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State-of-the-Art Review on Nonlinear Inelastic Analysis for Steel Structures

NRL Steel Lab., Sejong University


C N!"N!S
#. IN!R $UC!I N % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %# &. N NLI"AR IN"LAS!IC ANAL'SIS % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % (
&.# )lastic-*one Analysis% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %+ &.& ,uasi-)lastic -inge Analysis% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % . &.( "lastic-)lastic -inge Analysis% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %/ &.+ Notional-Loa0 -inge Analysis% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % 1 &.2 Refine0-)lastic -inge Analysis% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %3

(. N NLIN"AR IN"LAS!IC "4)"RI5"N!S% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %##


(.# 6anchanalai7s !wo-8ay 9ra:es% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %#& (.& 'ari:ci7s !hree-Story 9ra:es% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #& (.( Avery an0 5ahen0ran7s Large-scale testing of Steel 9ra:e Structures% % % % % % % % % % % % % % #( (.+ ;a<abayashi7s ne-,uarter Scale0 !est of )ortal 9ra:es% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #( (.2 -arrison7s S=ace 9ra:e !est% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %#+ (.2 6i:7s ($ 9ra:e !est% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #+

+. $"SI>N USIN> N NLI"AR IN"LAS!IC ANAL'SIS% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %#2


+.# $esign 9or:at% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #2 +.& 5o0eling Consi0eration% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #. +.&.# Sections% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %#. +.&.& Structural :e:bers% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #/ +.&.( >eo:etric i:=erfection% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #/ +.&.+ Loa0% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #/ +.( $esign Consi0eration% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %#1 +.(.# Loa0-carrying ca=acity% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %#1 +.(.& Resistance factor% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %#3 +.(.( Serviceability li:it% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % #3 +.(.+ $uctility re?uire:ent% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % &@ R"9"R"NC"S % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % &#

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#. IN!R $UC!I N
The steel design methods used in the U.S. are Allowable Stress Design (ASD), Plastic Design (PD), and Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD). n ASD, the stress com!utation is based on a "irst#order elastic anal$sis, and the geometric nonlinear e""ects are im!licitl$ accounted "or in the member design e%uations. n PD, a "irst#order !lastic#hinge anal$sis is used in the structural anal$sis. Plastic design allows inelastic "orce redistribution throughout the structural s$stem. Since geometric nonlinearit$ and gradual $ielding e""ects are not accounted "or in the anal$sis o" !lastic design, the$ are a!!ro&imated in member design e%uations. n LRFD, a "irst#order elastic anal$sis with

am!li"ication "actors or a direct second#order elastic anal$sis is used to account "or geometric nonlinearit$, and the ultimate strength o" beam#column members is im!licitl$ re"lected in the design interaction e%uations. All three design methods re%uire se!arate member ca!acit$ chec's including the calculation o" the (#"actor. This design a!!roach is mar'ed in Fig. ) as the indirect anal$sis and design method. n the current A S*#LRFD S!eci"ication (A S*, )++,), "irst#order elastic anal$sis or second# order elastic anal$sis is used to anal$-e a structural s$stem. n using "irst#order elastic anal$sis, the "irst#order moment is am!li"ied b$ . ) and ./ "actors to account "or second#order e""ects. n the

S!eci"ication, the members are isolated "rom a structural s$stem, and the$ are then designed b$ the member strength cur0es and interaction e%uations as gi0en b$ the S!eci"ications, which im!licitl$ account "or the e""ects o" second#order, inelasticit$, residual stresses, and geometric im!er"ections (*hen and Lui, )+12). The column cur0e and beam cur0e were de0elo!ed b$ a cur0e#"it to both theoretical solutions and e&!erimental data, while the beam#column interaction e%uations were determined b$ a cur0e#"it to the so#called 3e&act3 !lastic#-one solutions generated b$ (anchanalai ()+44). n order to account "or the in"luence o" a structural s$stem on the strength o" indi0idual

members, the e""ecti0e length "actor is used as illustrated in Fig. /.


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The e""ecti0e length method generall$ !ro0ides a good design o" "ramed structures. 5owe0er, se0eral di""iculties are associated with the use o" the e""ecti0e length method as "ollows6 ()) The e""ecti0e length a!!roach cannot accuratel$ account "or the interaction between the structural s$stem and its members. This is because the interaction in a large structural s$stem is too com!le& to be re!resented b$ the sim!le e""ecti0e length "actor (. As a result, this method cannot accuratel$ !redict the actual re%uired strengths o" its "ramed members. (/) The e""ecti0e length method cannot ca!ture the inelastic redistributions o" internal "orces in a structural s$stem, since the "irst#order elastic anal$sis with . ) and ./ "actors accounts onl$ "or second#order e""ects but not the inelastic redistribution o" internal "orces. The e""ecti0e length method !ro0ides a conser0ati0e estimation o" the ultimate load#carr$ing ca!acit$ o" a large structural s$stem. (7) The e""ecti0e length method cannot !redict the "ailure modes o" a structural s$stem sub8ect to a gi0en load. This is because the LRFD interaction e%uation does not !ro0ide an$ in"ormation about "ailure modes o" a structural s$stem at the "actored loads. (,) The e""ecti0e length method is not user#"riendl$ "or a com!uter#based design. (9) The e""ecti0e length method re%uires a time#consuming !rocess o" se!arate member ca!acit$ chec's in0ol0ing the calculation o" (#"actors. :ith the de0elo!ment o" com!uter technolog$, two as!ects, the stabilit$ o" se!arate members, and the stabilit$ o" the structure as a whole, can be treated rigorousl$ "or the determination o" the ma&imum strength o" the structures. This design a!!roach is mar'ed in Fig. ) as the direct anal$sis and design method ((im and *hen, )++2a#b). The de0elo!ment o" the direct a!!roach to design is called ;Ad0anced Anal$sis< or more s!eci"icall$, ;Second#=rder nelastic Anal$sis "or Frame Design.< n this direct a!!roach, there is no need to com!ute the e""ecti0e length "actor, since

se!arate member ca!acit$ chec's encom!assed b$ the s!eci"ication e%uations are not re%uired. :ith the current a0ailable com!uting technolog$, it is "easible to em!lo$ nonlinear inelastic anal$sis techni%ues "or direct "rame design. This method has been considered im!ractical "or design o""ice use
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in the !ast. =0er the !ast /> $ears, e&tensi0e research has been made to de0elo! and 0alidate se0eral nonlinear inelastic anal$sis methods. The !ur!ose o" this !a!er is to re0iew recent e""orts to de0elo! 0arious nonlinear inelastic anal$ses ranging "rom a sim!le elastic#!lastic to rigorous !lastic#-one anal$sis "or "rame design. ?m!hasis in this re0iew is design a!!lication o" nonlinear inelastic anal$sis. This !a!er also summari-es re!orts o" e&!erimental studies to !ro0ide inelastic nonlinear beha0ior o" "ramed structures. The anal$sis and design !rinci!le using nonlinear inelastic anal$sis are also addressed.

