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Networking interview questions

What is LAN? LAN is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network !AN". Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. #ach node individual computer" in a LAN has its own $%& with which it e'ecutes programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. (his means that many users can share e'pensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. &sers can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions. What's the difference Between an Intranet and the Internet? (here)s one ma*or distinction between an intranet and the +nternet, (he +nternet is an open, public space, while an intranet is designed to be a private space. An intranet may be accessible from the +nternet, but as a rule it)s protected by a password and accessible only to employees or other authori-ed users. .rom within a company, an intranet server may respond much more /uickly than a typical !eb site. (his is because the public +nternet is at the mercy of traffic spikes, server breakdowns and other problems that may slow the network. !ithin a company, however, users have much more bandwidth and network hardware may be more reliable. (his makes it easier to serve high-bandwidth content, such as audio and video, over an intranet. Define the term Protocol %rotocol is a standard way of communicating across a network. A protocol is the 0language0 of the network. +t is a method by which two dissimilar systems can communicate. ($% is a protocol which runs over a network. What is !"P #!ile "ransfer Protocol$? .(% is .ile (ransfer %rotocol. +t used to e'change files on the internet. (o enable the data transfer .(% uses ($%1+%, .(% is most commonly used to upload and download files from the internet. .(% can be invoked from the command prompt or some graphical user interface. .(% also allows to update delete, rename, move, and copy" files at a server. +t uses a reserved port no 23. %&'lain the ( La)ers of *+I Layer 3, %hysical layer +t represents all the electrical and physical specifications for devices.

Layer 2, 4ata link layer +t provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the %hysical layer. Layer 5, Network layer (he Network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data se/uences from a source to a destination via one or more networks. Layer 6, (ransport layer +t provides transparent transfer of data between end users. Layer 7, 8ession layer +t controls the sessions between computers. +t connects, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application. Layer 9, %resentation layer +t transforms data to provide a standard interface for the Application layer. Layer :, Application layer +t provides a means for the user to access information on the network through an application. What is a network? What are the different kinds of network? %&'lain them A network is a group of computers or nodes connected together. (hey are connected with each other by communication paths. (ypes of Networks, LAN ; Local Area Network connects a group of nodes covering a small physical area. LAN<s are most commonly seen in offices, building etc. LAN<s enable higher transfer rate of data, smaller coverage of area and hence less wiring. !AN ; !ide Area Network connects a group of nodes covering a wide area. !AN typically connects and allow communication between regions or national boundaries. (he most common e'ample of !AN is internet. =%N ; =irtual %rivate Network connects or links nodes in some larger area by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network e.g., the +nternet" instead of by physical wires. +t is used for secure communication through the public internet. =%N alone may not support e'plicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption. +ntranet ; +t is a set of networks under the control of a single administrative person. +t can be considered as an internal network of an organi-ation. +f it is large, web servers are used to provide information to the users. #'tranet ; +t is a network that restricts itself within a single organi-ation. +t can be categori-ed as !AN, MAN etc. however> it cannot have a single LAN. +t must have a connection at least one" with e'ternal network.

What are network to'ologies? %&'lain ,ing- Bus and +tar to'olog) A network topology describes the layout of a network. +t describes how different nodes and elements are connected to each other. 4ifferent types of topology, a. ?ing,All nodes connected with another in a loop. #ach device is connected to one or more another device on either side. b. @us All nodes connected to a central and a common cable called as a back bone. +n bus topology, the server is at one end and the clients are connected at different positions across the network. #asy to manage and install. +f the backbone fails, the entire communication fails. c. 8tar All nodes connected to a central hub. (he communication between the nodes is through the hub. ?elative re/uires more cables as compared to @&8. However if any node fails, it wont affect the entire LAN. %&'lain IP- ".P and /DP ($% ; (ransmission control %rotocol is used to establish communication between nodes or networks and e'change data packets. +t guarantees delivery of data packets in the order they were sent. Hence it is most commonly used in all applications that re/uire guaranteed delivery of data. +t can handle both timeouts if packets were delayed" and retransmission if packets were lost". (he stream of data is transmitted in segments. (he segment header is 52 bit. it is a connectionless communication protocol at the third level network" of the A8+ model. +% ; +nternet protocol is used for transmission of data over the internet. +% uses +% addresses to identity each machine uni/uely. Message is sent using small packets. (he packet contains both the sender and receivers address. +% does not guarantee the delivery in the same order as sent. (his is because the packets are sent via different routes. +t is a connectionless communication protocol at the third level network" of the A8+ model. &4% ; &ser 4ata %rotocol is a communication protocol. +t is normally used as an alternative for ($%1+%. However there are a number of differences between them. &4% does not divide data into packets. Also, &4% does not send data packets in se/uence. Hence, the application program must ensure the se/uencing. &4% uses port numbers to distinguish user re/uests. +t also has a checksum capability to verify the data.

