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C ONTENTS

Foreword A Note for the Teachers and Parents

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Super Senses A Snake Charmers Story From Tasting to Digesting Mangoes Round the Year Seeds and Seeds Every Drop Counts Experiments with Water A Treat for Mosquitoes Up You Go! Walls Tell Stories Sunita in Space What if it Finishes ...? A Shelter so High!
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1 15 22 35 42 51 60 67 76 87 99 110 120

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

When the Earth Shook! Blow Hot, Blow Cold Who will do this Work? Across the Wall No Place for Us? A Seed tells a Farmers Story Whose Forests? Like Father, Like Daughter On the Move Again

131 139 147 154 165 174 182 192 200

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1. Super Senses

Has this ever happened to you?

You were eating in the playground, an eagle flew down and took away your roti. You dropped something sweet on the ground and within minutes many ants collected around it.

As you walked softly past a sleeping dog, its ears shot up at once.

Why does it happen? Think and tell


Animals also have different senses. They can see, hear, taste, smell and feel. Some animals can see their prey from far away. Some can hear even the faintest sound. Some animals can find their friends by their smell. The animal world is full of examples of amazing senses!
Super Senses

How did the ant recognise a friend?


An ant was going along on the ground. It saw a group of ants coming from the other side. The first ant quickly came back to its hole. The ant guarding the hole recognised it and let it in.

Tell
How did the ant know that the other ants were not from its group? How did the guard ant recognise this ant?

Try this and write


Drop some sugar, jaggery or anything sweet on the ground. Wait until the ants come there. How long did it take for the ants to come? Did one ant come first or a group of ants came together? What did the ants do with the food? Where do they go from there? Do they move in a line?

Teachers Note : Children of this age are interested in animals. Encourage them to share their experiences. Children should be supported to carry out observation activities which require patience.

Looking Around

Now carefully, without harming the ants, block their path for a while with a pencil. Now observe, how do the ants move?

Many years ago a scientist did many experiments like this. He found out that as the ants move, they leave a smell on the ground. The other ants follow the smell to find the way. Now can you guess why the ants behaved like that when you blocked their path? Some male insects can recognise their females by their smell. Have you ever been troubled by mosquitoes. Just think, how do they know where you are? Mosquitoes can find you by the smell of your body. They also find you by the smell of the sole of your feet and the heat of your body.
I am a silk worm. I can find my female worm from many kilometres away by her smell.

Have you seen a dog sniffing here and there? What do you think it is trying to smell? Dogs mark out their own area on the road. They can make out if another dog has come into their area by the smell of its urine or potty (latrine).

Super Senses

Write
In what ways do human beings make use of this special sense of smell of dogs?

When do you find your sense of smell helpful to you? List some examples. Like to know by its smell that food has gone bad or that something is burning. Name the animals that you would be able to recognise only by their smell, without seeing them?

Write the names of five things whose smell you like and five things whose smell you do not like.
I like the smell of I do not like the smell of

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&

Do you and your friends have similar answers? 4


Looking Around

Do and find out


From the smell of the clothes of your family members, can you say whom do they belong to? Try to recognise the clothes of any two members of your family in this way.

Why so?
Today Rajni had to go out for some important work. She had to leave her sixmonth old son Deepak with her sister Sushila. Sushila also has a baby of the same age. It was funny that both the babies did potty at the same time. She happily cleaned her daughter but when she was cleaning her sisters son Deepak, she covered her nose with her dupatta (scarf).

Think and discuss


Sushila covered her nose when she cleaned Deepaks nappy, but not when she cleaned her daughter. Why do you think she did this? How do you feel when you walk near a heap of garbage? Think of the children who spend the whole day picking things from such garbage. Is a smell good or bad for everyone in the same way? Or does it depend on how each one feels about it?
Teachers Note : Sushilas example illustrates a common situation in families. Discuss with children how we often find a smell bad when we think it is from something dirty. If we analyse it, we may not be so offended by certain smells.

Super Senses

Lets see
Write the name of a bird which has eyes in front of its head (like in humans). Write the names of some birds which have eyes on either side of the head. What is the size of their eyes as compared to the size of their head? Most of the birds have their eyes on either side of the head. Their eyes can focus on two different things at a time. When they look straight ahead, both their eyes focus on the same object. You must have seen birds moving their neck very often. Do you know why? In most of the birds, eyes are fixed and cannot move. So birds have to turn their heads to see around.

Looking with one or both eyes


Close your right eye or cover it with your hand. Tell your friend to stand to your right, at some distance, and ask him to do some action (wave hand, shake head, etc.) Could you see your friends action, without moving your neck? Now try to look at your friends action with both your eyes open but without moving your neck. What was the difference on looking with one or both eyes?
Teachers Note : When a bird focuses both eyes on an object, it can estimate the distance. When its eyes focus on two different things, it increases its range of vision. Children will understand this better, once they start observing the location of eyes of different birds. While seeing with one eye and then with two eyes, children will understand how with two eyes, the span of vision increases.

Looking Around

Now toss a small ball or a coin and try to catch it. Try this with both your eyes open. Then close one eye and try to catch it. When was it easier to catch? Imagine how it would be to have your eyes in place of your ears? What would you be able to do then, which you cannot do now? Some birds like kites, eagles, vultures can see four times as far as we can. These birds can see things from a distance of eight metres what we can see from a distance of two metres. Now can you guess from what distance can an eagle in the sky can see a roti on the ground?

Do animals see colours?


Animals cannot see as many colours as we can. See how things in these pictures will be seen by some animals.

It is believed that animals that are awake in the daytime can see some colours. Those animals that are awake at night can see things only in black and white colours.

Deepa Balsawar

Super Senses

Sharp ear
In Class IV, you read that we cannot easily see birds ears. Their ears are small holes covered with feathers.

Write
The names of ten animals whose ears can be seen. The names of some animals whose ears are bigger than our ears.

Think
Is there some link between the size of animals ears and their hearing?

Try this
For this activity find a quiet place in your school. Tell one of your friends to stand at a short distance and ask him to say something softly. The rest of you should listen carefully. Then all of you put your hands behind your ears, as shown in the picture. Let the same child say something again as softly as before. In which case was the sound sharper? Ask your friends too. Put your hands over your ears and say something. Can you hear your own voice?

Looking Around

Sit near a desk. Tap the desk once with your hand. Listen carefully. Now put your ear on the desk as shown in the picture. Tap on the desk once again with your hand. Listen again. Was there any difference in the sound of the tap? This is how snakes hear. They do not have external ears (which you can see). They only feel the vibrations on the ground.

Sounds send messages


High up on a tree, a langur warns others of dangers like a tiger or leopard. The langur does this by making a special warning call. Birds also give alarm calls to warn about the danger. Some birds even have different sounds for different kinds of dangers. For example, there is a different warning call if the enemy is coming from the sky or if the enemy is on the ground. When any animal gives the warning call, all the animals in that area understand the danger signal. Some animals start behaving in a different way when an earthquake or storm is about to come. People who live in forests and can observe such behaviour of animals come to know of the danger.
In December 2004, few tribes that live in the forests of the Andaman Islands noticed the animals behaving in a different manner. They guessed some danger. So they moved away to a safer part of the island. Soon after, the islands were hit by the tsunami but these people were saved.

Deepa Balsawar

Super Senses

Dolphins also make different sounds to give messages to each other. Scientists believe that many animals have a special language of their own.

Write
Can you understand the sounds of some animals? Which animals? Do some animals understand your language? Which ones?

Say it with sounds


Just like birds and dolphins you can also make your own language of sounds for giving messages. Remember you have to talk to your friends with only sounds and no words. How and when will you need to give an alarm call? For example, when the teacher is coming to the classroom!

Sleeping-waking
Some animals go into a long, deep sleep in certain seasons. Then they are not seen for many months. Have you noticed that during the cold season you cannot see any lizard in the house? Where do you think they have gone?
Teachers Note : The lesson gives examples of several animals with sensitive senses. Encourage children to find out more such animal senses from newspapers, TV programmes, etc.

10

Looking Around

Sloth
It looks like a bear but is not. It is a sloth. It spends almost 17 hours a day sleeping while hanging upside down on a tree branch. The sloth eats the leaves of the same tree on which it lives. It hardly needs anything else. When it has eaten enough leaves from that tree, it moves to the nearby tree. Sloths live for about 40 years and in that time they move around only eight trees. Once a week it comes down from the tree to relieve itself.

24
Time for which sloth is awake

Hours

24 6 18
Hours

Hours

18

Hours

Hours

6 12

Hours

Sleeping time for sloth

12

Hours

Hours

If you were to show a sloths daily routine (sleeping and waking) in a 24-hour clock, this is what the clock would look like.

How will you show the clock for a house-lizard in winters?

Given here is the sleeping time of some animals. Below each picture write for how many hours a day that animal sleeps.

Cow__________

Python__________

Giraffe__________

Cat__________

When you see different animals, do you have any questions about them? Make a list of ten such questions.
Teachers Note : The sleeping and waking routine of animals is given in a 24 hour clock to encourage children to think about fractions (one-third, one-fourth, etc.) Explain phrases like call of nature, relieve itself etc.

Super Senses

11

A tiger can see six times better at night than most of us humans.

The tigers whiskers are very sensitive and can sense the movements or vibrations in air. They help the tiger move in the dark and find its prey.

A tigers sense of hearing is so sharp that it can make out the difference between the rustling of leaves and the sound of an animal moving on the grass. The ears of the tiger can move in different directions and this helps to catch the sounds from all around.

T igers make different sounds for different purposes like when it is angry or to call out to a tigress. It can also roar or snarl. Its roar can be heard upto 3 kilometres 12 away.

Each tiger has its own area which may cover several kilometres. T igers mark their area with their urine. A tiger can at once come to know if there is another tiger in its area by the Looking Around smell of the urine. A tiger will avoid going into another tigers area.

The tiger is one of the most alert animals. And yet, today tigers are in danger. What do you think are some of the dangers to tigers in the jungle? Can human beings also be a threat to animals? How? Do you know that today many animals are killed and their parts are sold? Elephants are killed for their tusks, rhinoceros for its horn, tigers, crocodiles and snakes for their skins. Musk deer are killed just to make a little scent from its musk. People who kill animals are called hunters and poachers.
The number of tigers and many other animals in our country is reducing. There is a danger that some of them will soon disappear. To protect the animals, our government has made some forests as protected areas. Some of them are the Jim Corbett National Park in Uttrakhand and Ghana in Bharatpur district of Rajasthan. In these areas nobody can hunt animals or destroy the jungle.

Find out
Where are other such National Parks in India? Collect information on these and write a report.

What we have learnt


Have you noticed that sometimes singers put their hand on their ear when they sing? Why do you think they may be doing this? Give examples of animals that may have a very strong sense of sight, hearing or smell.

Teachers Note : Discuss with children the various threats to the tiger poaching, destruction of forests for roads, dams, human settlements, forest fires, etc.

Super Senses

13

Lets make a paper dog


1

For this you need: thick paper, pencil, scissors, sketch pen.

2 3
a Bow, Wow! Give your dog a name! b

Paper Strip

c d

4 Cut a long strip of thick paper. Mark the strip as shown here. 5 Make small cuts on the lines marked 1 to 6. Hook together the cuts on the number 1 and 2 (see picture a). In the same way, hook together 3 in 4, and 5 in 6 (see picture b and c) Make a cut in the mark on the leg (see picture c). Turn down the corners of the strip on top of the head, to make the ears (picture d) Mark the eyes and nose with a sketch pen. Wasnt that fun!

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Looking Around

2. A Snake Charmers Story

I am Aryanath
I can do something special which I am sure none of you can do! Do you know what? I can play the been! You must be surprised. Yes, I can make snakes dance by playing the been. I have learnt this art from my family members. We people are known as Kalbeliyas. My grandfather Roshannathji was famous amongst our people. He could easily catch many poisonous snakes. He tells me many stories about his past. Come, listen to his story in his own words
NAAG GUMPHAN Designs of this kind are used in rangoli, embroidery and as wall decoration in Saurashtra, Gujarat and South India

Teachers Note : Talk to the children about their experiences related to snakes before starting with this narrative. This would make the lesson more interesting.

A Snake Charmers Story

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Dadaji remembers
From the time of my grandfather and great grandfather, we have always been saperas (snake-charmers). Snakes have been an important part of our life. We used to move from village to village carrying our snakes in bamboo baskets. Whenever we stopped in a village, a crowd would gather around us. We would then take out our snakes from our baskets. Even after the show, people would stay on. They knew that in our tinbox there were many types of medicines for them. We made these medicines from plants collected from the forests. I had lear nt all this from my grandfather. I felt nice that I could help people with my medicines even if doctors and hospitals were far off. In return, people would give us some money or foodgrains. In this way we could manage our life. Sometimes, I was called to places where someone had been bitten by a snake. From the marks of the bite I tried to find out which snake had bitten the person. I would then give a medicine for that. But I have not always been on time to help. As you know, some snake bites can even cause death on the spot. But most of the snakes are not poisonous. Sometimes, when some farmers would come running for help shouting snake, snake, I would catch that snake. 16
Looking Around

After all, catching snakes was something I had been doing since my childhood. Oh, those were the good days. We could help a lot of people in many ways. We also entertained them. It was not like today when everyone watches TV for entertainment. When I grew older, my father taught me how to remove their poisonous teeth (fangs). He also taught me how to close the tube of poison in the snakes mouth.

Think and tell


Have you ever seen anyone playing a been? Where? Have you ever seen a snake? Where? Were you scared by it? Why? Do you think all snakes are poisonous? In chapter 1 you read that snakes do not have ears which you can see. Can the snake hear the been or does it dance when the been moves? What do you think?

What can we do
Aryanath! your father used to travel with me ever since he was a young child. He learnt to play the been without being taught. These days it is diffcult. Now the government has made a law that no one can catch wild animals and keep them. Some people kill the animals and sell their skins at high prices. So they made a law against this. Now, with this law, how will we earn our livelihood? We people have never killed snakes, and sold their skin. People say that we keep the snakes in bad
Teachers Note : If possible, explain about poisonous fangs, ducts and their removal by showing visual aids.

A Snake Charmers Story

17

Kalbeliya dance

Teachers Note : This narrative focuses on the relationship and interdependence between snake-charmers and snakes. By talking about more such communities it can be clarified that most of them do not treat animals badly (which is a common perception).

18

Looking Around

Mani Babbar

conditions. If we wanted, we too could have earned a lot of money by killing snakes. But we would never do that. Snakes are our treasure, that we pass on from one generation to another. We even gift snakes to our daughters when they get married. In our Kalbelia dance we also have movements similar to the dance of the snake. Aryanath, you will have to make a different life for yourself. You have got your fathers gift of playing the been . You and your cousins can form a been party and entertain people. But do not waste this knowledge about snakes you have got from your Musical instruments used in been party elders. Been, tumba, khanjiri and dhol . Except dhol all Share your knowledge the other three instruments are made from dried gourd (lauki) about snakes with children who live in towns and cities. Tell them, that they should not be scared of snakes. Help them to recognise poisonous snakes. Tell them how snakes are friends of the farmers. They eat the rats in the fields, otherwise rats would eat the crops. Now you tell our story. Also make a new story of your life, to tell your grandchildren.

Pankaj Gorana

Write
Have you ever seen animals being used for entertainment of people? (For example, in a circus, on the road, or in a park) When and where did you see this? Which animal show did you see? How did people behave with the animals in the show? Was anyone teasing the animals? How? What kind of questions came to your mind after seeing that animal show? Imagine that you are an animal in a cage. Think how you would feel. Complete the following sentences : I am afraid when

I wish I

I am sad when

If I had a chance I would

I do not like it at all when

A Snake Charmers Story

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Do you know?
Of the many kinds of snakes found in our country, only four types of snakes are poisonous. They are: Cobra, Common Krait, Russels Viper (Duboiya), Saw-scaled Viper (Afai). A snake has two hollow teeth (fangs). When it bites, the poison enters the person's body through the fangs. There is a medicine for snake bites. The medicine is made from the snake's poison and is available in all government hospitals. Afai

Cobra

Krait

Duboiya

Write
Like snake-charmers, which other people depend on animals for their livelihood?

Survey People who keep animals


Talk to some people in your neighbourhood who keep one or more animals for their livelihoodfor example, a horse for a tonga, hens for eggs, etc. Name the animal they keep? How many animals are there? Is there a separate place for the animals?

20

Looking Around

Who looks after them? What do the animals eat? Do the animals ever fall ill? What does the keeper do then? Make some more questions and discuss. Make a report on your project and read it out in the class.

Make a snake puppet Take an old pair of socks. Put one on your arm. Stick buttons or bindis for the eyes. Cut out a long red strip of paper for using as the tongue and stick it in the place as shown. On the other side of the paper make a V shaped cut. Your snake is ready!
Now you can play with this puppet!

What we have learnt


The government has made a law that no one can catch and keep snakes. What do you think about this law? Give reasons for your answer and write in your own words.

A Snake Charmers Story

21

3. From Tasting to Digesting


Different tastes
Jhumpa ran into the kitchen and caught hold of her mother saying, Ma, I am not going to eat this bitter karela (bittergourd). Give me gur (jaggery) and roti. Ma smiled and said, You ate roti and sugar in the morning. Jhoolan teased Jhumpa, Dont you get bored of only one kind of taste? Jhumpa replied quickly, Do you get bored with licking imli (tarmarind)? I bet your mouth is watering just by hearing the word imli. Sure I love the sour imli. But I eat sweet and salty things too. I even eat karela, said Jhoolan and looked at her mother. They both laughed heartily. Jhoolan said to Jhumpa, Lets play a game. You close your eyes and open your mouth. I will put something to eat in your mouth. You have to tell what it is. Jhoolan took a few drops of lemon juice in a spoon and put them in Jhumpas mouth. Sour lemon, Jhumpa replied quickly.

22

Looking Around

Jhoolan then picked up a small piece of jaggery. Her mother suggested, Crush it, otherwise she will know what it is? Jhoolan crushed the jaggery but Jhumpa easily guessed it. They played the game with different food items. Jhumpa could tell the fried fish even before tasting it. Jhoolan said, Now close your nose, and tell me what this is? Jhumpa was confused, It is a bit bitter, a little salty and somewhat sour. Give me one more spoonful. Jhoolan took another spoonful of the cooked karela, uncovered Jhumpas eyes, and said, Here it is, eat! Jhumpa laughed, Yes, give me more.

Discuss and write


Jhoolans mouth started watering when she heard the word imli. When does your mouth water? List five things you like to eat and describe their taste. Do you like only one kind of taste or different ones? Why? Jhoolan put a few drops of lemon juice in Jhumpas mouth. Do you think we can make out the taste with just a few drops? If someone were to put a few seeds of saunf (aniseed) on your tongue, would you be able to tell with your eyes closed? How?

mmm...!

woo f!

From Tasting to Digesting

23

How did Jhumpa make out the fried fish? Can you guess the names of certain things only by their smell, without seeing or tasting them? What are these things? Has anyone ever told you to hold your nose before taking a medicine? Why do you think they tell you to do this?

Close your eyes and tell


Collect a few food items having different kinds of taste. Play a game with your friends like Jhumpa and Jhoolan did. Tell your friend to taste the food and ask How did it taste? What was the food item? On which part of the tongue could you get the most taste in front, at the back, on the left or right side of the tongue? Which taste could be made out on which part of the tongue? Mark these parts on the picture given. One at a time put some things to eat in other parts of your mouth under the tongue, on the lips, on the roof of the mouth. Did you get any taste there?

Teacher's Note : Encourage children to be creative and to explore their vocabulary to describe different kinds of flavours. Discuss how the combination of different flavours brings so much variety in our food. Different combinations of taste (such as sweet-sour, hot-spicy) may be discussed in the class to develop this understanding.

24

Looking Around

Use a clean cloth to wipe the front part of your tongue so that it is dry. Put some sugar or jaggery there. Could you taste anything? Why did this happen? Stand in front of a mirror and look closely at your tongue. How does the surface look? Can you see any tiny bumps on the surface?

Tell
If someone asks you to describe the taste of amla or cucumber, you might find it difficult to explain. How would you describe the taste of these tomato, onion, saunf, garlic. Think of words that you know or make up your own words to describe the taste. When Jhumpa tasted some of the things, she said Sssee, sssee, sssee What do you think she may have eaten? Why dont you make sounds that describe some tastes? From your expressions and sounds ask your friends to guess what you might have eaten.

Chew it or chew it well: Whats the difference?


Try this together in class: Each of you take a piece of bread or roti or some cooked rice.

Teachers Note : Children will need help because it is sometimes difficult to identify exactly which part of the mouth can sense a particular taste.

From Tasting to Digesting

25

Put it in your mouth, chew three to four times and swallow it. Did the taste change as you chewed it? Now take another piece or some rice and chew it twenty to twenty-five times. Was there any change in the taste after chewing so many times?

Discuss
Has anyone at home told you to eat slowly and to chew well so that the food digests properly? Why do you think they say this? Imagine you are eating something hard like a green guava. What kinds of changes take place in itfrom the time you bite a piece and put it in your mouth to when you swallow it? Think what does the saliva in our mouth do?

Teacher's Note : On page 27, children are not expected to draw the digestive system. Encourage children to imagine and express their own ideas about what happens to the food in their body. Encourage sharing of pictures and free discussion, without any judgement of right or wrong.

26

Looking Around

Straight from the heart


Where do you think the food must be going after you put it in your mouth and swallow it? In the picture given here, draw the path of the food through your body. Share your picture with your friends. Do all of you have similar pictures?

Discuss
How do you feel when you are very hungry? How would you describe it? For example, sometimes we jokingly say, I am so hungry I could eat an elephant! How do you come to know that you are hungry? Think what would happen if you do not eat anything for two days? Would you be able to manage without drinking water for two days? Where do you think the water that we drink goes?
I get angry easily when I am hungry. When my sister is hungry she cries.

When I am hungry my head aches.

Ic ry too hu , wh ng en ry . I am

When I am hungry I feel tired.

From Tasting to Digesting

27

Nitu was given a glucose drip


Nitu was very sick. All day she was vomiting and she also had loose motions. Whatever she ate, she vomited. Her father gave her sugar and salt solution. By evening Nitu was feeling weak and dizzy. When she got up to go to the doctor she fainted. Her father had to carry her to the doctor. The doctor said that Nitu should get admitted in the hospital. She needs to be given a glucose drip. Hearing this, Nitu got confused. She knew that during the games period in school, the teacher sometimes gave them glucose to drink. But what was a glucose drip? Doctor aunty explained, Your stomach is upset. Your body is not keeping any food and water and it has become very weak. The glucose drip will give you some strength quickly, even without eating.

Talk and discuss


Do you remember that in Class IV you made a solution of sugar and salt? Nitus father also made this and gave her. Why do you think this is given to someone who has vomiting and loose motions? Have you heard the word glucose, or seen it written anywhere? Where?
Teacher's Note : Discuss with children about how glucose is used. It is too abstract for children to understand how glucose gives energy. You may like to invite a doctor to talk to the children. It is not expected that children will understand all the details at this stage.

28

Looking Around

Have you ever tasted glucose? How does it taste? Tell your friends. Have you or anyone in your family been given a glucose drip? When and why? Tell the class about it. Nitus teacher used to tell the girls to have glucose while playing hockey. Why do you think she did this? Look at Nitus picture and describe what is happening. How is the glucose drip being given?

Martins Window

Heres an old story it seems so funny! There was a window in Martins tummy! Actually by mistake Martin was shot. Right in the stomach it bled a lot! The wound slowly healed and was covered by skin. But the hole was still there you could peep right in!

Oh! what a chance for doctors to study. What happens to the food inside the body! The story seems odd but it is really true. The secret of Martins stomach helped us all - me and you!

Rajesh Utsahi Chakmak, August 1985 (Translated by Anupa Lal)

From Tasting to Digesting

29

Story A Stomach with a Window


In the poem, you read about a soldier called Martin. In 1822, he was eighteen years old and was very healthy. When he was shot, he got seriously hurt. At that time Dr. Beaumont was called to treat him. Dr. Beaumont cleaned the wound and put the dressing. After one and a half years, the doctor found that Martins wound had healed except for one thing. He had a big hole in his stomach. The hole was covered with a loose flap of skin, like the washer in a football. Press the skin and you could peep into Martins stomach! Not only that, the doctor could also take out food from the stomach by putting a tube in the hole. Dr. Beaumont felt he had found a treasure. Can you guess how much time he spent on doing different experiments on this stomach? Nine years! During this time Martin grew up and got married. At that time scientists did not know how food was digested? How does the liquid (digestive juices) in the stomach help? Does it only help in making the food wet and soft? Or does it also help in digestion? Dr. Beaumont took some liquid (juices) out of the stomach. He wanted to see what would happen to a food item kept in a glass filled with it. Would it get digested on its own? For this he did an experiment. With the help of a tube, he took out some digestive juice from the stomach. At 8.30 am he put twenty tiny pieces of boiled fish in 10 millilitres of the juice. He kept the glass at the same temperature as that of our stomach about 30C. When he checked at 2 pm he found that the pieces of fish had dissolved. Dr. Beaumont tried this experiment with different food items. He gave Martin the same food at the same time and then compared how long it took for food to be digested in the glass and in Martins stomach. He recorded his observations in a table.

30

Looking Around

Here is a part of his observation table:


No. Food item Time taken for digestion In the stomach 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Unboiled milk Boiled milk Full boiled egg Half boiled egg Raw egg, beaten Raw egg In the glass with digestive juices 4 hours 45 minutes 4 hours 15 minutes 8 hours 6 hours 30 minutes 4 hours 15 minutes 4 hours

2 hours 15 minutes 2 hours 3 hours 30 minutes 3 hours 2 hours 1 hour 30 minutes

So, what does our stomach do? Dr. Beaumont did many experiments and found out many secrets about digestion. He found that food digests faster in the stomach than outside. Did you notice this in the table? Our stomach churns the food to digest it. The doctor also saw that the food did not digest properly when Martin was sad. He also found that the juice in our stomach is acidic. Have you heard of anyone talking about acidity especially when that person has not eaten well or the food is not digested properly. Dr. Beaumonts experiments became famous across the world. After this many scientists did many such experiments. What did you say? No, they did not shoot people in the stomach. Nor did they wait for a patient with a hole in the stomach. They used other scientific ways to look inside our bodies. Did you like the story of Martin or, should we say, the story of our own stomach?
- Anita Rampal Chakmak, August 1985

Think and discuss Imagine if you had been in place of Dr. Beaumont, what experiments would you have done to find out the secrets of our stomach? Write about your experiments.
Teacher's Note : This story is to introduce children to the method of science and the passion with which scientists pursue their experiments. It is not necessary that children should understand the story about digestion in all its detail.

From Tasting to Digesting

31

Good food, good health


Dr. Apar na has two patients Rashmi and Kailash. Dr. Aparna talked to them to find out more about them. Read what the doctor found.

Rashmi, 5 years She looks about 3 years old. She has very thin arms and legs and a pot belly (stomach like a balloon). She often falls sick. She always feels tired and cannot go to school regularly. She does not have the strength even to play. Food : She is lucky if she can get a little rice or one roti to eat in the whole day.

Kailash, 7 years He looks older than his age. His body is fat and flabby. He has pain in his legs. He is not very active. He goes to school by bus and spends many hours watching TV. Food : He does not like to eat homecooked food like dal-rice, vegetables and roti. The only thing he finds tasty are chips, burger, pizzas and soft drinks from the market.

Dr. Aparna measured the height and weight of both the children. Then she told them, there is only one treatment for both your problems proper food! 32
Looking Around

Discuss
Why do you think Rashmi could eat only one roti in the whole day? Do you think Kailash would like games and sports? What do you understand by proper food? Why do you think that the food of Rashmi and Kailash was not proper?

Find out
Talk with your grandparents or elderly people and find out what they ate and what work they did when they were of your age. Now think about yourself your daily activities and daily diet. Are these similar or different from what your grandparents did and ate?

Proper food every childs right?


You have read about two children. One is Kailash who does not like home-made food. The other one is Rashmi who does not even get one proper meal a day. About half the children in our country are like Rashmi. They do not get enough food that they need to grow and develop properly. These children are weak and sickly (often ill, in poor-health). But it is the right of every child to get proper food.
From Tasting to Digesting

33

Read about this story in Kalahandi district in Orissa.

Think and discuss


Do you know any child who does not get enough to eat in the whole day? What are the reasons for this? Have you ever seen a godown where a lot of grain has been stored? Where?

Gomti is thirty years old. Gomti works in the fields of a rich farmer. For all her hard work, she gets paid very little. So little that she cannot even buy enough rice to feed her family. Some months she does not get any work at all. Then she has to eat leaves and roots from the jungle. Gomtis children are weak with hunger and always sick. Few years ago her husband died of hunger. Most rice grows in Kalahandi district. Rice is even sent to other states from here. Many times the rice that keeps lying in the godowns gets spoiled. In the same Kalahandi there are many, many poor people like Gomti. Why do people die of hunger in such a place?

P. Sainath

What we have learnt


Why can you not taste food properly when you have a cold? If we were to say that digestion begins in the mouth, how would you explain this. Write.

34

Looking Around

4. Mangoes Round the Year

Hey, today Nitu has brought potato sabzi. Wow! Amans lunch box has sweet puries.

I have got bhindi. Oh! Nitu, I think your potato sabzi is spoilt.

Dont eat that. You may fall sick. Here, you take some bhindi.

Preeti

Nitu Aman

Nitu

Preeti Aman

Discuss

How did Aman know that the potato sabzi had got spoilt? Have you ever seen some food that has got spoilt? How did you know that it was spoiled? Preeti told Nitu not to eat the potato sabzi. What would have happened if she had eaten it?
Teachers Note : Let children give examples of food spoilage based on their own experiences. It is important to explain the difference between food spoilage and wastage of food. The experiment with bread can be started when you begin the lesson, because it will need to continue over six days at least.

