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4.1 Design of process piping ASME 31.3. 4.2 Piping material selection per ASME code. 4.3 Pressure/Mechanical design of piping components per ASME 31.3.

The o !ecti"es of this unit are to# 1. To understand and appl$ ASME %31.3 Process Piping &ode re'uirements in term of engineering design( piping fa rication ) erection( and inspection of piping related acti"ities.

After completing the unit( students should e a le to# 1. To ha"e an o"er"ie* understanding of ASME %31.3 Process &odes( its general applications( and code interpretations. 2. To e a le to perform piping fa rication( erection ) 'ualit$ re"ie* ) inspection as per ASME %31.3 Process Piping re'uirements.


The ase rules for piping engineering are the ASME %31 &odes Each &ode pro"ides the t$pical loading conditions to e considered+ allo*a le stresses+ minimum *all thic,ness calculations+ and minimum fa rication( inspection and testing re'uirements. -ther ma!or codes are listed that ma$ appl$ in certain situations. This is not an all.inclusi"e list# %31.1( /Po*er Piping0( applies to electric po*er plant piping %31.2( /1uel 2as Piping0( applies to a o"e ground gasoline pipes %31.3 /Process Piping0 applies to refiner$ and petrochemical plants %31.4( /Pipeline for 3i'uid 4$drocar ons and -ther 3i'uids0( applies to underground li'uid pipelines


%31.5( /6efrigeration0 applies to ma!or refrigeration s$stems( as might e found in food processing plants. %31.7( /2as Transmission ) Distri ution Piping S$stems0 applies to underground gas transmission lines. ASME %oiler and Pressure 8essel &ode applies to oiler supplied piping -ther standards that are often referenced in piping engineering are# American Petroleum 9nstitute :AP9; maintenance and inspection of piping components Manufacturer Standards Societ$ for pipe supports( MSS.SP.57 A<D MSS.SP. => American <ational Standards 9nstitute :A<S9; for "arious piping components including "al"es( fittings( and radiographic plugs. American Standards Testing Manufacturers( materials( inspection methods( testing Methods American ?elding Societ$

Depending on the plant location and the t$pe of facilit$( it ma$ e legall$ mandator$ to compl$ *ith ASME and other codes. E"en if there is no legal re'uirement( the client( and insurance under*riters ma$ re'uire compliance/*ith ASME codes. And at a minimum( good engineering practices should e follo*ed that are descri ed in the &odes.9n most plants( one piping code applies to all piping s$stems( ut sometimes it is not appropriate to ta,e this approach. A petrochemical plant ma$ e designed to %31.3( ut there ma$ e a po*er oiler suppl$ing po*er( and that piping should e designed to %31.1 and parts ma$ e designed to ASME %oiler ) Pressure 8essel &ode. Pipelines designed to %31.4 and %31.7 ma$ change to %31.3 *hen rought out of the ground for a compressor station or processing facilit$. ASME %31.3 applies to process piping Specifications. This unit is formatted to e used in con!unction *ith ASME %31.3( $ follo*ing the same section num ering as %31.3 &ode. The 9ntroduction to ASME %31.3 states @9t is the o*nerAs / responsi ilit$ to determine *hich &ode Section is most applica le to the piping installation0 The code addresses the structural integrit$ of the piping s$stem. The designer is responsi le for all other aspects of the design including the functional design of the s$stem. Those *ho practice piping engineering must understand the applications of the rules( and e cogniBant of t$pes of fa rication( loading conditions and other factors that need to e considered in each piping s$stem. As *ith most &odes( rules and guidelines( there is almost no method to ade'uatel$ pro"ide rules for all possi le loading conditions( piping configurations and applications. E"en the most eCperienced piping engineers must consider the loading conditions that could appl$ to each piping s$stem to assure that e"er$thing reasona le has een done to assure /9t is safe for $ou to stand neCt to that pipe.0