What is multicasting? Multicasting allows a single message to be sent to a group of recipients. #mailing, teleconferencing, are e'amples of multicasting. +t uses the network infrastructure and standards to send messages. %&'lain the functionalit) of PIN0 %ing +s particularly used to check if the system is in network or not. +t also gives packet lost information. +n windows ping command is written as ping ipBaddress. (he output returns the data packets information. (he number of packets sent, received and lost is returned by %+NC. What is a 1A. address? A Media Access $ontrol address is a uni/ue identifier that is assigned to the network adapters or N+$s by the manufacturers for the purpose of identification and used in the Media Access $ontrol protocol sub layer. +t is a 32 digit he'adecimal number. A MA$ address usually encodes the registered identification of the manufacturer, if the address is assigned by the manufacturer. +t some times also called as #thernet Hardware Address 1 physical address1 adapter address. %&'lain +'anning2"ree 'rotocols 8panning (rees are a standard techni/ue implemented in LAN connections. An a mesh topology, a set of spanning tree algorithms were developed for prevention of redundant transmission of data along intermediate hops between a source and a destination host. +n the absence of spanning trees, a mesh network is flooded and rendered unusable by messages by circulating within a loop that is infinite, between hosts. An algorithm used in transparent bridges which determines the best path from source to destination to avoid bridge loops. At the time of 8(% initiali-ation in a network, its first action is to utili-e the 8panning (ree Algorithm for selection of a root bridge and a root port. (he root bridge is the network which has lowest-value bridge identifier. All the switches on the network use @ridge %rotocol 4ata &nits to broadcast the bridge +4s to the other switches in that network. 8oon after selection of the root bridge, determination of the root ports on all other bridges is done. What is the use of I01P 'rotocol? +nternet Croup Management %rotocol, - +t allows internet hosts to participate in multicasting. (he +CM% messages are used to learn which hosts is part of which multicast groups. (he mechanism also allows a host to inform its local router that it wants to receive messages. What are Ping and "racert? %ing and tracert are the commands used to send information to some remote computers to receive some information. +nformation is sent and received by

packets. %ing + particularly used to check if the system is in network or not. +t also gives packet lost information. +n windows ping command is written as ping ipBaddress (racert is called as trace route. +t is used to track or trace the path the packet takes from the computer where the command is given until the destination. +n windows ping command is written as tracert ipBaddress %&'lain ,+3P 4ow does it work? ?esource ?eservation protocol is used to reserve resources across a network. +t is used for re/uesting a specific Duality of 8ervice Do8" from the network. (his is done by carrying the re/uest that needs a reservation of the resource" of the host throughout the network. +t visits each node in the network. ?8=% used two local modules for reservation of resources. Admission control module confirms if there are sufficient available resources while policy module checks for the permission of making a reservation. ?8=% offers scalability. An a successful completion of both checks ?8=% uses the packet classifier and packet scheduler for the desired Dos re/uested. %&'lain the conce't of D4.P. 4ynamic Host $onfiguration %rotocol is used assigning +% addresses to computers in a network. (he +% addresses are assigned dynamically. $ertainly, using 4H$%, the computer will have a different +% address every time it is connected to the network. +n some cases the +% address may change even when the computer is in network. (his means that 4H$% leases out the +% address to the computer for sometime. $lear advantage of 4H$% is that the software can be used to manage +% address rather than the administrator. What are the differences 5etween a domain and a workgrou'?