Mangoes Round the Year

35

Write
Look in your kitchen and write down names of food items that - can get spoilt in 2-3 days - can be kept for a week - would not spoil till one month Look at your friends list and discuss in the class. Will your list be the same in all seasons? What would change? When food gets spoilt in your house, what do you do with it?

Biji returned the bread


Amans Biji went to the market to buy bread. The shop was very crowded. The shopkeeper picked up a packet of bread and gave it to Biji. She looked at it and returned it immediately. Look at the picture of the bread packet here and guess why Biji returned it? How did she find that the bread had got spoilt?

Find out
Look carefully at two-three packets of food items: What can we know from what is written on the packet? When you buy anything from the market, what do you look for on the packet?
Teachers Note : Help children to read and note the information on the packets regarding weight, date of packing etc. While doing the experiment precautions need to be taken depending on the weather conditions e.g. the bread should not be allowed to dry up, there should be some ventilation in the room. Do put up the chart in the classroom and remind the children to fill it in every day.

36

Looking Around

How does food get spoilt?


The whole class can do this experiment together. Take a piece of bread or roti. Sprinkle a few drops of water on it, and put it in a box. Close the box. See the bread or roti everyday until you find some changes on it. Make this table on a chart paper and put it up in the classroom. Fill up the chart every day after discussing the changes seen.
Day By touch Changes in the bread or roti By smell By looking through hand lens By colour

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Find out the reason for these changes. From where did the fungus come on the bread? Different kinds of food items spoil due to different reasons. Some foods spoil soon, some stay good for long. List some seasons and conditions in which food spoils quickly. 37

Mangoes Round the Year

Given below are some food items and some simple methods by which these could be kept fresh for 1-2 days. Match the correct pairs:
Food items Milk Cooked rice Green coriander (Dhania) Onion, garlic Methods Put in a bowl and keep the bowl in a container with some water. Wrap in a damp cloth. Boil it. Keep it in a dry open place.

Summer treat Mamidi tandra


Chittibabu and Chinnababu live in Atreyapuram town in Andhra Pradesh. The brothers spend the summer holidays playing in the mango garden, when the trees are full of fruits. They also like to eat unripe mangoes with salt and chilly powder. At home, their mother cooks unripe mangoes in different ways. She also makes many kinds of mango pickles. The pickles last through the year until the next mango season. One evening, while having food Chinnababu asked, Amma, we have so many mangoes. Make some mamidi tandra (aam papad) from them. Their father said, Making mamidi tandra needs four weeks of hardwork. If you both promise to help us everyday for the next four weeks, we can together make the mamidi tandra. Both the brothers quickly agreed to help. The next day both the children went to the market with their father. They bought a mat woven from the leaves of a palm tree, poles of casuarina tree, string made of coconut husk, some jaggery and sugar. 38 38
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Amma found a sunny place in the backyard. Both the brothers made a high platform by using poles. They spread out and tied the mat on that platform.
The next day, Appa chose the most ripe mangoes. They took out the mango pulp into a large pot. Then they strained the pulp through a fine muslin cloth, to remove the fibres from the pulp. Then Chittibabu crushed the gur (jaggery) till there were no lumps. They added the jaggery and sugar in equal amounts
Mangoes Round the Year

39 39

to the pulp. Chinnababu mixed the jaggery and sugar well with a big spoon. Amma then spread this pulp into a thin layer over the mat. The thin layer was left to dry in the sun. In the evening, they covered the mat with a clean saree to avoid any dust. The next day they again took out some mango pulp. They added jaggery and sugar into the pulp. Then they spread the pulp over the previous days layer. This work was given to both the brothers. Both of them together spread many layers over it. For the next four weeks they hoped that it would not rain. For four weeks, they added layer after layer until the jelly grew four centimetres thick and looked like a golden cake. After some days Amma said, The mamidi tandra is ready, we can take it out and cut it into pieces tomorrow. The next day, the mat was brought down from the platform. Mamidi tandra was cut into smaller pieces. The brothers tasted it. It was tasty. Chhinnababu said, Wow, how tasty! After all we have also helped in making it.

Write
Why was sugar and jaggery mixed into the mango pulp and dried in the sun? Why did Appa first choose the most ripe mangoes to be used for making the mamidi tandra? How did the brothers make the mamidi tandra? Write down step-by-step what they did for this. What things are made in your house from ripe and unripe mangoes? 40
Looking Around

Make a list of all the different types of pickles that you know about.

Find out and discuss


Is there any kind of pickle made in your house? What kind of pickle is it? Who makes it? From whom did they learn to make the pickle? What all things are needed to make any one type of pickle in your house? How is the pickle made? Find out the recipe and write. How are these things made in your house. Papad Chutney Badiyan It is a two-day journey by train from Pune to Kolkata. If you were to go on this trip, what food items would you carry with you? How would you pack them? Make a list on the blackboard of all the packed food. What food would you eat first?

What we have learnt


Glass jars and bottles are dried well in the sun before filling them with pickles. Why is this done? Do you remember what happened to the bread in the experiment? To eat mangoes round the year we make different items like pickle, aam papad, chutney, chikky, etc. List some other food with which we make different things, so that we can enjoy it throughout the year.

Mangoes Round the Year

41

5. Seeds and Seeds

Gopal was waiting for his mausis family to visit them. They will be coming the next day for their holidays. He was thinking about all the fun and nice food that he would have with his cousins. Just then his mother called out, Gopal, before you sleep, remember to soak two small bowls (katoris) of chana (gram). She was going to his Buas house and would return only in the morning. As he was soaking the chana, Gopal thought, How will two small bowls of this be enough for eight persons? So he soaked another two bowls of chana. When his mother returned the next morning, she saw that the chana were overflowing from the vessel. How much did you soak? asked his mother. How did that happen! wondered Gopal. You soaked too much! Anyway it is good, now I will cook half of them, and leave the other half to sprout. I can send these to your aunt. The doctor has told her to eat sprouts, mother said. She tied half of the soaked chana in a wet cloth, and hung them up to sprout.

Discuss
What things are soaked before cooking in your house? Why? What things do you eat after sprouting? How are they sprouted? How much time does it take? Has the doctor or someone you know ever told you to eat sprouts? Why? 42
Looking Around

Do this and find out


Do you remember that in Class IV you did an activity with seeds? Now try another one. Take some chana and three bowls. Put five chana in the first bowl and fill it up with water. Put a damp piece of cloth or some cotton wool in the second bowl. Now keep the same number of chanas in it. Make sure that the cotton wool or cloth remains wet. Put the same number of chanas in the third bowl. Do not put anything else in it. Cover all the three bowls. Observe after two days and note the changes in the bowls.
Bowl 1 Are the seeds getting air? Are the seeds getting water? What changes did you see? Have the seeds sprouted? No Bowl 2 Yes Bowl 3 Yes

Tell and write


In which bowl did the seeds sprout? What difference did you see between this bowl and the other bowls? Why did Gopals mother tie the chana in a damp cloth?
Teachers Note : Sprouting time of seeds may vary according to the temperature and humidity of the weather.

Seeds and Seeds

43

When you split the whole masoor, you get me masoor dal. But then you cannot sprout me! Can you think why?

Draw
Look carefully at your sprouted chana and make its drawing?

Project : Plant your seeds


Take a clay pot or a tin can with a wide mouth. Make a small hole at the bottom of the can. Fill your can with soil. Put four or five seeds of the same kind in the soil and press them gently. Different group can plant different kinds of seeds, such as mustard (sarson), fenugreek (methi ), sesame (til ) or coriander (dhania).

Write
Name of the seed : ____________ The date on which you planted them: ___________ The day you observe something coming out of the soil, start filling the table:
Date Height of the plant (in cm) Number of leaves seen
To find the height of a plant use thread and then measure it on the scale.

Any other change

44

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Find out
How long did it take for the plant to come out from the soil? What was the difference in the height of the plant on the first and second day? On which day did the height of the plant increase the most? Did new leaves come out of the plant every day? Was there any change in the stem of the plant?

Discuss
Which seeds took the most number of days for the stem to come out of the soil? Which seeds took the least days to come out of the soil? Which seeds did not grow at all? Why? Did anyones plant dry up or turn yellow? Why did this happen? What would happen if the plants do not get water?

Straight from your heart


What is inside the seed? How does a big plant grow from a tiny seed?

Teachers Note : Students are not supposed to be given formal information in response to these questions. These are meant to explore their own intuitive ideas. Discussion in class will help them think about how plants need air, water and soil.

Seeds and Seeds

45

Think and imagine


What would happen if plants could walk? Draw a picture.

Find out
Do some plants grow without seeds?
Trapped!

Plants which hunt!


There are some plants which trap and eat frogs, insects and even mice. The Pitcher plant (Nepenthese) is one such plant. It is found in Australia, Indonesia and Meghalaya in India. It has a pitcher-like shape and the mouth is covered by a leaf. The plant has a special smell that attracts insects to it. When the insect lands on the mouth of the plant, it gets trapped and cannot get out. What a clever way to hunt!

So many seeds!
How many types of seeds can you collect? Where will you find them? Each of you should try to collect as many different types of seeds as you can. After that, put all the seed collections together. Now observe these seeds carefully their shapes, sizes, colours, textures (smooth 46
Looking Around

or rough). Make a seed chart to put up in the class. You can start with a table like this.
Name of the seed Colour Reddish brown Shape (draw) Texture Smooth

Rajma

Think
Did you keep aniseed (saunf ) and cumin ( jeera) in your list? Which was the smallest seed and which was the biggest seed in your collection?

Make lists of :
Seeds that are used as spices in your home. Seeds of vegetables. Seeds of fruits. Light seeds (check by blowing them). Seeds which are flat. Make more groups. How many groups of seeds did you make? Do you know any games that you can play with seeds? Discuss with your friends.
Write a letter! Ok, bye!

Wandering seeds
Plants cannot move around. Once they grow, they remain in the same place. But their seeds are great travellers! They can reach far and wide. Look at picture 1 on the next page and see the flying seeds.
Seeds and Seeds

47

Acchhoo!!

Kenneth Rowley

Picture 2 Picture 1

Have you ever seen any seed that can fly? What is it called in your area? Look at your seed collection. Guess how many of those could have travelled by flying. Look at picture 2. This seed cannot fly, but it can still travel by sticking on to the fur of animals or on our clothes. In this way it gets a free ride! Did you get any new idea from these seeds? Read how the idea of Velcro came to George Mestral.

This happened in 1948. One day George Mestral came back from a walk with his dog. He was amazed to find seeds sticking all over his clothes and on his dogs fur. He wondered what made them stick. So he observed these seeds under a microscope. He saw that the seeds had many tiny hooks which got stuck to clothes or fur. This gave Mestral the idea of making Velcro. He made a material with similar tiny hooks that would stick. Velcro is used to stick together many things clothes, shoes, bags, belts and many more. What a way to take inspiration from nature!

48

Looking Around

Olga Gerrard

Look at the pictures given below and guess how the seeds travel and reach different places.

Some plants spread their seeds over long distances. When the soyabean pods are ripe, they burst and the seeds are thrown out. Have you ever heard their sound? Think what would happen, if seeds did not spread and remained at one place only. Make a list of the different ways by which seeds are spread. Who came from where? Have you included human beings also in your list? Yes, we also carry seeds from one place to another, knowingly or unknowingly. We bring the seeds of plants that we find beautiful or useful, to grow them in our garden. Later the seeds of these plants spread to other places. Many years later people may not even remember that these plants did not grow here earlier. They were brought from somewhere else. Do you know from where chillies came to our country? These were brought to India by traders coming from South America. Today we cannot think of food without chillies! Read this poem to know which plant came from where.
Seeds and Seeds

49

Did you know this?


From South America long ago, came a tomato, a potato, and a green chilli. Do you know this? A cabbage came from Europe, and also a pea. From Africa came a coffee bean, and a green bhindi. They crossed the land. They crossed the sea. Did you know this?
(Bhindi is also called okra, and methi is called fenugreek)

A mango sang, Come in! Come in! An orange smiled inside its skin. Welcome to India, a banana said. the methi and spinach, brinjal and radish, nodded its head. Did you know this? ...
Rajesh Utsahi Chakmak, May-June 2002 (Translated by Anupa Lal)

What all was grown in India long ago? Were mangoes and bananas grown here? What came from other countries? Imagine food without potatoes or tomatoes!

What we have learnt


Reena has drawn this picture of the seed sprouted by her. What do you think the seeds need for sprouting? Write in your own words. How would Reenas seeds look if they did not get the things needed. Show by drawing a picture. How do seeds spread to far off places? Write in your own words. 50
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vkyw fephZ pk; th] dkSu dgk ls vk, th! vkyw fephZ pk; th] dkSu dgk ls vk, th! vkyw fephZ pk; th] dkSu dgk ls vk, th!

vkyw fephZ pk; th] dkSu dgk ls vk, th! vkyw fephZ pk; th] dkSu dgk ls vk, th! vkyw fephZ pk; th] dkSu dgk ls vk, th!

6. Every Drop Counts

Long Long Ago


This is a picture of Ghadsisar. Sar means a lake. King Ghadsi of Jaisalmer got it made 650 years ago with the help of the people. All around the lake there are ghats with steps leading to the water, decorated verandahs, large halls, rooms and much more. People came here to celebrate festivals and for programmes of music and dance. Children came to study in the school on the ghat. The talab belonged to everyone and everyone took care to keep it clean. Rainwater collected in this lake spread over many miles. It was made in such a way that when the lake was full, the extra water flowed into another lake at a lower level. When that too filled up, the extra water flowed into the third lake and so on filling nine such interconnected lakes. The collected rain water could be used throughout the year and there was no shortage of water. Today, Ghadsisar is no more in use. Many new buildings and colonies have come up in between those nine lakes. Now the water does not get collected in these lakes but just flows away and is wasted.

51

Pawan Gupta

Through the eyes of Al-Biruni


More than a thousand years ago, a traveller came to India. His name was Al-Biruni. The place that he came from is now called Uzbekistan. Al-Biruni carefully observed and noted down the details of all that he saw. He wrote especially about those things that he found very different from his own country. Here is a part of what he wrote about the ponds of that time. The people here are very skilled at making ponds. My countrymen would be surprised to see them. They pile up huge rocks and join them with iron rods to build chabutaras (raised platforms) all around the lake. Between these, there are rows of long staircases, going up and down. The steps for going up and coming down are separate. So there is less crowding. Today when we study history, we can learn a lot about those days from the writings of Al-Biruni. (This stamp came out in 1973, one thousand years after his birth.)

Think and find out


Look at the area around your school. Are there any fields, farms, pucca roads, drains, etc. Is the area sloping, rocky or flat? Think, what will happen here when it rains? Where will the rain water go into the drains, pipes or pits? Is some water also getting soaked into the soil?

Drop-by-drop
Besides Jaisalmer, many places in Rajasthan, get very little rainfall. Here it rains for only ten to twelve days in the entire year, sometimes not even that much. The rivers here do not
Teachers Note : We can tell children how Al-Birunis book is helpful to know about the past. Also discuss about other sources of history, such as old buildings, coins, paintings, etc. Help children to locate Uzbekistan in the world map.

52

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have water in them all round the year. And yet, most of the villages in these areas did not have a shortage of water. People knew that every drop of water was precious. Lakes and johads were made to collect these precious drops of water. Water was everyones need. One and all came together in this work be it a businessman or a labourer. Some water from the lakes soaked into the ground and reached the wells and bavdis (stepwell) in that area. The soil of the area also became wet and fertile. Every house had a system to collect the rain water. Look at this picture. How do you think the rainwater that falls on the roof will reach the underground tank? Draw the path. Have you ever seen a stepwell? Look at the picture. Can you imagine by looking at the picture that the steps go down several storeys deep? Instead of drawing the water up from the well, the people could go down the steps and reach the water. That is why they are called stepwells.
Teachers Note : How does the earth soak water and how does it reach wells and stepwells? This can be discussed with children.

Meenu

Every Drop Counts

53

Long ago, people used to make long journeys with their caravans of animals and goods. People felt it was a good thing to give water to thirsty travellers. Thus, they built many beautiful stepwells. Have you ever faced a shortage of water in your area? If yes, then what was the reason for it? Talk to your grandmother or any elderly person. Find out, when they were of your age: From where did they get water for the house? Has there been a change now? What kind of water arrangements were made for travellers for example piau, mashak (leather bag) or any other? Now what do people do about water when they travel?

Customs related to water


Even today people get water from very old lakes, dharas, stepwells and naulas. Many customs and festivals are related to water. At some places, whenever lakes get filled up with rainwater, the people gather around the lake to celebrate. See the bride of Uttarakhand in this picture. After getting married she has come to the new village. She bows to the spring or the pond. In cities one can see an interesting form of this custom. The new bride worships the tap in her home. Can we even imagine life without water? 54
Looking Around

Devraj Agarwal

Do you have some special pots for water at your place? Look, water is being filled in this beautiful copper pot. The shining yellow pot of brass is seen in the other picture. Many stone carvings are also made near the place of drinking water. Have you ever seen any beautiful building near the place of water? Where?

Find out
Is there a lake, well or stepwell near your house or school? Visit it and find out more about it. How old is it? Who got it built? What kinds of buildings are around it? Is the water clean? Is it cleaned regularly? Who all use the water? Is there any festival celebrated at this place? Is there any water today, or is it dry? 55

Every Drop Counts

Devraj Agarwal

Think over it!


In 1986, there was no rain in Jodhpur and the surrounding areas. People remembered the old and forgotten stepwell ( baoli ). They cleaned the stepwell and more than two hundred trucks of garbage was taken out of it. People of the area collected money. The thirsty town got water from the stepwell. After a few years it rained well and again the stepwell was forgotten.

Discuss
There are two old wells in the area where Punita lives. Her grandmother says that about fifteen - twenty years ago there was water in these wells. The wells could have dried up because: Water is being pumped up from under the ground, with the help of electric motors. The lakes in which rain water used to collect are no longer there. The soil around trees and parks is now covered with cement. Is there some other reason for this? Explain.

The story today


Let us see the different ways in which people manage water today. See page 57 and discuss. Do you get water in your house by any of these ways? Put a tick () on that. If you get water by some other way, write in your notebook.
Teachers Note : Discuss the unequal distribution of water with children. It is important to know how people get water from different sources and the problems they face. Though it is challenging, yet it is important to discuss issues of caste and class related to water, especially from the chilldrens perspective.

56

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A Jal Board water tanker comes to our colony twice a day. We have to stand in a long queue to get water from the tanker. People at times have fights over water.

We fill water from the well. The nearby well dried up a year ago. Now we have to walk far to reach the other well. We are not allowed to take water from some of the wells because of our caste.

We get water at home for half an hour. We fill this in the tank to use all day. Sometime it is dirty.

This is how we get water


We get water from our taps, all day long.

There is a handpump nearby, but the water that we get from it is salty. We have to buy water for drinking.

We have put a pump directly in the Jal Board pipeline. Now we don't have any problem!

We have put a motor to pump up the water from the borewell. But there is no electricity, so what do we do!

We get water from the canal itself.

Every Drop Counts

57

Discuss
Everyone has the right to live. Yet, is everybody getting enough water to live or even water to drink? Why is it that some people have to buy drinking water? Should it be like this? Water on this earth is for one and all. Some people draw out water from the ground by deep bore wells. How far is it correct? Have you ever seen this? Why do some people put a pump directly in the Jal Board pipe line? What problems would other people face due to this? Do you have any such experience?

Look at this bill and tell


From which office has this bill come? Do you get a water bill at home? Find out from where it is sent? Why do you think Dilli Sarkar (Government of Delhi) is written under Delhi Jal Board? In whose name is the bill? How much money do they have to pay for each month? Do you have to pay for water? How much? Is the rate of water different in different colonies? Ask your elders. 58
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It can be done
There are some groups that work hard to bring water to the people of different areas. They ask the elders about the water arrangement in their times. They rebuild the old lakes and johads, and also build new ones. Let us see how the group called Tarun Bharat Sangh helped Darki Mai.

This is Darki Mai. She lives in a village in the Alwar district of Rajasthan. The women of the village used to spend the entire day looking after their home and animals. Sometimes, it took them all night to pull water from the well for the animals. In the summer, when the wells dried up, they had to leave the village. Darki Mai heard about this group and asked for help. Together, the people from the group and the village decided to make a lake. The problem of food and water for animals is now less. People get more milk. They have started earning more.
From the book Char Gaon ki Katha

Have you ever read this kind of news in any newspaper? How did people solve their problem of water? Did they repair and reuse any old lake or stepwell?

What we have learnt


Make a poster : Do you remember the slogan Water on earth is for one and all. Think of some other such slogans. Draw pictures and make a nice poster. Bring a water bill, look at it and tell This bill is from___________date to___________date. How much money is to be paid for this bill? What else can you see in the bill, like the money spent on repair, maintenance etc.? 59

Every Drop Counts

7. Experiments with Water

What floats what sinks?


Ayesha was waiting for dinner. Today Ammi was making her favourite food puri and spicy potatoes. Ayesha watched as her mother rolled out the puri and put it in the hot oil. She saw that at first the puri sank to the bottom of the pan. As it puffed up, the puri came up and started floating on the oil. One puri did not puff up and did not float like the others. On seeing this, Ayesha took some dough and rolled it into a ball. She flattened it and put it in a bowl of water. Alas! it sank to the bottom and stayed there.

Think what would happen if


Ayesha put a puffed puri in a bowl of water. Would it sink or float? You put a steel plate on water. Would it sink or float? What would happen to a spoon? Would the cap of a plastic bottle sink or float on water? In the evening Ayesha went for a bath. She had just come out when her mother called, Ayesha, you have dropped the soap in the water again. Take it out and put it in the soap case. Ayesha was in a hurry and the soap case fell out of 60
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her hands. It started floating on water. Ayesha gently put the soap in the soap case. She saw that the case continued to float, even with the soap in it. Have you seen that some thing float on water while others sink? Think how this happens! The poem here raises such questions.

Why, Oh Why?
A wooden boat in water will float. But a needle will sink! Why does this happen? Let me think... An iron ship will also float, though its much heavier than my boat!

But a needle, light as a leaf, thin as a pin, will sink right in! Why does this happen? Let me think...
Shishir Shobhan Ashthana Chakmak, December 1985 (Translated by Anupa Lal)

Do this and find out


Do this experiment in groups of four friends. Each group will need a big pot filled with water and the things listed in the table. Put each thing one-by-one in water and observe.

Experiments with Water

61

Mark [] for the things that float. Mark [] for those that sink.
Things to be put in water (a) Empty bowl (katori) (b) After putting in 6-7 small pebbles, one-by-one Iron nail or pin Matchstick (a) Empty plastic bottle with its lid closed (b) bottle half-filled with water (c) Bottle full of water Aluminium packing) (a) open and spread out (b) pressed tightly into a ball (c) in a cup-like shape (a) Soap cake (b) Soap cake on a small plastic plate A piece of ice foil (from medicine I guessed, before I did it I saw, when I did it

Find out from the other groups which things floated and which sank in the water? After doing the experiment, fill in the blanks. 1. The iron nail ______ in water but the katori ______. I think this happened because _________________________________ 2. The empty plastic bottle ______ on water. The bottle filled with water ______ because ______________________________ 3. The aluminium foil ______ when it was spread out. When pressed tightly into a ball it __________. This may have happened because ____________________________________ 62
Looking Around

Is it magic?
When Ayesha woke up in the morning, Ammi had fever. Abbu made some tea and went to give medicines to Ammi. He told Ayesha, You boil eggs. Also put some salt in the water. Ayesha took water in a pot. By mistake she put too much salt in the water. She saw the eggs at the bottom of the pot come up a little and start to float in water! Take some water in a glass. Put a lemon in it. Now keep putting salt in the water, half-a-spoon at a time. Were you able to float your lemon in water? What do you think, the lemon floated in salty water, because...... Dead Sea
All oceans and seas have salty water. The saltiest of all is the Dead Sea. How salty? Imagine 300 grams of salt in one litre of water! Would you be able to even taste such salty water? It would be very bitter. Interestingly, even if a person does not know how to swim, she would not drown in this sea. She will float in water, as if lying down on it! Remember the lemon you floated in salty water?

What dissolved, what did not?


On Sunday Ayeshas cousin brother Hamid came to her house to play. As soon as he came he asked his aunt to make his favourite shakkarpara (a sweet dish). Ammi said, Let me come back from the market, then I will make some for you. Why dont you help me? Take two glasses of water and put a bowl of sugar in it. Mix it till it dissolves. Hamid thought, Let me finish this work fast. Then I will watch TV. Suggest some ways to Hamid for quickly dissolving sugar.
Teachers Note : It is not expected that children should be told about density. We should accept different answers that children may give, such as water is heavy or thick.

Experiments with Water

63

Do this experiment
Make groups of four friends. For the experiment you will need 4-5 glasses or bowls, spoons, water, and the things listed in the table. Take some water in each glass. Now try to dissolve one thing in one glass. Observe what happens and note in the table.
Things Did it dissolve or not? What happened after keeping for 2 minutes?

1. Salt 2. Soil 3. Chalk powder 4. 1 spoon milk 5. Oil

Tell Could you see the salt after it dissolved in water? If no, why? Does that mean that now the water does not have salt? If it has, then where is the salt? What difference did you see in the water with salt, and the water with chalk powder after keeping for sometime? Which of the two would you be able to separate from the water by straining with a cloth salt or chalk powder?
Teachers Note : There are many things which cannot be easily labelled as soluble or insoluble. These categories are anyway not needed here. Children need to be encouraged to fill the table on the basis of their own observations.

64

Looking Around

While doing the experiment Ayesha and Hamid had an argument. Ayesha felt that after stirring it, the oil dissolved in water. Hamid did not agree. He said, Look, the tiny yellow oil drops can still be seen in the water. Ayesha said, Lets wait for sometime and then see. Do you think the oil got dissolved in the water? Why do you think so?

Racing drops
Ayesha put two drops of oil on the lid of her tiffin box. Next to that she put two drops of water and two drops of sugar solution. She tilted the lid. She saw some drops slid down quickly, while some were left behind.

You also try to do the same and then tell which drop went ahead? Why did it slide faster?

Where did the water go? One day Ayeshas mother put some water to boil on the stove for making tea. She got busy with something and forgot about it. When she remembered and came to check, she found only a few drops of water left in the pan. Think where did the water go? Why did Chittibabu and Chinnababu keep their mango jelly in the sun? At your house, what things are made by drying in the sun?
Experiments with Water

65

Dandi March
This incident took place in 1930, before India became independent. For many years the British had made a law that did not allow people to make salt themselves. They had also put a heavy tax on salt. By this law people could not make salt even for use at home. How can anybody live without salt? Gandhiji said, How can a law not allow us to use freely what nature has given ! Gandhiji, with several other people, went on a yatra (long walk) from Ahmedabad to the Dandi seashore in Gujarat, to protest against this law. Do you know how salt is made? The sea water is collected in shallow beds dug in the sand. Water is allowed to dry in the sun. After the water dries the salt remains on the ground.

What we have learnt


You have washed your handkerchief and you want to dry it quickly. What all can you do? What things do you put in water to make tea? Which of those things dissolves in water? You have been given some mishri pieces (lumps of sugar). Suggest some ways to dissolve them quickly.

Teachers Note : Children of this age cannot be expected to understand the concept of evaporation but they can begin to think about it. Dandi Yatra can provide a context to talk about the struggle for Independence.

66

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8. A Treat for Mosquitoes

Blood test
Rajat is back at school today. He had been absent for many days. How are you now ? asked Aarti. Im alright, Rajat replied softy. Jaskirat: You must have played a lot while you were at home. Rajat : Who wants to play when you have fever! On top of it I had to take a bitter medicine! I even had a blood test. Jaskirat: A blood test? Why? It must have been very painful.
Rajat

Jaskirat

Rajat: Actually, when the needle pricked my finger, it felt like an ant bite. They took 2-3 drops of blood, and sent it for testing. Thats how we came to know that I had malaria. Nancy: But you get malaria when a mosquito bites you. Rajat: Yes, but we find out by the blood test.

Nancy

Jaskirat: There are a lot of mosquitoes in my house these days, but I did not get malaria. Nancy: Who says that every mosquito bite causes malaria? Malaria spreads only by the disease carrying mosquitoes.

Aarti

Aarti: All mosquitoes look the same to me. Rajat: There must be some difference. 67

Taking the blood on the glass slide for test

Nancy: Did they take the blood from the place where the mosquito had bitten you?

Dr Maryam looking at the blood slide under the microscope. This miscroscope makes things look thousand times bigger. The details inside the blood can be seen clearly. There are some miscroscopes which make things look even more bigger than this one.

Rajat: Of course not! How do I know when and where the mosquito bit me? Nancy: But how could they find out that you had malaria by your blood test? Do you think they could see something in the blood?

Abid Shamshad

Find out
Do you know anyone who has had malaria? How did they find out that they had malaria? What problems did they have on having malaria? What other diseases can be caused by mosquito bites? In which season is malaria more common? Why do you think this happens? What do you do in your house to protect yourself from mosquitoes? Also find out from your friends about what they do. 68
Looking Around

Dyhfudy foo`Qfr fjiksVZ


CLINICAL PATHOLOGY REPORT

osaQnzh; ljdkj LokLF; ;kstuk


Central Govt. Health Scheme
18/08/2007 Rajat uke@Name............ 11 vk;q@ Age.......... L=kh Male ;k iq#"k@Sex.............

Look at the report of the blood test given here. Which words in the report help us to know that the person has malaria?
Medicine for Malaria
From early times, the dried and powdered bark of the Cinchona tree was used to make a medicine for malaria. Earlier people used to boil the bark powder and strain the water which was given to patients. Now tablets are made from this.