&. N NLIN"AR IN"LAS!IC ANAL'SIS

Fi0e di""erent t$!es o" nonlinear inelastic anal$sis methods are discussed in the "ollowing6 ()) Plastic#-one method (/) @uasi#!lastic hinge method (7) ?lastic#!lastic hinge method (,) Aotional#load !lastic hinge method (9) Re"ined#!lastic hinge method These di""erent methods are based on the degree o" re"inement in re!resenting the !lastic $ielding e""ects. The !lastic#-one method uses the greatest re"inement while the elastic#!lastic hinge method allows a drastic sim!li"ication. The %uasi#!lastic hinge method is somewhere in between these two methods. The notional#load !lastic hinge method and the re"ined#!lastic hinge method are an im!ro0ement on the elastic#!lastic hinge method "or a!!ro&imating real beha0ior o" structures. The load#de"ormation characteristics o" the !lastic anal$sis methods are illustrated in Fig. 7, while the
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s!read o" !lasticit$ is illustrated schematicall$ in Fig. ,.

&.# )lastic-*one 5etho0


n the !lastic#-one method, "rame members are discreti-ed into "inite elements, and the cross# section o" each "inite element is subdi0ided into man$ "ibers shown in Fig. 9. The de"lection at each di0ision !oint along a member is obtained b$ numerical integration. The incremental load#de"lection res!onse at each loading ste!, which u!dates the geometr$, ca!tures the second#order e""ects. The residual stress in each "iber is assumed constant since the "ibers are small enough. The stress state at each "iber can be e&!licitl$ traced so the gradual s!read o" $ielding can be ca!tured. The !lastic#-one anal$sis eliminates the need "or se!arate member ca!acit$ chec's since it e&!licitl$ accounts "or second#order e""ects, s!read o" !lasticit$, and residual stress. As a result, the !lastic#-one solution is 'nown as an 3e&act solution.3 The A S*#LRFD beam#column e%uations were established in !art based u!on a cur0e#"it to the 3e&act3 strength cur0es obtained "rom the !lastic#-one anal$sis b$ (anchanalai ()+44). There are two t$!es o" !lastic#-one anal$ses. The "irst in0ol0es the use o" three#dimensional "inite shell elements in which the elastic constituti0e matri& in the usual incremental stress#strain relations, is re!laced b$ an elastic#!lastic constituti0e matri& when $ielding is detected. .ased on a de"ormation theor$ o" !lasticit$, the e""ects o" combined normal and shear stresses ma$ be accounted "or. This anal$sis re%uires modeling o" structures using a large number o" "inite three#dimensional shell elements and numerical integration "or the e0aluation o" the elastic#!lastic sti""ness matri&. The three#dimensional s!read#o"#!lasticit$ anal$sis when combined with second#order theor$ which deals with "rame stabilit$ is com!utational intensi0e and, there"ore, best suited "or anal$-ing small#scale structures, or i" the detailed solutions "or member local instabilit$ and $ielding beha0ior are re%uired. Since a detailed anal$sis o" local e""ects in realistic building "rames is not common !ractice in engineering design, this a!!roach is considered too e&!ensi0e "or !ractical use. The second a!!roach "or second#order !lastic#-one anal$sis is based on the use o" beam#
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column theor$, in which the member is discreti-ed into line segments, and the cross#section o" each segment is subdi0ided into "inite elements. nelasticit$ is modeled considering normal stress onl$.

:hen the com!uted stress at the centroid o" an$ "iber reaches the unia&ial normal strength o" the material, the "iber is considered to ha0e $ielded. Also, com!atibilit$ is treated b$ assuming that "ull continuit$ is retained throughout the 0olume o" the structure in the same manner as elastic range calculations. Although %uite shar! cur0ature ma$ e&ist in the 0icinit$ o" inelastic !ortions o" the structure, ;!lastic hinges< can ne0er de0elo!. n !lastic#-one anal$sis, the calculation o" "orces and

de"ormations in the structure a"ter $ielding re%uires an iterati0e trial#and#error !rocess because o" the nonlinearit$ o" the load#de"ormation res!onse, and the change in cross#section e""ecti0e sti""ness in inelastic regions associated with the increase in the a!!lied loads and the change in structural geometr$. Although most !lastic#-one anal$sis methods ha0e been de0elo!ed "or !lanar anal$ses (*lar'e et al., )++/B :hite, )+19B Cogel, )+19B ?l#Danat$ et al., )+1>B Al0are- and .irnstiel, )+24) three#dimensional !lastic#-one techni%ues are also a0ailable (:ang, )+11B *hen and Atsuta, )+44). A !lastic#-one anal$sis that includes the s!read o" !lasticit$, residual stresses, initial geometric im!er"ections, and an$ other signi"icant second#order e""ects, would eliminate the need "or chec'ing indi0idual member ca!acities in the "rame. There"ore, this t$!e o" method is classi"ied as nonlinear inelastic inelastic anal$sis in which the chec'ing o" beam#column interaction e%uations is not re%uired. n "act, the member interaction e%uations in modern limit#states s!eci"ications were n realit$, some signi"icant

de0elo!ed, in !art, b$ cur0e#"it to results "rom this t$!e o" anal$sis.

beha0iors such as 8oint and connectionEs !er"ormances tend to de"$ !recise numerical and anal$tical modeling. n such cases, a sim!ler method o" anal$sis that ade%uatel$ re!resents the signi"icant

beha0ior would be su""icient "or engineering a!!lication. :hereas the !lastic#-one solution is regarded as an 3e&act solution,3 the method ma$ not be used in dail$ engineering design, because it is too intensi0e in com!utation.
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ts a!!lications are

limited to (?**S, )+1,)6 ()) The stud$ o" detailed structural beha0ior (/) Ceri"$ing the accurac$ o" sim!li"ied methods (7) Pro0iding com!arison with e&!erimental results (,) Deri0ing design methods or generating charts "or !ractical use (9) A!!l$ing "or s!ecial design !roblems