Petrochemical plants t$picall$ operate at much lo*er pressures and temperatures than po*er plants( ut the "arious chemicals result in corrosion issues( and the use of man$ special allo$ materials. These plants are also laid out horiBontall$ *ith most pipe supports eing rigid on pipe rac,s. Plants are often in large industrial areas. 9f there is a fire or eCplosion( there is al*a$s a concern in minimiBing the damage to the local area of a plant or unit *ithin a plant. ECplosions ma$ release haBardous chemicals in the air or in *ater( and thus mechanical integrit$ must al*a$s e a primar$ design criterion. Pipelines are t$picall$ underground *ith no thermal considerations. The pipes are not put in ending at supports( and thus design rules allo* thinner pipe for the same pressure compared to %31.1 and %31.3. Pipelines ma$ e in unpopulated areas( or running through su ur an and ur an areas. %ecause of the potential for damage to near $ lando*ners( rules are different ased on the pipeDs proCimit$ to populated areas. There are a num er of similarities in each &ode( such as in the calculation of minimum *all thic,ness( inspection and testing. %ut the eCact rules are different( depending on the t$pe of facilit$. Allo*a le stresses are different in each code( reflecting a different factor of safet$ ased on the eCpected use and operation of the facilit$. -nce a &ode has een selected to appl$ to a particular piping s$stem( onl$ that code should e applied. 1or eCample( it is not allo*ed to use a minimum *all thic,ness calculation from %31.3( an allo*a le stress "alue from %31.7( and an inspection method from %31.1. ?hile it appears o "ious that *e cannot /select pic,0 the aspects *e li,e from each &ode( there are man$ times that the &odes are incomplete or gi"e no guidance for certain conditions. 9n these situations it is appropriate to research other codes( technical papers and other pu lished documents for guidelines to properl$ engineer the piping s$stem. ?ith this information( a rational engineering !udgment can e made that is at least as conser"ati"e as the go"erning &ode. %31.3 &ode also pro"ides# 1. A list of accepta le piping materials *ith their allo*a le stress at "arious temperatures and numerous notes pro"iding additional information on the use of each material. 2. A ta ulation of standards *hich include accepta le components for use in %31.3 piping s$stems such as# a; ASME %1=.5( *hich co"ers the dimensions( materials of construction( and the pressure. temperature limitations of the common t$pes of flanges found in refiner$ piping. ; ASME %1=.>( another dimensional standard for utt.*elded fittings such as tees( crosses( el o*s( reducers( *eld caps( and lap !oint stu ends. %1=.> fittings must also e capa le of retaining a minimum calcula le pressure. c; ASME %1=.11( another dimensional standard for soc,et.*eld and threaded tees( couplings( and half.couplings. This standard also has a minimum pressure re'uirement . 3. 2uidance in determining safe piping stress le"els and design life. 4. ?eld eCamination re'uirements for gauging the structural integrit$ of *elds.


5. Pressure test re'uirements for piping s$stems efore plant start.up.

An essential part of e"er$ piping s$stem design effort is the esta lishment of the design conditions for each process. -nce the$ are esta lished( these conditions ecome the asis of that s$stemDs design. The ,e$ components of the design conditions are the design pressure and the design temperature.


Design pressure is defined as the most se"ere sustained pressure *hich results in the greatest component thic,ness and the highest component pressure rating. 9t shall not e less than the pressure at the most se"ere condition of coincident internal or eCternal pressure and maCimum or minimum temperature eCpected during ser"ice E3F1.2G.Design temperature is defined as the sustained pipe metal temperature representing the most se"ere conditions of coincident pressure and temperature E3F1.3G. Designers must e a*are that more than one design condition ma$ eCist in an$ single piping s$stem. -ne design condition ma$ esta lish the pipe *all thic,ness and another ma$ esta lish the component rating( such as for flanges. -nce the design pressure and temperature ha"e een esta lished for a s$stem( the 'uestion could e as,ed# &an these conditions e"er e eCceededH The ans*er is $es( the$ can e eCceeded. 9n the normal operation of a refiner$ or chemical plant( there is a need( on occasion( for catal$st regeneration( steam.out or other short term conditions that ma$ cause temperature.pressure "ariations a o"e design. 6ather than ase the design pressure and temperature on these short term operations( the &ode pro"ides conditions to permit these "ariations to occur *ithout ecoming the asis of design.