Fever with Chills and Rigors jksx dh igpku@Diagnosis.............................................. (BaM yxdj oaQidih osQ lkFk cq[kkj)

Malarial Parasite Found in Blood Sample

([kwu esa eysfj;k osQ thok.kq ik, x,)

Pathologist

AnaemiaWhats that?

Aarti: You know, I also had to get a blood test done. But they took a syringe full of blood. The blood test showed that I had anaemia. Rajat: What is that? Aarti: The doctor said that there is less haemoglobin or iron in the blood. The doctor gave some medicines to give me strength. He also said that I should eat jaggery, amla and more green leafy vegetables, because these have iron. Nancy: How can there be iron in our blood? Jaskirat: There was something about this in the newspaper yesterday. Rajat (laughing) : So then you ate iron or what?! Aarti: Silly! This is not the iron used to make these keys. I dont know exactly what it was. After I ate a lot of vegetables and whatever the doctor had said, my haemoglobin went up.
Teachers Note : You can bring a blood report in the class and discuss with the children.

A Treat for Mosquitoes

69

Anaemia common in Delhi school


17 November, 2007 - Thousands of children studying in the Municipal Corporation schools in Delhi suffer from anaemia. This is affecting both their physical as well as mental health. Due to anaemia, children do not grow well, and their energy levels are low. This also affects their ability to study properly. Now health check ups are being done in the schools and health cards are being made for all the children. Anaemic children are also being given iron tablets.

Tell
Dyhfudy foo`Qfr fjiksVZ
CLINICAL PATHOLOGY REPORT

Dyhfudy foo`Qfr fjiksVZ


CLINICAL PATHOLOGY REPORT

osaQnzh; ljdkj LokLF; ;kstuk


Central Govt. Health Scheme

osaQnzh; ljdkj LokLF; ;kstuk


Central Govt. Health Scheme

20/06/2007 Aarti uke@Name............ 12 L=kh vk;q@Age.......

15/09/2007 Aarti uke@Name............ 12 L=kh vk;q@Age....... Female ;k iq#"k@Sex..........

;k

Female iq#"k@Sex..........

jksx dh igpku@Diagnosis..........................................
Normal Range Haemoglobin (gheksXyksfcu)

Anaemia (vuhfe;k)

jksx dh igpku@Diagnosis..........................................
Normal Range Haemoglobin (gheksXyksfcu)

Anaemia (vuhfe;k)

8 gm/dl ........

(ukWjey jsat)

12 to 16gm/dl

10.5 gm/dl ........

(ukWjey jsat)

12 to 16gm/dl

Pathologist

Pathologist

Look at Aartis blood report and find out the minimum required haemoglobin? How much did Aarti's haemoglobin go up and how long did it take for that? What does the newspaper report say about the problems caused by anaemia? Have you or anyone in your family ever needed to get a blood test? When and why?
Teachers Note : A discussion can be initiated in the classroom, about how diseases spread through the housefly. Newspaper reports can also be used in the class.

70

Looking Around

What was found out by the blood test? Have you had a health check up in your school? What did the doctor tell you?

Find out
Ask a doctor or elders about the food items which contain iron.

Baby mosquitoes
Jaskirat: There is a poster on malaria just outside our class. (Everyone goes out to look.)

Are you inviting mosquitoes?

BEWARE!
They Spread Malaria, Dengue, Chikungunya!
Dont let water collect around you. Fill up the pits. Keep the water pots, coolers and tanks clean. They should be dried every week. Put fish in the ponds, so that they eat the mosquito larvae. Use mosquito nets to protect yourself. Spray oil if water has collected at some place.

Rajat: The poster says something about larvae. What are those? Nancy: They are baby mosquitoes. But they dont look like mosquitoes at all.
A Treat for Mosquitoes

71

Aarti: Where did you see them? Nancy: There was an old pot lying behind our house. It was full of water for some days. When I looked there I saw some tiny thread-like grey things swimming. I was surprised when Mummy told me that these had come out of the eggs which mosquitoes lay in water. They are called larvae. I also heard something about this on the radio. Rajat: What did you do? Nancy: Papa immediately threw away the water. He cleaned and dried the pot and kept it upside down, so that no water would collect. Jaskirat: Shazia aunty told me that even flies spread diseases, especially stomach problems. Rajat: But flies dont bite. Then how do they spread diseases?

mosquitoes's larvae

Find out and tell


Have you seen any poster like this put up anywhere? Who do you think puts up such posters, or gives ads in the newspapers? What are some of the important points given in the poster? Why do you think pictures of a tank, cooler and pits are shown in the poster?
larvae seen through hand lens

Think
Why do you think it talks about putting fish in the tank? What do you think the fish eats? What will happen when oil is spread on the water? 72

Looking Around

Find out
Which diseases are spread by flies and how?

Mosquito check
Divide your class into two or three groups. Each group will go around to check one area in school or around it. It must carefully note if water has collected anywhere, and mark where it finds stagnant water. Pot Cooler Tank Gutter Any open space in the Any other place_____________

school ground

Since how many days has water collected there? Has it caused any problem in the area? Who is responsible for keeping these places clean? Who is supposed to get the gutters and drains repaired? Can any larvae be seen in the collected water?

Make a poster
In your group, make a poster with a message to keep the cooler, tank, drains and the area clean (wherever water collects). Put up your poster in and around your school. Find out who is responsible for keeping the area around your school clean. Write a letter from your class, reporting your findings and suggestions. Find out to whom the letter should be written and to which office it should be sent.

A Treat for Mosquitoes

73

Survey report
Some children did this survey. Here are some of their reports.
Group 1 We found something green around the taps in our school which is called algae. It was also slippery there. The algae spreads a lot during the rainy season. We think that they are some kind of small plants that grow in water. Group 2 There is a pond near the school. At first you cannot see the water in the pond as it is completely covered with plants. One aunty told us that these plants have grown themselves in water. Around the pond there are pits full of water. We also saw some larvae in the water. As we moved around, lots of mosquitoes flew from the plants growing around. Jaskirat feels that there are so many mosquitoes in her house because of this dirty pond nearby.

Tell
Is there a pond or river around your house or school? Go and look around and observe these things:

Can you see algae in or around the water? Where else have you seen algae? Are there plants growing on the side or in water? Find out their names. Draw some of these in your note book. Do you think these were planted by someone or did they grow on their own? What else can you see in water? Make a list. A scientist peeps into a mosquitos stomach
This interesting incident took place almost a hundred years ago. A scientist found out that mosquitoes spread malaria. Let's read about this discovery in his own words. My father was a general in the Indian Army. I studied to become a doctor, but what I really liked was reading stories, writing poetry, music and drama. In my free time I enjoyed doing all this.

Ronald Ross

74

Looking Around

In those days, thousands of people used to die from a disease that we now call malaria. The disease was found in areas where there was a lot of rain, or in swampy places. People thought that the illness was caused by some poisonous gas that came from the dirty swampy areas. They gave it the name 'malaria' which means 'bad air'. One doctor had seen tiny germs in the blood of one of the patients, when he observed it under a microscope. But he could not understand how these had got into the patients blood. My professor had some ideas about this. I think that these may be carried by some kind of mosquito. As his student, I spent all my time chasing mosquitoes, to catch and observe. We used to carry empty bottles and chase mosquito after mosquito. Then we would put the mosquitoes into a mosquito net in which there was a patient of malaria. The mosquitoes would have a feast, biting these patients. The patients were paid one anna for allowing one mosquitoe to bite them. I will always remember those days at the hospital in Secundrabad how we used to cut open the mosquitos stomach and peep into it. I would spend hours and hours bent over the microscope. By night my neck would be stiff and my eyes could not see clearly! It used to be very hot but we dared not fan ourselves, as all the mosquitoes would fly off in the breeze! Once I also fell ill with malaria. I spent months like this with the microscope, but could not find anything. One day we caught a few mosquitoes that looked different. They were brownish with spotted wings. When I looked into the stomach of one of the female mosquitoes, I saw something black there. I looked closer. I saw that these tiny germs looked just like the ones that were found in the blood of malaria patients. At last we had the proof! Mosquitoes did spread malaria! In December 1902, Ronald Ross got the highest award for his discoverythe Nobel Prize for medicine. In 1905, even as he lay dying, Rosss last words were, I will find something, I will find something new.

What we have learnt


What can you do so that mosquitoes do not breed in your house, school and neighbourhood? How can you find out if someone has malaria?
Teachers Note : Tell children that anna was a form of currency used earlier in India. Use the story of Ronald Ross to encourage children to know and talk about scientific processes. It is important to share with children that in an ordinary hospital of Secundarabad many important experiments were done some successful and some not so successful which led to an amazing discovery about a disease which has still not been controlled. Collect more such exciting stories on discoveries about different diseases and share with children.

A Treat for Mosquitoes

75

9. Up You Go!
84 2nd February 19

Mountaineering Camp
Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarkashi

We were at the mountaineering camp and were very excited. Twenty of us were teachers from Kendriya Vidyalayas. There were other women from banks and other institutions. Today was the second day of the camp. In the morning as I got out of bed and put my foot down, I screamed in pain. I remembered yesterdays 26 kilometre walk with the heavy rucksack on my back. I was afraid to go back to that steep climb and the rough narrow path. With tears in my eyes I started walking slowly towards the room of Brigadier Gyan Singh, the Director of our adventure course. I was thinking of what I would say to excuse myself from that days trek. Suddenly, I heard his deep voice from behind. Madam, what are you doing here at breakfast time? Hurry up! Otherwise you will have to trek on an empty stomach. Sir, Sir., I could not say any more. You have came to tell me that you have blisters on your feet, that you cannot walk, isnt it? Yes, sir. That is nothing new. Now get ready quickly. 76

Looking Around

I hung my head and rushed back to get ready. I had just turned when I heard his voice again, Listen, madam. You will lead group number 7. You will have to help any member who has difficulty climbing the mountain. You have already been told about the responsibilities of a group leader in the mountains.

Tell
Have you ever seen the mountains? Have you also climbed a mountain? When and where? How far have you walked at one time? How far can you walk?

Imagine
What do you think about the paths on the mountains? Draw a picture.

A big responsibility
I started thinking about what a leader must do: Help others in carrying their bags. Let the group go ahead and keep to the last. Help those who cannot climb properly. Find a good place to stop and rest. Look after those who are not well. Arrange for food for the group. The most important thing is to be ready to be punished even when some one else may have made a mistake. I realised that there was a special kind of discipline here. I wondered whether the camp will still be fun!

Up You Go!

77

Group no. 7
Group No. 7 included girls from Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland. I was the only teacher from Kendriya Vidyalaya in this group. I was happy to meet my new group members. Most of them could not speak Hindi well. I still feel bad that after being together for 21 days, I could not talk even once with Khondonbi from Mizoram. She spoke only Mizo. But in our hearts we grew close to each other.

Tell
What do you think about the responsibilities of a group leader? How would you feel if you were made a leader in such a camp? What does a monitor in your class have to do? Would you like to be the class monitor? Why?
4 5 February 198 We got vitamin C, iron tablets and hot chocolate milk with our breakfast. These were given for strength and to keep us warm in the cold. Every morning there would be a medical check up. We tied our bandages and counted the days left!

Crossing the river...

After an eight kilometre trek we reached a river. There was a thick rope tied across the river, from one bank to the other. The rope was tightly fixed to pegs or pitons on both the sides. I was feeling nervous. I started thinking what would happen if the rope came out. I was trying to estimate how wide the river was. 78

Looking Around

Our instructor tied a rope around his waist and put a sling (type of hook) in it. He then put the sling on the thick rope tied across the river. Walking through the icy water, he went to the other side. No one was ready to step into the fast flowing river. Everyone was pushing each other to go first. I stood last in the line hoping that no one would see me. Just then our instructor came near me with the sling and rope in his hands. I knew there was no escape now. I was ready, but did not have the courage. Sir could guess my fears. He called out loudly, Three cheers for Sangeeta madam! And before I knew it, someone had gently pushed me into the water. I felt as if my feet were frozen. I started shivering, my teeth were chattering . I caught hold of the rope and started putting my feet firmly on the river bed. As I walked further in, the river got deeper and slowly the water reached upto my neck. In the middle of the river I lost my balance and started slipping. I was so scared and felt so cold, that the rope slipped from my hands. I started shouting for help. I was sure I would be carried away by the river. But no, I found that I was tied with the rope to the sling. Hold the rope! Hold the rope, I could hear the shouts. I somehow managed to get hold of the rope and pull myself forward. Slowly, with some courage, I reached the river bank. I felt a special kind of happiness as I came out of the water. Happiness on finishing a challenging task. Now, standing on the bank, I was calling out to the others to hold the rope tightly. I knew that this confidence was a result of facing a challenge with courage. 79

Up You Go!

Kalyani Raghunathan

Find out and write


What kinds of tools are needed for climbing mountains? Have you ever seen a hook and rope being used for anything else? Where? What else can we use if we want to cross a river in the mountains? Why do we need extra energy on the mountains? Have you ever heard of anyone who has done something adventurous? What? Have you ever done anything adventurous? If yes, tell your class. Write about it in your own words.
10 February 1984 We had to climb 15 km to reach Tekla village. It was at a height of 1600 metres. Our rucksacks had all that we may need food packets, water bottle, rope, hook, plastic sheet, diary, torch, towel, soap, windcheater, whistle, glucose, jaggery, chana and some other snacks. We could see fruits and vegetables growing in the step fields. We saw Colonel Ram Singh standing on a 90 metres high flat rock with pegs and ropes.

Rock climbing

We had been told to first observe the rock carefully and identify holds places where we can put our hands and feet. Today I was not going to back out. I stood first in the line. Our instructor tied 80
Looking Around

unathan Kalyani Ragh

a rope around his waist. He put the sling, and held the thick rope which was hanging. He started climbing as if he was running up. I also put my sling. But as I took my first step, I slipped. And there I was swinging from the rope! Keep your body at an angle of 90 while climbing, I heard. Keep your back straight. Do not bend. Keeping this in mind, I imagined the rock as flat ground and started to climb up. Again while coming down we had to use the rope, in a special way called rapling. I did this with the same fearlessness.

Tell
Have you ever climbed a tree? How did you feel? Were you scared? Did you ever fall? Have you ever seen someone climb a small wall? What do you think is the difference between climbing a wall and climbing a high rock?

A funny incident

14 February 1984

It was evening. Khondonbi was feeling hungry. We did not have anything to eat. She jumped over the fence and got into a field. She quickly plucked two big cucumbers and came back. Just then a woman came from behind and caught hold of her bag. She started saying something to Khondonbi in her own language. We could not understand what she was saying. Khondonbi was trying to explain in her Mizo
Up You Go!

81

language which we could not understand. I tried to explain in Hindi but neither of them could understand it. Finally, I folded my hands to say that we were sorry. By then our group had gone far ahead. It was already dark. I thought we had lost our way. Now we were really scared. We could not see anything even with our torches. I started sweating even though it was cold. I tightly held Khondonbis hand. I called out loudly, Where are you all? Can you hear me? My voice echoed in the mountains. We both started to whistle loudly and flashed our torches. Probably the group had noticed that we were missing. We heard some whistles at a distance. I understood the signal. We held each other's hand tightly and waited. Khondonbi felt that we should keep talking. She started singing a Mizo song loudly. After some time, we saw them coming towards us. At last! We were with the group again.

Tell
Is there anyone in your class whose language you do not understand, or who does not understand yours? What do you do in such a case? Have you ever lost your way? What did you do then? Why do you think Khondonbi would have sung loudly? Have you ever seen someone doing something special to get over their fear? What and when?

Try
Ask your friend for a book without speaking. Try to explain something to the class in the same way. A special guest 15 February 1984 After dinner we met a special guest Bachhendri Pal. She had just been 82
Looking Around

selected as a part of the team to climb Mount Everest. She had come to seek the blessings of Brigadier Gyan Singh. It was a happy evening we were all singing. Bachhendri also joined us in singing and dancing on the famous Pahadi song Bedu Pako, bara masa, kafal pako chaita, meri chhaila. At that time we had no idea that Bachhendri would become the first Indian woman to reach Mount Everest and create history. 18 February 1984 Camp in the snow We were standing at a height of 2134 meters. We were to spend the night here. Everyone was busy trying to put up the tent. We used double layered plastic sheets for the tent and for the ground. The air between the layers would help to keep us warm. We put in the pegs and began to put up the tent. As we tied it from one side, the wind flew the tent from the other side. After quite a lot of pulling and tugging, we managed to get the tent up. Then we dug a drain around the tent. We were feeling very hungry. We collected some firewood and stones to make a chulha and cooked some food. After the meal, we collected all the waste in a bag to clean the camp site. Soon we got into our sleeping bags. I was not sure if I would be able to sleep in it. Would it be comfortable? Would I not feel cold? But the bags were filled with soft feathers, which help in keeping us warm. We were all very tired. So very soon we fell asleep.

Teachers Note : The children can be encouraged to learn the languages spoken by their friends. This would help them appreciate and respect other languages.

Up You Go!

83

The next morning we woke up and found that it was snowing. White soft fluffy snowflakes were gently falling. Wow! It was so beautiful ! The plants, the trees, the grass and the mountains everything looked white. Today we were to climb higher, to 2700 metres. We walked carefully on the snow with the help of sticks. It was difficult because we kept slipping. By afternoon we had reached snow covered mountains. We enjoyed throwing snowballs at each other and making a big snowman.

Last day at camp

21 February 1984

We were getting ready for the camp fire. Each group presented a programme. We were enjoying telling jokes and laughing, singing and dancing around the camp fire. Soon it was midnight. Brigadier Gyan Singh got up and called me. I thought, Oh, no! what have I done this time? But when Sir announced my name for the Best Performance Award I stood still. He blessed me and tears of joy rolled down my face.

Discuss
Why do you think a drain was dug around the tent? Besides mountaineering, what are other activities that can be called adventurous? Why?
Teachers Note : These pages of a diary are based on the real experiences of Sangeeta Arora. She teaches in Kendriya Vidyalaya, Shalimar Bagh, Delhi and is also a member of this EVS textbook writing team.
Kalyan i Ragh unatha n

84

Looking Around

Imagine and Write


You are on a mountain. How do you feel there? What can you see? What do you feel like doing there? Alone on the mountain top
A twelve-year old girl living in the mountains was out on a school picnic. She climbed a mountain peak of 4000 metres with her friends. The girls had done this for fun and adventure. Soon it was dark and they could not come down. It was also cold and scary. They were alone without any food and it was a long night. This happened to Bachhendri Pal, played when she was a young girl. Bachhendri grew up in Nakuri village in the Garhwal area of Uttarakhand. When she grew older, she joined Nehru Institute of Mountaineering, Uttarkashi. Her guide was Brigadier Gyan Singh. Bachhendri did very well in her training. She started to train women in mountaineering courses. In 1984, Bachhendri was selected as a team member to climb the Mount Everest.

Snow storm
There were seven women in that 18 member team. On the night of 15th May the team was very tired after having reached a height of 7300 metres. The team put up their tents and went to sleep. Around midnight they heard a loud sound and then a bang. Before they were fully awake, the tent flew off and something very heavy hit them. There was a terrible snow storm. Bachhendri was almost buried under the snow and was hurt on the head. Many of the team members were also injured. The others used snow-picks and axes to dig out those who had been buried under the snow. The rest of the team members returned to base camp but Bachhendri went ahead, climbing slowly but steadily towards the peak. It was seven minutes past one oclock in the afternoon of 23th May when Bachhendri Pal stepped onto the peak of 8900 metre high Mount Everest also called Sagarmatha in Nepal. There was another team member with her. There was no space for two people to stand on the top at the same time. One slip and they would fall straight down-thousands of feet below! Bachhendri and her team-mate dug into the snow and pitched their axe firmly in the ice. Using this as a hook, they tied themselves to it with a rope. Only then two of them could stand there. She was shivering with cold but filled with the warmth of achievement. She bowed her head, pitched the national flag and took photographs. She spent 43 minutes on the highest peak in the world. Bachhendri Pal became the first Indian woman and the fifth woman in the world to reach the peak of Mount Everest. Teachers Note : Teachers can either make available the photographs or if possible the actual mountaineering equipment like sling, pitons, hunter shoes, sleeping bag etc. This will help discussion with children.

Up You Go!

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Think
Why did Bachhendri put up the Indian flag on the peak? When have you seen our national flag being hoisted? Have you seen the flag of any other country? Where? Make groups of 6-8 children. Design a flag for your group. Explain why you chose that design.

What we have learnt


Explain why it can be adventerous and challenging to climb a mountain. How would you prepare if you were to climb a mountain? What would you take with you? Write in your own words.

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nathan Kalyani Raghu

Looking Around

10. Walls Tell Stories


Reached Golconda
At last we reached Golconda. We were glad that didi was with us. Didi studies history and we enjoy visiting different places with her. Shailja: My goodness! This fort is so huge. Shreedhar: And see at what a height it is built! Kalyani: Just look! Have you ever seen such a huge gate? Shailja: It must be very heavy. I wonder how many people Kalyani : Look at these sharp iron would be needed to open and spokes. I wonder why they were made? Shailja: Look at these thick walls too. close this gate. Shreedhar: I have never seen such thick walls. Kalyani: At some places, a part of the wall comes out in a round shape. I wonder why? Didi: These are called bastions (burj). See these are even higher than the wall. The outer wall of this fort has 87 bastions. Thick walls, a huge gate and so many bastions! So many ways to ensure security! 87

Why is this small gate made in the big gate?

Sukanto Debnath

Bastion (Burj)

Hole

Think
Why were bastions made in the fort wall? Why were big holes made in them? What difference would be there if you were to look from a straight flat wall or a bastion at a height? How would the soldiers find peeping from the holes in the bastions useful while attacking?

What did we find inside the fort?


Shailja: I wonder how old this fort would be? Do you think the king built the fort so that he could live here? Kalyani : It was written outside that Qutubshahi Sultans ruled here one after another, from 1518-1687. Didi : Much before that, in 1200, this fort was made of mud and different rulers lived here. Shailja: Oh look! This board has a map of the fort. Shreedhar: This map shows so many gardens, fields and factories. See, there are many palaces also inside the fort. Shailja: That means that not only the Sultan, but many other people like farmers and workers must also have been living here. Kalyani: It must have been a complete town.

The Sultans Palace


Shreedhar: These steps seem to go on and on.
Teachers Note : Draw children's attention to how a high and rounded wall can help to see things at a distance and in different directions.

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Rajeev Singh

Looking Around

Shailja: Even in those days they used to have buildings with two floors! Kalyani: Now, the building is in ruins. But one can imagine that earlier there were many big halls and rooms here. Shreedhar: Look at this beautiful carving on the walls. It is so fine!
Rajeev Singh

Kalyani : We also saw something like a fountain on one of the roofs. Didi : Yes, there were many big tanks and fountains here. They used to be full of water. Wow, what engineering!
Think, even today when engineers design houses, sometimes there is dampness in the walls. And here, so long ago, there were fountains on the terrace! The building must have been made with such good understanding. If we think how the people lived five hundred years ago, so many questions come to our mind. For example, how was water lifted to such heights? Can you guess how?

Rajeev Singh

Think and discuss


How would the fountains have worked? What arrangements would have been made in the building for air and light? Look carefully at the picture of the beautiful carving on the wall. What kind of tools would have been used for such fine carving? We still do not have any electricty at many places in our country. Even at places which do have electricity, imagine what would happen if there was no electricity for one week. What are the things that would be difficult to manage without it?
Walls Tell Stories
Rajeev Singh

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Where is east-west?
At the place you are, where does the sun rise? Where does it set? Where you are standing, find out what all is there to your east. What all is there to your west? Also find out, what places are to your north and south.

Tell and write


Look carefully at the map of Golconda. On the map, arrows show all the four directions. If you are peeping inside from Bodli Darwaza, in which direction from you is Katora Hauz? If someone is entering from Banjara Darwaza, in which direction from her is Katora Hauz? In which direction will you walk from Bala Hisar to reach Moti Mahal? How many gates can you see on the outer walls of the fort? Count how many palaces are there in the fort? What arrangements for water can you see inside the fort? For example, wells, tanks, stepwells. On the map, 1 cm distance is equal to a distance of 110 metres on the ground. Now tell On the map the distance between Bala Hisar and Fateh Darwaja is ____ cm. On the ground, the distance between the two would be ____ metres. How far is Makai Darwaza from Fateh Darwaza?
Teachers Note: Children take a lot of time in identifying directions. They are often confused about the north and south directions. Many a times we adults also think that north is upwards. We also often show the north direction by pointing to the top of the paper. It is not expected that children will be able to understand directions by doing the activity once. It is important to link children's own experiences with this.

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Looking Around

Walls Tell Stories

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Why these attacks?


While we were all talking, Shreedhar called us to see a big gun (cannon). We ran up the steps.
Rajeev Singh

Shailja: This must have been the Sultan's big gun. Didi : This was used by Aurangzeb. His full army came with their guns and cannons to attack but they could not even enter the fort. For eight months they camped outside the fort. Shailja: Why would the army come here all the way from Delhi? Didi: In those days, emperors and kings, played such tricks. They tried to make smaller kingdoms a part of their own kingdom. This was done sometimes by friendship, sometimes by flattery, or even by marriage between families. And when nothing else worked, they also attacked them! Kalyani: Why is it that Aurangzebs army could not get into the fort? He had so many soldiers and big guns. Shailja: Didnt you see these strong thick walls? In the map there is a long deep ditch (pit) along the wall. How could the army enter? Shreedhar: If the army tried to come from a different side, then the soldiers in the bastions would have seen it from a distance. No wonder it was difficult to attack the fort! Kalyani: Imagine! The army is coming on horses and elephants, with all their guns. Here, the Sultan's army stands fully prepared. Shailja: Oh no! How many people and soldiers on both the sides must have been killed in all this fighting? Why do people attack and have wars?

92

Looking Around

Shreedhar: Guns and cannons are things of the past now. These days many countries have nuclear bombs. A single bomb can cause so much destruction!

Discuss
Have you recently read or heard about any country attacking or going to war with another country? Find out what was the reason for this war. What kind of weapons were used in this war? What kind of destruction was caused because of this?

Find out
The big gun that Shreedhar saw was made of bronze. Have you seen anything made of bronze? What? Tribal people have been using bronze to make many things since thousands of years. One wonders how they took out copper and tin from the deep mines, melted these metals, and turned them into beautiful things! Find out from your elders about some of the things made from bronze that were, or are still used in your house. From its colour try to identify which one of them is made from copper, which from brass, and which from bronze. When there was no telephone
Didi asked us to wait at the king's palace. She herself went to Fateh Darwaza. A while later we heard Didis voice, Alert! I am Sultan Abul Hassan. I am very fond of music and Kuchipudi dance. We all laughed. We were surprised how didis voice could be heard from so far. She later told us that if you stand at Fateh Darwaza whatever you speak can be heard at the kings palace.

Teachers Note: Pictures of bronze and brass vessels have also been given in Chapter 6. Encourage children to identify different metals from their colours.

Walls Tell Stories

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Arrangements for water


The picture shown here is made after seeing a very old painting of those times. Can you think why bullocks have been used here? Use your hand movement to show in which direction the drum attached to the rod moves when the bullocks move. In which direction would the toothed wheel move?

Drum

Toothed Wheel

Look, this pole shown under the ground joins with another wheel which has a number of pots on it.
Can you see the clay pipes?

Now imagine, how would this garland of pots lift water from the well? Do you now get some idea about how the tanks could have been filled by lifting water from the wells? Even today we can see clay pipes in the walls of the fort. These pipes would have been used to carry water to different places in the palace.

Rajeev Singh

Where else have you seen such wheels attached to each other. For example, in the gear of a cycle or somewhere else? Look around and find out how water is pumped up from the ground to higher places? How is water pumped up using electricity? How is water lifted without electricity?

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Looking Around

What a sad sight!


Talking, whistling and listening to our own echo we were walking through this mehrab (arch).

Rajeev Singh

Shreedhar: Oh! The breeze feels so cool in this tunnel. Shailja: It was written that soldiers stayed here. Shreedhar: See this board, but look what the wall is like! Shailja: Oh! Think how this wall has seen thousands of years go by. It has seen kings and queens, horses and elephants, war and peace... But we have spoilt it in just a few years! Kalyani: I dont understand, what kind of fun do people get in writing their names all over the place like this?

Close your eyes and go back in time!


Imagine that you are in those days when there was a busy town inside Golconda. Think about the questions given below and discuss in class. You could even put up a play. What is the Sultan doing in the palace? What kind of clothes is he wearing? What dishes are being offered to him? But why does he seem so worried? And in what language is he talking?
Teacher's Note: Through this activity encourage children to imagine how life would have been at that time the food habits, clothes, etc. They can express these in a variety of ways, like by acting, drawing, making a story, etc.

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Imagine the rooms in the palace the beautiful carpets and curtains, the fountains on the terrace and the sweet smell of roses and chameli where is this coming from? What are the different kinds of factories you can see? How many people are working there? What are they doing? What are they wearing? How long do you think they work? Look there! See how finely those craftsmen are carving the stones using a chisel and hammer? Can you see the stone dust in the air. Do you think this stone dust would harm them in some way?

Going to the museum


After seeing Golconda, the children also went to a museum in Hyderabad. Many old items are kept there. Many things were found when the place around Golconda was dug like pots, jewellery, swords, etc. Shailja: Oh! Why are these broken pieces of pots kept in the almirah? See that small plate made of bronze. That blue piece seems to be made of ceramic (clay). Didi : It is through all these things that we come to know how people of those times lived, what they used and what things they made. If all these would not have been kept here, how would you know so much about those times?
Teachers Note: Encourage children to talk to their elders and neighbours about old times. This would help develop their understanding of history.