&. & ,uasi-)lastic -inge 5etho0


The %uasi#!lastic hinge method de0elo!ed b$ Attala ()++,) is an intermediate a!!roach between the !lastic#-one and the elastic#!lastic hinge methods. t re%uires less com!utation but its

results are 0er$ similar to those o" !lastic#-one method. For this reason, it is called a %uasi#!lastic hinge method. An element, de0elo!ed "rom e%uilibrium, 'inematic, and constituti0e relationshi!s, accounts "or gradual !lasti"ication under combined bending and a&ial "orce. nelastic "orce#strain model o" the cross#section is de0elo!ed b$ "itting nonlinear e%uations to data o" the moment#a&ial "orce#cur0ature res!onse. Using the inelastic cross#section model, "le&ibilit$ coe""icients "or the "ull member are obtained b$ successi0e integrations along its length. An inelastic#element sti""ness matri& is obtained b$ the use o" the incremental "le&ibilit$ relationshi!s. nitial $ield and "ull !lasti"ication sur"ace are used to anal$ticall$ re!resent gradual $ielding e""ect o" the cross#section. (etterEs residual stress !attern ()+99) is used to determine an initial $ield sur"ace. (etterEs !attern has !ea' com!ressi0e residual stresses at the "lange ti!s e%ual to >.7F $ with a linear transition o" stress "rom the "lange ti!s to the web#8oint and constant tensile stress through the web. A "ull$ !lastic sur"ace is generated b$ calibration to a !lastic#-one solution (San-#Picon, )++/). The !arameters o" the "ull !lasti"ication e%uation are determined b$ a cur0e#"it !rocedure. This method !redicts strengths with an error less than 9F com!ared with the !lastic#-one

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method "or a wide range o" case studies. The accurac$ o" this method is thus com!atible with the !lastic#-one method and less com!utational e""ort is necessar$. 5owe0er, it is di""icult to e&tend this method to three#dimensional anal$sis since the "ormulation is based on "le&ibilit$ relationshi!s. As a result, it does not meet one o" the re%uirements o" nonlinear inelastic anal$sis o" the SSR* tas' "orce re!ort ()++7), which states The model should be readil$ e&tensible to three#dimensional anal$sis. That is, the "ramewor' o" the model should accommodate the "ormulation o" three#dimensional elements. Goreo0er, this model does eliminate the necessit$ o" the re"ined model through the cross#section but still re%uires man$ elements along the member.

&. ( "lastic-)lastic -inge 5etho0


A more sim!le and e""icient a!!roach "or re!resenting inelasticit$ in "rames is the elastic# !lastic hinge method. t assumes that the element remains elastic e&ce!t at its ends where -ero#length !lastic hinges "orm. This method accounts "or inelasticit$ but not the s!read o" $ielding or !lasticit$ at sections nor the residual stress e""ect between two !lastic hinges. The elastic#!lastic hinge methods ma$ be di0ided intoB "irst#order and second#order !lastic anal$ses. For "irst#order elastic#!lastic hinge anal$sis, the nonlinear geometric e""ects are neglected, and not considered in the "ormulation o" the e%uilibrium e%uations. As a result, the method !redicts the same ultimate load as con0entional rigid#!lastic anal$ses. n second#order elastic#!lastic hinge anal$sis, the de"ormed structural geometr$ is considered. The sim!le wa$ to account "or the geometric nonlinearit$ is to use the stabilit$ "unction which enables onl$ one beam#column element !er a member to ca!ture the second#order e""ect. This !ro0ides an e""icient and economical method o" "rame anal$sis, and has a clear ad0antage o0er the !lastic#-one method. This is !articularl$ true "or structures in which the a&ial "orce in com!onent members is small and the dominated beha0ior is bending.
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n such cases, second#order elastic#!lastic hinge

anal$sis ma$ be used to describe the inelastic beha0ior su""icientl$, assuming that lateral#torsional and local buc'ling modes o" "ailure are not !re0ented (Liew, )++/). The second#order elastic#!lastic hinge anal$sis is onl$ an a!!ro&imate method. :hen used to anal$-e a single beam#column element sub8ect to combined a&ial load and bending moment, it ma$ o0erestimate the strength and sti""ness o" the element in the inelastic range. Although elastic#!lastic hinge a!!roaches !ro0ide essentiall$ the same load#dis!lacement !redictions as !lastic#-one methods "or man$ "rame !roblems, the$ ma$ not be classi"ied as nonlinear inelastic anal$sis methods in general (Liew et al., )++,B Liew and *hen, )++)B :hite, )++7). 5owe0er, research b$ Diemian (Diemian et al., )++>B Diemian, )++>) has shown that the elastic#!lastic hinge anal$sis can be classi"ied as an ad0anced inelastic anal$sis since it is accurate "or matching the strength and load#dis!lacement res!onse o" se0eral building "rames "rom !lastic#-one anal$sis. Gan$ cases considered in Diemian s wor', es!eciall$ when the a&ial load is less than >.9P $, are not sensiti0e benchmar's "or determining the accurac$ and the !ossible limitations o" the elastic# !lastic hinge method. There"ore, suitable benchmar' !roblems should be used to !ro0ide a more in# de!th stud$ o" the %ualities and limitations o" second#order elastic#!lastic hinge method be"ore it can be acce!ted as a legitimate tool in the design o" steel structures. For slender members whose dominant mode o" "ailure is elastic instabilit$, the method !ro0ides good results when com!ared with !lastic#-one solutions. 5owe0er, "or stoc'$ members with signi"icant $ielding, the !lastic#hinge method o0er#!redicts the actual strength and sti""ness o" members due to the gradual sti""ness reduction as the s!read o" !lasticit$ increases in an actual member (Liew and *hen, )++)B Liew et al., )++)B :hite et al., )++)). As a result, considerable re"inements must be made be"ore it can be used "or anal$sis o" a wide range o" "ramed structures.

&. + Notional-Loa0 )lastic--inge 5etho0


=ne a!!roach to ad0ance the use o" second#order elastic#!lastic hinge anal$sis "or "rame
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design is to s!eci"$ arti"iciall$ large 0alues o" "rame im!er"ections (i.e., initial out#o"#!lumbness). This is the a!!roach ado!ted b$ ?*7 ()++>) "or "rame design using second#order anal$sis. n

addition to accounting "or the standard erection tolerance "or out#o"#!lumbness, these arti"icial large im!er"ections intend to account "or the e""ect o" residual stresses, "rame im!er"ections, and distributed !lasticit$ not considered in "rame anal$sis. The geometric im!er"ections ado!ted b$ ?*7 are a ma&imum out#o"#!lumbness o" H> I )J/>> "or an unbraced "rame, but no ma&imum out#o"# straightness 0alue recommended "or a braced member as shown in Fig. 2. The notional load !lastic hinge a!!roach is similar in conce!t to the ;enlarged< geometric im!er"ection a!!roach o" the ?*7. The ?**S ()+1,, )++)), the *anadian Standard ()+1+, )++,),

and the Australian Standard ()++>) allow to use this techni%ue. The notional#load a!!roach uses e%ui0alent lateral loads to a!!ro&imate the e""ect o" member im!er"ections and distributed !lasticit$. n the ?**S, the e&aggerated notional loads o" >.9 F times gra0it$ loads are used to a0oid o0er# !redicting the strength o" the member as does the elastic#!lastic hinge method. The a!!lication o" these notional loads to se0eral e&am!le "rames is illustrated in Fig. 4. LiewK s research ()++/) shows that this method under#!redicts the strength b$ more than />F in the 0arious leaning column "rames and o0er#!redicts the strength u! to )>F in the isolated beam#columns sub8ect to the a&ial "orces and bending moments. As a result, modi"ication o" this a!!roach is re%uired be"ore it ma$ be used in design a!!lications.