+n a domain, one or more computer can be a server to manage the network. An the other hand in a workgroup all computers are peers having no control on each other. +n a domain, user doesn<t need an account to logon on a specific computer if an account is available on the domain. +n a work group user needs to have an account for every computer. +n a domain, $omputers can be on different local networks. +n a work group all computers needs to be a part of the same local network. %&'lain how NA" works Network Address (ranslation translates and +% address used in a network to another +% address known within another network. A NA( table is maintained for global to local and local to mapping of +%<s. NA( can be statically defined or dynamically translate from a pool of addresses. (he NA( router is responsible for translating traffic coming and leaving the network. NA( prevents malicious

activity initiated by outside hosts from reaching local hosts by being dependent on a machine on the local network to initiate any connection to hosts on the other side of the router.

What is PPP 'rotocol? %&'lain PPP 'acket format. %oint to %oint protocol helps communication between 2 computers over a serial cable, phone line or other fiber optic lines, e.g. $onnection between an +nternet 8ervice %rovider and a host. %%% also provides authentication. %%% operates by sending ?e/uest packets and waiting for Acknowledge packets that accept, re*ect or try to change the re/uest. (he protocol is also used to negotiate on network address or compression options between the nodes. %acket format .lag field, 3 byte, - +ndicates frames beginning or end Address field, 3 byte, - &sed for broadcast address destination address" $ontrol field, 3 byte, - &sed as a control byte %rotocol field, - 3 or 2 bytes, - 8etting of protocol in information field datagram" of

+nformation, - E or more bytes, - 4atagram whether it contains data or control information" %adding, - E or more bytes, - optional padding .$8, - 2 or more bytes, - error check sum What is IP +'oofing and how can it 5e 'revented? +% spoofing is a mechanism used by attackers to gain unauthori-ed access to a system. Here, the intruder sends messages to a computer with an +% address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host. (his is done by forging the header so it contains a different address and make it appear that the packet was sent by a different machine. %revention %acket filtering, - to allow packets with recogni-ed formats to enter the network using special routers and firewalls. #ncrypting the session %&'lain IP datagram- !ragmentation and 1"/ +% datagram can be used to describe a portion of +% data. #ach +% datagram has set of fields arranged in an order. (he order is specific which helps to decode and read the stream easily. +% datagram has fields like =ersion, header length, (ype

of service, (otal length, checksum, flag, protocol, (ime to live, +dentification, source and destination ip address, padding, options and payload. M(&, Ma'imum (ransmission &nit is the si-e of the largest packet that a communication protocol can pass. (he si-e can be fi'ed by some standard or decided at the time of connection .ragmentation is a process of breaking the +% packets into smaller pieces. .ragmentation is needed when the datagram is larger than the M(&. #ach fragment becomes a datagram in itself and transmitted independently from source. !hen received by destination they are reassembled. What is an a''lication gatewa)? An application gateway is an application program that runs on a firewall between two networks. An application gateway is used for establishing connection between client program and destination service. (he client negotiates with the gateway to communicate with the service of destination. Here, gateway can be called as a pro'y. Hence, two connections are made> Ane between client and pro'y> other between pro'y and destination service. $onnections take place behind the firewall. %&'lain .ircuit Level 0atewa) A circuit level gateway is used to find if a session in ($% handshaking is legitimate or not. +t can be considered as a layer between application layer and transport layer. (hey protect the information of the private network they protect. $ircuit level gateways do not filter packets. What is '0atewa) of Last ,esort'? A Cateway of Last ?esort or 4efault gateway is a route used by the router when no other known route e'ists to transmit the +% packet. Fnown routes are present in the routing table. Hence, any route not known by the routing table is forwarded to the default route. #ach router which receives this packet will treat the packet the same way, if the route is known, packet will be forwarded to the known route.

4ow does cloud com'uting 'rovides on2demand functionalit)? $loud computing is a metaphor used for internet. +t provides on-demand access to virtuali-ed +( resources that can be shared by others or subscribed by you. +t provides an easy way to provide configurable resources by taking it from a shared pool. (he pool consists of networks, servers, storage, applications and services. What is the difference 5etween scala5ilit) and elasticit)? 8calability is a characteristic of cloud computing through which increasing workload can be handled by increasing in proportion the amount of resource capacity. +t allows the architecture to provide on demand resources if the re/uirement is being raised by the traffic. !hereas, elasticity is being one of the characteristic provide the concept of commissioning and decommissioning of large amount of resource capacity dynamically. +t is measured by the speed by which the resources are coming on demand and the usage of the resources.

