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G8 & G20 Youth Summits June 3rd-9th, 2012 Washington, D.C.

ESSAY INSTRUCTIONS Please write two essays according to positions you have applied for below. Please adhere to the two-page limit per essay and use Times New Roman 12pt font and single space. Please do not repeat the essay prompts as your titles and in your responses. ESSAY PROMPTS Head of State If you were the newly elected 2014 President, what would be your main strategies (both locally and internationally) for Indonesia to stay competitive in global transitions as well as to minimize the negative impacts from emerging markets demands? Sherpa Indonesia plays a crucial role in the G20; aside from representing national interests, it is important to consider that Indonesia is the only ASEAN country in the G20. What are your recommendations for Indonesia to improve, balance and coordinate its position within these two global and regional institutions? Minister of Finance The European sovereign debt crisis has been the most talked about event in 2011 due to its widespread impacts to the worlds economy. The IMF has recently marked down its 2012 world growth projection due to major financial turbulence in the Euro area. As a country backed with strong domestic consumption, Indonesia has also been affected by this problem. What should Indonesia do to ensure its economy continues to flourish in the global crisis and what can we do as part of the worlds economy to solve the problem? Minister of Economy The global food market has been suffering from rising prices of basic agricultural produce such as wheat and corn. The 2007-2008 food price crisis has ended, but the world is currently experiencing a new peak in the price of basic agricultural goods. One explanation for the crisis was trade barriers implemented by both developed and developing countries to protect their agricultural industry with tariffs, quotas, and subsidies. What should Indonesias agricultural policies be on these trade barriers? Minister of Environment There has been a surge in international interest and scrutiny of Indon esias environmental issues, voicing both enthusiasm and skepticism in the governments emissions reductions targets. What should Indonesias strategy be in international forums such as the UNFCCC, Rio+20 and G20 to gain respect and confidence from the international audience and to ensure Indonesia has been doing its part? Minister of Development The G20 has recognized that development and global economic issues cannot be handled separately, therefore the work of development will still remain an important agenda of G20 members. Three issues are especially crucial: infrastructure, food security and new innovative resources for financing development. What are your main strategies for

G8 & G20 Youth Summits June 3rd-9th, 2012 Washington, D.C.

Indonesia to make a significant contribution to the global development agenda as well as to improve its own national development goals? WHAT ARE WE LOOKING FOR? We are looking for thoughtful, well-structured, creative and logical responses written in clear English. Due to page restrictions, we are not looking for a highly detailed essay. This exercise is especially designed to assess how well you formulate your strategies, based on previous knowledge or research. NEXT STEPS Save this word doc to a .pdf file and rename it to 2012 Essay_YourFullName_FirstMinisterialPos_SecondMinisterialPos Example: 2012 Essay_DistyWinata_Environment_Sherpa Email the document to with the same subject line as the document name. Please submit your essays by January 5th, 2012 at 23.59 WIB the latest. We will be announcing selected applicants who advance to the final round of selection on January 9th, 2012.

Good luck!

G20 Youth Summit Indonesian Organizing Committee Ariana Alisjahbana, Disty Winata, I Ketut Adi Putra and Sofwan Hakim

G8 & G20 Youth Summits June 3rd-9th, 2012 Washington, D.C. Name First applied position Title : Widya Fitri : Minister of Development : Bridging Rich and Poor for a Global Development Agenda

"Let us work in partnerships between rich and poor to improve the opportunities of all human beings to build better lives." - Kofi Annan A major concern that has been dominantly brought during G20 forums is an increased attention in development issues. Whereas in the past, development was a relatively rare occurrence topic. This change is borne out clearly in the previous Korea forum in 2010. This apparently has become a momentous step for a rising awareness upon social development aspect to solve the world problematic. What does this imply? It literally describes a massive commitment of both developing and developed countries to cope the international developmental problems. A strengthen cooperation between two sides is a magnificent solution as a global community for creating a better world in the future. The essay is structured as follows. First, we consider the definition of international development that covers multidimensional issues nowadays. Second, building on this point, the essay will observe the Indonesia s developmental issues and its correlation with the international scope. These two analyses will be the basis for proposing Indonesias contribution for enhancing international development through its multilateral activisms especially its G20 membership. When we talk about international development, it relates to activities to alleviate poverty in developing countries and the way to improve their life quality. 1This definition implies several points. First, international development is covering wide range issues since its dealing with poverty. At its most basic level, poverty is connected to a lack of food security and infrastructure to facilitate the civilian needs which we will discuss further. Second, international development cannot be separated from the need of international assistances. These assistances are coming from international institutions such as World Bank and IMF or developed countries. On this point, international development reveals a relation between the need for development resources and a strong commitment to find its solution. Significant setbacks after the 2008-2009 economic crisis which prompted hard impact on various life sectors for global community has actually worsened the level of global poverty. The sharp rises in primary commodities such as food and oil hit many countries and particularly developing countries. As a result, people found its getting more difficult to access the staple foods to live since the purchasing power is collapsing due to poverty. Based on The World Food Summit of 1996, food security is defined as existing when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. 2 Commonly, the concept of food security is defined as including both physical and economic access to food that meets people's dietary needs as well as their food preferences. In fact, reality indeed reflects a misery; According to UNICEF, 22,000 children die each day due to poverty. The insufficient food security leads to extreme hunger that lethally ends developing countries populations life.
D. Gregory, Development In Dictionary of Human Geography 5th Ed., (Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell., 2009), pp.155-156 2 _______, Trade, Foreign Policy, Diplomacy, and Health, accessed from, January 2nd, 2012, 13:15