&. 2 Refine0 )lastic--inge 5etho0


n recent wor' b$ Abdel#Lha""ar et al. ()++)), Al#Gashar$ and *hen ()++)), (ing, et al. ()++)), Liew and *hen ()++)), Liew et al. ()++7a#b), :hite et al. ()++)), (im ()++2), (im and *hen ()++2), *hen and (im ()++4), (im and *hen ()++4), (im et al (/>>>) and among others, an inelastic anal$sis a!!roach, based on sim!le re"inements o" the elastic#!lastic hinge model, has been !ro!osed "or !lane "rame anal$sis. t re!resents the e""ect o" distributed !lasticit$ through the cross#section,
&i

assuming that the !lastic hinge sti""ness degradation is smooth. The inelastic beha0ior o" the member is modeled in terms o" member "orce instead o" the detailed le0el o" stresses and strains as used in the !lastic#-one anal$sis model. The !rinci!al merits o" the re"ined#!lastic hinge model are that it is as sim!le and e""icient as the elastic#!lastic hinge anal$sis a!!roach, and it is su""icientl$ accurate "or the assessment o" strength and stabilit$ o" a structural s$stem and its com!onent members. The re"ined !lastic#hinge method is based on sim!le modi"ications o" the elastic#!lastic hinge method. Two modi"ications are made to account "or the gradual section sti""ness degradation at the !lastic hinge locations as well as gradual member sti""ness degradation between the two !lastic hinges. 5erein, the section sti""ness degradation "unction is ado!ted to re"lect the gradual $ielding e""ect in "orming !lastic hinges. Then, the tangent modulus conce!t is used to ca!ture the residual stress e""ect along the member between two !lastic hinges. As a result, the re"ined !lastic#hinge method retains the e""icienc$ and sim!licit$ o" the !lastic hinge method without o0erestimating the strength and sti""ness o" a member. n the recent wor' b$ Liew ()++/), the LRFD tangent modulus is used to account "or both the e""ect o" residual stresses and geometric im!er"ections. This model does not account "or geometric im!er"ections when PJP$ is less than >.7+, because the LRFD tangent modulus is identical to the elastic modulus in this range. As a result, the a!!roach o0er#!redicts the column strength b$ more than 9F when (LJr o" the column is greater than 19 "or $ield stresses at 72 'si, and when (LJr o" the column is greater than 4> "or $ield stresses at 9> 'si. The LFRD ? t ma$ not be an a!!ro!riate model to be used "or nonlinear inelastic anal$sis ((im, )++2B (im and *hen, )++2). The *R* tangent modulus in LiewKs wor' ()++/) onl$ accounts "or the e""ect o" residual stresses. t o0er#!redicts the strength o" members b$ about />F com!ared to the con0entional LRFD solutions, because the modulus does not account "or the e""ect o" geometric im!er"ections. 5owe0er, in the *R* tangent modulus model, di""erent members with di""erent residual stresses can be incor!orated since the e""ect o" geometric im!er"ections is considered se!aratel$. As a result, *R*
&ii

tangent modulus is used in re"ined !lastic anal$ses. Second#order inelastic anal$sis methods "or the three#dimensional structure ha0e been de0elo!ed b$ =rbison ()+1/), Pra'ash and Powell ()++7), Liew and Tang ()++1), (im et al (/>>)), (im and *hoi (/>>)) and (im et al (/>>)). =rbisonKs method is an elastic#!lastic hinge anal$sis without considering shear de"ormations. The material nonlinearit$ is considered b$ the tangent

modulus Et and the geometric nonlinearit$ is b$ a geometric sti""ness matri&. =rbisonKs method, howe0er, underestimates the $ielding strength u! to 4F in stoc'$ members sub8ected to a&ial "orce onl$. DRA A#7DM de0elo!ed b$ Pra'ash and Powell is a modi"ied 0ersion o" !lastic hinge methods. The material nonlinearit$ is considered b$ the stress#strain relationshi! o" the "ibers in a section. The geometric nonlinearit$ caused b$ a&ial "orce is considered b$ the use o" the geometric sti""ness matri&, but the nonlinearit$ caused b$ the interaction between the a&ial "orce and the bending moment is not considered. This method o0erestimates the strength and sti""ness o" the member sub8ected to signi"icant a&ial "orce. Liew and TangKs method is a re"ined !lastic hinge anal$sis. The e""ect o" residual stresses is ta'en into account in con0entional beam#column "inite element modelling. Aonlinear material beha0ior is ta'en into account b$ calibration o" inelastic !arameters describing the $ield and bounding sur"aces. Liew and TangKs method, howe0er, underestimates the $ielding strength u! to 4F in stoc'$ member sub8ected to a&ial "orce onl$. Against this bac'ground, it can be concluded that the re"ined#!lastic hinge method stri'es a balance between the re%uirements "or realistic re!resentation o" "rame beha0ior and "or ease o" use. t is considered that in both theses res!ects, the method is satis"actor$ "or general !ractical use.

(. N NLIN"AR IN"LAS!IC "4)"RI5"N!S

&iii

?&!erimental studies to ca!ture inelastic nonlinear beha0ior o" "ramed structures are summari-ed. The "rames ri0iewed herein were tested b$ (anchanalai()+44), Narimci()+22),

A0er$()+++), :a'aba$ashi()+4/), 5arrison()+2,) and (im and (ang(/>>)).

(.# 6anchanalai7s !wo-8ay 9ra:es


Three two#ba$ "ull#si-e "rames were tested to 0eri"$ the Plastic#-one anal$sis((anchanalai, )+44). The dimensions and members o" Frame / among these "rames are shown in Fig. 1. The material !ro!erties o" the members are summeri-ed in Table ). The "rames were designed to beha0e e%ui0alentl$ to a one#stor$ two#ba$ and could be tested on the "loor. Su!!orts were !ro0ided onl$ at the to! and bottom o" the interior column member. All "rames were bent with res!ect to the wee' a&is in order to a0oid out#o"#!lane buc'ling. n Frame /, all columns were loaded simultaneousl$ u! to

about 4>'i!s, corres!onding to !oints /#)) in Fig. +. Then, onl$ the a&ial load on the interior column was increased u! to !oint )4, where the "rame reached its instabilit$ limit load o" /77.2 'i!s. *om!arisons o" the test results with the !lastic -one theor$ are shown in Fig. +. n general, good agreements are obser0ed.