Rajiv Singh

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Looking Around

Write
What kinds of pots have you seen around you? Try to find out from your grandparents about the other kinds of pots and pans they used in their time? Have you ever been to some museum or heard about it? What all things are there in a museum?

Survey and write


Is there any old building or monument near your house which people come to see? If yes, name it. Have you ever gone to see an old monument? Which was that? Did you feel it told you a story? What could you know about those times from it? How old was it? How did you know? What was it made of? What colour was it? Were there any special kind of designs on the old building? Draw them in your notebook.

Who used to live there in the olden days? What kinds of activities took place there? Do some people still live there?

Teachers Note: Talk to children about various sources of history, such as maps, pictures, excavated things, books, records and ledgers.

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Make your own museum


Rajni teaches in a Government school in Mallapuram district in Kerala. Together with the children of her class, she has collected many old things from all the houses. Like old walking sticks, locks, umbrellas, wooden slippers ( khadaun ), pots, etc. They also saw what these things look like today. Rajni and the children put up an exhibition, which people from the neighbourhood came to see. You could also do this.

Look at the painting and tell


This painting is 500 years old. It shows Agra fort being constructed.

What kinds of work are people doing? How many men and women are working? See, how they are taking the huge pillar up along the slope? Is it easier to lift a heavy thing straight up or along a slope? Were you able to see the man carrying water in a mashak (leather bag)?

What we have learnt


Sangeeta thinks it is useless to keep old things in a museum. How would you convince her that it is important to have a museum? Why do you think the chapter is named, Walls Tell Stories ? 98
Looking Around

11. Sunita in Space

Straight from the heart


What do you think the earth looks like? Make a drawing of the earth in your notebook. On your drawing show where you are. Take a look at your friends drawings too.

What is our earth really like?


Uzaira and Shahmir are playing with the globe. While they play they are talking to each other.

Uzaira: Do you know that Sunita Williams is visiting our school tomorrow? I have heard that she has spent more than six months in space. Shahmir: (looking at the globe ) Hmm... look here is America, Africa. Hey, where is space? Uzaira: The sky, stars, sun and moon, they are all in space. Shahmir: Yes, I know. Sunita Williams went in a spaceship. I saw on TV that she could see the earth from there. Uzaira: Yes, from there the earth looked like this globe. Shahmir: If our earth looks like this globe, then where are we? (Uzaira takes a pen and places it on the globe.) Uzaira : Here we are. This is India. Shahmir: If we were here like this, we would all fall off. I think we must be inside the globe.
Teachers Note : We know that scientists have also struggled to build an understanding of the shape of the earth. It is difficult for young children to understand the shape of the earth. Encourage children to express their ideas freely.

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Uzaira: If we are inside, then where is the sky, the sun, the moon and the stars? We must be on the globe. And all the seas and oceans must also be on the globe. Shahmir: (pointing towards the lower part of the globe) You mean to say that no one stays here? Uzaira: People live here too. Brazil and Argentina are here. Shahmir: Are the people there standing upside down? Why don't these people fall off? Uzaira: Yes, it looks strange, isnt it? And this blue part must be the sea. Why doesnt the sea water fall off?

What do you think?


If the earth is round like a globe, how is it that we do not fall off? Do the people in Argentina stand upside down?

Talking with Sunita


When Sunita Williams came to India, thousands of children like Uzaira and Shahmir got a chance to meet her. Sunita says

Teachers Note : Children can be told about Kalpana Chawla and her space travel. An interesting book for teachers is How We Found the Earth is Round by Isaac Asimov (Longman). This book talks about the way people in different cultures have been thinking about the concept of earth over centuries. Interestingly, even today childrens ideas match many of those ideas and thoughts. Even for adults it can be mind boggling to imagine that people in Argentina and India are actually standing upside down in relation to each other. There is actually no up and down on the earth, it is relative.

100

Looking Around

that her friend Kalpana Chawla wanted to come to India and meet children. She came to India to fulfil Kalpanas dream. Sunitas experiences of living in space! We could not sit at one place. We kept floating in the spaceship from one end to another. Water too doesnt stay at one place. It floats around as blobs. To wash our face or hands we had to catch these blobs and wet paper with them. We ate very differently there. The real fun was when all of us would float into the dining area of the spaceship and catch the floating food packets! In space there was no need to use a comb. My hair kept standing all the time! Not being able to walk, we had to get used to floating around. We had to learn to do simple things differently. To stay at one place, we had to strap ourselves there. Papers also had to be stuck to the wall of the spaceship. It was a lot of fun living in space but it was also difficult.

Look at the photographs and write


Can you think why Sunitas hair was standing? Look at Sunitas photographs and the dates written on each of them. Write what all is happening and when? 101

Sunita in Space

NASA

06) -12-20 (9 f f o e We tak

Our

fee t floo dont r! (1 s 1-1 tay on 2-2 006 the )

Look, my hair is standing, no problem while working (13-12-06)

Where is this food flying away? (11-12-2006)

Sun

102
Courtesy : NASA

ita o

utsi de t Looking Around spac he spac eshi e! (1 p 6-12 -06) , really in

Classroom becomes a spaceship


Close your eyes. Imagine that your class is a spaceship. Zooo...m in 10 minutes you have entered in space. Your spaceship is now going around the earth. Now say: - Are you able to sit at one place? - What about your hair? - Oh, look where are your bags and books going? - And what is your teacher doing? Where is her chalk? - How did you eat your food during the break? How did you drink water? What happened to the ball that you threw up? Act out or draw the scene.

Isnt it amazing?
On the earth when we throw something up, it comes down. When we throw a ball up in air, it falls back. We are able to catch it. On the earth, we dont keep floating around. When we fill a glass or bucket with water, it stays there. It doesnt float around in blobs as Sunita Williams says. It is something special about the earth that makes this happen! The earth pulls everything towards itself. Sunita Williams went 360 kilometres away from the earth, in the spaceship. Think how far this would be! Find out which town or city is located about 360 kilometres away from where you live. This is how far Sunita Williams went away from the earth. - Can you now say why Sunitas hair kept standing? - Think why water flows downwards on any slope. On mountains too water flows downwards, not upwards.
Teachers Note : It is challenging even for adults to understand how things behave in space. The photographs given can be used to initiate discussion. It is important to help children to raise questions and imagine things in space. We become so used to things being pulled by the earths gravity that we never give it much thought. It becomes tough for us to imagine what would happen if there was no gravitational pull.

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Magic 1 A tiny paper races a coin


Take a 5 rupee coin and a small piece of paper. The paper should be about one-fourth the size of the coin. 1. Hold the coin in one hand and the paper in the other. Drop them at the same time. What happened? 2. Now place the tiny paper on the coin and drop them. What happened this time? Surprised! 1

Magic 2 A mouse lifts an elephant!


To play this you will need a small stone, a bigger stone (lemon-sized), a thick roll of paper (which can be made with layers of papers), mouse and an elephant made of paper. - Take a string about 2 feet long. - At one end of the string tie the small stone. Stick or tie the mouse to the stone. - Put the string into the roll of paper. - At the other end of the string tie the bigger stone and stick the elephant. - Hold the roll of paper and move your hand to rotate the small stone. Who is pulling whom? You will be surprised! The mouse lifts the elephant! How did this magic happen?

Where are the lines, really!


Sunita describes her view of the earth from the spaceship: The earth looks so beautiful and amazing. We could watch it for hours, from the window of the spaceship. We could clearly see the curved shape of the earth.
Teachers Note : Sunitas experiences have been used to give to children a sense of the earths gravity. Use of the term gravity is not needed here. Children would need to be helped to construct an understanding about the pull of the earth. This can be done only by linking it with childrens own experiences. It seems magical when the tiny paper falls with the coin at the same time. This is because in our daily life we find that the air slows down the speed of leaves or paper while they fall. Children are not expected to understand the science behind the magic - A mouse lifts an elephant! They might not even be able to understand that the bigger stone is lifted against the earths gravitation. Actually, in the spaceship Sunita did not experience the pull of the earth because the spaceship was revolving around the earth.

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Looking Around

Look at this photograph of the earth, taken from a spaceship. From such photographs today we know what the earth looks like. But thousands of years ago, people could only imagine what the earth looked like. Scientists tried hard to find out how big is the earth, how does it go around?

Look at this photograph and tell


Can you see India? Can you recognise any other place? Where is the sea? Do you find anything similar between the globe and this picture of the earth? In what ways are they different? Do you think Sunita could make out Pakistan, Nepal and Burma separately, when she saw the earth from space? Look at a globe in your school
Can you find India? Where all do you find the sea? Which countries can you see? Can you see some of the countries with which India plays cricket matches? For example: England, Australia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and South Africa. What else can you see on the globe?
NASA

(Uzaira and Shahmir are looking at different countries on the globe.) Uzaira: See, there are lines between the different countries on this globe. Are such lines also there on the earth? Shahmir: There must be. They are there on the map of India in this book. See, there are lines between the different states too.
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Uzaira: If we go from Delhi to Rajasthan, would we find such lines made on the ground?

Look at the map given in this book and tell


- Can you find the state in which you live? Write its name on the map. - Which are the states next to the state you live in? - Have you been to any other state? - Shahmir thinks that there are lines drawn on the ground between the states. What do you think? When Sunita saw the earth from space she found the earth very beautiful. Many thoughts came to her mind. As she describes it, From so far away, one can only make out the land and the sea. One cannot see the different countries. Division into countries has been done by us. All the lines on the maps are made by us, they are in our minds. I wish we all think about this. Where are the lines, really?

Look at the Sky


Shahmir: (He closes one eye and moves the coin back and forth while looking at the moon.) Look, I can hide the moon behind this coin. Uzaira: Wow! Imagine hiding such a big moon behind such a small coin. Why dont you try to do the same with a coin? How many centimetres away from the eye did you keep the coin to hide the moon? Think Do you think the moon is flat like the coin or round like a ball? Have you ever looked carefully at the sky at night? Dont the twinkling stars look magical! And sometimes the moon is silvery and bright, while sometimes it is nowhere to be seen in the black sky. 106
Looking Around

Look at the moon tonight and draw what it looks like. Look and draw again after one week, and then after 15 days.
Todays Date Date after a week Date after 15 days

Find out
When is the next full moon? At what time will the moon rise on this day? What does the moon look like on this day? Draw it. What are the festivals related to the moon? At night look at the sky carefully for 5 minutes. What could you see? Did you see anything moving in the sky? What do you think it could be? A star or a shooting star or a satellite (satellites are used for the TV, telephones and for weather reports). Find out more about this.

Look at the table and tell


Given below are the times at which the moon rises and sets in Delhi (on the given days).
Date Time of moonrise (hours : minutes) 19:16 20:17 21:22 22:29 Time of moonset (hours : minutes) 08:50 10:03 11:08 12:03

28-10-2007 29-10-2007 30-10-2007 31-10-2007

On 28 October the moon came out at ___ minutes past ___ oclock. On 29 October the moon came out at ___ minutes past ___ oclock.
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On 29 October there was a difference of ___ hours and ___ minutes in the time of the moon rise (as compared to 28 October). If you saw the moon rising at 7 pm today, would you see it at the same time tomorrow? On 31 October the time of setting of the moon is given as 12:03. Have you ever seen the moon at 12 in the afternoon? Why dont we easily see the moon or stars during the day? The poet is also raising such questions in this poem. Twinkling stars
Stars are twinkling in the sky. Why do they twinkle? Tell me why. How many can you see? Some seem near and some seem far. Is there a name for every star? How many can you see? They shine so bright in the dark of night! Why do they hide in the morning light? How many can you see? Some shining stars we know so well. But every star has a tale to tell! How many can you see?
Anware Islam Chakmak, December 2003 (Translated by Anupa Lal)

An interesting photograph!
A spaceship went to the moon. This photograph of the earth was clicked from the surface of the moon. See how the earth is looking. Can you see the surface of the moon? Do you have some questions after looking at this picture? Write down those questions and discuss them in the class.

Teachers Note : Both children and adults enjoy looking at and admiring the night sky. Children will need help understanding the difference between a star, a shooting star and a satellite. Stars can be seen twinkling. A shining object which seems to move with a constant speed in the sky can be a satellite. A shooting star is actually a meteroite which catches fire when it enters the earths atmosphere. When we show interest ourselves children will also be motivated to observe the night sky and learn many new things.

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Looking Around

NASA

Do your best and things will work out!


When Sunita was five years old she saw pictures of Neil Armstrong landing on the moon. In 1969, Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon. Like any other child, Sunita was also fascinated. Sunita says that when she was a young girl she really loved sports, especially swimming. She was never too interested in studies. After high school Sunita wanted to become a diver. But she could not get into that course. Instead, she became a helicopter pilot. One day she found out that if she studied and trained for it, she could join the Space Mission. And that is what she did! In 2007 Sunita Williams set a new record for the longest space flight by a woman. Sunita often gives her own example to tell children, If you want something, but you get something else, do not give up. Do your best, and things will work out! When Sunita was asked by a child what would she like to do in the future, she answered, I want to become a school teacher! So that she could make children understand how science and maths are closely linked to our lives.

What we have learnt


Why do children always slide down the slide and not slide up? If this slide were there in Sunitas spacecraft, would children slide like this? Why? Why do we see stars mostly at night? Looking at earth from the space, Sunita said, Different countries cannot be seen as separate from here. These lines are on paper. They are made by us. What do you understand by this?

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12. What if it Finishes...?

A bus journey
Today, we were going on a school trip to the Adalaj stepwell (baoli ), about eighteen kilometres from Ahmedabad. We began counting the vehicles on the road. Some of us counted the bicycles, others counted the buses, cars, and motorcycles. Abraham, who was counting bicycles, soon got bored. There were hardly any bicycles on this highway. Screeeech! The driver suddenly braked at the red light. It was a big crossing, and we could see the traffic lined up on all sides. Honk, honk, the sound of loud horns, and smoke coming out of the vehicles! May be that is why a little boy in a rickshaw was coughing so much. I smelt something, familiar. I remembered this smell it came from Babas tractor in the village.
Teachers Note : Examples of familiar highways can help children see the difference between various kinds of roads. Discussion with children could involve listening to their own experiences about the noise made by vehicles and the ill effects of smoke.

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Looking Around

Look at the picture and write


What are the different kinds of vehicles that you can see? What do you think they need as fuel? Which of the vehicles do you think give off smoke? Put a red mark on those.

Tell
Do you ride a bicycle? If yes, where all do you go on it? How do you come to school? How do your family members go to work from home? What problems can we have from smoke coming out of vehicles?
Petrol Pu mp

On the petrol pump


After sometime our bus stopped at a petrol pump. There was a long queue. It seemed as if we would have a long wait. We all got down from the bus and started looking around the petrol pump. We saw many large boards and posters.

Petrol Pump

Teachers Note : The term oil can be used for petrol, diesel and crude oil. Discuss with children about various minerals which are mined from deep inside the earth.

What if it Finishes...?

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Petrol and diesel will not last forever. Save it for your children. Make every drop go a long way. Switch off the engine when you stop the car.
Date 06-06-2007 Rate Petrol: Rs 47.74 per litre Diesel: Rs 35.21 per litre

We could not understand why it was written that petrol and diesel will not last forever. We thought of asking an uncle who works at the petrol pump. Abraham : Uncle, from where do we get petrol and diesel? Uncle (who works at the petrol pump ) : From deep, deep down under the ground. Manju : But how does it get made there? Uncle: It is formed naturally, but very slowly. It is not made by a human being or a machine. Abraham : Then we don't need to buy it. We can take it out ourselves using a borewell, like we pump out water! Uncle : It is not found everywhere, but only at a few places in our country. We need big machines to pump it out and clean it.

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Find Out
Which states of India have oil fields? Besides oil, what else is found deep inside the earth?

They discuss further...


Divya : Is petrol going to finish? The poster said that petrol is not going to last forever. Uncle : It does not get made as fast as we take it out. It takes lakhs of years for it to be formed under the earth. Abraham : How will vehicles run if the oil finishes? Manju : On CNG. I had seen on TV that vehicles which run on CNG give less smoke. Uncle (laughing) : That too comes from below the earth. It is also limited. Divya : Electricity can be used to run vehicles. I have seen an electric bicycle. Abraham : We will have to do something. Or else, how will we travel when we grow up? Divya : If fewer vehicles run on the road my dadi (grandmother) would be happy. She says, Look! vehicles line up like ants. What will you do when you grow up? Manju : See, only one or two people are sitting in these cars. Why doesnt everyone use a bus? Abraham : That will save petrol. One bus can carry many people. Manju : When I grow up I will invent a car that runs on sunlight. Then we won't have to worry about it getting finished. We can use it as much as we want!
Teachers Note : Different uses of solar energy can be discussed. The concept of energy is abstract for children of this age but they can begin thinking of it in terms of strength, power, etc. Encourage children to think which resources are limited and why.

What if it Finishes...?

113

Treasure from the earth


It is not easy to find out where oil is, deep down below the earth. Scientists use special techniques and machines to find this out. Then through pipes and machines petroleum is pumped up. This oil is a smelly, thick, dark coloured liquid. It contains many things mixed in it. To clean and separate these, it is sent to a refinery. Have you heard of a refinery? It is from this petroleum or oil that we get kerosene, diesel, petrol, engine oil and fuel for aircrafts. Do you know that L.P.G. (cooking gas), wax, coaltar and grease are also obtained from this? It is also used in making several other things like plastics and paints.

I started thinking about saving oil. I remembered that sometimes Baba keeps the engine of the tractor on, while doing something else. At times, the pump in the field is also left on. How much oil would be going waste! I thought I will surely talk to Baba when I get home.

Write
What all can vehicles run on? What kinds of problems will we face, if the number of vehicles keep on increasing? For example, more traffic on the road. Talk to your elders and write about it. Manju said, Why doesn't everyone use a bus? What do you think, why dont people travel by buses? Suggest some ways to deal with the problems arising out of the growing number of vehicles.
Teachers Note : Discuss about the possible options for reducing the number of vehicles on the road and also use different news reports related to it.

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Find out and write


How much oil? How much petrol/diesel can be filled at a time? How far can it go on one litre of petrol/diesel? Scooter Car Tractor

The rates of petrol are different in each city. The rates of petrol and diesel in Chennai are given here. Look at the table and answer the questions.
Oil Rate of one litre in 2002 Rs 28 Rs 18 Rate of one litre in 2007 Rs 47 Rs 33

Petrol Diesel

In years the rate of petrol went up by rupees. The rate of diesel increased by rupees. What was the difference in the rates of petrol and diesel in the year 2007?

Find out
What is the price of petrol and diesel in your area? Why are the prices of petrol and diesel going up? In one month how much petrol and diesel is used in your home? What is it used for?

What if it Finishes...?

115

One poster is given here.

For dry cleaning For lighting As petrol, diesel or aeroplane fuel

Where am I used?
As kerosene and LPG

To run machines

For making plastic and paints

Save Fuel, Make it a Habit

See the poster and write


Where all is oil used? Where is diesel used? Find out.

Teachers Note : It would be useful to have a discussion on the poster. This will help children understand that petrol, diesel, kerosene, L.P.G. etc. are all different forms of petroleum. These have different uses in our lives. Children will understand the poster better by relating it to their own experiences.

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Divya wrote a poem and read it out to her friends. Read and discuss it. Who Am I?
I'm black, I'm thick, I flow. Who am I? Do you know? I will last longer, If you use me with care. I got made over centuries. I won't always be there. I light your lamps, I cook your food. I run your machines, Fly planes in the sky! Who is more useful To people, than I? If not used with care I won't always be there Will they fight over me? What is life without me? I'm black, I'm thick, I flow. Who am I? Do you know?
(Translated by Anupa Lal)

Think and discuss


What would happen if you dont get petrol or diesel for a week in your village or town? Suggest some ways to save oil.

Wood for chulha


Durga lives in a village in Haryana. Everyday she spends many hours collecting wood for the chulha (stove). Her daughter also has to help her in this. For the past three months she has a cough. There is a lot of smoke when damp wood is burnt. But Durga does not have any other option. When there is not enough money to buy food, where will there be money to buy wood?

Discuss
Have you ever collected dry wood or made cow dung cakes? How are they made? Do you know anyone who collects dry wood or leaves to be used for lighting a chulha?
What if it Finishes...?

117

harti Urja B

Who cooks food in your family? What about other families in your area? If they cook food using wood or upla (cow dung cakes), what difficulties do they face due to smoke? Can Durga use anything else instead of wood? Why not? Today, about two-third (2/3) people in our country use uple, wood and dry twigs, etc. These are used not only for cooking food but also for keeping warm, for heating water and for lighting. Many other things are used for all activities at home kerosene, LPG, coal, electricity, etc. Kancha had seen a bar chart in a book. The chart shows the number of houses Urja Bharti out of 100 that use each type of fuel. It also shows the use of which fuel has increased and which fuel has decreased over the past twenty years.
Change in fuel use over twenty years
How many houses out of 100 use it
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

How many houses out of 100 use it

100 84

100 90 80 70 60 40 30 20 10 50

Uple and Wood

LPG and Kerosene

Uple and Wood

LPG and Kerosene

75

Eletricity

Coal

10

Coal
2

18

Year 1976

Year 1996

In year 1976, out of 100 how many houses used uple and wood? Which was the fuel used the least in 1976? In 1976, LPG and kerosene were used in______houses and in 1996 this increased to______. This means that in twenty years their use increased by________%. 118
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Eletricity
5

Out of 100 how many houses were using electricity in 1996? Which fuel was used the least in 1996? What percentage of houses used it in the year 1976?

Find out from your elders


When they were young what was then used to cook food at home? In the past 10 years use of which cooking fuel has increased in your area? Use of which fuel has decreased? Guess the use of which fuel would increase and which would decrease in the next 10 years.

What we have learnt


Imagine that a company has given you a chance to design a new vehicle like a mini bus. What kind of vehicle would you design? Write about it. Draw a picture and colour it. While making the design, who did you plan to take care of: old people children those who cannot see? Look out for news reports on oil. Cut these and make a collage. Put up a chart in your classroom. Also write your own views on these news reports. Make a poster with a message on saving fuel. Write a slogan too. Where would you like to put up this poster?
Teachers Note : Encourage children to relate the use of the term per cent to other instances from their lives, such as chances of winning a game, marks in a subject. discount sales, etc.

What if it Finishes...?

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13. A Shelter so High!


A travellers tale
I am Gaurav Jani and this is Loner my partner my motorcycle. But, Loner is never lonely. We are together all the time. I and my motorcycle wait for a chance to get away from the busy, crowded and noisy city of Mumbai. We like to travel to different parts of this wonderful country. Let me tell you about our amazing journey on the highest roads in India.

Gaurav Jani

Getting ready
This journey took about two months. I had to carry everything on my motorcycle. I had to plan and collect all the things I needed. I packed a small tent, sleeping bag, plastic sheet, warm clothes and food that would remain fresh for some days. I also took my camera and extra cans for petrol. Loner and I left Mumbai, passing through small villages and towns of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan to reach Delhi. It took me three days to cover 1400 kilometers from Mumbai to Delhi. I was hoping to see something new and different in Delhi. But Delhi looked just like Mumbai! I am tired of looking at the same kinds of houses, made of cement, bricks, glass and steel. I was looking forward to my journey ahead. I was 120
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excited that I would be able to see wooden houses, houses with sloping roofs and those covered in snow. I had seen pictures of such houses in many books. I packed more things in Delhi and continued. In two days we were in Manali. It was so refreshing to be in the mountains and breathe the clean air ! Now the real journey was to begin. We had to travel through difficult roads of the state of Jammu and Kashmir to reach Leh in Ladakh.

Find out
Check in your map. Which states would one pass through while travelling from Mumbai to Kashmir? Gaurav Jani passed through several states while going from Mumbai to Delhi. Find the capital cities of these states. Was there any other big town on his way? Is Manali a plain or a hilly area? In which state is it?

New home
Loner and I were covering long distances each day. All I needed was food and a tent to protect myself from the cold night air. My nylon tent was so small that I could just about fit in it to sleep.
Gaurav Jani

Loner stood guard outside the tent. The breeze and the sound of the birds woke me up to see the sunrise.

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121

Tell
Have you ever stayed in a tent? Where? What was it like? Imagine that you were to stay alone in a small tent for two days and could take with you only ten things. Make a list of those ten things. What are the different types of houses that you have seen? Tell your friends about it. Make drawings too.

Cold desert
At last Loner and I reached Leh. For the first time I saw such an area high, dry and flat called a cold desert. Ladakh gets very little rainfall. Here there are high snowcapped mountains and a cold, flat ground.
Gaurav Jani

In Leh, I found myself in a quiet street with beautiful white houses. As I rode slowly, I found that I was being followed by a group of children. They called out jule, jule, meaning welcome, welcome. They were all amazed to see my Loner. Everyone wanted me to come to their home.

At home with Tashi


Tashi dragged me to his home. It was a building with two floors. The house was made of stones which were kept one over the other. The walls were coated with a thick layer of mud and lime. The house looked like a shed from inside with a lot of hay
Teachers Note : Discuss with children that all the deserts are not hot and sandy. Encourage students to look at the map and find all the states mentioned in the chapter.

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stored there. We took the wooden steps and reached the first floor. This is where we stay, explained Tashi. The ground floor is for our animals and for storing necessary things. Sometimes when it gets too cold, we also move downstairs. I noticed that the ground floor had no windows. Thick tree trunks were used to make the roof strong. Tashi then took me to the roof of his house. What a view! I could see the same flat roofs all around. On some red chillies were, laid out to dry and on some there were orange pumpkins and golden yellow corn. Some had stacks of paddy and on some cow dung cakes were laid out to dry. This is the most important part of our house, said Tashi. During summer season we dry many fruits and vegetables. We store them for winters when we do not get fresh fruits and vegetables. As I stood there with Tashi I could see how every part of the house was built specially to suit the needs of his people. I could understand how the thick walls, a wooden floor and a wooden ceiling protected them from the cold.

Gaurav Jani

Write
During winters, Tashi and his family live on the ground floor. Why would they be doing so? What is the roof of your house like? What all is the roof used for? 123

A Shelter so High!

People living on top of the world


Now was the time to climb higher. Loner had a tough time zigzagging along narrow, rocky mountain roads. At many places there were no roads at all. I was moving towards the rocky plains of Changthang. This place is at a height of almost 5000 metres. It is so high that it is difficult to breathe normally. I had a headache and felt weak. Then I slowly got used to breathing in such air. For many days we kept wandering in this area with not a single human being in sight. No petrol pumps, no mechanics! Only clear blue sky and many beautiful lakes around. Many days and nights passed. Loner and I kept moving ahead. Suddenly one morning I saw before me flat grassy land. Many sheep and goats were grazing there. Far in the distance I saw some tents. I wondered who lived there and what they were doing in this far out place.

Find out
At what height is the place where you live? Why did Gaurav Jani say - This place is so high that it is difficult to breathe normally? Have you ever been to a hilly place? Where? At what height was it? Did you have any difficulty in breathing there? Which is the highest place you have been to?

The Changpa
There I met Namgyal and came to know about the Changpa a tribe living on the mountains. The Changpa tribe has only about 5000 people. The Changpas are always on the move with their goats and 124
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sheep. It is from these that they get all that they need milk, meat, skin for tents and wool for coats and sweaters. Their goats are their only treasure. If a family has more animals it is considered more rich and important. From these special goats they get wool for making the world famous pashmina wool. The Changpa graze their goats at higher and colder places so that the goats have more and softer hair (fur). They stay high up on these mountains in very difficult conditions because that is where these goats can live. This is their life and their livelihood. I was carrying very little of my belongings on my motorcycle. But the Changpas carry everything that they own on their horses and yaks. It takes them only two and a half hours to pack everything and move ahead. Within no time they put up their tents at the chosen place, the luggage is unpacked and their homes are ready. You are most welcome into our home, said Namgyal as he led me to the big cone-shaped tent. They call their tent Rebo. Yak hair is woven to make strips which are stitched together. These are strong and warm and protect them from the icy strong winds. I saw that the strips were tightly tied with nine sticks. The ground is dug about 2 feet deep. The tent is then put up around this on the higher part of the ground.
Teachers Note : In the language of the Changpa changthang means a place where very few people live. Are there words like this in different languages spoken by children? As you go up the mountain, the level of oxygen in air becomes less and at times people have to carry oxygen cylinders. It is not expected that children understand the concept of oxygen. But children may have some idea that it is difficult to breathe on high altitudes. This will make them sensitive towards people living in such conditions. Through this they will also understand all kinds of difficulties people have to face for a living.
Gaurav Jani

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125

The world famous pashmina


It is believed that a pashmina shawl is as warm as six sweaters! It is very thin yet very warm. The goats from which the soft pashmina wool is collected, are found on very high altitudes of 5000 metres. In winter, the temperature here drops below 0 C (40 C). A coat of warm hair grows on the goats body which protects it from extreme cold. The goats shed some of their hair (fur) in summer. This hair is so fine that six of these would be as thick as one hair of yours! The fine hair cannot be woven on machines and so weavers of Kashmir make these shawls by hand. This is a long and difficult process. After almost 250 hours of weaving, one plain pashmina shawl is made. Imagine how long it would take to make a shawl with embroidery.

As we stepped into the tent I realised that I could stand up straight. It was not like my tent. I also saw that the Rebo was as big as a room of my flat in Mumbai! It was held up by two wooden poles in the middle. There was an opening to let out the smoke from the chulah. Namgyal told that, the design of this tent is more than a thousand years old. The tent protected the Changpas from extreme cold. How cold must it be? In winters the temperature drops many degrees below zero! The wind blows at 70 kilometres per hour. Imagineif you were on a bus which was going at this speed, how far from your house would you reach in one hour?
Rebo

Gaurav Jani

Near the Rebo there was a place to keep sheep and goats. Changpas call

Teachers Note : We can discuss with children that there are different kinds of houses in different regions. The same area may also have different kind of houses. The reasons include climate, economic conditions and also the availability of local raw material (stone, mud, wood).