What are the different la)ers of cloud com'uting? $loud computing consists of 5 layers in the hierarchy and these are as follows, 6 Infrastructure as a +ervice #Iaa+$ provides cloud infrastructure in terms of hardware like memory, processor speed etc. 7 Platform as a +ervice #Paa+$ provides cloud application platform for the developers. 8 +oftware as a +ervice #+aa+$ provides cloud applications which are used by the user directly without installing anything on the system. (he application remains on the cloud and it can be saved and edited in there only. What resources are 'rovided 5) infrastructure as a service? +nfrastructure as a 8ervice provides physical and virtual resources that are used to build a cloud. +nfrastructure deals with the comple'ities of maintaining and deploying of the services provided by this layer. (he infrastructure here is the servers, storage and other hardware systems. 4ow im'ortant is 'latform as a service? %latform as a 8ervice is an important layer in cloud architecture. +t is built on the infrastructure model, which provides resources like computers, storage and network. (his layer includes organi-ing and operate the resources provided by the below layer. +t is also responsible to provide complete virtuali-ation of the infrastructure layer to make it look like a single server and keep it hidden from the outside world. What does software as a service 'rovide? 8oftware as 8ervice is another layer of cloud computing, which provides cloud applications like google is doing, it is providing google docs for the user to save their documents on the cloud and create as well. +t provides the applications to be created on fly without adding or installing any e'tra software component. +t provides built in software to create wide varieties of applications and documents and share it with other people online. What are the different de'lo)ment models? $loud computing supports many deployment models and they are as follows, 2 Private .loud Argani-ations choose to build there private cloud as to keep the strategic, operation and other reasons to themselves and they feel more secure to do it. +t is a complete platform which is fully functional and can be owned, operated and restricted to only an organi-ation or an industry. More organi-ations have moved to private clouds due to security concerns. =irtual private cloud is being used that operate by ahosting company. 2 Pu5lic .loud (hese are the platforms which are public means open to the people for use and deployment. .or e'ample, google, ama-on etc. (hey focus on a few layers like cloud application, infrastructure providing and providing platform markets. 2 4)5rid .louds +t is the combination of public and private cloud. +t is the most robust approach to implement cloud architecture as it includes the functionalities and features of both the worlds. +t allows organi-ations to create their own cloud and allow them to give the control over to someone else as well. What are the different datacenters de'lo)ed for this? $loud computing is made up of various datacenters put together in a grid form. +t consists of different datacenters like, 2 .ontaineri9ed Datacenters (hese are the traditional datacenters that allow high level of customi-ation with servers, mainframe and other resources. +t re/uires planning, cooling, networking and power to access and work. 2 Low2Densit) Datacenters (hese datacenters are optimi-ed to give high performance. +n these datacenters the space

constraint is being removed and there is an increased density. +t has a drawback that with high density the heat issue also creeps in. (hese datacenters are very much suitable to develop the cloud infrastructure. What is the use of API:;<s in cloud services? A%+ stands for Application programming interface is very useful in cloud platforms as it allows easy implementation of it on the system. +t removes the need to write full fledged programs. +t provides the instructions to make the communication between one or more applications. +t also allows easy to create application with ease and link the cloud services with other systems. What are the different modes of software as a service? 8oftware as a 8ervice provides cloud application platform on which user can create application with the tools provided. (he modes of software as a service are defined as, 6 +im'le multi2tenanc)= in this each user has its own resources that are different from other users. +t is an inefficient mode where the user has to put more time and money to add more infrastructure if the demand rises in less time to deliver. 7 !ine grain multi2tenanc)= in this the functionality remains the same that the resources can be shared to many. @ut it is more efficient as the resources are shared not the data and permission within an application. What is the securit) as'ects 'rovided with cloud? 8ecurity is one of the ma*or aspects which come with any application and service used by the user. $ompanies or organi-ations remain much more concerned with the security provided with the cloud. (here are many levels of security which has to be provided within cloud environment such as, 2 Identit) management= it authori-es the application service or hardware component to be used by authori-ed users. 2 Access control= permissions has to be provided to the users so that they can control the access of other users who are entering the in the cloud environment. 2 Authori9ation and authentication= provision should be made to allow the authori-ed and authenticated people only to access and change the applications and data. What is the difference 5etween traditional datacenters and cloud? $loud computing uses the concept of datacenter as it is the datacenter is based on the tradition one so the difference between them are as follows, - $ost of the traditional datacenter is higher, due to heating issues and other hardware1software related issues but this is not the case with the cloud computing infrastructure. - +t gets scaled when the demand increases. Most of the cost is being spent on the maintenance being performed on the datacenters, whereas cloud platform re/uires minimum maintenance and not very e'pert hand to handle them. What are the three cost factors involves in cloud data center? $loud data center doesn)t re/uire e'perts to operate it, but it re/uires skilled people to see the maintenance, maintain the workloads and to keep the track of the traffic. (he labor cost is 9G of the total cost to operate the cloud data center. %ower distribution and cooling of the datacenter cost 2EG of the total cost. $omputing cost is at the end and is the highest as it is where lots of resources and installation has to be done. +t costs the ma'imum left percentage. 4ow the cloud services are measured? $loud computing provides the services to the organi-ations so they can run their applications and install them on the cloud. =irtuali-ation is used to deploy the cloud computing models as it provides a hidden layer between the user and the physical layer of the system. (he cloud services are measured in terms of use. %ay as much as you use that can be on the basis of hours or months or years. $loud services allow users to pay for only what they use and according to the demand the charges or the prices gets increased.