(.& 'ari:ci7s !hree-Story 9ra:es


An e&!erimental research stud$ was conducted at Lehigh Uni0ersit$ "or three "ull#si-e "rames (Narimci, )+22). Fig. )> shows dimensions and loads conditions o" Frame * among the three "rames. To in0estigate and com!are the mechanical !ro!erties o" the members with nominal 0alues, Narimci conducted a series o" se0en beam tests. The results o" these tests are summari-ed in Table /. The beams were welded to the columns and designed so as to beha0e elasticall$ in the worst loading condition6 the "le&ibilit$ o" the connections was eliminated "rom a "actor which a""ects the strength o" the "rames. The "rames were sandwiched and su!!orted laterall$ b$ two !arallel au&iliar$ "rames
&i0

!re0enting out#o"#!lane buc'ling. All members were bent in strong a&is. The result o" test is shown in Fig. )) "or Frame *. The load de"lection beha0ior at the "irst and third stor$ is shown in Fig. )).

(.( Avery an0 5ahen0ran7s Large-Scale !esting of Steel 9ra:e Structures


A series o" "our tests was conducted b$ A0er$ and Gahendran()+++). ?ach o" the "our "rames could be classi"ied as a two#dimensional, single#ba$, single#stor$, large#scale swa$ "rame with "ull lateral restraint and rigid 8oints, as shown in Fig. )/. n Frame /, Aon#com!act #sections(7)>U.7/.>) o" Lrade 7>> steel(nominal $ield stressI7/>GPa)was used. This section was selected as one o" the standard hot#rolled #sections mostl$ a""ected b$ local buc'ling. The dimensions, material !ro!erties, and section !ro!erties used in Frames / are listed in Table 7. The 0ertical and hori-ontal loads were a!!lied simultaneousl$ in a ratio o" a!!ro&imatel$ "our times greater than the hori-ontal reaction measured b$ the load cell. The "rame "ailed b$ in#!lane instabilit$ due to a reduced sti""ness caused b$ $ielding and P#O e""ect. The hori-ontal reaction "orce and the measured relati0e in#!lane hori-ontal dis!lacement o" the right hand column "or test Frame / are related in Fig. )7.

(.+ ;a<abayashi7s

ne-,uarter Scale0 !est of )ortal 9ra:es

Two#series o" test were conducted "or a one#stor$ "rame and a two#stor$ "rame b$ :a'aba$ashi et al()+4/). *on"igurations o" the two#stor$ "rame are shown in Fig. ),. The nominal

dimensions o" members are 5#)>>)>>21 "or columns and 5#)>>9>,2 "or beams.

The

s!ecimens consist o" rolled 5#sha!es. The connections were welded and sti""ened to !re0ent local buc'ling in the 8oint !anels. To !re0ent the out#o"#!lane buc'ling, two o" the same s!ecimens were set in !arallel and connected at the 8oints and the mid#length o" the members. n the other words, twin s!ecimens were tested simultaneousl$. Geasured Gaterial and sectional !ro!erties o" members are listed in Table ,.
&0

The 0ertical load was "irst a!!lied at the to! o" "our columns b$ a "i&ed testing machine. The !arallel twin s!ecimens were loaded simultaneousl$. Then, the hori-ontal load at the to! o" "rame was increased graduall$. :hen the "rame swa$ed b$ the hori-ontal loading 8ac' "ollowed a hori-ontal mo0ement so that 0ertical loading !oints could be 'e!t on the center o" the columns. The loads were measured b$ the load cells which were installed between the h$draulic 8ac's and the s!ecimen. The load#de"lection cur0es o" the two#stor$ "rames are shown in Fig. )9. *om!arisons o" a series o" test show the e""ects o" a&ial "orce and sti""ness o" the beam on the "rame beha0ior. The larger the a&ial "orce in columns and the smaller the sti""ness o" the beam, the more unstable the "rames become.

(.2 -arrison7s S=ace 9ra:e !est


The e%uilateral triangular s!ace "rame de!icted in Fig. 7 was tested b$ 5arrison()+2,) in the P.:.Roderic' Laborator$ "or Gaterials and Structures at the Uni0ersit$ o" S$dne$. *on"iguration o" the "rame is shown in Fig. )2. Geasured dimensions and material !ro!erties are listed in Table 9. A hori-ontal load(5) is a!!lied on the to! o" the column and a 0ertical load o" ).75 is a!!lied at mid s!an o" the beam. t can be seen "rom Fig. )4 that, com!ared to the e&!erimental results, the !lastic#-one anal$sis !redicted a slightl$ sti""er res!onse o" the s!ace "rame under the a!!lied loads. As the column bases o" the s!ace "rame were welded to steel !lates clam!ed to steel 8oists(5arrison )+2,), the more "le&ible res!onse measured in the laborator$ test might ha0e been caused b$ the "le&ibilit$ o" the 8oist "langes.

(.. 6i:7s ($ 9ra:e !est


Two#series o" test were conducted "or s!ace steel "rame sub8ected !ro!ortional loads shown
&0i

in Fig )1 and s!ace steel "rame sub8ected !ro!ortional loads shown in Fig. )+ b$ (im and (ang(/>>)). 5ot#rolled #section was used "or all three "rames. Aominal dimension o"
the section was 5#)9>Q)9>Q4Q)> commonl$ used in (orea. The dimensions and !ro!erties o" the section are listed in Table 2. The section is com!act so that it is not susce!tible to local buc'ling.

For !ro!ortional loads test, The 0ertical loads were a!!lied on the to! o" the "our columns, and the hori-ontal loads were a!!lied on the column and at the second "loor le0el o" the test "rame. The 0ertical loads were slowl$ increased until the s$stem could not resist an$ more loads. The hori-ontal loads were automaticall$ increased according to the s!eci"ied load ratio "or each test "rame controlled b$ the com!uter s$stem. For non#!ro!ortional loads test, The 0ertical loads were a!!lied on the to! o" the "our columns, and the hori-ontal load was a!!lied on the column at the second "loor le0el o" the test "rame. The 0ertical loads were "irst increased 21> kN and maintained during the e&!eriment. The hori-ontal load was slowl$ increased until the test "rame could not resist an$ more loads. Fig. />. and Fig. /). show load#dis!lacement cur0e "or test "rames. The obtained results "rom 7D non#linear anal$sis and A S*#LRFD method were com!ared with e&!erimental data. A.A@US, one o" mostl$ widel$ used and acce!ted commercial "inite element anal$sis !rogram, was used. Load carr$ing ca!acities obtained b$ the e&!eriment and A S*#LRFD method are com!ared in Table 4 and 1. The results showed that the A S*#LRFD ca!acities were a!!ro&imatel$ /9 !ercent conser0ati0e "or "rame sub8ected to !ro!ortional loads test and /1 !ercent conser0ati0e "or non# !ro!ortional loads test. This di""erence is deri0ed "rom the "act that the A S*#LRFD a!!roach does not consider the inelastic moment redistribution, but the e&!eriment includes the inelastic redistribution e""ect.