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this lekha. The walls of a lekha are made with stones. Each family puts a special mark on their own animals. The women and young girls count and take the animals out of the lekha. They count them again everyday when they bring them back in the evening. For the Changpas their animals are a very important part of their life. Is any animal part of your life? For example, as a pet, or as helpers in farming. List five ways in which different animals are a part of your life.

Find out
You read that in Changthang the temperature drops below 0C. Look at newspapers on the TV to find cities in India or abroad where the temperature drops below 0C. In which months do you expect to see this?

Towards Srinagar
I spent a few days with the Changpas but, sadly, it was time to move on. My return journey would take me away from this special part of the world, towards towns which looked like a totally different world. This time I took a different route from Leh. I was going towards Srinagar via Kargil. I saw many more amazing buildings and different houses. I stayed in Srinagar for a few days. I was amazed by the houses there. They took my heart away! Some houses are on the mountains, while some are on water. I took many pictures of these. See my photo album (p. 128).
Teachers Note : Children at this age are not expected to understand the concept of temperature. But using newspaper reports and linking C with their experiences of hot or cold will help them make some associations. This also provides an opportunity to know the names of some new cities in which the temperature drops below 0C.

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127

Houses of Srinagar My photo album

Vinod Raina

Tourists who come to Srinagar love to stay in houseboats. Houseboats can be as long as 80 feet and around 8 to 9 feet wide.

Many families in Srinagar live in a donga. These boats can be seen in Dal Lake and Jhelum river. From inside the donga is just like a house with different rooms.

Afaq Ghada

In villages of Kashmir, houses are made from stones cut and kept one on top of the other and coated with mud. Wood is also used. The houses have sloping roofs.

Afaq Ghada

Some old houses have a special type of window which comes out of the wall. This is called dab. It has beautiful wood pattern. It is wonderful to sit here and enjoy the view!

The old houses here are made of stone, bricks and wood. The doors and windows have beautiful arches (mehraab ).

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Afaq Ghada

Afaq Ghada

Beautiful carving on wood can be seen on the ceiling of houseboats and some big houses. This design is called khatamband, which has a pattern that look like a jigsaw puzzle.

Afaq Ghada

When I started my journey, I had not imagined that in one state I would see so many different kinds of houses and lifestyles. I had a wonderful experience of living on the mountains in Leh and another of living on water in Srinagar. I saw how both the houses in these areas were made to suit the climate.

. the dal lake kara ride on hi S e th y jo Tourists en

Return journey
Again it was time to move on. In Jammu I saw houses like I have been seeing in Mumbai. The same cement, brick, steel and glass. These houses are very strong. But they are not as special as the houses I was lucky to see in Leh and Srinagar. After a long journey Loner and I were about to reach Mumbai. My heart felt heavy. I also felt that my motorcycle did not want to come back. I was happy that I had learnt and experienced so many new things. I had also brought back some memories in my camera. And of course, this was not the end! Next time when Loner and I get bored of the city, we will again set out for a new journey!

Vinod Raina
Afaq Ghada

Can you tell what is shown in this picture? Every lane in Kashmir has a bakery. Kashmiri people dont cook roties in their homes, they buy it from such bakeries.

Tell
The houses in different parts of Jammu and Kashmir are made to suit the climate and the needs of the people there.
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129

Are there different types of houses in the place where you live? If yes, think about the reasons. Think of your own house. Is there something special in it like a sloping roof as it rains a lot, or a courtyard where you can sleep when it is hot or where things are kept in the sun (for drying, etc.)? Make a drawing. What are the materials used for making your house? Is it mud, brick, stone, wood or cement?

Discuss and write


Look at this picture. Can you see any houses in the picture? These houses are made of stone and mud. Nobody lives here in winter. In summer, the Bakarwal people live here when they bring their goats to higher lands for grazing. Can you guess the similarities and differences in the life of Bakarwal people and the life of the Changpas.

What we have learnt


You read about different kinds of shelters in Jammu and Kashmir some on high mountains, some on water, some with beautiful designs in wood and stone, and some mobile shelters that can even be packed and carried to another place. Describe how these shelters suit the needs of the people who live there. How are these different from the house you live in? 130
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Anita

Rampa

14. When the Earth Shook!


A bad dream
Help! Help! Save me! Aaahhh! Ooooww There was screaming and shouting everywhere. The ground was shaking and people were running all around. Screaming loudly I got up. On hearing me my mother also woke up. She came running and held me tight. It was the same bad dream! It has been more than six years now since the earthquake. But in my sleep I still feel the earth shaking and trembling. I am Jasma. I live in the Kutch area of Gujarat. I was eleven years old when there was an earthquake. It was 26 January, 2001. Everyone from the village children and old people had gathered in the ground of the school to watch the parade on TV. Suddenly the ground was shaking. People were scared and started running here and there. No one knew what was happening and what to do. There was total panic!

Teachers Note : Talking to children about the earthquake in Bhuj would help them understand the context. The effects of an earthquake can also be discussed.

131

In a few minutes, our village was flat on the ground. All our things clothes, pots, grains and food were trapped under the stones, mud and wood from the fallen houses. At that time everyone thought of two things to save the people who were trapped and to treat the injured. The village hospital was also damaged. Many people were seriously injured. My leg also got fractured. The doctor treated people with the help of the villagers. Six people of our village died. My grandfather ( Nana ) was also buried under the houses. My mother wept all the time. Seeing my mother, I also cried. The entire village was sad and disturbed. House of Motabapu who is the sarpanch of our village was not much damaged. He gave rice and wheat to everyone from his godown. For many days, the village women cooked food together at Motabapus house and fed everyone. Imagine, being without a house in the cold winter! Fear and the cold kept us awake in the nights. All the time we were worried that there may be another earthquake.

Discuss and write


Have you or anyone that you know ever faced such difficulty? Who all helped at such a time? Make a list. 132

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Help arrives
For some days after that, people from the cities kept coming to see what had happened. They came with food, medicines and clothes. Everyone used to rush to take these things. The clothes that we got were very different. We had never worn such clothes before. People from different groups from the city, helped us to put up the tents. Staying in these plastic tents in the cold winter months was very difficult. Some of these people were scientists. They tried to find out which areas have more chances of having an earthquake. People from our village talked to them many times. They had suggestions about building our houses again. Engineers and architects showed us some special designs for houses. They said that with this design, houses would not get damaged much in an earthquake. But our people were a little afraid. They thought if these people build our houses, our village will not look like our old village. So, the villagers thought they would build their own houses with their help. The groups would build the village school. We all worked together to rebuild our village. Some people dug and brought the clay from the pond. We mixed the clay with cow dung and made large cakes. We put these on one another to make the walls. We whitewashed the walls and decorated them with beautiful designs and small pieces of
Teacher's Note : Talk to the children about government agencies and voluntary groups. For this, examples from their own area can be taken. A discussion can also be held on the kind of work engineers and architects do.

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133

mirrors. We put up the thatched roof. Now our house shines like a diamond in the dark night! Discuss A lot of people from other places came to Jasmas village. Who were these people? In what ways would they have helped the villagers? People in Jasmas village rebuilt their houses with suggestions from the engineers. Will these houses be safer than before in case there is an earthquake again? Why? Think, if there were an earthquake where you live, would your house be in danger? What kind of damage could take place? Write Compare your house with that of Jasma. List in your notebook what materials were used in making both the houses.
Jasmas House Your House

What will you do? People from the groups also made children in Jasmas school practice what they should do in case there is an earthquake. This is what they said: - If possible leave the house and go to an open ground.
Teacher's Note : Talk to the children about what all can be done if there is a warning about such disasters.

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- If you cannot go out of the house, lie down under a strong thing like a table and hold on tightly, so that it does not slip away. Wait until the shaking stops. Have you been told in your school or anywhere else about what to do in case of an earthquake? Why do you think one should go under a table during an earthquake?
Come practice, what to do in an earthquake

Who helped?
Read this TV report on the Bhuj earthquake.

Sunil Jacab

Ahmedabad, January 26, 2001 At least a thousand people are feared dead in the earthquake that struck Gujarat this morning. Many thousands have been injured. Army jawans have been called in to help. At least a hundred and fifty buildings have fallen in the city of Ahmedabad. In these, there are a dozen multi-storeyed buildings. By this evening, around 250 bodies have been removed from these buildings. It is feared that several

thousand people may still be trapped. Rescue efforts are on. There is perhaps no building in the city which has not developed cracks. The situation in Bhuj is even worse. People are running around in shock and panic. Within an hour of the earthquake the fire engines had reached and started work along with the local people. Offers to help are coming from all corners of the country and abroad.

Write
According to the TV report, thousands of people were injured and some died in Gujarat. If the buildings had
When the Earth Shook!

135

been made in a way that they would not fall in the earthquake, would the damage have been different? How? At times like this, when people have lost their homes and all their belongings, what kind of help would they need? In such situations whose help would be needed and for what? Write in your notebook as shown here.

Whose help will be needed 1. Dog

How will they help To smell out where people are lying trapped

2.

Discuss
Have you ever seen people in your area helping each other? When? Why do people live together in a neighbourhood? Imagine living in a place where there were no other houses or people around. How would it be? For example, whom would you play with? With whom would you celebrate festivals and special days? Would you be scared? People face a lot of difficulties when they lose people from their family, or their houses and belongings. In newspapers of the last one month, look for news related to such disasters earthquakes, floods, fire, cyclones, etc., in different parts of the world. Collect these news reports and paste them in your notebook. 136

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Your news report


Make your own report which mentions the following: - Cause of the disaster, date and time - What kind of damage did it cause to lives, belongings, livelihoods? - Which people came forward to help? Which government offices or other groups? If there is no rain, crops can fail and there can be a drought. But food for people can be brought from other places so that there is no famine, which means people dont have to stay hungry, and they dont die of hunger. Have people in your area ever got affected by famine or drought? Find such reports of different countries from newspapers. Make your own report. You may need some help from these in case of an accident or emergency. Find out and write their addresses and phone numbers. Add more names to this list.
Address Fire Station Nearby Hospital Ambulance Police Station Phone Number

Difficult times
Write a report with the help of the following words: floods, river water, injured people, food packets, rescue work, camps, dead bodies, dead animals floating in water, houses
When the Earth Shook!

137

under water, aerial survey (to see the scene of disaster from a plane), sad people, diseases spread by dirty water, homeless people, trapped people.

What we have learnt


What type of difficulties are faced by people during floods? Look at the picture, what kind of a school have the children come to after the flood? Write down what people had to do to make their life normal again after the flood.

Teachers Note : In a discussion about the importance of a neighbourhood, various examples like daily interactions, weddings or a death in the neighbourhood can be taken. After collecting articles from the newspaper, children can work in different groups on different disasters. Discuss how different people are affected by disasters differently. For example, farmers are the most affected by floods, fishermen by tsunami, etc.

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15. Blow Hot, Blow Cold

There was a woodcutter. Everyday in the morning he used to go to the forest to cut wood. In the evening he would sell the wood in the city. One day he went deep into the forest. It was a very cold winter. His fingers were becoming numb. Every now and then, the woodcutter would put down his axe and bring his hands close to his mouth. Then he would blow hard on them to warm them. While he was cutting wood Mian Balishtiye was watching him from a corner. Mian Balishtiye saw that the woodcutter kept blowing on his hands. He began to wonder what all that was about! But he could not understand it. He got up thinking that he would go and ask the woodcutter. After walking a little, he came back thinking that the woodcutter may not like being asked. Finally, Mian Balishtiye could not help himself. He went hopping to the woodcutter and said, Hello brother, if you dont mind can I ask you something? Seeing this tiny person the woodcutter was amazed and amused. But, he hid his smile and said, Of course, of course, ask what you want to. All I want to ask is why do you blow from your mouth on to your hands? said Mian Balishtiye.
Teachers Note : It would be good for the children to know that this story has been written by Dr. Zakir Hussain, former President of India. He has written many stories for children. It could be discussed why an imaginary character like Mian Balishtiye could have been used.

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The woodcutter replied, It is too cold. My hands are frozen, so I blow on them to warm them up a little. Then, when they get cold again I warm them again by blowing. Mian Balishtiye nodded, Oh, ho, so thats it! And with that he moved off. But he stayed nearby and kept a close watch on him. Soon it was afternoon. The woodcutter began to think of lunch. He picked up two stones and made a chulha. He lit a fire and put a small handi (pot) filled with potatoes to boil. The wood was damp, so the woodcutter bent down and blew on the fire to help it burn. Balishtiye was watching him from a distance. Arre, he said to himself, There he goes again blowing from his mouth! Does fire come out of his mouth? The woodcutter was feeling very hungry. He took out a potato from the handi. He tried to eat it but the potato was too hot. He again began to blow on it foo, foo. Arre, said Balishtiye to himself, Hes blowing again! Now what? Is he going to burn the potato? After blowing a few more foo, foos on it, the woodcutter put it in his mouth and began to eat it. 140

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Now Mian was very surprised! He just could not stop himself and off he went hopping to the woodcutter. Hello brother, he said, If you dont mind, can I ask you a question again? The woodcutter replied, Not at all. Ask whatever you want. Mian Balishtiye said, This morning you told me that you blew on your hands to warm them up. Now you are blowing on this potato, which is already so hot. Why do you want to make it hotter? No, no, my little friend. This potato is too hot. I am blowing on it to cool it down. When he heard this, Mian Balishtiyes face became white. He began to tremble with fear, and started to back away. The woodcutter was a good man. He said, Whats wrong Mian? Are you trembling because of the cold? But Mian Balishtiye kept going backwards. When he was a safe distance away, he said to himself, What kind of a creature is this? Surely he must be a ghost or a djinn. Blow hot, blow cold with the same breath! It is just not possible! Thats right there are some things which just cannot be but they are!
Zakir Hussain

Do this
Miya Balishtiye was confused when he saw the woodcutter blowing on his cold hands to make them warm and on the hot potatoes to cool them. Have you warmed your hands in winter by blowing on them when they are cold? How does it feel? Blow hard from your mouth onto your hands. How did you find the air from your mouth as compared to the air around? Was it hotter, or cooler? Now put your hands at some distance from your mouth, and blow again. Does the air from your mouth feel warm? Why?
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Think and tell


Can you think of any other way in which you use the warmth from your breath?

Fold a piece of cloth 3-4 times. Now bring it close to your mouth and blow hard on it. Did the cloth become warm? Balishtiye saw that the woodcutter was trying to cool the hot potatoes by blowing on them. What would have happened if he had eaten the potatoes without cooling them? Have you ever burnt your tongue when you ate or drank something that was too hot? How do you cool some food when it is too hot? If you were to cool these three hot things dal, roti, rice in which ways would you do so?

Picture 1 Mini tried to cool her tea by blowing on it. Which do you think will be hotter Minis tea or the air she blew from her mouth? Picture 2 Sonu was feeling very cold. He kept blowing on to his hands. Now think and write, which will be cooler Sonus hands or his breath?

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For what other things do you blow air from your mouth?

Make a paper whistle


Take a piece of paper 12 cm long and 6 cm wide. Fold the paper into half (as in picture 1). Tear it off a little in the centre to make a small hole (as shown in picture 2). From both the sides, fold the paper upwards (picture 3). Hold the paper between your fingers and put it to your mouth. Blow on it and hear the whistle. Whose whistle was louder - yours or your friends? Blow gently and also blow hard and make different sounds. 2 1

Blow in different ways


Make whistles of the things given below. Write in a sequencefrom the loudest to the softest whistle. - Wrapper of a toffee - A leaf - A balloon - The cap of a pen - Any other thing
Teachers Note : Children take time to understand the concept of hot and cold air. Through the activity, we can try to enable children to understand that the air coming out of our mouth can be cold or hot as compared to the temperature outside. It is not expected that children will be able to understand all this at one go. It is important to link this concept with different experiences of children.

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Have you seen people playing different musical instruments like flute, dholak, been ...., guitar, mridang , etc. Can you recognise their sounds with your eyes closed? Find out more about these musical instruments. Collect their pictures too.

Write
Can you name some things which produce melodious or pleasing sounds when we blow into them.

Do this and discuss


Have you seen someone blowing on their spectacles to wipe them clean? How does the air from the mouth help in cleaning the spectacles? Take a glass. Bring it near your mouth and blow hard on it. Do this two or three times. Does the glass look hazy? Can you make a mirror hazy in the same way? Can you tell by touching the mirror what made it hazy? Is the air you blew from your mouth dry or wet? Put your hand on your chest. When you breathe in, does your chest come out or go in. Measure your chest Take a deep breath in Ask your friend to measure your chest with a thread. Measurement____________
Teachers Note : Air blown out from our mouth is hot and the mirror cold. The hot air that we breathe out contains water vapour which turn into tiny droplets of water when it comes in contact with the colder mirror. This makes the glass moist and hazy.

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Now breathe out. Again ask your friend to measure your chest. Measurement____________ Was there any difference in the two measurements of your chest?

How many breaths in one minute Put your finger under your nose. Can you feel any air when you breathe out from your nose? Count how many times in one minute do you breathe in and breathe out. Jump 30 times. Did you feel breathless? Now again count how many times in one minute you breathed in and out. What was the difference in your count before and after jumping.

The clock inside you


You have all heard the tick tick of the clock. Have you seen a doctor using a stethoscope to listen to our chest? What do you think she hears? Where is the sound coming from? Is there a clock inside your chest that keeps ticking away? Do you want to listen to your heartbeat? Take a rubber tube as long as the distance from your shoulder to your elbow. At one end of the tube fix a funnel. Place the funnel on the left side of your chest. Put the other end of the tube to your ear. Listen carefully. Did you hear a dhak dhak sound?

Teachers Note : To help children time one minute the teacher can say start and stop in the activity for counting breaths.

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Snake tells the flow of air!


For this take a round paper 10-15 cms wide. Cut this paper in a spiral shape (as shown in picture 1). To hold this snake tie a thread on both sides. Tie a knot or a button to make it hang. Now the snake is ready to move. Hang this snake near a hot thing. For this you can take hot tea, water or a burning candle. Now see from the top, in which direction the snake moves. Whenever the air flows upwards it will move in a clock-wise direction. When the air flows downwards the snake will move in the opposite direction. Stand with this snake below a fan. Look in which direction it moves. Take this paper snake to different places and observe its movement. Can you understand from the movement of the snake - if the air is moving upwards or downwards? Picture 1

Picture 2

What we have learnt


While playing, Amit hit a wall. His forehead was swollen. Didi immediately folded a scarf (4-5 times), blew on it and kept it on Amit's forehead. Why do you think didi did this? We blow to cool hot things as well as to warm them. Give examples of each.
Teachers Note : The snake game can give an idea to children about the direction of air flow. When the hot air rises the snake moves in a clockwise direction. When the cold air comes down (as it is heavier) the snake moves in an anti-clockwise direction as happens under a fan. To find out the direction in which the snake is moving we must remember to view it from above.

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16. Who will do this Work?

Have you seen such scenes around you?

Have you ever thought of people who do this work? Can you imagine how they would feel? Why do you think people need to do this kind of work? 147

Sudharak Olve

Our friends spoke to some staff who do cleaning jobs. Here are some of the things they told us.
Q. Since when have you been doing this work? A. About twenty years. Since I completed my studies. Q . Why did you not study further? You could have got some other job? A. You need money for studies. And even after that most of our people continue to do this kind of work. Q. What do you mean? A. Since our great grandfathers times... or even before that, most people of our community have been doing this work. Even after getting a college degree, our people do not get any other kind of job. So they have to do this work. Q. Why is that so? A. That is the way it is. In the entire city, all the people who do this kind of work are from our community. It has always been so.
Interview (adapted) from the documentary film India Untouched by Stalin. K.

Write
Talk with people who do the cleaning job around your house and school. Since when have they been doing this work? How much have they studied? Have they tried to look for some other work? Did the elders in their family also do this work? What kind of difficulties do they face in doing this work?

Teachers Note : Before children talk with the staff which does cleaning , discuss the kinds of questions that could be asked. Sensitise children to be respectful during their interactions.

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What are the different kinds of work being done in this drawing? List any five of these.

If you were asked to do any five jobs shown in this picture, which would you choose? Which five jobs would you not choose? Why?
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Discuss
What kinds of work or jobs do people not want to do? Why? So, who does this kind of work? Why do people do this kind of work that others do not want to do?

Imagine
What would happen if nobody did this work? If nobody cleared the garbage lying outside your school or your house for one week, then what would happen? Think of some ways (machines, or other things) so that people would not have to do the work they don't like to do. Draw a picture of what you thought.
(These pictures are also made by children)

Do you think that anyone has ever tried to change this situation? Yes, many people have tried. People are trying even today. But it is not easy to change this. One such person was Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhiji had a friend Mahadevbhai Desai. Mahadevbhais son Narayan also stayed with Gandhiji when he was young. This incident is from Narayan's book.

Teachers Note : Discussion can be organised with the people who are involved in bringing such changes in the community. News items on issues related to untouchability can be used in the class to develop sensitivity.

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Remembering those days


When Narayan (Babla) was about 11 years old, he was staying in Gandhijis Sabarmati Ashram. Like everyone else in the Ashram, he had to do various kinds of work. One of his jobs was to teach the guests how to clean the toilets. In those days, the toilets were not what we know today. There used to be holes under which baskets were kept. People sat on the holes. Later the baskets had to be lifted by hand, to be emptied. It was the usual practice that people from a particular community would do this work. But in Gandhijis Ashram, every person had to carry the basket to the compost pit and empty it there. No one was excused from this task - not even the guests. Narayanbhai remembers how some people used to try and avoid this work. Some even left the Ashram because of this. Some years later Gandhiji went to stay at a village, near Wardha in Maharashtra. Gandhiji, Mahadevbhai and others started to clean the toilets in the village. They did this for some months. One morning a man coming from the toilet, saw Mahadevbhai. He pointed to him and said There is a lot of dirt over there. Go and clean that! When Babla saw this, he was very angry. He thought, the villagers felt that this was not their work. This was for Gandhiji and his team to do. He asked Gandhiji why this was so. Gandhiji replied, Untouchability is a serious matter. Lot of hardwork will be required to change this. Narayan knew that the people who usually did this work were thought to be untouchable. He asked What is the use if the village people do not change their thinking? They have become used to someone else doing this work for them. Gandhiji replied, Why? Dont you think the people who clean also benefit from it. They also learn a lesson. To learn something is like learning a new skill. Even if it is a cleaning job. Little Narayan was not convinced. He again argued, Those who make a place dirty but do not clean it should also learn lessons. Gandhiji and Narayan continued to argue about this. But when he grew up Narayan always followed the path shown by Gandhiji.
From the book in Gujarati by Narayanbhai Desai Sant-Charan-Raj, Sevita, Sahaj

Tell
Why did Gandhiji and his team start doing the job of cleaning. What do you think about this? Do you know any such people in your area who try to help others in solving their problems? Find out. Guests at Gandhijis Ashram had to learn this work also. If you were one of these guests, what would you do?
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What are the toilet arrangements in your house? Where is the toilet? Inside the house, or outside? Who cleans the toilet? How did the man who was returning from the toilet behave with Mahadevbhai? Why did he behave like this? How do people generally behave with those people who clean toilets and drains? Write. A childhood story
This story is almost a hundred years old. Seven-year old Bhim went to Goregaon in Maharashtra with his father to spend his holidays. He saw a barber cutting the long hair of a rich farmers buffallo. He thought of his own long hair. He went to the barber and asked for a hair cut. The barber replied, If I cut your hair both my razor and I will get dirty. Oh, so to cut human hair can be dirtier than cutting an animals hair, wondered little Bhim. Later this little Bhim was known as Bhim Rao Baba Saheb Ambedkar. He became very famous across the world. Baba Saheb fought for justice for people like him. After Indias freedom the Constitution was prepared under the leadership of Baba Saheb.

Narayan and Gandhiji discussed all this many years ago. Have things changed now? A conversation in school - the reality today
Hetal : I am Hetal, and this is Meena. We both study in Class III. Q: What all do you do in school? Meena: We clean the ground. Q: Do all children clean? Hetal : No, not all. Meena : We also have to clean the toilets. We do it on different days. I clean on Monday, she does on Tuesday, and she on Wednesday All the children from our community do this. Hetal : We have to carry twenty buckets of water for this. We have to sweep and wash. Q : Why only you? Why not all the children? Hetal : Only we have to. If we dont we get beaten.
Interview (adapted) from the documentary film India Untouched by Stalin. K.

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Tell
Who does the cleaning in your school? What all has to be cleaned? Do all children like you help in this? If yes, how? If all do not help, why not? Do all children do all kinds of work? Do they sometimes have to miss classes to do this work? Do the girls and boys do the same kinds of work? What all work do you do at home? Is the work done by boys and girls, men and women the same? Would you like to bring some change? What kind?

Discuss
Do people look at different kinds of work in the same way? If not, why is this so? Why is it important to bring change? Gandhijis favourite song (bhajan) is given here. This bhajan is in Gujarati. Try to understand the meaning of these lines with the help of your elders. Think about these lines.

oS".ko tu rks rs.ks dfg, ts ihM+ ijkbZ tk.ks js] ij nq%[ks vieku lgs ts eu vfHkeku uk vk.ks js
What we have learnt
Gandhiji used to say that every person should do every kind of work. What do you feel about this? If everyone followed this, what are the things that would change? What are some changes that will happen in your own house?
Who will do this Work?

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17. Across the Wall

Stars in her eyes (Indian Express, 2007)


utensils for a living. The gender wall her mother had put up for her. Today, Afsana herself has become a strong wall of NBA, the Nagpada Basketball Association of Mumbai. Today, she is the source of strength for five other girls who have come to the basketball court, leaving behind the problems of their everyday lives. Just 13 years old, Afsana Mansuri has already jumped over the wall. The wall between her jhuggi and the local basketball court. The wall made by society, for a girl who washes Today, she is the star of a young team. This team has managed to surprise some of Mumbais club teams. With a lot of guts and courage, the team has reached the semi-finals of a district-level tournament.

Meeting the team


We read in the newspaper about Afsana and the Nagpada basketball team. We thought of meeting these girls and introducing them to you. We took the train and got off at Mumbais Victoria Terminus Station (railway station). From there we walked towards Nagpada. It took us just twenty minutes to reach there. There we met Afsana and the other girls of the Nagpada Basketball Association. Read the interview with the team members. 154
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Meet this special team!


Meet Afsana, Zarin, Khushnoor and Afreen. At first the girls were quiet, but once they started, they just did not stop! Zarin began, My house is just in front of this ground. My brother used to play here. I would stand in my balcony and watch the boys play. I was in Class VII at that time. Whenever the boys played a match, many people came to watch. The winning team got a lot of praise. Everyone cheered the players. On seeing all this, I wished I could also play. Would I too get a chance to show my talent? I asked the coach, but was afraid. He is a good friend of my father. The coach said, Why not? If you bring some more girls, you can make a team. Then I will teach you.

Find out
Is there any place to play near your house? What do people play there? Who plays there? Do the children of your age also get a chance to play there? What other things happen at this place?

Teachers Note : Give opportunities to children to share their experiences about games. Discuss these to build childrens understanding on issues, such as, similar games for boys and girls, equal opportunities for all while playing, etc.

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We asked Was it easy to make a beginning?


Khushnoor: At first my parents refused. But when I insisted they agreed. Afsana: My mother works in the flats and sends us to school. I also help her. When I told her about my plans to play basketball, Ammi got angry. She said, Girls do not play basketball. Do your work, go to school and study hard. No need to go to the ground to play. But when my friends and Coach Sir talked to her, Ammi agreed. Afreen : We were not allowed, because we are girls. My grandmother gets very angry with all of us. But still, we three sisters come here to play. Grandmother scolds us and even scolds our Coach Sir! She tells us, You need proper equipment to play. You need to have a lot of milk for strength. Where will the money for all this come from? But daddy understands our feelings. He even teaches us some special moves used in the game. My daddy also used to play on this ground when he was young. He did not have proper shoes or clothes. He used to practice with a plastic ball. Daddy tells us that Bacchu Khan was the coach when he used to play. He saw my daddy playing once. He realised that the boy played very well and that he should be trained properly. He gave proper shoes and clothes to my daddy. My daddy could have become a very good player. But because of his responsibilities at home, he left the game and took up a job. So he wants us to play and become good players.

Tell Has anyone ever stopped you from playing some games? Which games? Who stopped you and why? What did you do then? Did anyone help you and encourage you to play? 156
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We asked Tell us about your team


One girl: We felt a bit strange in the beginning. We were the first girls team here. People used to come and watch us practicing. They were curious to see how girls would play basketball. Now people are no longer surprised. They have begun to accept that we girls can also play well. Afsana: I was eleven years old when we first started playing. At that time we were not allowed to go anywhere else to play a match. It has been two years since then. Now we go to other places also for matches. But all this could happen only because of our hard work and Sirs coaching. Another girl : Yes, we really work hard. Sir is also very strict. We first jog together and then do our exercises. Sir teaches us how to play the game well. We practice how to keep the ball with us, to dodge the players of the other team, how to throw the ball in the basket, to score a goal, to pass the ball well, and to run fast on court. Afreen: Sir says, While playing, dont think you are girls. Play like a player. Keep playing even if you get a little injured. We support each other and say Come on, get up, you will be fine! Now our game has improved a lot. Everyone says that we play as well as the boys team.

Teachers Note : Make different groups of children in class to give them a chance to play different games. Try to encourage the children to play for the team, not for themselves.