G8 & G20 Youth Summits June 3rd-9th, 2012 Washington, D.C. Moving into Indonesias condition, I found the similarities on the core problem of development in this country. Poverty has still become the major burden to achieve optimal social development in this country. Though President SBY announced the latest Indonesias macro economic expansion could reach 6.5% GDP growth compared to last year, unfortunately the micro level still shows the lack number. 3 Its proven that Indonesias HDI is still on the 141st position in the global world. 4 This describes how Indonesia is actually still grappling on development problems. On the respond to this poverty problem, writer somehow believes in the theory of poverty trap that show the chain of poverty cycle. This never ending cycle can be cut through the intervention of international aids and assistances. The existence of these assistances will help developing countries to improve its infrastructure in fulfilling the social needs. Besides, international aids and assistances can offer the appropriate resources for development as long as there is an effective surveillance and compatibility to the recipient countries local needs. In this aspect, Indonesia shall play a significant role as one developing country in G20 forum. Indonesia should be able to affirm the global economic regime be reconstituted in order to protect the poorest, and promote economic and social development that would make the world more equitable in the context of the multiple crises. A strategic action that can be done is through lobbying developed countries in the forum to contribute financial and technical assistances for developing countries to tackle poverty and social problems. Indonesias membership in G20 is basically a strategic way to represent developing countries to achieve a better living standard. As the leading player in ASEAN, Indonesia can also gather other developing countries voice to share their development issues. Taking a massive activism in other multilateral forums such as Asia Africa Conference, APEC, and others can be a prosperous opportunities to be a development issues poll in which participants are able to share experiences of national development and the response to multiple crises in countries with heterogeneous developmental paths. I believe this method can be an effective way for Indonesia to bring up developing countries concern and interests in G20 forum to be considered as the important agenda. By the time Indonesia succeed to bring developing countries agenda in the forum, it means Indonesia at the same time shows its eagerness to play part in alleviating global poverty as well as its own development agendas. The effectiveness of this effort can be measured on how strong Indonesia comes up with the development issue in the forum and receiving some assurances of aids/assistances from other members. For addition, in this aspect, developing countries are the one who should show the high willingness to cope its development issues. Financial and technical assistances would not be effective if the structural poverty causes cannot be overcome. Thus, learning from South Korea, its state led development which transformed itself from aid recipient to donor country shall become the role model for Indonesia and other developing countries. As a conclusion, the work on international development is a combination of a strong commitment and cooperation between developed and developing countries. For one reason, G20 forum as a multilateral forum can be a place to create a better world through putting development as the prominent issues for entire members.
_______, Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Indonesia Triwulan III -2011, accessed from 4 UNDP, Human Development Report 2011 , accessed from

G8 & G20 Youth Summits June 3rd-9th, 2012 Washington, D.C. Name Second applied position Title : Widya Fitri : Sherpa : G20 and ASEAN: Strategic Forums for Indonesia s Economic Expansion