&0ii

+. $"SI>N USIN> N NLIN"AR IN"LAS!IC ANAL'SIS

+.# $esign 9or:at

Aonlinear inelastic anal$sis "ollows the "ormat o" Load and Resistance Factor Design.

A S*#LRFD()++,), the "actored load e""ect does not e&ceed the "actored nominal resistance o" structure. Two 'inds o" "actors are used6 one is a!!lied to loads, the other to resistances. The load and resistance "actor design has the "ormat

i Qi Rn

())

where Rn I nominal resistance o" the structural member, Qi I "orce e""ect, I resistance "actor,

i I load "actor corres!onding to Qi , I a "actor relating to ductilit$, redundanc$, and o!erational


im!ortance. The main di""erence between current LRFD method and nonlinear inelastic anal$sis method is that the

right side o" ?%. ()), ( Rn ) in the LRFD method is the resistance or strength o" the com!onent o" a structural s$stem, but in the nonlinear inelastic anal$sis method, it re!resents the resistance or the load#carr$ing ca!acit$ o" the whole structural s$stem. n the nonlinear inelastic anal$sis method, the load#carr$ing ca!acit$ is obtained "rom a!!l$ing incremental loads until a structural s$stem reaches

its strength limit state such as $ielding or buc'ling. The le"t#hand side o" ?%. ()), (

Q )
i i

re!resents the member "orces in the LRFD method, but the a!!lied load on the structural s$stem in the
&0iii

nonlinear inelastic anal$sis method.

+.& 5o0eling Consi0eration

+.&.# Sections

The A S*#LRFD S!eci"ication uses onl$ one column cur0e "or rolled and welded sections o" :, :T, and 5P sha!es, !i!e, and structural tubing (A S*, )++,). The S!eci"ication also uses same interaction e%uations "or doubl$ and singl$ s$mmetric members including :, :T, and 5P sha!es, !i!e and structural tubing, e0en though the interaction e%uations were de0elo!ed on the basis o" : sha!es b$ (anchanalai ()+44). The !ro!osed anal$sis was de0elo!ed b$ calibration with the LRFD column cur0e. To this end, it is concluded that the !ro!osed methods can be used "or 0arious rolled and welded sections including :, :T, and 5P sha!es, !i!e, and structural tubing without "urther modi"ications.

+.&.& Structural :e:bers

An im!ortant consideration in ma'ing this nonlinear inelastic anal$sis !ractical is the re%uired number o" elements "or a member in order to !redict realisticall$ the beha0ior o" "rames. A sensiti0it$ stud$ o" nonlinear inelastic anal$sis "or two#dimensional "rames was !er"ormed on the re%uired number o" elements ((im and *hen, )++1). Two#element model ade%uatel$ !redicted the strength o" a two#dimensional member. This rule ma$ be used "or modeling a three#dimensional member.

+.&.( >eo:etric i:=erfection

&i&

The magnitudes o" geometric im!er"ections are selected as = / ), >>> "or unbraced

"rames and = ) ), >>> "or braced "rames. To model a !arabolic out#o"#straightness in the member, two#element model with ma&imum initial de"lection at the mid#height o" a member ade%uatel$ ca!tures im!er"ection e""ects. t is concluded that !ractical nonlinear inelastic anal$sis is

com!utationall$ e""icient. The !attern o" geometric im!er"ections is assumed to be the same as the elastic "irst order de"lected sha!e.

+.&.+ Loa0

)) Pro!ortional loading n the !ro!osed nonlinear inelastic anal$sis, the gra0it$ and lateral loads should be a!!lied simultaneousl$, since it does not account "or unloading. As a result, the method under#!redicts the strength o" "rames sub8ected to se%uential loads, large gra0it$ loads "irst and then lateral loads. t is, howe0er, 8usti"ied "or the !ractical design since the de0elo!ment o" the LRFD interaction e%uations was also based on strength cur0es sub8ected to simultaneous loading and the current LRFD elastic anal$sis uses the !ro!ortional loading rather than the se%uential loading.

/) ncremental loading t is necessar$, in an nonlinear inelastic anal$sis, to in!ut each increment load (not the total loads) to trace nonlinear load#dis!lacement beha0ior. The incremental loading !rocess can be achie0ed b$ scaling down the combined "actored loads b$ a number between /> and 9>. For a highl$ redundant structure, di0iding b$ about /> is recommended and "or a nearl$ staticall$ determinate structure, the incremental load ma$ be "actored down b$ 9>. =ne ma$ choose a number between /> and 9> to re"lect the redundanc$ o" a !articular structure. Since a highl$ redundant structure has the !otential to "orm man$ !lastic hinges and the a!!lied load (i.e. the smaller scaling number) ma$ be
&&

used.

+.( $esign Consi0eration

+.(.# Loa0-carrying ca=acity

The elastic anal$sis method does not ca!ture the inelastic redistribution o" internal "orces

throughout a structural s$stem, since the "irst#order "orces, e0en with the B) and B/ "actors, account "or the second#order geometric e""ect but not the inelastic redistributions o" internal "orces. The method ma$ !ro0ide a conser0ati0e estimation o" the ultimate load#carr$ing ca!acit$. Aonlinear inelastic anal$sis, howe0er, directl$ considers "orce redistribution due to material $ielding and thus allows smaller member si-es to be selected. This is !articularl$ bene"icial in highl$ indeterminate steel "rames. .ecause consideration at "orce redistribution ma$ not alwa$s be desirable, the two a!!roaches (including and e&cluding inelastic "orce redistribution) can be used. First, the load# carr$ing ca!acit$, including the e""ect o" inelastic "orce redistribution, is obtained "rom the "inal loading ste! (limit state) gi0en b$ the com!uter !rogram. Secondl$, the load#carr$ing ca!acit$ without the inelastic "orce redistribution is obtained b$ e&tracting that "orce sustained when the "irst member $ield or buc'led. Lenerall$, nonlinear inelastic anal$sis !redicts the same member si-e as the LRFD method when "orce redistribution is not considered.

+.(.& Resistance factor

A S*#LRFD s!eci"ies the resistance "actors o" >.19 and >.+ "or a&ial and "le&ural strength o" a member, res!ecti0el$. The !ro!osed method uses a s$stem#le0el resistance which is di""erent "rom A S*#LRFD s!eci"ication using member le0el resistance "actors. :hen a structural s$stem colla!ses b$ "orming !lastic mechanism, the resistance "actor o" >.+ is used since the dominent beha0ior is
&&i

"le&ure. :hen a structural s$stem colla!ses b$ member buc'ling, the resistance "actor o" >.19 is used since the dominent beha0ior is com!ression.