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One girl: We also play with boys teams. We want them to play with us as equals. They should not be lenient because we are girls. Sometimes we get angry when the boys imitate us. But we take it as a challenge and correct our mistakes. If the boys try to cheat, we scold them!

Discuss
Do girls and boys play different types of games in your school or neighbourhood? If yes, then which games do the boys play and which do the girls play? Do you think that there is any difference between the games and the way they are played by boys and girls? Should the games for boys and the girls be different? What do you think?

We said Tell us more about your team.


One girl : Our team is very special. Our team is united. Even if we quarrel, we quickly make up and forget about it. Here we have learnt how to stay and play together. Some of the girls from our team got a chance to play as part of the Mumbai team. The match was at Sholapur. Zarin : When we went to Sholapur we found that the team had girls from different parts of the state. They did not talk to us nicely and treated us like juniors. They would not even give us a chance to play properly. We felt very bad. There was no cooperation at all in that team.
Teachers Note : If possible, try to develop an understanding in children that players are recognised by their ability to play rather than by their caste or economic status.

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During the match I threw the ball to one of the team members. But she could not catch it. In turn, she started scolding me, blaming me for the mistake. In all this misunderstanding we lost the match. But this never happens in our own team. If we do miss a basket because of someones mistake, we do not get angry. We say, Never mind, next time we will do better! It is most important to support each other, because we are all part of a team. Afreen: After playing in Sholapur we realised what was special about our team. Cooperation between us is our strength. We understand and support each other well. Even if every player is excellent, the team can lose a match if all do not play together as a team. To play as a team it is important to understand each others strengths and weaknesses. Write Have you ever played as part of a team of your class, school or neighbourhood? Whom did you play with? What game did you play? What is the difference between playing for yourself and for the team? While playing in a team would you like to play for yourself or for the team? Why? Is your team like the team Afsana played with at Sholapur or like the Nagpada team? How?
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We said You have done so much. What next?


Afsana: We have been playing well. So we have got a chance to go to many places. We have played for our city and our state. We hope to work hard and play for our country some day. Yes, then we will also be popular like the cricketers! We all want to play well. We should bring glory to our area and our country. We want to show that the Indian girls team can win a gold medal! We will make this happen.

Discuss
Have you ever taken part in some game or competition from your school or area? How did you feel? Did you go to some other place to play? What was that place like? How did you like going to that place? Have you seen matches being played between India and other countries? Which ones?
Teachers Note : It is necessary to develop an understanding among children that players are recognised by their perseverance rather than at what level they are playing. If a child plays or participates at the school level with full devotion, that should be the real achievement. It is not important what position he or she secures. In fact, ranking and unhealthy competition needs to be avoided.

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We all know about the cricketers of India, and we all like them. Do people also know and like the Indian players who play some other games? (Yes or No). What do you feel about it? Do you know the players of the Indian football or kabaddi team?

We asked Did you face some other difficulties?


Khushnoor: To tell the truth, we have not got all this very easily. As girls, even to be able to start playing was difficult. We had to convince our families. Sometimes we even had to fight. Even today not many girls can play like this. Forget games, earlier some people did not even allow girls to study. My mother wanted to do many things, but she never got a chance. So my mother encourages me to take part in all activities like games, swimming and drama. Afsana: Even now, we are supposed to go home as soon as we finish playing. The boys go here and there, and can chitchat till late. No one says anything. After coming from school, I help my mother with the cleaning work in two or three houses, do my studies and then come here to play. I also help at home. If my brother wants tea and he makes it for himself, then mother says, He has three sisters. Yet, he has to work. One girl : Now, just look at Zarins younger brother. He is only five years old but he says, Mummy, why do you send didi to play? She does not look nice playing like that on the ground. Ask him if he will play and he says, I am a boy, of course I will play! Afsana: But it is good for everyone to play. We have now realised, how much we benefit from playing. I want to be such a good player that other girls and boys would wish to be like me. 161

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Discuss
What would happen if girls are not allowed to play games, to study or do some other work of their choice? How would you feel if you were not allowed to take part in some game or drama? Have you heard of any women players? Name them and the games they play. In which areas other than sports have you heard of women getting recognition? Are these women less known than men? Why? How would you find the world to be, if girls never got a chance to take part in games, drama or dance? How would you feel if such a thing happened to boys? Do you know of any woman or girl who you would want to be like when you grow up? (Think of names other than a film actor or a model)

What next?
Afreen: I just want to say that if you have some dreams for yourself, give your best to fulfil them. Khushnoor: If you have a wish or a dream, have courage to speak about it. If you dont do this now, you may regret later.

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We said The newspaper wrote about all of you. Now students will read about you in this book. How do you feel?
Afreen: We are so happy about it that we have no words to explain our happiness. We now feel we must play even better, to make our area and our country famous. All Girls : Yes, this is our wish too. Coach Sir
The coach who made this team, Noor Khan told us This part of Mumbai is very crowded. This is the only playground in this area. This is our small Bacchu Khan playground. A person named Mustafa Khan used to live in our area. Everyone was afraid of him. But children were very fond of him, so everyone started calling him Bacchu Khan. There was no ground then, it was just muddy land. Bacchu Khan used to train children to play. We were among those children. It is because of Bacchu Khans devotion and training that players from this area are able to compete with the teams of other countries. Like Bacchu Khan, I have trained the children of this area. Today our team has some who play at the international level. Some have even won the Arjuna Award. Noor Khan continued In the last few years we have also prepared a girls team here. Our girls play for the Maharashtra State team. They practice well with good discipline. Our girls and boys come from different types of families. Some are from poor homes, some from richer. Some study in Urdu medium and some in English. But once they come here, they all make a team.

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Think and write


The newspaper report said, Afsana has jumped over the wall. The gender wall that her mother had put up for her. Think and write in your own words, what was this wall? What do you understand by gender bias?

What we have learnt


Should games for boys and girls be different? Think and write what you feel. If you are made the leader of a team, how will you prepare your team?

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18. No Place for Us?

Jatryabhai
Jatryabhai was sitting at the door with his daughter Jhimli. They were waiting for Sidya. It was almost night but Sidya had not come home. Two years back Jatryas family came to Mumbai from Sinduri village. Here, they only knew the family of a distant relative. With their help, Jatryabhai began to repair torn fishing nets. But the money he got was not enough. They had to pay for the medicines, food, school fees and rent for the house. Here, they even had to buy water. Young Sidya also had to work in the nearby fish factory to earn some money. From four oclock till seven oclock in the morning, he cleaned and sorted the big and small fish. Then he would come home, take a nap, and go to school in the afternoon. In the evening he would wander around the vegetable market. He would help some memsahib (lady) to carry her bags, or go to the railway station to pick up empty bottles and newspapers to sell to the kabadiwalla (junk seller). Somehow they were managing their life in the city. It was night, but Sidya had not come home. Jhimli was watching a dance on TV, through the neighbours window. But Jatrya did not like watching TV. Here, everything was so
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different. The day would pass running around for work, but the evening brought back old memories.

Think and tell


Jatrya felt alone, even in a crowd of people. Have you ever felt like this? Imagine how it feels to leave ones own place and go far away to live in a new place? Why do you think families like that of Jatryas are coming to big cities? Have you seen any children (in your school or neighbourhood) who also go to work? What kind of work do they do? Why do they have to work?

Thinking of old days


Jatrya was born in Khedi village, in the middle of thick green jungles and hills. His people had been living here for many years even before his grandfather was born. There was peace in Jatryas village, but not silence. There were so many soothing sounds the gurgle of the flowing river, the murmur of trees and the chirping of birds. People did farming. They would go to the nearby forest, chatting and singing together, to collect wild fruits, roots and dried wood. While working with elders, children also learnt many things to dance together, to play flute and dhol , to make pots of clay and bamboo, to recognise birds and imitate their sounds, etc. People collected 166
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things from the forest for their use. Some of those they would sell in the town across the river. With that money they would buy salt, oil and some clothes. It was a village, but people here lived together like a big family. Jatryas sister was married in the same village. People helped each other, in good and bad times. The elders would arrange weddings, and settle quarrels. Jatrya was now a strong young man. He worked hard in the fields and caught fish from the big river. He and his friends would go to the forest to collect fruits, roots and plants for medicines, and fish from the river, to sell these in the town. During festival time, Jatrya would dance and play the drum, with boys and girls of his age.

Tell
In Khedi village what all did children learn? What do you learn from your elders? Jatrya learnt so many things in Khedi. How many of those would be useful for him in Mumbai? Do you hear the sounds of birds everyday? Which ones? Can you imitate the sound of any bird? Show how. What are some of the sounds that you hear everyday, but the people of Khedi may not be hearing? Have you experienced silence? When and where?
Teachers Note : Children can be made sensitive to the experience of calm or peace as clearly different from silence. They can do this through the activity of listening to sounds with their eyes closed. When they are calm and the class becomes quiet, they can still hear many sounds. So there can be peace, but there need not be silence.

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Across the river


One day the people of Khedi heard that a big dam was to be built on the river. For this, a big wall would be built to stop the flow of the river. Khedi and many nearby villages in that area would be drowned under water. The people would have to leave their villages and their lands, on which their forefathers had lived for centuries. After a few days, government officials along with the police started visiting these villages. Small children of the village saw the police for the first time. Some children would run after them, and some would get scared and start crying. The officials measured the width and length of the river, the fields, forests and houses. They called meetings with the elders of the village. They said, Villages on the bank of the river would have to be removed. People having land at Khedi will be given land far away, on the other side of the river. They will have everything there a school, electricity, hospitals, buses, trains, etc. They will have all that they could not even dream of here in Khedi. Jatryas parents and most elders were not happy about leaving their village. Listening to all this, Jatrya would get a little scared, but also feel excited. He would think that after getting married, he would take his bride to the new house in the new village. A house where he could just press a button for the light and turn on the tap for water. He could go by bus to see the city. When he would have children, he could send them to school. They will not be like him, who had never been to school. 168

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Discuss and tell


Many people in Jatryas village did not agree to move away from their land and forest. Why? They had to leave even though they didnt want to. Why? In Khedi, how many people were there in Jatryas family? When he thought about his family who all came to his mind? Who all come to your mind when you think about your family? Have you heard of people who dont want to be moved from their old place? Talk about them. Do you know some people who have never been to school? Do you also know of any place where there is no school?

Imagine
Think of the kinds of difficulties people have to face where a dam is being built. Draw a picture of Khedi village and a picture of Jatrya's dream village. Discuss the differences between them. Also look at the pictures your friends have drawn.

A new place
It was a summer afternoon. Jatrya was feeling faint in the hot sun and wind. His feet were burning on the coal tar of the pucca road. There wasnt a single tree to offer some shade. Just a few houses and shops. Jatrya was on his way home after buying medicines. He had an old tyre on his back. These days, he had
Teachers Note : Discuss with children the different aspects of dams. You can give examples of any dams in your area or nearby. Dam may benefit some, but there are some people for whom dam may bring problems, all these can be discussed in classroom.

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to light his stove with just these rubber pieces of old tyres. These caught fire fast, and also saved some firewood. But the smoke and smell of burning tyres were terrible! In this new Sinduri village, they had to pay money for everything medicines, food, vegetables, firewood, and fodder for the animals. They could just not afford to buy kerosene. But from where to get the money for all this? Thinking of all this, Jatrya reached home. The roof made of a tin sheet made the house hot like an oven. Jatryas wife had high fever. His daughter Jhimli was rocking her little brother Sidya to sleep in her lap. After all, there was no other older person with them. Jatryas parents had been so sad about leaving Khedi that they had died before he moved here. In Sinduri there were only eight-ten families he could call his own, those from his old village. The whole village had got scattered and people had gone wherever they had been given land. This was not like the new village Jatrya had dreamt about. There was electricity, but only for sometime in a day. And then, the electricity bill had also to be paid. There were taps, but no water! In this village, Jatrya got just one room in a tin shed. It had no place to keep the animals. He also got a small piece of land. But that was not good for farming. It was full of rocks and stones. Still Jatrya and his family worked very hard. But they could not grow much on the field, and could not make enough money even to buy seeds and fertilisers. In Khedi, people did not fall sick often. If someone fell ill there were many people who knew 170
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how to treat them with medicines made from plants. People felt better after taking those medicines. Here in Sinduri, there was a hospital but it was difficult to find doctors, and there were no medicines. There was a school here, but the teacher did not care much about the children from Khedi village. These children found it difficult to study in a new language. The people of Sinduri did not welcome the newcomers from Khedi. They found their language and way of living strange. They made fun of the Khedi people by calling them unwanted guests. Not much of what he had dreamt had come true!

Write
Was Sinduri like the village of Jatryas dreams? What difference did he find between Sinduri and his dream village? Have you ever been to anyones house as an unwanted guest? How did you feel? What all does your family do, when you have guests at home for a few days?

Some years later


Jatrya stayed for a few years in Sinduri. The children were also getting older. But Jatryas heart was not here in Sinduri. He still missed his old Khedi. But there was no Khedi now. There was a big dam and a big lake of collected water in and around Khedi. Jatrya thought, If we are to be called unwanted guests, then at least let us go to some place where our dreams can come true. Jatrya sold his land and his animals and came to Mumbai. Here, he started a new life with his family. His only dream was to send his children to school, to give them a better future, a better life.
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Here too, things were not easy. But he hoped that things would get better. Jatrya started saving money to repair his one-room shack. His relatives would tell him, Dont waste money on this. Who knows, we may have to move from here too. In Mumbai there is no place to stay for outsiders like us. Jatrya was scared and worried. He thought, We left Khedi for Sinduri, we then left Sinduri for Mumbai. If we have to move from here too, then where can we go? In this big city, is there not even a small place for my family to stay?

Think
What had Jatryabhai thought while moving to Mumbai? Did he find Mumbai as he had imagined? What kind of school do you think Jatryas children would be going to in Mumbai?
Teachers Note : Discuss with children about the difference between people being displaced or asked to move from a place, and those who go on a transfer. Both situations may cause different kinds of problems and difficulties. Discuss how many big projects like dams, bridges, highways, factories are promoted in the name of development. Do all people benefit from these? These are live issues which can be related to many newspaper reports and ongoing debates.

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Find out and write


Do you know of any family that has come to your town after having moved out of their place? Talk to them and find out: - From where have they come? Why did they have to come here? - What kind of place did they live in there? How do they find this new place compared to the old one? - Is their language and way of living any different from that of the people here? In what ways? - Learn some words from their language and write them in your notebook. - Do they know how to make some things that you cannot make? What? Have you ever read or heard of a city slum being removed? How do you feel about this? People also shift from one place to another when they get transferred in their jobs? How do they feel then?

Debate
Some people say that The city people do not create garbage. Cities are dirty because of the slums. How do you feel about this? Discuss and debate between yourselves.

What we have learnt


Like Jatryas family, thousands of families come to stay in big cities for many different reasons. Do you think their life may be better in a big city from what it was before? Imagine how they feel in a big city.
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19. A Seed Tells a Farmers Story


I am a small seed! I am a small bajra seed. I have stayed in this beautiful wooden box since 1940. I want to tell you my story. This is a long story but not mine alone. It is also the story of my farmer Damjibhai and his family. If I do not tell my story now, it might be too late! I was born in Vangaam in Gujarat. That year there was a good bajra (millet) crop. There was a festive mood in the village. Our area was famous for its grain and vegetables. Each year Damjibhai kept aside some seeds from a good crop. This way our bajra family went on from one generation to another. Good seeds were stored in dried gourd (lauki ) which was coated with mud. But that year Damjibhai himself made a strong wooden box to store us. He put in neem leaves to protect us from insects. He put different seeds in different compartments of the box. That was our beautiful home! In those days Damjibhai and his cousins lived together. It was a large family. Everyone in the village helped each other, even in farming. When the crop was ready and harvested, everyone celebrated together. Oh! Those wonderful days! With big feasts and lots to eat! In the winter, it would be time to enjoy the undhiya (a kind of stew). All the vegetables were put into a clay pot, along with fresh spices. The pot was sealed and kept between hot coals. The vegetables cooked slowly in this special cooker, on the fields.
Teachers Note : Encourage children to talk about their experiences before beginning the chapter. Millet has been used only as an example. The children can be asked to narrate their own observations about changes in crops and vegetables that have taken place in their area.

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Oh, I forgot, the pot was placed upside down! That is why the dish was called undhiya or upside down in Gujarati. Undhiya would be eaten with bajra rotis, freshly cooked on the chulha. Oh, what an earthy delicious flavour! Along with that, home-made butter, curd and buttermilk was served. Farmers would grow many different kinds of crops grains and vegetables according to the season. The farmers kept enough for their needs and sold the rest to shopkeepers from the city. Some farmers also grew cotton. At home, family members spun cotton on a charkha (spinning wheel) to make cloth. Tell Are rotis made in your home? From which grains are they made? Have you eaten roti made from bajra or jowar ? Did you like these? Find out and write In your house what is done to protect grains and pulses from insects? Which are the different festivals related to farming, celebrated in different seasons? Find out more about any one such festival and write in your notebook The name of the festival, in which season is it celebrated, in which states of India, what special foods are made, is it celebrated only at home with the family, or together with many people. Talk to the elders in your family and find out if there were some special foods cooked earlier that are not cooked any more?
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Find out about the crops cereals, vegetables, pulses that are grown in your area. Of those, is there anything that is famous across the country?

Can you recognise these grains?

When times changed


Over the years, many changes took place in the village. Some places could get water from the canal. They said the canal brought water from far away where a dam had been built on a big river. Then electricity came. Switch on the button and there was light! People found that only one or two crops, like wheat and cotton, got better prices in the market. So most farmers began to grow only these. Soon we old friends bajra and jowar, and also vegetables were forgotten and dismissed, even from Damjibhais fields! Farmers even began to buy seeds from the market. People said they were new kinds of seeds. So farmers did not need to store seeds from the old crop. Now people in the village cooked and ate together only on very special days. As they ate, they would remember how tasty the food used to be in the past fresh from the fields. When the seeds have changed, how could food ever taste the same! Damjibhai was getting old. His son Hasmukh looked after the fields and the family. Hasmukh was making a lot of money from farming. He rebuilt the old house. He brought new machines for farming. He used an electric motor to pump water. He bought a motorcycle to go to the city easily and also a tractor to plough the field. The tractor could do in a day, what the bullocks would take many days to do. 176
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Hasmukh would say, Now we are farming wisely. We grow only what we can sell in the market at a good price. With profits from our fields we can improve our life. We can make progress. Lying forgotten in the wooden box, I and the other seeds had our doubts. Is all this really progress? There is no longer any need for seeds like us, and animals like the bullocks. After the tractor has come, even people who worked on the fields, are no longer needed. How will they earn money? What will they live on?

Discuss
The bajra seed saw differences in the way Damjibhai and Hasmukh did farming (for example, in irrigation, ploughing, etc). What were these differences? Hasmukh said, With profits from our fields, we can progress. What is your understanding of progress?

Write
What kind of progress would you like to see in your area?

More and more expenses


The next twenty years saw even more changes. Without cows and buffaloes, there was no cow dung, to be used in the fields as fertilizer. Hasmukh had to buy expensive fertilizer. The new kinds of seeds were such that the crops were easily affected by harmful insects. Medicines had to be sprayed on the crops to keep away
Teachers Note : Use childrens experiences to discuss the kinds of changes which have taken place in agricultural practices over the years and the possible reasons for that. Newspaper reports should also be used.

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the insects. Oh, what a bad smell these had, and how expensive they were! The canal water was not enough for the new crops. All the farmers used pumps to lift water from deep under the ground. To meet all these expenses, loans had to be taken from the bank. Whatever little profit was made, was used to repay the loan. But there was little profit! Everyone was growing cotton, so the cotton prices were not as high as before. The soil itself was no longer the same. Growing the same crop over and over, and using so many chemicals, had affected the soil so much that now nothing could grow well there. It was becoming difficult to earn a living by farming alone. Hasmukh too changed with the times. He is often tense and angry most of the time. His educated son Paresh did not want to do farming. He now started work as a truck driver. After all, the bank loans still had to be repaid. Often Paresh doesnt come home for days. At times he is away for a week. Two days back when he came home, Paresh started looking for something. Ba, he asked his mother, Where is Dadajis wooden seed box? It will be useful to keep the screws and tools for the truck. Now do you understand why I told you my story?

Discuss and think


What can happen to Hasmukhs farm after some years?
Teachers Note : It is important to give space to children to freely express what they understand by progress and development. Contemporary debates around the world can be linked to this discussion for example, farmers struggles in developing countries, efforts to save traditional seeds and medicines, and who has the right over all this knowledge farmers or the big multinational companies?

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Damjibhais son Hasmukh chose to become a farmer like his father. Hasmukhs son Paresh is not a farmer, but a truck driver. Why would he have done so? The seeds were not sure that what Hasmukh was talking about was really progress. What do you feel? Have there been any changes near your area, which may be difficult to call progress? What changes are these? What are the different opinions about them? Read the report from a newspaper and discuss it.
Tuesday, 18 December 2007, Andhra Pradesh
Farmers in Andhra Pradesh have been sent to jail for not being able to pay back their loans. They had suffered a big loss in farming. One of these farmers, Nallappa Reddy, had taken a bank loan of Rs. 24,000. To repay the loan, he had to take another loan from a private moneylender, at a very high rate of interest. Even after repaying Rs. 34,000 Reddy could not repay the entire loan. Reddy says, The bank sends farmers to jail for not paying back small loans. But what about the big businessmen? They take loans of crores of rupees. Nothing happens to them when they do not return the money! Nallappa Reddys story is shared by thousands of farmers in India who are suffering huge losses. The situation is so bad that many farmers see no way out of this except to commit suicide. According to government figures 1,50,000 farmers have died like this between 1997 and 2005. This number may be much higher...

Project
What questions come to your mind about farmers and farming? Write some questions in your group and ask a farmer. For example, how many crops do they grow in a year? Which crop needs how much water? Visit a farm near your area. Observe and talk to the people there. Write a report. Read the report on page 180 by a group of Class V students who went to visit Bhaskarbhais farm.

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Bhaskarbhais Farm (Dehri village, Gujarat) As we entered his farm, we were surprised. There were dead leaves, wild plants, and grass everywhere! Some of the tree branches seemed so dry, as if eaten by insects. At places we saw some plants with colourful leaves. Why these? Bhaskarbhai said they were croton plants which gave him a signal when the soil became dry. We were surprised! How? He explained that the roots of the croton do not go deep in the ground. So when the top layer of the soil becomes dry, the croton leaves bend and become limp. This signal tells Bhaskarbhai which part of his farm needs to be watered. We found the soil soft and crumbly. We could see tall coconut trees, full of fresh coconuts. We thought he must be using some special fertilisers. Bhaskarbhai said he does not buy fertilisers made in factories. His soil is fertile because of all the dried leaves which slowly rot and mix with it. He dug the soil a little and told us to look. We saw thousands of earthworms! These are my soil's best friends, he said. The earthworms soften the soil as they keep digging underneath to make tunnels. This way air and water can easily get into the soil. The earthworms also eat the dead leaves and plants, and their droppings fertilise the soil. Pravin told us about his uncle in the city, who has dug a pit in his garden. He puts dried leaves in the pit, along with all the kitchen waste peels of vegetables and fruits, and leftover food. He also has earthworms in the pit. They turn the waste into compost (a natural fertiliser). So his uncle gets good fertiliser without spending extra money. We all had some fresh coconuts from the farm. They were really tasty! We also learnt so much about a new way of farming!

Group members : Praful, Hansa, Krutika, Chakki, Praveen, Class5C

Journey of a bajra seedfrom a field to a plate


What can you see in each picture on the next page? In picture 2 you can see the bajra cobs in the mortar (okhli, used for crushing). The cobs are crushed with a pestle (moosli ) and the seeds are separated from the cob. You can see the separated seeds in picture 3. Now this work is also done by big machines, like threshers. We call both these as different technologies using our hands or big machines to crush the seeds. What technology could have been used to cut the stem in picture 1? What do you think is being done in the grinder (chakki ) in picture 4? What ways (technologies) would have 180
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been used to do the work shown in picture 5 and 6? You can see that the dough is ready in picture 6. When do you think a sieve (chhalni ) would have been used? Discuss each step in detail, in any language you wish to use.

Rainy I A Murkery

Milamber

Claud Rinolt

Aparna

What we have learnt


There have been many changes over time, in our food. What can this mean? Use the seed story and what you know from your elders to explain. What would happen if all the farmers were to use only one kind of seed and grow only one kind of crop?
Teachers Note : We often limit our understanding of the word technology to mean only big machines and instruments. A process or method is also a technology, for which we might normally use the word technique. For example, we could discuss how making dough from dry atta (flour) is also a technology, a special process. Straining the flour, pouring water slowly while kneading (you will surely appreciate this, if you have made a mess by putting too much water!), bringing it to the desired consistency, and at the end collecting the dough into one big lump - all these might be difficult to describe in words but are important to understand as processes. Encourage children to speak in their home language; do not expect them to do it in English.

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20. Whose Forests?

Daughter of the jungle


Look at the picture. Where do you think these children are off to, with little bundles on their sticks? When you find out you too would want to go with them! The children are going to the forest. There they jump, run, climb trees and sing songs in their language called Kuduk. They pick the fallen flowers and leaves, to weave them into necklaces. They enjoy the wild fruits. They look for birds, whose calls they imitate. Joining them in all this fun is their favourite didi Suryamani. Every Sunday Suryamani takes the children to the forest. As they move around, she shows them how to recognise the trees, the plants, and animals. Children enjoy this special class in a forest! Suryamani always says, To learn to read the forest is as important as reading books. She says,We are forest people (adivasis). Our lives are linked to the forests. If the forests are not there, we too will not remain.
Nitin Upadhaye

Suryamanis story is a true story. Suryamani is a Girl Star. Girl Stars is a project which tells extraordinary tales of ordinary girls, who have changed their lives by going to school. Teachers Note : Encourage children to share their experiences and imagination about forests. Planting thousands of trees does not make a forest. It is important to discuss the web of relationships between plants, trees and animals in a forest, to see how they depend on each other for food, security and habitat.

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Discuss
What do you think is a forest? If someone grew lots of trees close to each other, would this become a forest? Find out and write Other than trees what all is there in a forest? Do all forests have similar types of trees? How many trees can you identify? Suryamani says, If the forests are not there, we too will not remain. Why so?

Growing Up
Suryamani loves the forest since she was a child. She would not take the direct road to school, but would choose the path through the forest. Suryamanis father had a small field. Her family used to collect leaves and herbs from the forest and sell these in the bazaar. Her mother would weave baskets from bamboo or make leaf plates out of the fallen leaves. But now no one can pick up a single leaf from the forest. That is since Shambhu the contractor came there. The people of Suryamanis village were afraid of the contractor. Everyone except Budhiyamai. She would say, We the people of this forest have a right over it. We look after our forests, we don't cut trees like these contractors do. The forest is like our collective bank not yours or mine alone. We take from it only as much as we need. We dont use up all our wealth.
Teachers Note : It would be useful to begin this lesson with a discussion about the lives of forest-dwellers and their relationship with the forest. Also about who a contractor is and what is a contract. This lesson draws upon the true story of Suryamani, whose organisation works on these issues. Discussions can also include similar organisations or people working to save forests and forest people in your area.

Whose Forests?

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Nitin Upadhaye

Suryananis father could no longer support the family on the small land. He moved to the town in search of work. But things did not improve. Sometimes there would be no food in the house. At times Maniya Chacha (uncle) would send some grain from his small shop to Suryamanis house. Chacha tried hard and got admission for Suryamani in the school in Bishanpur. Here they would not have to pay for the fees, uniforms and books. Suryamani would have to stay there and study. Suryamani didn't want to leave her village and forest. But Maniya Chacha was firm. If you do not study, what will you do? Go hungry? Suryamani would argue, Why should I go hungry? The jungle is there to help! Chacha tried to explain, But we are being moved away from our forests. Even the forests are disappearing in their place mines are being dug, dams are being built. Believe me, it is important for you to study, to understand about the laws. Maybe then you can help to save our forests. Young Suryamani listened, and tried to understand some of what he said.

Think and write


Do you know anyone who loves the forest? The contractor did not allow Suryamanis people to go into the forest. Why? Is there any place around your area which you feel should be open to everyone, but where people are not allowed to go?

Discuss
Who do you think the forest belongs to? Bhudhiyamai said Forest is our collective bank not yours or mine alone. Are there other things which are our collective wealth? So if someone uses more, everyone would suffer? 184
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Suryamanis journey
Suryamani was filled with joy on seeing the school at Bishanpur. The school was near a thick forest. Suryamani studied hard and passed her B.A. after getting a scholarship. She was the first girl in the village to do this. While she was in college she met Vasavi didi , a journalist. Suryamani soon joined her to work for the Jharkhand Jungle Bachao Andolan (Movement to Save the Forests of Jharkhand). This work took Suryamani to far off towns and cities. Her father did not like this. But Suryamani continued her work. Not only that, she also started to fight for the rights of the village people. Her childhood friend Bijoy helped her in this work. Suryamani had another friend Mirchi, who stayed with her day and night. Suryamani would share all her thoughts and dreams with Mirchi. Mirchi would listen and say Keee Keee. Suryamani had a dream. for her Kuduk community. She wanted all her people to feel proud of being adivasis. Do you have a friend with whom you can share everything? Some people have moved so far away from the forest, that they can't understand the lives of forest people. Some even call them jungli. Why is it not correct to say this? What do you know about how adivasis live? Write and draw a picture. Do you have an adivasi friend? What have you learnt about the forest from her.
Teachers Note : There should be a debate on the need and also the problems associated with the building of big dams, roads, mining projects, etc. It is important for students to discuss and understand that all of these drawing out water, petrol or digging for minerals from under the ground, or commercial fishing from the seas are examples of using our common resourses. All these are important issues today.
Nitin Upadhaya

Whose Forests?