The materials in %31.3 &ode is ased largel$ on the three premises listed elo*#
a; %31.3 assumes that users ha"e some understanding of material classification s$stems( material specifications( and material properties. ECperience sho*s( ho*e"er( that the le"el of understanding among users "aries *idel$ and is often limited to a fe* grades of car on steel or to a specific allo$ s$stem emplo$ed $ the user on a regular asis. ; %31.3 is a safet$ code focusing primaril$ on mechanical design( mechanical properties( and resulting pressure integrit$. The &ode lists a *ide "ariet$ of materials that can e considered /pre'ualified0 for use ased on their inherent properties E323G. As part of the materials listing( the &ode includes allo*a le stress "alues as a function of design temperature( and some helpful notes relating to material eha"ior under "arious ser"ice conditions ETa les A.1 and A.2( and AppendiC 1G. c; Although %31.3 does list accepta le materials and does pro"ide certain prohi itions( limitations( conditions( and precautions on the use of accepta le materials( it does not prescri e *hich material to use for a specific application. 6emem er( the &ode focus is on mechanical integrit$( and it pro"ides limited direction *ith respect to the suita ilit$ of an$ material for a particular process en"ironment. E"aluation of eCpected material eha"iour for a gi"en set of process conditions( including critical eCamination


of the prohi itions( limitations( conditions( and precautions listed in the &ode( generall$ re'uires input from a materialDs specialist.

MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS AND SPECIFICATIONS The language of materials can e complicated as efficient use of %31.3 re'uires
some asic comprehension of &ode la$out and materials technolog$( especiall$ material classification s$stems and material specifications. 1or eCample( consider locating an allo*a le stress for a particular austenitic stainless steel pipe material such as ASTM Standard A 312 T$pe 31=3. An uninformed user could end up searching through the approCimatel$ 5F pages of information constituting %31.3 Ta le A.1. 4o*e"er( the search *ould e considera l$ less difficult if the user understood the follo*ing asic la$out of Ta le A.1. a; Ta le A.1 uses road generic descriptors to classif$ listed materials under headings such as &ar on Steel( <ic,el and <ic,el Allo$s( and Titanium and Titanium Allo$s. These generic descriptors are t$picall$ located to*ard the top left and right sides of each page of the ta le( !ust elo* the ta le header. ; ?ithin each road generic material descriptor( Ta le A.1 further classifies materials according to product form :e.g.( plates and sheets( pipe and tu e( forgings( etc.;. c; 1inall$( for each product form( Ta le A.1 lists materials according to nominal composition( material specification( and grade. 2rades are descri ed in terms of se"eral standardiBed alphanumeric designation s$stems that depend upon the allo$ s$stem under consideration( and are descri ed later. The preceding discussion of Ta le A.1 ma$ appear simplistic( especiall$ if $ou *or, *ith man$ different s$stems on a regular asis. 4o*e"er( there is a lot more to material identification( particularl$ since the manner of identification often depends upon the le"el and t$pe of communication.As another eCample( consider materials selection during the conceptual or front end engineering of a ma!or pro!ect. At this stage of design( it is generall$ not prudent to specif$ piping materials using restricti"e specification and grade designations such as ASTM Standard A 312 T$pe 31=3. 3ater in the pro!ect( one could easil$ as,( *h$ canDt *e use T$pe 31=( T$pe 3F43( or T$pe 3F4H Alternati"el$( e"en though generic designations during front end design allo* for fleCi ilit$ in specific material grade selection during detailed mechanical design( there are situations *here the onl$ suita le material candidates are proprietar$ allo$s offered $ a select list of manufactures :e.g.( 9ncolo$ 725 <icrofer 4221( 4astello$ &. 22( etc.;. 9n summar$( the three primar$ methods of identif$ing materials are# a; generic designations( ; trade names or proprietar$ designations( and c; standardiBed alphanumeric designations. These material designation s$stems are discussed in more detail under the neCt three headings. Gener ! De" #n$% &n" &lassification of materials $ generic designation in"ol"es the grouping of materials into road categories according to certain attri utes such as general composition( mechanical properties( product form( or end use. There are no precise rules go"erning *hich attri utes to appl$ in defining material groups( and the le"el of detail afforded the classification s$stem depends largel$ on the le"el of detail needed to communicate specific ideas. &onse'uentl$( materials ma$ e genericall$ grouped according to "er$


