliances.1 This clinical report describes an esthetic flexible RPD (deflex) used for the temporary treatment of a patient with long missing dentition in upper anterior region. CASE REPORT A 24-year-old woman was referred to the Dentistry Faculty (Department of Prosthodontics) for the replacement of the missing maxillary anterior teeth (Figure 1). The patients main complaint was the high level of embarrassment caused by congenitally missing anterior teeth. A panoramic radiograph revealed no development of primary or secondary teeth/ tooth germs (Figure 2). Clinical and radiographic examination was revealed that there were no restorations, caries with abutment teeth so implant supported fixed prosthesis were planned for the edentulous spaces. The patient underwent implant operation and four dental implants were placed in both sides of maxillary canine and lateral incisor regions. Twenty one days after the operation, the soft tissues appeared healthy without any sign of inflammation. Initial impressions of mandible and maxilla were made with an alginate for the construction of study casts. Interim RPDs were fabricated to provide immediate esthetic results, re-establish the occlusion by replacing missing teeth, and allow the patient to become familiar with removable dentures before delivery of the long interim provisional prostheses. To mount the maxillary master cast, an acrylic template was built up with the immediate provisional removable dentures in position.

Some of these advantages include:


1. Cosmetically elegant; no metal clasps and can also be combined with natural colour clasps.

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TeMpOrarY FLeXIBLe ReMOVaBLe DeNture

Figure 1. Missing maxillary anterior teeth.

muffle has a hole in its structure, adapted to the nozzle of a cylinder in which the aluminum capsule containing the flexible resin is melted. After the prosthesis was fabricated, the flexible temporary maxillary RPD was checked intraorally. The occlusal and other adjustments were made and then the prosthesis was send to the laboratory for finishing and polishing (Figure 3). Patient really appreciates the tooth colored esthetics. An acetal single cast partial denture that is color matched for the patient is both esthetic and the flexibility aids in retention and comfort (Figure 4). DISCUSSION Thermoplastic resins have been used in dentistry for over 50 years. During that time the applications have continued to grow, and the interest in these materials of both the profession and the public has increased. Patient success is high since these appliances can be extremely aesthetic.1 Flexible resins are mainly indicated for the construction of RPD in anterior region for esthetic requirements like translucency and natural appearance.10 One must remember that careful attention must be paid to the basic concepts of diagnosis and design, and a different approach to clasp design is essential. Acetal as a homo-polymer has good short thermomechanical properties, but as a co-polymer has better long-term stability. Acetal resin is very strong, resists wear and fracturing, and is quite flexible. It is rigid enough for a long time clinical service.11 An important characteristic of this material is its flexibility, enabling the denture to have an excellent and more comfortable insertion.12 These characteristics make it an ideal material for pre-formed clasps for partial dentures, single pressed unilateral partial dentures, partial denture frameworks, provisional bridges, occlusal splints, and even implant abutments. Acetal resin resists occlusal wear and is well suited for maintaining vertical dimension during provisional restorative therapy.6 However thermoplastic acetal resin is very expensive as a provisional restorative material. Ritterbeck13 relates that the absence of porosity as a result of monomer release is reflected in improved hygiene, since biofilm adherence and bacterial calculus formation are hindered. The denture made with flexible resin is lighter than the denture made of conventional acrylic resin, which means more comfortable for the patient.12,13 Resin bonded fixed partial denture can be used for temporary treatment before replacement the definitive

Figure 2. Panaromic radiography before the implant treatment.

