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KG-TOWER Hydraulic Design and Rating Software

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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What is it?

It allows users to design and rate KG proprietary packings and conventional valve and sieve trays. It will provide the estimated capacity and pressure drop of KG high performance trays.

It will estimate a tower diameter and provide some design details (downcomer widths, for example). It gives an indication of the turndown expected.

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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What else?

The KG-TOWER software has a list of both sales and technical contacts. It includes pictures of our packings, valves, and trays. It uses the same models that we use in our internal version to design our equipment. Built in unit conversions.

Relative efficiency given for our packings.


It can import up to 5 loadings from SimSci-Esscors PRO/II and Aspen Technologys simulators.

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Design Information

Hydraulic Loads

Vapor (flow to tray)


Mass flow rate [kg/h or lb/hr] Density Viscosity [kg/m3 or lb/ft3] [cP]

Liquid (flow from tray)


Mass flow rate [kg/h or lb/hr]

Density
Viscosity

[kg/m3 or lb/ft3]
[cP]

Surface tension [dyne/cm]

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Design Information

System Properties

Foaming tendency Fouling

Application
Pressure and temperature

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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EXAMPLE PROBLEM - ACID GAS ABSORBER

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Current Operation
90 mol ppm CO2 (0.18 kg-mol/h)

260,000 kg/h 30 wt% MEA

20 trays on 600mm spacing

2000mm 36,000 kg/h 18.2 mol% CO2 (451 kg-mol/h)

279,800 kg/h 0.47 mol CO2/mol MEA

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Revamp

Goal is to increase throughput by 35%


Existing trays would be flooded

What is required to check packing capacity?


Vapor rate Vapor density Liquid rate Liquid density Liquid viscosity Liquid surface tension

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Physical Properties
Absorber bottom
V = 36,000 kg/h v = 23.8 kg/m3 L = 279,800 kg/h L = 926.7 kg/m3 L = 0.83 cP L = 61.5 dyne/cm

Absorber top
V = 16,160 kg/h v = 24.6 kg/m3 L = 260,000 kg/h L = 991.1 kg/m3 L = 1.01 cP L = 66.6 dyne/cm

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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KG-TOWER Design Program

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Loading Input Screen

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Packing Design Screen

Current Operation

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Packing Design Screen

Proposed Operation

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Efficiency

How do we check the efficiency of our selected packing?


Highest accuracy achieved by using a rate based simulation program such as the RATEFRAC module in PROII Calculate transfer units and height of a transfer unit using experimental Kga data for this system Estimate efficiency of proposed packing using efficiency data from existing trays

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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KG-TOWER TRAY DESIGN

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Crossflow Tray Terminology


Liquid Flow Flow Path Length

Downcomer

Outlet Weir Tray Spacing Downcomer Clearance Inlet Area Active Area or Bubbling Area Vapor Flow

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Design Information

Mechanical Information

Materials of construction Tower manhole size

Existing tower attachments (revamp situation)


User Company Design Standards

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Optimizing Features

Number of flow passes Downcomer adapters (revamp)

Sloped / stepped downcomers (kick-back)


Sweptback weirs Radius lip downcomers

Sumps
Anti-jump baffles Weir blocks

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Tray Design Rules of Thumb

Conventional Trays

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Input Values

Tray Spacing
24 [610 mm] is the most common Typically ranges from 12 to 30 [300 to 760 mm]

Number of Flow Paths vs. Tower Diameter


1 Pass > 2.5 [760 mm] (ring supported) 2 Pass > 5 [1500 mm]

3 Pass > 8 [2400 mm]


4 Pass > 10 [3000 mm]

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Input Values

Downcomer Chord
4 [100 mm] or 1/12 tower diameter minimum applies to both top and bottom

Kickback
3 [75 mm] typical for conventional trays or to provide topto-bottom area ratios:
< 2:1 if vapor density < 1.0 lb/ft3 [16 kg/m3] < 3:1 if vapor density < 1.0 - 3.0 lb/ft3 [16 - 48 kg/m3] < 4:1 if vapor density > 3.0 lb/ft3 [48 kg/m3]

Center and Off-center Downcomer Width


6 [150 mm] minimum
Applies to both top and bottom unless boxed DC is used
2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved. CONFIDENTIAL

Input Values

Off-center Downcomer Position


Typically located to provide equal flow path lengths

Sweptback weirs
Can lose active area

Sump Width
Same as top downcomer width

Sump Depth
as need to provide VUD of 1.0 ft/sec [0.3 m/s] 4 to 6 [100 to 150 mm] is typical

25% of tray spacing maximum

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Input Values

Weir Height
Generally 1 to 3 [25 to 75 mm] Default is 2 [50 mm] Use less than 12% of tray spacing to avoid a loss of jet flood capacity

Downcomer Radius
1 [25 mm] is standard for conventional trays

Downcomer Clearance
typically weir height minus 0.5 [10 to 15 mm] 0.75 [20 mm] absolute minimum [1 or 25 mm preferred min] 1.5 [37 mm] minimum for refining applications

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Calculated Values

Jet Flood 85% maximum (all trays) Downcomer Choke Flood (all trays)
85% maximum for low and moderate pressure 65-80% for high pressure hydrocarbon fractionation

Downcomer Backup: Conventional trays


40% or 33% if DL- DV is < 30 lb/ft3 (of TS + HW) clear liquid basis

Weir Loading
6 gpm/ft [4.5 m3/m/h] minimum consider more passes above 120 gpm/ft [90 m3/m/h]

Crest Over Weir


0.25 [6 mm] minimum
2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved. CONFIDENTIAL

Calculated Values

Downcomer Exit Velocity


Conventional: 1.6 ft/sec [0.49 m/s] maximum (clear)

Downcomer Head Loss


Conventional: 1.5 [38 mm] liquid maximum
not applicable if downcomer radius is used

Dry Tray Pressure Drop


15% of tray spacing is the design limit (all trays)

Flow Path Length


18 [460 mm] minimum without a special design 16 [400 mm] absolute minimum to have tray manways (special design required) Consider using more passes above 120 [3.0 m]
2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved. CONFIDENTIAL

Rule of Thumb

While not applicable to all systems, there is an old industry rule of thumb that states:
10% entrainment will result in a 10% loss of tray efficiency

20% weepage will result in a 10% loss of efficiency

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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Low Liquid Rate Tray Features

When the weir loading is very low, the momentum of the vapor can throw the entire liquid rate into the downcomer (or to the tray above) and blow the tray dry. In the process, the downcomer can become unsealed, thus aggravating the process. When the weir loading is less than 6 gpm/ft [4.5 m3/m/h], the weir height should be a minimum of 2 [50 mm] tall. Use weir blocks (picketing).

2012 Koch-Glitsch, LP. All rights reserved.

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