road characteristics( for eCample metal or non metal( ferrous or nonferrous( or cast or *rought. Alternati"el$( materials ma$ e placed in more narro*l$ defined generic groups such as mild steel( 3II series stainless steel( or <i&rMo allo$. ?ith piping materials( generic grouping ased on allo$ content is most popular. These groups usuall$ reflect the primar$ allo$ content( and ma$ include "ar$ing le"els of compleCit$ depending upon the eCtent to *hich one needs to communicate specific material needs. Ta le 5.1 gi"es an indication of the progression from simple generic descriptors( to compleC generic descriptors that ma$ in"ol"e some elements of a standardiBed classification s$stem :e.g.( 3FF series austenitic stainless steel;. T$'(e A)1

2eneric material descriptions are fre'uentl$ used during the earl$ stages of a pro!ect( including pro!ect definition( conceptual design( front end design( preliminar$ design( process design( and/or udget estimation. 1or materials selection purposes during these stages( the user must e a*are of &ode re'uirements( ut is not loo,ing for a precise solution for each piping s$stem. 6ather( the user should e loo,ing at more glo al issues including resistance of generic material groups to "arious forms of corrosion( material cost and a"aila ilit$ for "arious product forms( deli"er$ times( need for 'ualification testing( and eCistence of suita le forming and !oining technolog$.

The attached piping specifications pro"ide the re'uired data to meet the pressure design re'uirements of the ASME %31.3 piping code. Additional re'uirements and competent engineering are re'uired to pro"ide a safe and complete piping s$stem design. Additional re'uirements include material selection( functional design( s$stem la$out( component selection( support design( thermal eCpansion( stress anal$sis( eCamination and testing. These specifications must e used in con!unction *ith ASME %31.3 and this guide to ensure a sufficient piping s$stem design. The Piping Specifications are organiBed as follo*s# 1FF Series &ar on Steels 2FF Series Stainless Steels 3FF Series 4igh Allo$ Steels 4FF Series <onferrous 5FF Series <onmetals >FF Series <on.ASME %31.3 &odes



1. The nominal pressure stress :hoop stress;( shall not eCceed the $ield strength of the material at temperature. 2. The sum of the longitudinal stresses due to pressure( *eight( and other sustained loadings plus stresses produced $ occasional loads( such as *ind or earth'ua,e( ma$ e as high as 1.33 times the hot allo*a le stress( Sh( for a hot operating s$stem E3F2.3.=G.%efore continuing on( letDs appl$ *hat has een co"ered in order to understand the asis of the limits the &ode places on these t*o stresses. Pressure stress in the first condition a o"e is the circumferential :principal; stress or hoop stress defined earlier. The stress limit of the $ield strength at temperature is simpl$ a restatement of the maCimum principal stress failure theor$. 9f indeed( the hoop stress eCceeded the $ield strength of the material at temperature( a primar$ stress failure *ould occur.