Indonesia has been pacing long standing foreign policy conduction since its establishment. It was started when Hatta emphasized the metaphor rowing between two reefs as the fundamental basis of Indonesias foreign policy objective. Nowadays, we are getting familiar with the term thousand friends, zero enemies which belongs to SBY. Though they both substantially sound similar in a matter of pragmatism, yet, SBY has actually given a new direction to Indonesias foreign policy. Different from his previous predecessors, SBY foreign policy direction is basically a unique amalgamation of the two schools of thought and policy of adaptation to changing geopolitical and geostrategic compulsions. Hence, we can see Indonesias massive activisms during SBYs administration through numerous activities demonstrating Indonesias involvement, engagement, and leadership on regio nal and international stages. For ideal matters, this effort is a way to build Indonesias self image building diplomacy as part of the leading role to contribute in the global and regional agendas. Yet at the same time, when we talk about realist point of view, Indonesia always brings its national interests along regional and multilateral commitments within the forums. Hence, in order to comprehend Indonesias strategy to balance and coordinate within these two areas of activism, this essay will be structured into two main parts. First, on perceiving Indonesias role in regional stage, I will describe how Indonesia delivers its present objectives in ASEAN. Second, I will observe Indonesias role in G20 on the way it represents ASEAN as the emerging market from the region. These two points will later become the basis to determine Indonesias strategic mechanism to balance the two forums. Before we are going further, we should first answer a question: Is it Indonesia that needs ASEAN or ASEAN needs Indonesia? To answer this, we need to know three particular generalizations on Indonesias foreign policy toward ASEAN that can be used to analyze Indonesias position in ASEAN. Firstly, it has generally been accepted that Indonesian foreign policy is largely determined by domestic factors; aid independence dilemma. Secondly, there have been paradoxical tendencies in Indonesian policy formulation, which therefore oscillates between strength and weakness, confidence and insecurity. Thirdly, Indonesias policy toward ASEAN has been influenced by a single overriding objective; to exercise its primacy in the region. 5 Based on these three points, we eventually know that both Indonesia and ASEAN creates a mutual need linkage. Indonesia needs other ASEAN countries especially the more developed one such as Singapore in economic and financial aspects. In todays world, Singapore has become the major FDI contributor for Indonesia that reaches US$3,22 billion or 22,4% out of total FDI in Indonesia. 6 At the same time, Indonesia somehow puts itself as the main actor in ASEAN for the reason becoming the most populous country in ASEAN, along with abundant natural resources and other potential economic sectors. Looking back at the history, as one of ASEAN founding fathers, Indonesia keeps steady on
Dewi Fortuna Anwar, Indonesia in ASEAN: Foreign Policy and Regionalism, (Pasir Panjang: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1994), pp. 7-8 6 Asep Dadan Muhanda, Singapura Kontributor Terbesar Investasi Asing di Indonesia, accessed from, December 30th, 2011, 11:20

G8 & G20 Youth Summits June 3rd-9th, 2012 Washington, D.C. defending its leadership role in ASEAN. Indeed, official pronouncements have referred to ASEAN as the cornerstone of Indonesian foreign policy. In the present time, economic issues have been a dominant agenda for Indonesia in bringing its national interest. Thus, related to ASEAN current strategic concern which is based on the framework of ASEAN Community to complete by 2015; ASEAN aims to create an integrated economic community by 2015 where there will be free movement of people, goods and services in the region. The grouping has made progress in areas such as infrastructure, goods trading and financial markets. Through this economic integration with single market and production base, it is expected that Indonesia can utilize this economic integration to expand its economic potency. As one of ASEAN Economic Community pillars, integrating with the global market has been the point of bringing ASEAN to raise its global profile. An expansive economic performance of Indonesia cannot be separated from its activism in promoting regional economic integration in which Indonesia actively engage in various Free Trade Agreements; such as ACFTA, AANZ-FTA with Australia and New Zealand, India-ASEAN FTA, etc. The opportunities for expanding market are largely given through its membership in ASEAN which truly benefit Indonesias economic enlargement on international level. In this point, relate to its membership in G20, I found the correlation between this agenda in line with G20 objective. G20 seems to be a wider forum for Indonesia to expand its economic market scale. As the G20 membership consists of large growing global market, Indonesia can broaden its economic objectives. For now, Indonesias membership in G20 has given significant impact to Indonesia s economy booming. Indonesia rank 44th among 139 economies in the GCI ranking has been a proof that Indonesia deserves as a vast emerging market in G20. Its 10-position improvement in the overall ranking is the highest of all G20 countries. 7 In addition, Indonesia has done remarkably well in the past decade and has proven very resilient during the global economic crisis. These positive developments are, to a large ext ent, reflected in the countrys competitiveness performance. Above all, the most prominent position for Indonesia nowadays is actually Indonesias key role in bridging the two forums. Taking into account Indonesias high effort to exert primacy in ASEAN, Indonesia itself can manage regional interests during its meeting in the G20 forum. ASEAN can be a poll forum concerning regional issues that can be discussed among G20 members for the sake of global economic improvement. The more eager Indonesia in bringing ASEAN interests in G20 forum, the stronger support from other ASEAN countries for Indonesia in its leading role in the region. Pursuing a goal to enhance regional economic performance, Indonesia can attract countries in G20 forum to contribute large investment in ASEAN particularly Indonesia. This strategic action will lead into an economically dynamic region which can drive ASEAN into a large production base and benefit its members. Besides, by promoting ASEAN as a potential investment area, G20 members would also benefit from more cost-effective industrial and production activities in ASEAN, providing firms with greater competitive edge and synergy both for global and regional market. As a conclusion, Indonesia is strategically benefited by participating in these two forums.

_______,The Global Competitiveness Index, accessed from