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Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility

using a virtual terminal connection. User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bitbyte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Telnet was developed in 1969 beginning with RFC 15, extended in RFC 854, and standardized as Internet Engineering Task Force(IETF) Internet Standard STD 8, one of the first Internet standards. Historically, Telnet provided access to a command-line interface (usually, of an operating system) on a remote host. Most network equipment and operating systems with a TCP/IP stack support a Telnet service for remote configuration (including systems based onWindows NT). However, because of serious security issues when using Telnet over an open network such as the Internet, its use for this purpose has [citation needed] waned significantly in favor of SSH. The term telnet may also refer to the software that implements the client part of the protocol. Telnet client applications are available for virtually all computer platforms. Telnet is also used as a verb. To telnet means to establish a connection with the Telnet protocol, either with command line client or with a programmatic interface. For example, a common directive might be: "To change your password, telnet to the server, log in and run the passwd command." Most often, a user will be telnetting to a Unix-like server system or a network device (such as a router) and obtaining a login prompt to a command line text interface or a character-based full-screen manager. A uniform resource locator, abbreviated URL (also known as web address, particularly when used with HTTP), is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to a resource. In most web browsers, the URL of a web page is displayed on top inside anaddress bar. An example of a typical URL would be "http://en.example.org/wiki/Main_Page". A URL is technically a type of uniform resource identifier (URI), but in many technical documents and verbal discussions, URL is often used as a [1] synonym for URI, and this is not considered a problem. URLs are commonly used for web pages (http:), but can also be used for file transfer (ftp:), email (mailto:), telephone numbers (tel:) and many other applications (see URI scheme for list). The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly known as the web) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and othermultimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks. Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist and at that time employee of CERN, a European research [4] organisation near Geneva, wrote a proposal in March 1989 for what would eventually become the World [1] Wide Web. The 1989 proposal was meant for a more effective CERN communication system but [5] Berners-Lee eventually realised the concept could be implemented throughout the world. Berners-Lee and Flemish computer scientist Robert Cailliau proposed in 1990 to use hypertext "to link and access [6] information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will", and Berners-Lee [7] finished the first website in December that year. Berners-Lee posted the project on the alt.hypertext [8] newsgroup on 7 August 1991. Direct memory access (DMA) is a feature of modern computers that allows certain hardware subsystems within the computer to access system memory independently of the central processing unit (CPU).
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Without DMA, when the CPU is using programmed input/output, it is typically fully occupied for the entire duration of the read or write operation, and is thus unavailable to perform other work. With DMA, the CPU initiates the transfer, does other operations while the transfer is in progress, and receives an interrupt from the DMA controller when the operation is done. This feature is useful any time the CPU cannot keep up with the rate of data transfer, or where the CPU needs to perform useful work while waiting for a relatively slow I/O data transfer. Many hardware systems use DMA, including disk drive controllers, graphics cards, network cards and sound cards. DMA is also used for intra-chip data transfer in multi-core processors. Computers that have DMA channels can transfer data to and from devices with much less CPU overhead than computers without DMA channels. Similarly, a processing element inside a multi-core processor can transfer data to and from its local memory without occupying its processor time, allowing computation and data transfer to proceed in parallel. DMA can also be used for "memory to memory" copying or moving of data within memory. DMA can offload expensive memory operations, such as large copies or scatter-gather operations, from the CPU to a dedicated DMA engine. An implementation example is the I/O Acceleration Technology.