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Suryamanis Torang
Suryamani was 21 when she opened a centre, with the help of Vasavi didi and others. She called it Torang, which means jungle in the Kuduk language. Suryamani wanted that on festivals people should sing their own songs. They should not forget their music and should enjoy wearing their traditional clothes. Children should also learn about herbs, medicines, and the art of making things from bamboo. Children should learn the language of school but must link it with their own language. All this happens in the Torang centre. Many special books about the Kuduk community and other adivasis have been collected. Flutes and different types of drums are also kept there. Whenever something is unfair, or if someone is afraid that his land and livelihood would be taken away, they turn to Suryamani. Suryamani fights for everyones rights. Suryamani and Bijoy have got married and work together. Today their work is praised by many people. She is invited, even to other countries, to share her experiences. People of her area are also raising their voice for a new forest law.
Right to Forest Act 2007 People who have been living in the forests for at least 25 years, have a right over the forest land and what is grown on it. They should not be removed from the forest. The work of protecting the forest should be done by their Gram Sabha.

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Nitin Upadhaya

Think
Do you know of any one who works to save forests? What is your dream? What will you do to make your dream come true? Collect reports about forests from newspapers. Did you find any news about how the cutting down of forests affects the weather? How? In Torang Suryamani does a lot to keep the Kuduk music, dance and traditions alive. Would you like to do something like this for your community? What would you like to keep alive?

Read and tell


Sikhya, a Class X girl in Orissa, wrote a letter to the Chief Minister. Read a part of the letter.

A forest is everything for us adivasis. We cant live away from the forests even for a day. Government has started many projects in the name of development dams and factories are being built. Forests, which are ours are being taken away from us. Because of these projects, we need to think where the forest people will go and what will happen to their livelihood? Where will the lakhs of animals living in the forests go? If there are no forests, and we dig out our lands for minerals like aluminium, what will be left? Only polluted air, water, and miles and miles of barren land...

Is there any factory or some construction work going on in and around your area? What type of work? Due to the factory is there any effect on the trees and land? Have the people in that area raised this issue?

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North

West

East

Very thick forest Less thick forest

South

Look at the map and write


What all is shown in the map? 188
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You have read Sikhyas letter. Look for Orissa in the map. Is there a sea close to Orissa? How did you find out? Which are the states which have the sea on one side? Where is Suryamanis state Jharkhand on the map? Where are forests on the map? How will you find these? How can you find out which states have very thick forests and which have less thick forests? For someone in Madhya Pradesh, in which direction would the countrys thickest forests be? Name those states.

Lottery for farming in Mizoram


You read about the forests of Jharkhand in Suryamanis story. Now read about forests on the hills of Mizoram. See how people live there, and how farming is done.

Ding, Ding, Ding.... As soon as the school bell rang Lawmte-aa, Dingi, Dingima picked their bags and hurried home. On the way they stopped to drink water from a stream in a cup made of bamboo which was kept there. Today not only the children, even Saima Sir was in a hurry to get back. Today there would be a special meeting of the Village Council (Panchayat). At the meeting there would be a lottery to decide which family will get how much land for farming. The land belongs to the whole village, not to separate people. So they take turns to do farming on different parts of the land. A beautiful pot made of bamboo was shaken well. One chit was taken out. Saima Sirs family got the first chance. He said, I am happy that my family gets to choose first. But, this year we cannot take more land. Last year I had taken more and was not able to farm it well. After my sister Jhiri got married and went away it is difficult to manage farming alone.

Daman Singh

Whose Forests?

189

Saima Sir asked for three tin of land. Little Mathini asked, What is three tin of land? Chamui explained, The land on which we grow one tin of seeds is called one tin of land. One by one, the village families got their piece of land for farming.

Find out
Which are the states around Mizoram? Chamui said they measure land using tin. Which are the other ways of measuring land? Returning from school, children drank water in a bamboo cup. Who do you think would have made this cup and kept it in the forest? Why? Have you ever seen anything which people are free to use, with no one there looking after it?

Jhoom farming
Jhoom farming is very interesting. After cutting one crop, the land is left as it is for some years. Nothing is grown there. The bamboo or weeds which grow on that land are not pulled out. They are cut and burnt. The ash makes the land fertile. While burning, care is taken so that the fire does not spread to the other parts of the forest. When the land is ready for farming it is lightly dug up, not ploughed. Seeds are dropped on it. In one farm different types of crops like maize, vegetables, chillies, rice can be grown. Weeds and other unwanted plants are also not pulled out, they are just cut. So that they get mixed with the soil. This also helps in making the soil fertile. If some family is not able to do farming on time, others help them and are given food.
Teacher's Note : There can be some discussion about the hilly terrain of the North East, and the state of Mizoram, and also the unique system of jhoom farming followed there.

190

Looking Around

The main crop here is rice. After it is cut, it is difficult to take it home. There are no roads, only hilly paths. People have to carry the crop on their backs. This takes many weeks. When the work is over the entire village celebrates. People get together to cook and eat, sing Daman Singh and dance. They do their special cheraw dance. In this dance people sit in pairs in front of each other, holding bamboo sticks on the ground. As the drum beats, the bamboos are beaten to the ground. Dancers step in and out of the bamboo sticks, and dance to the beat. Find out more about the cheraw dance. Do it in your class. But be careful and dont hurt yourself. About three-fourth people in Mizoram are linked to the forests. Life is difficult but almost all children go to school. You can see some of them here, playfully blowing their leaf whistles! You too have made many such whistles, havent you!

Daman Singh

What we have learnt


What is similar and what is different between jhoom farming and Bhaskerbhais way of farming? Explain in your own words why forests are important for the people living in forests? Did you find something interesting in jhoom farming? What is it?
Whose Forests?

191

21. Like Father, Like Daughter

Aaa chhee!
Ashima was sitting near the window and reading. It was windy and there was a lot of dust in the air. Suddenly Ashima sneezed loudlyaaa chhee! Ashimas parents were sorting out vegetables in the kitchen. Her mother said, She sneezes just like you do. If you were not here, I would have thought it was your sneeze.

Fill in the table


Ashima sneezed just like her father. Do you have any such habit or trait which is similar to that of someone in your family? What is it? Whom is it similar to?
Your special habit or trait Whom is it similar to?

Teachers Note : In Class III we had drawn attention to the similar traits children shares with the immediate family members. Discussion can now focus on how some traits/features which are also similar in distant relatives in the extended family. This should be done through childrens own experiences.

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Looking Around

Tell
Does your face or anything else look similar to that of someone else in your family? What is it? Did someone tell you this or did you find it out yourself? How do you feel when people compare you with someone else in your family? Why do you feel so? Who laughs the loudest in your family? Laugh like that person.

Who is whose aunt?


Nilima had gone to the house of her nani (mothers mother) in the school holidays. She saw someone coming and went to tell her mother, Amma, a mausi (mother's sister) has come to meet you. Her mother came out to see who had come. She told Nilima, No, this is not your mausi ! She is your sister Kiran. You know your eldest nani ? Kiran is the daughter of her elder son. Kiran is your cousin sister. In fact, you are her cute son Samirs mausi ! Make a list of all the family members from Nilimas nani to little Samir. How are they all related to Nilima? Write.

Find out
In your family are there any such examples of unclenephews or brother-sisters, where there is a big difference in the age? Find out from your elders.
Like Father, Like Daughter

193

dadis e your k i l y l t c ter! ok exa daugh d n o c You lo e s sisters cousin

How we are all related!

Nilima started playing with Samir. Her mother called Kiran and said, See, my Nilimas hair is a lot like yours thick, curly and black. Its good she does not have hair like mine straight, limp and brown! Nilimas nani laughed and said, Yes, isnt it strange? We sisters had thick curly hair and now our second generation has similar hair. Nilima was listening to all this. She thought, We are called distant relatives, but, how closely related we are in many ways!

Find out and write


Does Nilima have curly hair like her nanis ? Now you look for some special trait in your sister or brother (could also be cousins). Like the colour of eyes, dimples in cheeks, height, broad or sharp nose, voice, etc. See if this trait comes from the fathers side or the mothers side. Make this table in your notebook and fill it. An example is given.
Special trait Nilimas Curly hair Whom does it resemble? her nani (grandmother) From whose side? Mothers Fathers

Have you seen a very young child in your (or any other) family? Whom does the childs eyes, nose, hair or fingers look like in the family? Write their names. Nimilas hair is like her nanis thick and curly. Nilimas mother has straight, brown and limp hair? What type of hair do you have black or brown, oily or dry? 194
Looking Around

What is the colour of your hair? Measure and write the length of your hair. Is your hair like that of anyone else in your family? If yes, then name the person. Measure the hair of other members of your family. Who has the longest hair in your family? How many people do you know whose hair is longer than one metre? Does having long hair run in their family?
be d to his! e s Iu nt tha r e l tal

Its not easy to measure dadajis hair!

Do you know how to measure your height? Measure yourself from head to toe and write how tall you are. How tall do you think you will be when you grow up? Is anyone else in your family of the same height? Measure the height of your family members and rote it down.

Is this a mirror?
Look at the next page. Is Saroja standing in front of a mirror? No, this is her twin! Did you get confused? Their mother's brother (mama) also gets confused when he sees them together. At times Saroja gets scolded for mischief done by Suvasini. Sometimes Suvasini tricks her mama and says, Suvasini has gone out. But now mama has learnt a trick. He says
Teachers Note : Encourage children to think of some ways of measuring hair and height.

Like Father, Like Daughter

195

Sing a song in Marathi ! Why this funny trick? Read about them and you will understand. The sisters were just two weeks old when Saroja's father's brother's wife (chachi) adopted her and took her to Pune. Everyone in chachi's house is very fond of music. Mornings begin with music in the house. Saroja knows many songs in both languages Tamil and Marathi. At home everyone speaks Tamil and at school most children speak in Marathi. Suvasini stays with her father in Chennai. Her father is a karate coach. Since she was three, Suvasini started doing karate with the other children. On holidays, both father and daughter start practicing in the morning. Saroja and Suvasini look alike but are also quite different. Do you now know why mama has his way of finding out who is who?

Discuss
What is similar between Saroja and Suvasini? What is different? Do you know any twins? What is similar in them? How are they different? Do you know of twins who don't look the same? Saroja and Suvasini look a lot like each other yet are different. For example, Saroja knows two languages. If Suvasini's family also talked in two languages she could also learn both. We learn many things like language, music, love for reading, or knitting, when we get a chance and an environment to do so.
Teachers Note : Discuss with children that we acquire certain traits at birth from our parents. Some things we learn from our environment.

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Looking Around

This from the family


Do this interesting survey in your class. Write how many children can do this : 1. Without touching your teeth fold your tongue towards the back of your mouth. 2. Roll your tongue by lifting it from the sides. 3. Open all the toes of your feet. Now without moving the others, move the little toe. 4. Touch the thumb to your wrist. 5. Make a V by separating two fingers of your hand to each side. 6. Move your ears, without holding them. Those children who could do any of these should ask their family members also to do so. So, how many children have got this trait from their family?
No, no, dont be worried! It is not that if any of the parents have polio, their child will also have it

But not this from parents...


Satti was only a few months old when one of her legs was affected by polio. But she never let this come in the way of her work and her life. Walking long distances and climbing many stairs has been a part of her work. Now Satti is married. Some people tell her not to have any children. She is also worried that her children may also get polio. She spoke to a doctor about this. 197

Like Father, Like Daughter

Have you read or heard anything about polio? Where? Have you read or heard any news about pulse polio? What? Do you know of anyone who has polio? Experiments with peas rough or smooth?
Gregor Mendel was born in a poor farmers family in Austria in 1822. He was very fond of studies but the very thought of examinations made him nervous (Oh! you too feel the same!). He did not have money to study at the University so he thought of becoming a monk in a monastery. He thought from there he would be sent to study further. Which he was. But to become a science teacher he had to take an exam. Oh no! he got so nervous that he kept running away from the exam, and kept failing! But he did not stop doing experiments. For seven years he did experiments on 28,000 plants in the garden of the monastery. He worked hard, collected many observations, and made a new discovery! Something which scientists at that time could not even understand! They understood it many years after his death, when other scientists did such experiments and read what Mendel had already written. What did Mendel find in those plants? He found that the pea plant has some traits which come in pairs. Like the seed is either rough or smooth. It is either yellow or green, and the height of the plant is either tall or short. Nothing in between. The next generation (the children) of a plant which has either rough or smooth seeds will also have seeds which are rough or smooth. There is no seed which is mixed a bit smooth and a bit rough. He found the same with colour. Seeds which are either green or yellow give rise to new seeds which are either green or yellow. The next generation does not have seeds with a mixed new colour made from both green and yellow. Mendel showed that in the next generation of pea plants there will be more plants having yellow seeds. He also showed that the next generation will have more plants with smooth seeds. What a discovery!

198

Looking Around

Some from the family, some from the environment


From a distance Vibha knows that her nana (grandfather) is coming from his loud laughter. Nana also talks loudly and hears with difficulty. Are there people in your house who talk loudly? Is it their habit, or they cannot also hear very well? Are there times when you do not talk loudly in front of some people? When? With whom? Why? When can you speak loudly? Some people use a machine in their ear to help them hear better. Some use a stick or spectcles to help them in other ways. Do you know someone who does so? Talk to people who cannot hear very well. Find out if they had this problem from birth. When did they start to have a problem with hearing? What difficulties do they face? We have seen that some traits or habits we get from our family. Some things and skills we learn from our environment. At times our abilities change because of some illness or old age. All these together make us what we are!

What we have learnt


What do you think what all is a part of you that you got from your mothers side?

Teachers Note : Discuss with children about polio which is caused by a virus and is not inherited. Many a times people have such misconceptions about some diseases like leprosy. Discuss, how and where these can be treated. If possible, invite a doctor to respond to the childrens questions.

Like Father, Like Daughter

199

22. On the Move Again

Dhanus village
Today all the relatives have come to Dhanus house to celebrate Dushera. They have come with their luggage in their bullockcarts. Dhanus father is the eldest in the family. So all the festivals are celebrated at their house. Dhanus mother (aai ), mothers brothers wife (mami ) and fathers brothers wife (kaki ) are busy making puranpoli (sweet rotis made from jaggery and gram). Alongwith this a spicy kadi dish is also made. The day passes in laughing and chatting. But by evening everyones mood changes. The women and children begin to pack their luggage. The men sit down with the mukadam (agent who lends money) for the meeting. The mukadam gives the details of the loan taken by each family. Then the talks for the next few months begin. The mukadam explains to the villagers in which areas they would go for the next six months. He also gives them some money as loan, for their expenses. Ever since Dhanu remembers, this has been

Teachers Notes : Talk in the class about issues related to borrowing money, loans, debts and agents. Try to relate the meaning of these words by taking examples from daily life.

200

Looking Around

the routine. Families like Dhanus work on the lands of big farmers till Dushera, before the rainy season. Many other families also work on such lands. They earn just enough money to keep them going through these months. But how to manage the remaining six months, when there is no rain, and no work in the fields? So, everyone borrows money from the mukadam. To pay back this money, they have to work for the mukadam. Mukadam is an agent for sugarcane factories. He helps them to find work in sugarcane fields.

Tell
Did all the farmers in Dhanus village have their own land? During what time of the year did Dhanus family get work in the village? During what time did they not have work? Do you know of any families like Dhanus, who have to leave their villages for months in search of work?

Think and find out


If people in Dhanu's village did not leave the village in search of work, what difficulties would they face in their own village? In Dhanus village, there can be no farming when there is no rain. Do you think farming can be done even without rain water? How?
Teachers Notes : Draw childrens attention to the fact that sugarcane farming can be done during those months, when there is no rainfall. Discuss various methods of irrigation in the farms, like, tubewells, canals, wheel for water lifting etc. Ask children to draw these. If possible take them or ask them to go with their family to see these.

On the Move Again

201

In the next few months, Dhanu, his parents, his kaka (fathers brother) and his two elder children, his mama, mami and their two daughters, and forty-fifty other families from the village will stay away from home. In these six months, Dhanu and many children like him will not be able to go to school. Dhanus old grandmother, aunt who cannot see, and two-month old cousin sister would stay back in the village. In other homes too the old and the ill people stay behind. Dhanu misses his grandmother a lot. Dhanu always keeps wondering who will take care of his grandmother! But, what can Dhanu do?

Think
Dhanus family and many others from the village go far away for work but some people stay back in the village. Why does this happen? When Dhanu and other children leave the village for six months, what happens in the village school? What arrangements are made at your home for old and unwell family members when everyone goes for work?

After Dushera
The caravan of these families would now settle near the sugarcane fields and sugar factories. For six months they would stay in their huts made of dry sugarcane and its leaves. The men will get up early in the morning and go to cut sugarcanes in the fields. The women and children tie the bundles of sugarcane. Then the bundles are taken to the sugar factory. Dhanu often goes with his father. Sometimes, they spend nights outside the factory on bullock-carts. There, Dhanu plays with the bullocks and wanders around. 202
Looking Around

At the factory, Dhanus father gets the sugarcane weighed and takes a receipt (a note to say how much sugarcane they have given). They show this receipt to the agent who then keeps an account of their loan. The agent also gives them some money for the next weeks expenses. Then Dhanus aai and mami take the children to the nearby village market, to buy atta (flour) and oil for the next week. Sometimes mami buys laddoos or some sweets for the children. She also buys pencils, an eraser and a notebook for Dhanu. After all he is mamis favorite! But Dhanu wont be using these for six months, because he wont be going to school. Mami wants Dhanu to study and become somebody in life. She does not want Dhanu to move around with his family like this. mama and mami tell Dhanus parents, Next time when we leave our village after Dushera we will leave Dhanu with his dadi and chachi. He will go to school like the other children in the village. He should continue his studies. He should study further and become somebody.
On the Move Again

203

Think and tell


Why does Mami wish that Dhanu should go to school for the whole year and study? What happens when you are not able to go to school for a long time?

Discuss and write


Dhanu has to go with his village people to other places. Can there be some arrangements during that time so that Dhanu continues his studies? What kind? Do you know of any jobs/work for which people have to stay away from their families for many months? Look for examples from this book and write. What are the similarities and differences in the lives of different kinds of farmers?

What we have learnt


You have read about many kinds of farmers in different lessons in this book. Fill the table.
Name of the farmer 1. Damjibhai (Lesson....) 2. Hasmukh (Lesson....) Owns land ( or ) What do they grow ( or ) What difficulties Any thing do they face else

Teachers Notes : Discuss with children that some arrangements can be made for educating children of communities that are on the move. Many times the teacher moves along with them. Also discuss for what kind of work some communities migrate from one place to another.

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SOCIAL SCIENCE

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TEXTBOOK
IN

The Earth : Our Habitat


GEOGRAPHY
FOR

CLASS VI

FOREWORD
The National Curriculum Framework (NCF), 2005, recommends that childrens life at school must be linked to their life outside the school. This principle marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape our system and causes a gap between the school, home and community. The syllabi and textbooks developed on the basis of NCF signify an attempt to implement this basic idea. They also attempt to discourage rote learning and the maintenance of sharp boundaries between different subject areas. We hope these measures will take us significantly further in the direction of a child-centred system of education outlined in the National Policy on Education (1986). The success of this efforts depends on the steps that school principals and teachers will take to encourage children to reflect on their own learning and to pursue imaginative activities and questions. We must recognise that, given space, time and freedom, children generate new knowledge by engaging with the information passed on to them by adults. Treating the prescribed textbook as the sole basis of examination is one of the key reasons why other resources and sites of learning are ignored. Inculcating creativity and initiative is possible if we perceive and treat children as participants in learning, not as receivers of a fixed body of knowledge. These aims imply considerable change in school routines and mode of functioning. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigour in implementing the annual calendar so that the required number of teaching days are actually devoted to teaching. The methods used for teaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbook proves for making childrens life at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress or boredom. Syllabus designers have tried to address the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and reorienting knowledge at different stages with greater consideration for child psychology and the time available for teaching. The textbook attempts to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on experience. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) appreciates the hard work done by the textbook development committee responsible for this book. We wish to thank the Chairperson of the advisory group in Social Sciences, Professor Hari Vasudevan and the Chief Advisor for this book, Vibha Parthasarathi for guiding the work of this committee. Several teachers contributed to the development of this textbook; we are grateful to their principals for making this possible. We are indebted to the institutions and organisations which have generously permitted us to draw upon their resources, material and personnel. We are especially grateful to the members of the National Monitoring Committee, appointed by the Department of Secondary and Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development under the Chairpersonship of Professor Mrinal Miri and Professor G.P. Deshpande, for their valuable time and contribution. As an organisation committed to systemic reform and continuous improvement in the quality of its products, NCERT welcomes comments and suggestions which will enable us to undertake further revision and refinement. New Delhi 20 December 2005

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Director National Council of Educational Research and Training

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TEXTBOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON, ADVISORY COMMITTEE PRIMARY LEVEL
FOR

TEXTBOOKS

IN

SOCIAL SCIENCES

AT THE

UPPER

Hari Vasudevan, Professor, Department of History, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

Vibha Parthasarathi, Principal (Retd.), Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, New Delhi MEMBERS

Anjali Swami, TGT, N.C. Jindal Public School, New Delhi

Anshu, Reader, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi Durga Singh, PGT, Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2, Ahmedabad

Shahla Mujib, PGT , Govt. Boys Sr. Sec. School,Hari Nagar Ashram, New Delhi MEMBER-COORDINATOR

Aparna Pandey, Lecturer, Department of Education in Social Sciences and Humanities, NCERT, New Delhi

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CHIEF ADVISOR

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The National Council of Educational Research and Training acknowledges the valuable contributions of the following participants in finalising this book : Sudeshna Bhattacharya, Reader, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi; Poonam Behari, Reader, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi; Vyasraj T. Ambekar, Incharge Headmaster, SVM High School, Tilakwadi, Belgaum; Seema Agnihotri, Lecturer, Management Education and Research Institute, I.P. University, New Delhi; Daulat Patel, Teacher (Retd.), Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, New Delhi; Samita Dasgupta, PGT (Geography), Anandalaya, Anand, Gujarat. The Council is thankful to the Survey of India for certification of maps given in the textbook. It also gratefully acknowledges the support of individuals and organisations as listed below for providing various photographs, and other materials such as articles and paintings used in this textbook M.H. Qureshi, Professor, JNU, New Delhi (Photograph No. 9 on page 45); Praveen Mishra (Fig. 8.3); Science Popularisation Association of Communications and Educators (SPACE), New Delhi (Fig. 1.6); Photo Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India (Agricultural Field Cover page); Ministry of Environment and Forests Govt. of India (Figs. 8.1 and 8.5), (Stork A migratory bird); ITDC/Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India, (Figs. 5.5, 6.5, 6.6 and 6.7), (Photographs Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 on Page Nos. 44 and 45); (Tiger Cover page and page 63); (Himalayas cover page and page 30 and 40); (Fig. 8.7), (Waterfalls on page 39), (Skiing on page 42), (Deer on page 56); The Times of India, New Delhi (Fig. 8.4); (Collage on Project Tiger on Page 63); Prakash Higher Secondary School, Bodakdev, Ahmedabad (Poem and paintings related to the Tsunami on page 52 and 53); Social Science, Part-II, Class-VI, NCERT, 2005 (Fig. 1.3); Social Science, Part-II, Class-VIII, NCERT, 2005 (Fig. 6.8 and Fig. 8.2). Special thanks are due to Savita Sinha, Professor and Head, Department of Education in Social Sciences and Humanities, NCERT, New Delhi for her support. Special thanks are due to Shveta Uppal, Chief Editor, NCERT and Vandana R. Singh, Consultant Editor, for going through the manusrcipt and suggesting relevant changes. The Council also gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Ishwar Singh DTP Operator; Sameer Khatana and Amar Kumar Prusty, Copy Editors; Bharat Sanwaria and Dilip Kumar Agasti, Proof Readers; Dinesh Kumar, Incharge, Computer Station for giving a final shape to this book. The contribution of the Publication Department in bringing out this book is also duly acknowledged.
The following are applicable to all the maps of India used in this book

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7.

Government of India, Copyright 2006 The responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publisher. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. The administrative headquarters of Chandigarh, Haryana and Punjab are at Chandigarh. The interstate boundaries amongst Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya shown on this map are as interpreted from the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act.1971, but have yet to be verified. The external boundaries and coastlines of India agree with the Record/Master Copy certified by Survey of India. The state boundaries between Uttaranchal & Uttar Pradesh, Bihar & Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh have not been verified by the Governments concerned. The spellings of names in this map, have been taken from various sources.

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C ONTENTS

Foreword 1. The Earth in the Solar System.........................

iii 1

2. Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes.................... 3. Motions of the Earth........................................

4. Maps................................................................ 5. Major Domains of the Earth............................. 6. Major Landforms of the Earth..........................

7. Our Country India.........................................

8. India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife...........

Appendix I............................................................ Appendix II...........................................................

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10 18 23 30 39 47 56 66 67

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1
THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
How wonderful it is to watch the sky after sunset! One would first notice one or two bright dots shining in the sky. Soon you would see the number increasing. You cannot count them any more. The whole sky is filled with tiny shining objects some are bright, others dim. It seems as if the sky is studded with diamonds. They all appear to be twinkling. But if you look at them carefully you will notice that some of them do not twinkle as others do. They simply glow without any flicker just as the moon shines. Along with these bright objects, you may also see the moon on most of the days. It may, however, appear at different times, in different shapes and at different positions. You can see the full moon only once in about a months time. It is Full moon night or Poornima. A fortnight later, you cannot see it at all. It is a New moon night or Amavasya. On this day, you can watch the night sky best, provided it is a clear night. Do you wonder why cant we see the moon and all those bright tiny objects during day time? It is because the very bright light of the sun does not allow us to see all these bright objects of the night sky. The sun, the moon and all those objects shining in the night sky are called celestial bodies. Some celestial bodies are very big and hot. They are made up of gases. They have their own heat and light, which they emit in large amounts. These celestial bodies are called stars. The sun is a star. Countless twinkling stars in the night sky are similar to the sun. But we do not feel their heat or light, and they look so tiny because they are very very far from us.

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Lets Do
Youll need : 1 torch, 1 sheet of plain paper, pencil and a needle. Step : 1. Place the torch in the centre of the paper with its glass front touching the paper. 2. Now draw a circle around the torch. 3. Perforate the paper with the needle within the circled area. 4. Now place the perforated circle part of the paper on the glass front and wrap the paper around the torch with a rubber band. 5. Take care that the switch of the torch is not covered. 6. In a dark room, stand at some distance facing a plain wall. Switch off all other lights. Now flash the torch light on the wall. You will see numerous dots of light on the wall, like stars shine in the night. 7. Switch on all the lights in the room. All dots of light will be almost invisible. 8. You may now compare the situation with what happens to the bright objects of the night sky after the sun rises in the morning.

Figure 1.1 : Saptarishi and the North Star

Interesting Fact

Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus have rings around them. These are belts of small debris. These rings may be seen from the earth with the help of powerful telescopes.
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You must have noticed that all objects look smaller when seen from a distance. How small an aeroplane looks when it is flying at a great height! While watching the night sky, you may notice various patterns formed by different groups of stars. These are called constellations. Ursa Major or Big Bear is one such constellation. One of the most easily recognisable constellation is the small bear or Saptarishi ( Sapta-seven, rishi-sages). It is a group of seven stars (Figure 1.1) that forms a part of the large Ursa Major Constellation. Ask someone elder in your family or neighbourhood to show you more stars, planets and constellations in the sky. In ancient times, people used to determine directions during the night with the help of stars. The North star indicates the north direction. It is also called the Pole Star. It always remains in the same position in the sky. We can locate the position of the Pole Star with the help of the Saptarishi. Look at Figure 1.1. You will notice that, if an imaginary line is drawn joining the pointer stars and extended further, it will point to the Pole Star. Some celestial bodies do not have their own heat and light. They are lit by the light of the stars. Such bodies are called planets. The word planet comes from the Greek word Planetai which means wanderers. The earth on which we live is a planet. It gets all its heat and light from the sun, which is our nearest star. If we look at the earth from a great distance, say the moon, it will appear to be shining just as the moon. The moon that we see in the sky is a satellite. It is a companion of our earth and moves round it. Like our earth, there are eight other planets that get heat and light from the sun. Some of them have their moons too.

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THE
SOLAR SYSTEM

The sun, eight planets, satellites and some other celestial bodies known as asteroids and meteoroids
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM


5. JUPITER - One orbit around sun - 11 years, 11 months about 12 years. One spin on axis - 9 hours, 56 minutes, number of moons - 16 6. SATURN - One orbit around sun - 29 years, 5 months. One spin on axis - 10 hours 40 minutes, number of moons - about 18. 7. URANUS - One orbit around sun - 84 years. One spin around axis - 17 hours 14 minutes, number of moons - about 17. 8. NEPTUNE - One orbit around sun - 164 years. One spin on axis-16 hours 7 minutes, number of moons - 8. Outer Planets - Very-very far from the sun and are huge planets made up of gases and liquids.

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1. MERCURY - One orbit around sun - 88 days, One spin on axis - 59 days. 2. VENUS - One orbit around sun - 255 days. One spin on axis - 243 days 3. EARTH - One orbit around sun - 365 days. One spin on axis - 1 day Number of moons - 1 4. MARS - One orbit around sun - 687 days One spin on axis - 1 day, number of moons - 02

Inner planets - very close to the sun. They are made up of rocks.