What are the o'timi9ing strategies used in cloud? (o optimi-e the cost and other resources there is a concept of three-data-center which provides backups in cases of disaster recovery and allows you to keep all the data intact in the case of any failure within the system. 8ystem management can be done more efficiently by carrying out preemptive tasks on the services and the processes which are running for the *ob. 8ecurity can be more advanced to allow only the limited users to access the services. What are different data t)'es used in cloud com'uting? $loud computing is going all together for a different look as it now includes different data types like emails, contracts, images, blogs, etc. (he amount of data increasing day by day and cloud computing is re/uiring new and efficient data types to store them. .or e'ample if you want to save video then you need a data type to save that. Latency re/uirements are increasing as the demand is increasing. $ompanies are going for lower latency for many applications. What are the securit) laws which take care of the data in the cloud? (he security laws which are implements to secure data in the cloud are as follows, +nput validation, controls the input data which is being to any system. %rocessing, control that the data is being processed correctly and completely in an application. .ile, control the data being manipulated in any type of file. Autput reconciliation, control the data that has to be reconciled from input to output. @ackup and recovery, control the security breaches logs and the problems which has occurred while creating the back. 4ow to secure )our data for trans'ort in cloud? $loud computing provides very good and easy to use feature to an organi-ation, but at the same time it brings lots of /uestion that how secure is the data, which has to be transported from one place to another in cloud. 8o, to make sure it remains secure when it moves from point A to point @ in cloud, check that there is no data leak with the encryption key implemented with the data you sending. What do )ou understand from 3PN? =%N stands for virtual private network> it is a private cloud which manages the security of the data during the transport in the cloud environment. =%N allows an organi-ation to make a public network as private network and use it to transfer files and other resources on a network. What does a 3PN consists of? =%N is known as virtual private network and it consists of two important things, 6 !irewall= it acts as a barrier between the public network and any private network. +t filters the messages that are getting e'changed between the networks. +t also protects from any malicious activity being done on the network. 7 %ncr)'tion= it is used to protect the sensitive data from professional hackers and other spammers who are usually remain active to get the data. !ith a message always there will be a key with which you can match the key provided to you. Name few 'latforms which are used for large scale cloud com'uting (here are many platforms available for cloud computing but to model the large scale distributed computing the platforms are as follows, 6 1a',educe= is software that is being built by Coogle to support distributed computing. +t is a framework that works on large set of data. +t utili-es the cloud resources and distributes the data to several other computers known as clusters. +t has the capability to deal with both structured and non-structured data. 7 A'ache 4adoo'= is an open source distributed computing platform. +t is being written in Hava. +t creates a pool of computer each with hadoop file system. +t then clusters the data elements and applies the hash algorithms that are similar. (hen it creates copy of the files that already e'ist.

