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National culture Power distance: high/ low in UK Collectivism in Egypt/ individualism in UK Relatively feminine in Egypt / masculine in UK High uncertainty

avoidance in Egypt / low uncertainty avoidance in UK Institutions: Labour laws: Both Egypt and UK has labour laws to regulate employer and employee relationship. The investment climate in Egypt has witnessed major legislative and institutional reforms, with a tangible impact on both the level of domestic investments, as well as inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI). Confidence in the Egyptian economy has been strengthened by the key role played by the Egyptian government, in terms of improving the outlook for Egyptian, Arab and foreign investments. Government reduced investment capital needed, reduced income, corporate taxes, and custom duties. A more favorable tax system helps to invest further. Egypt as being even more attractive now. In its constant endeavor to create an environment conducive to thriving investment, the Egyptian government has passed several laws with the aim of smoothing the way for investors. Unions: In Egypt government behave autocratically toward the trade unions. However, those Egyptian laborers are unafraid to retaliate and have considerate power. But in UK the union member ship n power has declined, especially in private sector. Dynamic business environment: Competition: In UK Cadbury faces much more competition, its major competitor is mars. In Egypt competition for confectionary business is not as higher. Technology: Egypt is a developing country and its not as much advanced in technology as UK as it is developed nation. Industrial sector: Regulations and standards:

In Egypt there is hieratical and bureaucratic structure, high degree of formalization is present, while in UK although traditionally hierarchical in structure, but now have moved towards a flatter, less bureaucratic approach so lesser formalization. Contingent factors: Age structure UK: 0-14 years: 17.3% 15-64 years: 66.2% 65 years and over: 16.5% Population: 63,047,162 (July 2012 EST.) Egypt: Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.7% 15-64 years: 62.8% 65 years and over: 4.5% Population: 83,688,164 (July 2012 EST.) With very limited investments we can exploit their best asset, which is their youth, given that more than half of Egypt's population is below the age of thirty. They can fill the technological and communications gap faster. Organization strategy and policy: In UK there is less bureaucratic and there is team based structure, jobs n rewards are individually designed, While in Egypt there is more bureaucracy, decision making is done at top level, Nepotism is not considered bad recruitment and selection practices indicate a marginal preference for filling vacancies from within and that job skills are more important in selection decisions than fit with organizational culture . There are weaknesses in the training system and that there was a shortage of labor skilled in the new occupations and technologies and the ILO identified an employer preference for recruiting needed skills from outside rather than developing them within.

Compensation is mostly seniority based. Appraisal system is not much developed it was just outcome based; there was no behavior and group focus. Hr policies and practices: Check nepotism while doing recruitment, hire local people more. Give more focus on training and development to overcome skill shortage and it should b group based as it is collectivist nation. Compensation should also have some portion of performance base; keep it group based incentives in addition to seniority pay. Performance appraisal should be more effective in addition to be based on task out comes it should have team performance and behavior focus.