Fabrication of long term temporary thermoplastic resin RPD:


The first impression of the maxilla and mandible were made with a rreversible hydrocolloid (Kromopan, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy) to acquire the anatomic molds in common plaster. The maxillary mold was outlined, and there movable temporary partial denture was planned on this maxillary cast. Rests were made on the maxillary teeth to support the denture. Radiographic examination of abutments revealed that these teeth had good root formation and enough root lengths to set clasps. After obtaining the working models, the retentive regions were relieved. The bases were made with a wax roll, and a mold of the facial arch was taken. The maxillary model was mounted in an articulator then the mandibular model was mounted in the articulator the maxillary-mandibular relationship was checked. The prosthetic teeth shade was selected, and then the teeth were mounted in the laboratory. After mounting teeth, the denture was checked intraorally. The temporary flexible maxillary prosthesis was included in a differential metal muffle to be adapted to the injection machine. The

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resins in the future, to help patients with damaged or missing teeth. REFERENCES
1. Negrutiu M, Sinescu C, Romanu M, Pop D, Lakatos S. Thermoplastic resins for flexible framework removable partial dentures. TMJ 2005; 55: 295-299. 2. Caesar HH, Lehmann KM, editors. Die Teilprothese. Konstruktion und zahntechnische Ausfhrung, 3rd ed., Mnchen: Verlag Neuer Merkur GmbH; 2002. 3. Wstmann B, Budtz-Jrgensen E, Jepson N, Mushimoto E, Palmqvist S, Sofou A et al. Indications for removable partial dentures: a literature review. Int J Prosthodont 2005; 18: 139-145. 4. Negruiu M, Sinescu C, Sandu L, editors. Guidelines of removable partial dentures.1st ed. Marineasa: Timioara; 2004. 5. Lowe LG. Flexible denture flanges for patients exhibiting undercut tuberosities and reduced width of the buccal vestibule: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2004; 92: 128-131. 6. Phoenix RD, Mansueto MA, Ackerman NA, Jones RE. Evaluation of mechanical and thermal properties of commonly used denture base resins. J Prosthodont 2004; 13: 17-27. 7. Donovan TE, Cho GC. Esthetic considerations with removable partial dentures. J Calif Dent Assoc 2003; 31: 551-557. 8. Fujisawa M, Adachi K, Tsuruta S, Ishibashi K. A procedure for fitting a fixed partial denture to an existing removable partial denture. J Prosthet Dent 2004; 91: 392-394. 9. Heath JR, Boru TK, Grant AA. The stability of temporary prosthetic base materials. J Oral Rehabil 1993; 20: 363-372. 10. Goiato MC, dos Santos DM, Haddad MF, Pesqueira AA. Effect of accelerated aging on the microhardness and color stability of flexible resins for dentures. J Brazilian Oral Research 2010; 24: 114-119. 11. Naisargi S, Rajendra D, Rao JR, Harsh M. Management of a Partially Edentulous Patient with Bilateral Mandibular Tori -A Case Report. Int J Dental Clinics 2010; 2: 53-56. 12. Goiato MC, Panzarini SR, Tomiko C, Luvizuto ER. Temporary flexible immediately removable partial denture: a case report. Dent Today 2008; 27: 114, 116 13. Ritterbeck R, Riterbeck R. SistemaFlexline: prtesesflexveis. [cited 2005]. http://www.flexline.odo.br. Accessed January 22, 2008.

Figure 3. Finishing and polishing of prosthesis.

Figure 4. Final prosthesis.

implant supported prosthesis. The resin bonded fixed partial denture is not new, but there is still some concern about the longevity of this type of prosthesis and totally untested. A review of about 60 on the clinical survival of resin bonded fixed partial dentures put the 4-year survival rate at 74%. The patient in this case report had a long edentulous space in anterior region to make temporary fixed resin bonded partial denture. Because of the risk of cementation failure, we did not use the adhesive bridge. Also a conventional RPD was not preferred as a temporary prosthesis because of the metal clasps which cause esthetics problem in anterior region. CONCLUSION In the present case, flexible framework RPD has served as a successful until the permanent fixed prosthesis have restorated in anterior esthetic region and increased patients the quality of life in this interim. With the development of new properties, elastomers and copolymer alloys, there are certain to be additional new applications for thermoplastic

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