+.(.( Serviceability li:it


According to the AS*? Ad 5oc *ommittee on Ser0iceabilit$ re!ort (Ad 5oc *ommittee,

)+12), the normall$ acce!ted range o" o0erall dri"t limits "or building is ) 49> to ) /9> times the

building height, H , with a t$!ical 0alue o" H ,>> . The general limits on the interstor$ dri"t are

) 9>> to ) />> times the stor$ height. .ased on the studies b$ the Ad 5oc *ommittee ()+12), and
b$ ?llingwood ()+1+), the de"lection limits "or girder and stor$ are selected as

Floor girder li0e load de"lection 6 H 72> Roo" girder de"lection 6 H /,> Lateral dri"t 6 H ,>> "or wind load nterstor$ dri"t 6 H 7>> "or wind load

At ser0ice load le0els, no !lastic hinges are allowed to occur in order to a0oid !ermanent de"ormations under ser0ice loads.

+.(.+ $uctility re?uire:ent

Ade%uate rotation ca!acit$ is re%uired "or members to de0elo! their "ull !lastic moment ca!acit$. This is achie0ed when members are ade%uatel$ braced and their cross#sections are com!act.
&&ii

The limits "or lateral unbraced lengths and com!act sections are e&!licitl$ de"ined in A S*#LRFD ()++,).

R"9"R"NC"S
Abdel#Lha""ar, G., :hite, D. :., and *hen, :. F. ()++)). ;Sim!li"ied second#order inelastic anal$sis "or steel "rame design.< S!ecial Colume o" Session on A!!ro&imate Gethods and Ceri"ication Procedures o" Structural Anal$sis and Design, Proceedings at Structures *ongress +), AS*?, Aew Nor', ,4#2/. Ad 5oc *ommittee on Ser0iceabilit$, Structural ser0iceabilit$ ()+12). A critical a!!raisal and research needs, AS*?, P. Struct. ?ng., ))/()/)B /2,2#/22,. Al#Gashar$, F. and *hen, :. F. ()++)). ;Sim!li"ied second#order inelastic anal$sis "or steel "rames.< P. nst. Struct. ?ng., 2+(/7), 7+9#7++. A S* ()++,). Load and Resistance Factor Design S!eci"ication, American nstitute o" Steel *onstruction, /nd ?d., *hicago. Al0are-, R. P. and .irnstiel, *. ()+24). ;?lasto#!lastic anal$sis o" !lane rigid "rames, school o"

&&iii

engineering and science.< De!artment o" *i0il ?ngineering, Aew Nor' Uni0ersit$, Aew Nor'. Attala, G. A., Deierlein, L. L., and GcLuire, :. ()++,). ;S!read o" !lasticit$6 %uasi#!lastic#hinge a!!roach.< P. Struct. ?ngrg., AS*?, )/>(1), /,9)#/,47. A0er$, P. and Gahendran, G. (/>>>). ;Large#scale testing o" steel "rame structures com!rising non# com!act sections.< ?ngrg. Struct., //, +/>#+72. *hen, :. F. and Atsuta, T. ()+44). ;Theor$ o" beam#columns, 0ol. /, s!ace beha0ior and design.< GcLraw#5ill, Aew Nor', 47/ !!. *hen :.F. and (im, S. ?.()++4). ;LRFD steel design using ad0anced anal$sis.<, *R* Press, .oca Raton, Florida. *hen, :.F. and Lui, ?. G.()+12). ;Structural stabilit$#theor$ and im!lementation.< ?lse0ier, Aew Nor', ,+>!!. *lar'e, G. P., .ridge, R. @., 5ancoc', L. P., and Trahair, A. S. ()++/). benchmar'ing and 0eri"ication o" second#order elastic and inelastic "rame anal$sis !rograms in SSR* TL /+ wor'sho! and monogra!h on !lastic hinge based methods "or ad0anced anal$sis and design o" steel "rames, :hite, D.:. and *hen, :.F., ?ds., SSR*, Lehigh Uni0ersit$, .ethlehem, PA. *SA ()+1+). Limit States Design o" Steel Structures, *AAJ*SA#S)2.)#G1+, *anadian Standards Association. *SA ()++,). Limit States Design o" Steel Structures, *AAJ*SA#S)2.)#G+,, *anadian Standards Association. ?llingwood ()+1+). ;Limit states design o" steel structures.<, A S* ?ngineering Pournal, /2, )st @uarter, )#1. ?*7 ()++>). Design o" Steel Structures6 Part # Leneral Rules and Rules "or .uildings, Col. ), ?urocode edited dra"t, ssue 7. ?**S ()+1,). Ultimate Limit State *alculations o" Swa$ Frames with Rigid Points, Technical *ommittee 1 # Structural Stabilit$ Technical :or'ing Lrou! 1./ # S$stem, Publication Ao. 77, /> !!. ?**S ()++)). ?ssentials o" ?urocode 7 Design Ganual "or Steel Structures in .uildings, ?**S# Ad0isor$ *ommittee 9, Ao. 29, 2> !!.
&&i0