The second stress condition( the longitudinal stress caused $ pressure and *eight( is a principal stress and( pressure( *eight and other sustained loadings are :*ind or earth'ua,e stresses; primar$ stress loadings. The allo*a le stress( Sh( is a stress limit "alue that *ill not eCceed a series of conditions( one of *hich *as $ield at temperature. Appl$ing this $ield stress condition *ith the 1.33 Sh stress limit( *e find again( a direct application of the maCimum principal stress failure theor$. That is( longitudinal principal stress must e less than 1.33 C $ield strength at temperature E3F2.3.=G( the product of *hich results in a limit of a out >FJ $ield. Again( the primar$ stress is less than $ield at temperature. :Some factor of safet$ is included in this e'uation to account for the simplified techni'ue of com ining these stresses.;


The ASME code recommends an allo*a le tensile stress le"el in the pipe material. The pressure that can generate this tensile stress le"el can e calculated ta,ing into account the t$pe of material( temperature and other factors. The formula :see %31.3.1>>> code( page 2F; *hich gi"es the relationship et*een the pressure :p; la eled p :see e'uationE1G;( the outside diameter :D;( the allo*a le tensile stress :S; and the thic,ness :t; of the pipe is#

*here E# material and pipe construction 'ualit$ factor as defined in ASME Process Piping code %31.3.1>>>( Ta le A.1A K# *all thic,ness coefficient *ith "alues listed in ASME Process Piping code %31.3.1>>>( Ta le 3F4.1.1 1ormula E1G is re.*ritten in terms of the pressure :p; of the fluid *ithin the pipe #

The pipe is a t$pical spiral.*eld construction assem led according to the specification ASTM A 13>.>=. The material is car on steel ASTM A 13>. The outside diameter of the pipe is 2F.5 inches and the *all thic,ness is F.25.inch. 1or this material( the ASME code recommends that an allo*a le stress :S; of 1=(FFF psi e used for a temperature range of .2FL1 to M1FFL1. The 'ualit$ factor E for steel A13> is F.7+ the *all thic,ness coefficient K is F.4.


The "alue of the internal fluid pressure that *ill produce the tensile stress le"el stipulated $ the ASME code is 315 psig :see formula E3G;.

This pressure should e compared to the normal operating pressure. The pressure in a pump s$stem can "ar$ dramaticall$ from place to place. The pressure le"el "s. location can onl$ e determined on a case $ case asis. 4o*e"er( t$picall$ the pressure is maCimum near the pump discharge and decreases to*ards the outlet of the s$stem. 9t is possi le that the s$stem could e plugged. ?hen the s$stem plugs( the pump head increases and reaches :at Bero flo*; the head in the case of a centrifugal pump. The maCimum pressure in the pump s$stem *ill then e the pressure corresponding to the head plus the pressure corresponding to the pump inlet suction head. Since the s$stem is plugged( this pressure *ill eCtend all the *a$ from the pump discharge to the plug if the plug is at the same ele"ation as the pump discharge. The relationship et*een pressure head and pressure is gi"en in e'uation E4G.

*here :4; is the pressure head( :p; the pressure and :S2; the specific gra"it$ of the fluid. 9f the pressure eCceeds the allo*a le operating pressure as calculated $ the ASME code( then pressure relief de"ices ma$ ha"e to e installed. This is not li,el$ to occur in single pump s$stems( ut multiple series pump s$stems ma$ produce eCcessi"e pressures since the pressure at the outlet of the last pump depends on the sum of the pressures of each pump. ECceptions are pro"ided for in the code and are relati"e to the duration of the maCimum pressures e"ents( if the$ are of short duration these e"ents ma$ e allo*ed for short periods. 6upture dis,s are often used in these situations. The$ are accurate( relia le pressure relief de"ices. 4o*e"er( these de"ices are not mandator$ in man$ s$stems and their installation are then a matter of engineering !udgment.


9n this unit *e ha"e studied that(

1. ASME %31.3 Process &odes( its general applications( and code interpretations.
2. Piping fa rication( erection ) 'ualit$ re"ie* ) inspection as per ASME %31.3 Process Piping re'uirements.