What are some e&am'les of large cloud 'roviders and their data5ases? $loud computing has many providers and it is supported on the large scale. (he providers with their databases are as follows, 2 0oogle 5igta5le= it is a hybrid cloud that consists of a big table that is spilt into tables and rows. Map?educe is used for modifying and generating the data. 2 Ama9on +im'leDB= is a webservice that is used for inde'ing and /uerying the data. +t allows the storing, processing and creating /uery on the data set within the cloud platform. +t has a system that automatically inde'es the data. 2 .loud 5ased +>L= is introduced by Microsoft and it is based on 8DL database. it provides data storage by the usage of relational model in the cloud. (he data can be accessed from the cloud using the client application. What are some o'en source cloud com'uting 'latform data5ases? $loud computing platform has various databases that are in support. (he open source databases that are developed to support it is as follows, 6 1ongoDB= is an open source database system which is schema free and document oriented database. +t is written in $II and provides tables and high storage space. 7 .ouchDB= is an open source database system based on Apache server and used to store the data efficiently 8 LucidDB= is the database made in Hava1$II for data warehousing. +t provides features and functionalities to maintain data warehouse. What essential things a user should know 5efore going for cloud com'uting 'latform? A user should know some parameters by which he can go for the cloud computing services. (he parameters are as follows, 6 /ser should know the data integrit) in cloud com'uting= +t is a measure to ensure integrity like the data is accurate, complete and reasonable. 7 .om'liance= user should make sure that proper rules and regulations are followed while implementing the structure. 8 Loss of data= user should know about the provisions that are provided in case of loss of data so that backup and recovery can be possible. ? Business continuit) 'lans= user should think about does the cloud services provide him uninterrupted data resources. @ /'time= user should know about the uptime the cloud computing platform provides and how helpful it is for the business. A Data storage costs= user should find out about the cost which you have to pay before you go for cloud computing. What are s)stem integrators? 8ystems integrators are the important part of cloud computing platform. +t provides the strategy of the complicated process used to design a cloud platform. +t includes well defined architecture to find the resources and the characteristics which have to be included for cloud computing. +ntegrators plan the users cloud strategy implementation. +ntegrators have knowledge about data center creation and also allow more accurate private and hybrid cloud creation. What is the requirement of virtuali9ation 'latforms in im'lementing cloud? =irtuali-ation is the basis of the cloud computing and there are many platforms that are available like =Mware is a technology that provides the provision to create private cloud and provide a bridge to connect e'ternal cloud with private cloud. (here are three key features that have to be identified to make a private cloud that is, - $loud operating system. - Manage the 8ervice level policies

- =irtuali-ation keeps the user level and the backend level concepts different from each other so that a seamless environment can be created between both. What is the use of eucal)'tus in cloud com'uting environment? #ucalyptus stands for #lastic &tility $omputing Architecture for Linking Jour %rograms to &seful 8ystems and provides an open source software infrastructure to implement clusters in cloud computing platform. +t is used to build private, public and hybrid clouds. +t can also produce your own datacenter into a private cloud and allow you to e'tend the functionality to many other organi-ations. #ucalyptus provides A%+s to be used with the web services to cope up with the demand of resources used in the private clouds. %&'lain different la)ers which define cloud architecture $loud computing architecture consists of many layers which help it to be more organi-ed and can be managed from one place. (he layers are as follows, 3. $loud controller or $L$ is the top most level in the hirerachy which is used to manage the virtuali-ed resources like servers, network and storage with the user A%+s. 2. !alrus is used for the storage and act as a storage controller to manage the demands of the users. +t maintains a scalable approach to control the virtual machine images and user data. 5. $luster $ontroller or $$ is used to control all the virtual machines for e'ecutions the virtual machines are stored on the nodes and manages the virtual networking between =irtual machines and e'ternal users. 6. 8torage $ontroller or 8$ provides a storage area in block form that are dynamically attached by =irtual machines. 7. Node $ontroller or N$ is at the lowest level and provides the functionality of a hypervisor that controls the =Ms activities, which includes e'ecution, management and termination of many instances. 4ow user will gain from utilit) com'uting? &tility computing allow the user to pay per use means whatever they are using only for that they have to pay. +t is a plug in that needs to be managed by the organi-ations on deciding what type of services has to be deployed from the cloud. &tility computing allows the user to think and implement the services according to them. Most organi-ations go for hybrid strategy that combines internal delivered services that are hosted or outsourced services. Is there an) difference in cloud com'uting and com'uting for mo5iles? Mobile cloud computing uses the same concept but it *ust adds a device of mobile. $loud computing comes in action when a task or a data get kept on the internet rather then individual devices. +t provides users on demand access to the data which they have to retrieve. Applications run on the remote server, and then given to the user to be able to, store and manage it from the mobile platform.