?l#Danat$, G., Gurra$, D., and .8orho0de, R. ()+1>). ; nelastic beha0ior o" multistor$ steel "rames.< Structural ?ngineering Re!ort Ao. 17, Uni0ersit$ o" Alberta, Alberta, *anada. 5arrison, 5. .. ()+2,). ;The A!!lication o" the !rinci!les o" !lastic anal$sis to three dimentional steel structures.<, Ph.D thesis, De!artment o" *i0il ?ngineering, Uni0ersit$ o" s$dne$. (anchanalai, T. ()+44). ;The design and beha0ior o" beam#columns in unbraced steel "rames.< A S Pro8ect Ao. )1+, Re!ort Ao. /, *i0il ?ngineeringJStructures Research Lab., Uni0ersit$ o" Te&as at Austin, 7>> !!. (etter, R. L., (amins'$, ?.L., and .eedle, L.S. ()+99). ;Plastic de"ormation o" wide#"lange beam columns.< Transactions, AS*?, )/>, )>/1#)>2+. (im, S. ?. ()++2). ;Practical ad0anced anal$sis "or steel "rame design.< Ph.D Dissertation, School o" *i0il ?ngineering, Purdue Uni0ersit$, :est La"a$ette, A, Ga$, /4) !!. (im, S. ?. and *hen, :. F. ()++2). ;Practical ad0anced anal$sis "or steel "rame design.< The AS*? Structural *ongress M C S!ecial Proceedings Colume on Anal$sis and *om!utation, *hicago, L,A!ril, )+#7>. (im, S.?. and *hen, :.F. ()++2a) 3Practical ad0anced anal$sis "or braced steel "rame design3, AS*? P. Struct. ?ng., )//()))6 )/22#)/4,. (im, S.?. and *hen, :.F. ()++2b) 3Practical ad0anced anal$sis "or unbraced steel "rame design3, AS*? P. Struct. ?ng., AS*?, )//()))6 )/9+#)/29. (im, S.?. and *hen, :.F. ()++4) 3Further studies o" !ractical ad0anced anal$sis "or wea'#a&is bending3, ?ngrg. Struct., ?lse0ier, )+(2)6 ,>4#,)2. (im, S.?. and *hen, :.F. ()++1). 3A sensiti0it$ stud$ on number o" elements in re"ined !lastic#hinge anal$sis3, *om!uters and Structures, 22(9), 229#247. (im, S. ?., Par', G. 5., *hoi, S. 5. (/>>>). 3 m!ro0ed re"ined !lastic#hinge anal$sis accounting "or strain re0ersal.3, ?ngineering Structures, //()), )9#/9. (im, S.?. and *hoi, S.5.(/>>)). 3Practical ad0anced anal$sis "or semi#rigid s!ace "rames.3, Solids and Structures, ?lse0ier Science, 71(9>#9)), +)))#+)7). (im, S.?., Par', G.5., *hoi, S.5. (/>>)) 3Direct design o" three#dimensional "rames using !ractical
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ad0anced anal$sis3, ?ngineering Structures, /7())), ),+)#)9>/. (im, S.?., (im, N. and *hoi, S.5.(/>>)) ;Aonlinear anal$sis o" 7#D steel "rames.<, Thin#walled Structures, ?lse0ier Science, 7+(2), ,,9#,2). (im, S.?. and (ang, (.:.(/>>)). ;Large#scale testing o" s!ace steel "rame sub8ected to non# !ro!ortional loads, Solids and Structures, Submitted. (im, S.?. and (ang, (.:.(/>>)). ;Large#scale testing o" s!ace steel "rame sub8ected to !ro!ortional loads, Solids and Structures, ?ngrg. Struct., ?lse0ier, Acce!ted (ing, :. S., :hite, D. :., and *hen, :. F. ()++)). ;=n second#order inelastic methods "or steel "rame design.< P. Struct. ?ngrg, AS*?, ))1(/), ,>1#,/1. Liew, P. N. R. ()++/). ;Ad0anced anal$sis "or "rame design.< Ph.D. Dissertation, School o" *i0il ?ngineering, Purdue Uni0ersit$, :est La"a$ette, A, Ga$, 7+7 !!. Liew, P. N. R. and *hen, :. F. ()++)). ;Re"ining the !lastic hinge conce!t "or ad0anced anal$sisJdesign o" steel "rames.< Pournal o" Singa!ore Structural Steel Societ$, Steel Structure, /()), )7#7>. Liew, P. N. R., :hite, D. :., and *hen, :. F.()++)). ;.eam#column design in steel "ramewor's# insight on current methods and trends.< P. *onstr. Steel Res., )1, /2+#7>1. Liew, P. N. R., :hite, D. :., and *hen, :. F. ()++7a). ;Second#order re"ined !lastic hinge anal$sis "or "rame design6 Part .< P. Struct. ?ngrg., AS*?, ))+ ())), 7)+2#7/)2. Liew, P. N. R., :hite, D. :., and *hen, :. F. ()++7b). ;Second#order re"ine !lastic hinge anal$sis "or "rame design6 Part .< P. Struct. ?ngrg., AS*?, ))+ ())), 7/)4#7/74 Liew, P.N.R. and Tang, L.(. ()++1) 3Aonlinear re"ined !lastic hinge anal$sis o" s!ace "rame structures", Research Re!ort Ao. *?>/4J+1, De!artment o" *i0il ?ngineering, Aational Uni0ersit$ o" Singa!ore, Singa!ore. =rbison, P.L. ()+1/) 3Aonlinear static anal$sis o" three#dimensional steel "rames ", Re!ort Ao. 1/#2, De!artment o" Structural ?ngineering, *ornell Uni0ersit$, thaca, Aew Nor'. Pra'ash, C. and Powell, L.5. ()++7) 3DRA A#7DM6 .ase !rogram user guide, 0ersion ).)> ", A *om!uter Program Distributed b$ A S?? J *om!uter A!!lications, De!artment o" *i0il ?ngineering,
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Uni0ersit$ o" *ali"ornia, .er'ele$. San-#Picon, *.F.()++/). ;.eha0ior o" com!osite column cross sections under bia&ial bending.< GS Thesis, *ornell Uni0ersit$, thaca, Aew Nor'. SSR* ()++7). Plastic hinge based methods "or ad0anced anal$sis and design o" steel "rames, An Assessment o" the State#o"#the#Art, :hite, D.:. and *hen, :.F., ?ds., SSR*, Lehigh Uni0ersit$, .ethlehem, PA, /++!!. Standards Australia ()++>). AS,)>>#)++>, Steel Structures, S$dne$, Australia. Cogel, U. ()+19). ;*alibrating "rames< Stahlbau, )>, )#4. :a'aba$ashi, G.,and Gatsui, *. ()+4/a). ;?lastic#!lastic beha0iors o" "ull si-e steel "rame.<, Trans. Arch. nst. P!n., )+1, 4#)4 :ang, N. *. ()+11). ;Ultimate strength anal$sis o" 7#D beam columns and column subassemblages with "le&ible connections.< Ph.D. Thesis, Uni0ersit$ o" She""ield, ?ngland. :hite, D.:., Liew, P. N. R., and *hen, :. F.()++)). ;Second#order inelastic anal$sis "or "rame design.<, A re!ort to SSR* Tas' Lrou! /+ on Recent Research and the Percie0ed State#o"#art, Structural ?ngineering Re!ort, *?#STR#+)#)/, Purdue Uni0ersit$, :est La"a$ette, A. ))2!!. :hite, D. :. ()++7). ;Plastic hinge methods "or ad0anced anal$sis o" steel "rames.<, P. *onstr. Steel Res., /,(/), )/)#)9/!!. :hite, D. :. ()+19). ;Gaterial and geometric nonlinear anal$sis o" local !lanar beha0ior in steel "rames using iterati0e com!uter gra!hics.< G.S. Thesis, *ornell Uni0ersit$, thaca, AN, /1) !!. Narimci, ?. ()+22). ; ncremental inelastic anal$sis o" "ramed structures and some e&!erimental 0eri"ication<, Ph.D. dissertation, De!artment o" *i0il ?ngineering, Lehigh Uni0ersit$, .ethlehem, PA. Diemian, R. D.()++>). ;Ad0anced methods o" inelastic anal$sis in the limit states design o" steel structures.<, Ph.D. Dissertation, School o" *i0il and ?n0ironmental ?ngineering, *ornell Uni0ersit$, thaca, AN /29!!. Diemian, R. D., :hite, D.:., Deierlein, L. L., and Gc%uire, :.()++>). ;=ne a!!roach to inelastic anal$sis and design, Proceedings o" the )++> Aational Steel *o"erences.<, A S*, *hicago, )+.)#)+.
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