Figure 1.2 : The Solar System

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Do you know? Sol in Roman mythology is the Sungod. Solar means related to the sun. The family of the sun is, therefore, called the solar system. Write down as many words using the word solar on your own as you can. Word Origin Many words used in a language may have been taken from some other language. Geography, for example, is an English word. It has its origin in Greek, which relates to the description of the earth. It is made of two Greek words, ge meaning earth and graphia meaning writing. Find out more about the earth.

form the solar system. We often call it a solar family, with the sun as its Head. The Sun The sun is in the centre of the solar system. It is huge and made up of extremely hot gases. It provides the pulling force that binds the solar system. The sun is the ultimate source of heat and light for the solar system. But that tremendous heat is not felt so much by us because despite being our nearest star, it is far away from us. The sun is about 150 million km away from the earth. Planets

Humans have always been fascinated gazing at the night sky. Those who study the celestial bodies and their movements are called astronomers. Aryabhatta was a famous astronomer of ancient India. Today, astronomers all over the world are busy exploring the universe.
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There are eight planets in our solar system. In order of their distance from the sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
An easy way to memorise the name of the planets in order of their distance from the sun is: MY VERY EFFICIENT MOTHER JUST SERVED US N UTS. Do you know?

All the eight planets of the solar system move around the sun in fixed paths. These paths are elongated. They are called orbits . Mercury is nearest to the sun. It takes only about 88 days to complete one round along its orbit. Venus is considered as Earths-twin because its size and shape are very much similar to that of the earth. Till recently (August 2006), Pluto was also considered a planet. However, in a meeting of the International Astronomical Union, a decision was taken that Pluto like other celestial objects (Ceres, 2003 UB 313) discovered in recent past may be called dwarf planets. The Earth The earth is the third nearest planet to the sun. In size, it is the fifth largest planet. It is slightly flattened at the poles. That is why, its shape is described as a Geoid. Geoid means an earth-like shape.
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

Conditions favourable to support life are probably found only on the earth. The earth is neither too hot nor too cold. It has water and air, which are very essential for our survival. The air has life-supporting gases like oxygen. Because of these reasons, the earth is a unique planet in the solar system. From the outer space, the earth appears blue because its two-thirds surface is covered by water. It is, therefore, called a blue planet. The Moon

Do you know? Light travels at the speed of about 300,000 km per second. Yet, even with this speed, the light of the sun takes about eight minutes to reach the earth.

Our earth has only one satellite, that is, the moon. Its diametre is only one-quarter that of the earth. It appears so big because it is nearer to our planet than other celestial bodies. It is about 3,84,400 km away from us. Now you can Figure 1.3 : The moon as seen from compare the distance of the space the earth from the sun and that from the moon. The moon moves around the earth in about 27 days. It takes exactly the same time to complete one spin. As a result, only one side of the moon is visible to us on the earth. The moon does not have conditions favourable for life. It has neither water nor air. It has mountains,

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Rocket launch

Figure 1.4 : Human-made Satellite

THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

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Interesting Fact

Neil Armstrong was the first man to step on the surface of the moon on 29 July 1969. Find out whether any Indian has landed on the moon?

A Satellite is a celestial body that moves around the planets in the same way as the planets move around the sun. A Human-made Satellite is an artificial body. It is designed by scientists to gather information about the universe or for communication. It is carried by a rocket and placed in the orbit around the earth. Some of the Indian satellites in space are INSAT, IRS, EDUSAT, etc.

Rocket falls back to the Earth

Satellite enters orbit

? What do animals and

plants require in order to grow and survive?


5

plains and depressions on its surface. These cast shadows on the moons surface. Look at the full moon and observe these shadows. Asteroids Apart from the stars, planets and satellites, there are numerous tiny bodies which also move around the sun. These bodies are called asteroids. They are found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter (Figure 1.2). Scientists are of the view that asteroids are parts of a planet which exploded many years back. Meteoroids

Figure 1.5 : Asteroid

Figure 1.6 : Milky Way 6

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The small pieces of rocks which move around the sun are called meteoroids. Sometimes these meteoroids come near the earth and tend to drop upon it. During this process due to friction with the air they get heated up and burn. It causes a flash of light. Sometimes, a meteor without being completely burnt, falls on the earth and creates a hollow. Do you see a whitish broad band, like a white glowing path across the sky on a clear starry night? It is a cluster of millions of stars. This band is the Milky Way galaxy (Figure 1.6). Our solar system is a part of this galaxy. In ancient India, it was imagined to be a river of light flowing in the sky. Thus, it was named Akash Ganga. A galaxy is a huge system of billions of stars, and clouds of dust and gases. There are millions of such galaxies that make the Universe. It is difficult to imagine how big the universe is. Scientists are still trying to find out more and more about it. We are not certain about its size but we know that all of us you and I belong to this universe.
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) (b) (c)

2. Tick the correct answer. (a)

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THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

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How does a planet differ from a star? What is meant by the Solar System? Name all the planets according to their distance from the sun. (d) (e) (f) Why is the Earth called a unique planet? Why do we see only one side of the moon always? What is the Universe ? The planet known as the Earths Twin is (ii) Saturn (i) Jupiter (iii) Venus (b) Which is the third nearest planet to the sun ? (ii) Earth (i) Venus (iii) Mercury (c) All the planets move around the sun in a (i) Circular path (ii) Rectangular path (iii) Elongated path (d) The Pole Star indicates the direction to the (i) South (ii) North (iii) East 7

Can you relate yourself with the universe now? You are on the earth and the earth is a part of the solar system. Our solar system is a part of the Milky Way galaxy which is part of the universe. Think about the universe, and the fact that it contains millions of such galaxies. How do you fit in the picture?

(e)

Asteroids are found between the orbits of (i) Saturn and Jupiter (ii) Mars and Jupiter (iii) The Earth and Mars

3. Fill in the blanks. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) A group of ________ forming various patterns is called a ________. A huge system of stars is called________. ________is the closest celestial body to our earth. ________is the third nearest planet to the sun. Planets do not have their own________ and ___________________.

1. 2. 3.

1.

2.

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Step 3: 8

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Prepare a chart of the solar system. During a vacation visit a planetarium and describe your experience in the class. Organise a quiz contest on the earth and the solar system. The sun is commonly known as Soorya or Sooraj in Hindi, Find out its name in different languages of our country. Take help of your friends, teachers and neighbours. You might have heard that people make human chains and run for world peace etc. You can also make a human solar system and run for fun. Step 1: Step 2: All children of your class can play this game. Assemble in a big hall or on a playground. Now draw 8 circles on the ground as shown in the figure drawn on the opposite page. Use a 5-metre long rope. Mark at every half a metre with a chalk or ink. Place a small nail to mark the centre. Now hold one end of the rope at the central position. Ask your friend to hold a chalk at the metre mark and move around the nail holding rope and chalk together on the ground. You have drawn one circle just as you do on paper using a compass and a pencil. Draw other circles in the same manner. Prepare 10 placards. Name them as Sun., Moon, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

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THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

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Step 4: Select 10 children in the following order and give each one of them a placard. Order of placard distribution The Sun - tallest, The moon - smallest; Mercury, Mars, Venus and Earth (almost equal heights); Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter taller than the earlier four planets but smaller than the Sun. Now ask the children holding placards to take their places with the Sun in the centre in their orbits. Ask the child holding the moon placard to keep the hand of the child holding the earth placard always. Now your Solar System is almost ready to go into action. Now make everybody move slowly in the anti-clockwise direction. Your class has turned into a small human replica of the solar system. While moving on your orbit you can also turn around. For everybody the spin should be anti-clock wise except for Venus and Uranus who will make the spin in the clock-wise direction. 9

2
GLOBE : LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES

Figure 2.1 : Globe

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Take a big round potato or a ball. Pierce a knitting needle through it. The needle resembles the axis shown in a globe. You can now move the potato or the ball around this axis from left to right.

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Lets Do

In the previous chapter, you have read that our planet earth is not a sphere. It is slightly flattened at the North and the South Poles and bulge in the middle. Can you imagine how it looks? You may look at a globe carefully in your classroom to get an idea. Globe is a true model (miniature form) of the earth (Figure 2.1). Globes may be of varying size and type big ones, which cannot be carried easily, small pocket globes, and globe-like balloons, which can be inflated and are handy and carried with ease. The globe is not fixed. It can be rotated the same way as a top spin or a potters wheel is rotated. On the globe, countries, continents and oceans are shown in their correct size. It is difficult to describe the location of a point on a sphere like the earth. Now the question arises as to how to locate a place on it? We need certain points of reference and lines to find out the location of places. You will notice that a needle is fixed through the globe in a tilted manner, which is called its axis. Two points on the globe through which the needle passes are two poles North Pole and South Pole. The globe can be moved around this needle from west to east just as the earth moves. But, remember there is a major difference. The real earth has no such needle. It moves around its axis, which is an imaginary line. Another imaginary line running on the globe divides it into two equal parts. This line is known as the equator. The northern half of the earth is known as the Northern Hemisphere and the southern half is known as the Southern Hemisphere. They are both

IMPORTANT PARALLELS OF LATITUDES

Besides the equator (0), the North Pole (90N) and the South Pole (90 S), there are four important parallels of latitudes (i) Tropic of Cancer (23 N) in the Northern Hemisphere. (ii) Tropic of Capricorn (23 S) in the Southern Hemisphere. (iii) Arctic Circle at 66 north of the equator. (iv) Antarctic Circle at 66 south of the equator.

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GLOBE : LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES

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Figure 2.3 : Important Latitudes and Heat Zones 11

equal halves. Therefore, the equator is an imaginary circular line and is a very important reference point to locate places on the earth. All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitudes. Latitudes are measured in degrees. The equator represents the zero degree latitude. Since the distance from the equator to either of the poles is one-fourth of a circle round the earth, it will measure th of 360 degrees, i.e. 90. Thus, 90 degrees north latitude marks the North Pole and 90 degrees south latitude marks the South Pole. As such, all parallels north of the Figure 2.2 : Latitude equator are called north latitudes. Similarly all parallels south of the equator are called Do you know? south latitudes. The value of each latitude is, therefore, followed by By measuring either the word north or south. Generally, this is the angle of the indicated by the letter N or S. For example, both Pole Star from Chandrapur in Maharashtra (India) and Belo your place, you can know Horizonte in Brazil (South America) are located on the latitude of your place. parallels of about 20 latitude. But the former is 20 north of the equator and the latter is 20 south of it. We, therefore, say that Chandrapur is situated at 20 N latitude and Belo Horizonte is situated at 20 S latitude. We see in Figure 2.2 that as we move away from the equator, the size of the parallels of latitude decreases.

HEAT ZONES

OF THE

EARTH

Figure 2.4 : (a)

Figure 2.4 : (b)

Torch-light falling on a slanted surface is less bright but covers a bigger area.

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Figure 2.5 : Longitudes 12

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WHAT
ARE

Torch-light falling on a straight surface is bright and covers a smaller area.

The mid-day sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This area, therefore, receives the maximum heat and is called the Torrid Zone. The mid-day sun never shines overhead on any latitude beyond the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The angle of the suns rays goes on decreasing towards the poles. As such, the areas bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere, have moderate temperatures. These are, therefore, called Temperate Zones. Areas lying between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere, are very cold. It is because here the sun does not rise much above the horizon. Therefore, its rays are always slanting and provide less heat. These are, therefore, called Frigid Zones (very cold).

LONGITUDES?

To fix the position of a place, it is necessary to know something more than the latitude of that place. You can see, for example, that Tonga Islands (in the Pacific Ocean) and Mauritius Islands (in the Indian Ocean) are situated on the same latitude (i.e., 20 S). Now, in order to locate them precisely, we must find out how far east or west these places are from a given line of reference running from the North Pole to the South Pole. These lines of references are called the meridians of longitude,
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

and the distances between them are measured in Lets Do degrees of longitude. Each degree is further divided Draw a circle. into minutes, and minutes into seconds. They are semiLet the Prime circles and the distance between them decreases meridian divide steadily polewards until it becomes zero at the poles, it into two equal halves. where all the meridians meet. Colour and label the Unlike parallels of latitude, all meridians are of equal eastern hemisphere and length. Thus, it was difficult to number the meridians. the western hemisphere. Hence, all countries decided that the count should Similarly draw another begin from the meridian which passed through circle and let the equator Greenwich, where the British Royal Observatory is divide it into two halves. located. This meridian is called the Prime Meridian. Now colour the Northern Its value is 0 longitude and from it we count 180 hemisphere and Southern hemisphere. eastward as well as 180 westward. The Prime Meridian and 180 meridian divide the earth into two equal halves, the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere. Therefore, the longitude of a place is followed by the letter E for the east and W for the west. It is, however, interesting to note that 180 East and 180 West meridians are on the same line. Now look at the grid of the parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude on the globe (Figure 2.6). You can locate any point on the globe very easily if you know its latitude and longitude. For example, Dhubri in Assam is situated at 26 N latitude and 90 E longitude. Find out the Figure 2.6 : Grid point where these two lines cut each other. That point will be the location of Dhubri. To understand this clearly draw equidistant vertical and horizontal lines on a paper (Figure 2.7). Label the vertical rows with numbers and horizontal rows with letters, draw some small circles randomly on points where these horizontal and vertical lines intersect each other. Name these small circles as a, b, c, d and e. Let vertical lines represent East Longitudes and horizontal lines as North Latitudes. Now you will see that circle a is located on B N latitude and 1 E longitude. Find out the location of other circles. Figure 2.7

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GLOBE : LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES

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THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

Figure 2.8 : Time zones of the World

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LONGITUDE

AND

T IME

WHY DO WE HAVE STANDARD TIME?

The local time of places which are on different meridians are bound to differ. For example, it will be difficult to prepare a time-table for trains which cross several longitudes. In India, for instance, there will be a difference of about 1 hour and 45 minutes in the local times of Dwarka in Gujarat and Dibrugarh in Assam. It is, therefore, necessary to adopt the local time of some central meridian of a country as the standard time for the country. In India, the longitude of 82 E (82 30 'E) is treated as the standard meridian. The local time at this meridian is taken as the standard time for the whole country. It is known Figure 2.9 : Indian Standard Meridian as the Indian Standard Time (IST).

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The best means of measuring time is by the movement of the earth, the moon and the planets. The sun regularly rises and sets every day, and naturally, it is the best time-keeper throughout the world. Local time can be reckoned by the shadow cast by the sun, which is the shortest at noon and longest at sunrise and sunset. When the Prime Meridian of Greenwich has the sun at the highest point in the sky, all the places along this meridian will have mid-day or noon. As the earth rotates from west to east, those places east of Greenwich will be ahead of Greenwich time and those to the west will be behind it (Figure 2.8). The rate of difference can be calculated as follows. The earth rotates 360 in about 24 hours, which means 15 an hour or 1 in four minutes. Thus, when it is 12 noon at Greenwich, the time at 15 east of Greenwich will be 15 4 = 60 minutes, i.e., 1 hour ahead of Greenwich time, which means 1 p.m. But at 15 west of Greenwich, the time will be behind Greenwich time by one hour, i.e., it will be 11.00 a.m. Similarly, at 180, it will be midnight when it is 12 noon at Greenwich. At any place a watch can be adjusted to read 12 oclock when the sun is at the highest point in the sky, i.e., when it is mid-day. The time shown by such a watch will give the local time for that place. You can see that all the places on a given meridian of longitude have the same local time.

1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) (b) (c) What is a globe?

2. Tick the correct answers. (a) (i) 90

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What is the true shape of the earth? What is the latitudinal value of the Tropic of Cancer? What are the three heat zones of the Earth? (d) (e) (f) (g) What are parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude? Why does the torrid zone receive maximum amount of heat? Why is it 5.30 p.m. in India and 12.00 noon in London? The value of the prime meridian is (ii) 0 The frigid zone lies near (iii) 60 (b) (c) (i) the Poles (i) 360 (i) (ii) the Equator (ii) 180 (iii) the Tropic of Cancer (iii) 90 The total number of longitudes are (d) The Antarctic circle is located in the Northern hemisphere the Eastern hemisphere parallels of latitudes and merdians of longitudes the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn the North Pole and the South Pole
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

Kabeer lives in a small town near Bhopal. He tells his friend Alok that they will not be able to sleep tonight. A day and night cricket match between India and England had started at 2 p.m. in London. This means that the match would begin at 7.30 p.m. in India and finish well into the night. Do you know what is the time difference between India and England? India located east of Greenwich at 8230' E is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT. So it will be 7:30 p.m. in India when it is 2:00 p.m. noon in London. Some countries have a great longitudinal extent and so they have adopted more than one standard time. For example, in Russia, there are as many as eleven standard times. The earth has been divided into twenty-four time zones of one hour each. Each zone thus covers 15 of longitude.

(ii)

the Southern hemisphere

(iii) (i)

(e)

Grid is a network of (ii)

(iii)

3. Fill in the blanks. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) The Tropic of Capricorn is located at _________________. The Standard Meridian of India is ____________________. The 0 Meridian is also known as ____________________. The distance between the longitudes decreases towards___________. The Arctic Circle is located in the ____________ hemisphere.

1. Draw a diagram of the globe showing the earths axis, the Equator, Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle.

1. Draw and cut out six circles of the same size (approx. 3 cm. radius) from cardboard. Mark diametres (NS, EW) and 23 o angles on each face of the circles as shown on the figure. Place the circle one on top of the other and stitch along the line NS. Now there are twelve semi-circles. Let one semi-circle represent 0o or Greenwich Meridian (Prime Meridian). The 6th semi-circle from it will be the 180o Meridian. Between the 0o and 180o there are 5 semi-circles on both sides which are West and East longitudes 30o apart. On two ends of the stapled line stick pins to represent the North and South Poles. A rubber band around the model touching the EW points will represent the Equator. Two rubber bands touching the 23 o points, South and North of the EW points will represent the tropics.

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GLOBE : LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES

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3
MOTIONS OF THE EARTH
Lets Do Take a ball to represent the earth and a lighted candle to represent the sun. Mark a point on the ball to represent a town X. Place the ball in such a way that the town X is in darkness. Now rotate the ball from left to right. As you move the ball slightly, the town will have its sunrise. As the ball continues to move, the point X gradually gets away from the sun. This is sunset.

Figure 3.1 : Inclination of the Earths axis and the orbital plane

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Figure 3.2 : Day and Night on the Earth due to rotation

As you know that the earth has two types of motions, namely rotation and revolution. Rotation is the movement of the earth on its axis. The movement of the earth around the sun in a fixed path or orbit is called Revolution. The axis of the earth which is an imaginary line, makes an angle of 66 with its orbital plane . The plane formed by the orbit is known as the orbital plane. The earth receives light from the sun. Due to the spherical shape of the earth, only half of it gets light from the sun at a time (Figure 3.2). The portion facing the sun experiences day while the other half away from the sun experiences night. The circle that divides the day from night on the globe is called the circle of illumination . This circle does not coincide with the axis as you see in the Figure 3.2. The earth takes about 24 hours to complete one rotation around its axis. The period of rotation is known as the earthday. This is the daily motion of the earth.

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What would happen if the earth did not rotate? The portion of the earth facing the sun would always experience day, thus bringing continuous warmth to the region. The other half would remain in darkness and be freezing cold all the time. Life would not have been possible in such extreme conditions. The second motion of the earth around the sun in its orbit is called revolution. It takes 365 days (one year) to revolve around the sun. We consider a year as consisting of 365 days only and ignore six hours for the sake of convenience.

Figure 3.3 : Revolution of the Earth and Seasons

Six hours saved every year are added to make one day (24 hours) over a span of four years. This surplus day is added to the month of February. Thus every fourth year, February is of 29 days instead of 28 days. Such a year with 366 days is called a leap year. Find out when will the next leap year be? From the Figure 3.3, it is clear that the earth is going around the sun in an elliptical orbit. Notice that throughout its orbit, the earth is inclined in the same direction. A year is usually divided into summer, winter, spring and autumn seasons. Seasons change due to the change in the position of the earth around the sun.

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MOTIONS OF THE EARTH

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Lets Do Do you know how to draw an ellipse? Take a pencil, two pins and a loop of thread. Now fix these pins on a paper as shown in the figure. Put the loop on the paper enclosing these two pins inside the loop. Now hold the pencil and draw the line keeping the thread tight and moving the pencil along it. The figure represents an ellipse.

Lets Do

To understand the earths inclination in the same direction, draw a big ellipse on the ground and take a flag w i t h a stick. Stand anywhere on the line of the ellipse. Point your flag to a fixed point far away like on a tree-top. Now move along the ellipse keeping your flag always pointing towards that fixed point. In this way, the axis of the earth remains inclined permanently in the same position. The revolution of the earth and the inclination of the earths axis in a fixed direction cause seasons.

Look at the Figure 3.3. You will see that on 21st June, the Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun. The rays of the sun fall directly on the Tropic of Cancer. As a result, these areas receive more heat. The areas near the poles receive less heat as the rays of the sun are slanting. The North Pole is inclined towards the sun and the places beyond the Arctic Circle experience continuous daylight for about six months. Since a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere is getting light from the sun, it is summer in the regions north of the equator. The longest day and the shortest night at these places occur on 21st June. At this time in the Southern Hemisphere all these conditions are reversed. It is winter season there. The nights are longer than the days. This position of the earth is called the Summer Solstice. On 22 nd December, the Tropic of Capricorn receives direct rays of the sun as the South Pole tilts towards it. As the suns rays fall vertically at the Tropic of Capricorn (23 S), a larger portion of the Southern Hemisphere gets light. Therefore, it is summer in the Southern Hemisphere with longer days and shorter nights. The reverse happens in the Northern Hemisphere. This position of the earth is called the Winter Solstice . Do you know that Christmas is celebrated in Australia in the summer season? On 21st March and September 23rd, direct rays of the sun fall on the equator. At this position, neither of the poles is tilted towards the sun; so, the whole earth experiences equal days and equal nights. This is called an equinox. On 23rd September, it is autumn season in the Northern Hemisphere and spring season in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite is the case on 21st March,
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

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when it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. Thus, you find that there are days and nights and changes in the seasons because of the rotation and revolution of the earth respectively.

1. Answer the following questions briefly.

(b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Define rotation and revolution. What is a leap year? Differentiate between the Summer and Winter Solstice. What is an equinox?

(g)

2. Tick the correct answers. (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3. Fill in the blanks.

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(a)

(b) (c)

(d) (e)

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The movement of the earth around the sun is known as (i) Rotation (ii) Revolution (iii) Inclination Direct rays of the sun fall on the equator on (ii) 21 June (i) 21 March (iii) 22 December Christmas is celebrated in summer in (i) Japan (ii) India (iii) Australia Cycle of the seasons is caused due to (i) Rotation (ii) Revolution (iii) Gravitation A leap year has _______________ number of days. The daily motion of the earth is _______________. The earth travels around the sun in ______________ orbit. The suns rays fall vertically on the Tropic of ___________ on 21st June. Days are shorter during ___________ season.

Why does the Southern Hemisphere experience Winter and Summer Solstice in different times than that of the Northern Hemisphere? Why do the poles experience about six months day and six months night?

MOTIONS OF THE EARTH

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(a)

What is the angle of inclination of the earths axis with its orbital plane?

1. Make a drawing to show the inclination of the earth. 2. Record the timings of sunrise and sunset at your place taking help from your local newspaper on the 21st of each month and answer the following : (a) In which month are the days the shortest? (b) In which months are the days and nights nearly equal?

1. Draw different shapes of ellipses by placing two pins nearer and farther using the same loop of thread. Notice when the ellipse becomes circular.

2. On any sunny day, take a straight stick that is one metre long. Find out a clean and level place on the ground. Place this stick into the ground where it casts a distinctive (sharp) shadow. Step (1): Mark the tip of the shadow with a stone or a twig or by any other means. The first shadow mark is always towards the west. See after 15 minutes and mark the tip of the shadow again. By then it would have moved a few centimetres away. Now join the two points and you have an approximate east-west line.

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Step (2) : Stand with the first mark to your left and the second mark to your right you are now facing north. This fact is true everywhere on the earth because the earth rotates in west to east direction. An alternative method is more accurate but requires more time. Set up your shadow stick and mark the first shadow in the morning. Use a piece of string to draw a clean arc through this mark around the stick. At mid-day, the shadow will shrink or disappear. In the afternoon, it will lengthen again and at the point where it touches the arc, make a second mark. Draw a line through the two marks to get an accurate east-west line.
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

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4
MAPS

You have learnt in the previous chapter about the advantages of a globe. However, globe has limitations as well. A globe can be useful when we want to study the earth as a whole. But, when we want to study only a part of the earth, as about our country, states, districts, towns and villages, it is of little help. In such a situation we use maps. A map is a representation or a drawing of the earths surface or a part of it drawn on a flat surface according to a scale. But it is impossible to flatten a round shape completely. We find that maps are useful to us for various purposes. One map shows a small area and a few facts. Another map may contain as many facts as a big book. When many maps are put together we get an Atlas. Atlases are of various sizes, measurements drawn on different scales. Maps provide more information than a globe. They are of different types. Some of them are described below.

P HYSICAL MAPS

Maps showing natural features of the earth such as mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, oceans etc. are called physical or relief maps.

P OLITICAL MAPS

Maps showing cities, towns and villages, and different countries and states of the world with their boundaries are called political maps.

THEMATIC MAPS
Some maps focus on specific information; such as road

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Lets Do Take an old rubber ball and draw whatever you like all over it. You may also mark north pole and south pole on it. Now cut this ball with a knife and try to flatten it. Notice how the drawings are distorted.

maps, rainfall maps, maps showing distribution of forests, industries etc. are known as thematic maps. Suitable titles are given on the basis of information provided in these maps. There are three Components of Maps distance, direction and symbol.

DISTANCE
Maps are drawings, which reduce the entire world or a part of it to fit on a sheet of paper. Or we can say maps are drawn to reduced scales. But this reduction is done very carefully so that the distance between the places is real. It can only be possible when a small distance on paper represents a large distance on the ground. Therefore, a scale is chosen for this purpose. Scale is the ratio between the actual distance on the ground and the distance shown on the map. For example, the distance between your school and your home is 10 km. If you show this 10 km. distance by 2 cm on a map, it means, 1 cm on the map will show 5 km. on the ground. The scale of your drawing will be 1cm = 5 km. Thus, scale is very important in any map. If you know the scale, you will be able to calculate the distance between any two places on a map. When large areas like continents or countries are to be shown on a paper, then we use a small scale. For example 5 cm. on the map shows 500 km. of the ground. It is called a small scale map. When a small area like your village or town is to be shown on paper, then we use a large scale that is 5 cm. on the map shows 500 metres only on the ground. It is called a large scale map. Large scale maps give more information than small scale maps.

Look at the Figure 4.1. There is a scale. It may be used for measuring distance between places. For example the distance between the well and the tree is 5 cm. It means that the actual distance is 50 metres. Now the distance between the PO (A) to Karims house (E) is 12 cm. It means 120 metres on the ground but you can not fly like a bird directly from E to A. You will have to walk on the road. Let us measure the total walking distance from E to C, then C to M, M to B and B to A. Add all these distances. This will be the total walking distance from Karims house to the post office.

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Lets Do

DIRECTION

Most maps contain an arrow marked with the letter N at the upper right hand corner. This arrow shows the north direction. It is called the north line. When you know the north, you can find out other directions, for example east, west and south. There are four major
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

Figure 4.1 : Map of a village

directions, North, South, East and West {Figure 4.2 (a)}. They are called cardinal points. Other four intermediate directions are north-east (NE), southeast(SE), south-west (SW) and north-west (NW). We can locate any place more accurately with the help of these intermediate directions. Find out the following directions from the Figure 4.1: (a) The direction of the Community Centre, the playground from Vikass house (b) the direction of school from shops. We can find out the direction of a place with the help of a compass. It is an instrument used to find out main directions. Its magnetic needle always points towards north-south direction {Figure 4.2 (b)}.

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Figure 4.2 (a) : Cardinal Directions
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Figure 4.2 (b) : A compass 25

SYMBOLS
It is the third important component of a map. It is not possible to draw on a map the actual shape and size of different features such as buildings, roads, bridges, trees, railway lines or a well. So, they are shown by using certain letters, shades, colours, pictures and lines These symbols give a lot of information in a limited space. With the use of these symbols, maps can be drawn easily and are simple to read. Even if you dont know the language of an area and therefore cannot ask someone for directions, you can collect information from maps with the help of these symbols. Maps have a universal language that can be understood by all. There is an international agreement regarding the use of these symbols. These are called conventional symbols. Some of the conventional symbols are shown in the Figure 4.3.

Figure 4.3 : Conventional Symbols

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Various colours are used for the same purpose. For example, generally blue is used for showing water bodies, brown for mountain, yellow for plateau and green is used for plains.
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Figure 4.4 : Sunderpur village and its surrounding areas

S KETCH

A sketch is a drawing mainly based on memory and spot observation and not to scale. Sometimes a rough drawing is required of an area to tell where a particular place is located with respect to other places. Suppose, you want to go to your friends house, but you dont know the way. Your friend may make a rough drawing to show the way to his house. Such a rough drawing is drawn without scale, and is called a sketch map.

P LAN

A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale. A large-scale map gives lot of information, but there are certain things which we may sometimes want to know for example the length and breadth of a room, which cant be shown in a map. At that time, we can refer drawings drawn to scale called a plan.

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Look at the Figure 4.4 and find out : (i) In which direction is the river flowing? (ii) What kind of road passes by the side of village Dumri? (iii) On what type of railway line is Sunderpur situated ? (iv) On which side of the railway bridge is the police station situated? (v) On which side of the railway line do the following lie : (a) Chhatri (b) Church (c) Pond (d) Mosque (e) River (f) Post and Telegraph Office (g) Graveyard
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1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) What are the three components of a map? What are the four cardinal directions? What do you mean by the term the scale of the map? How are maps more helpful than a globe? Distinguish between a map and a plan.

2. Tick the correct answers. (a)

1. 2.

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Which map provides detailed information? How do symbols help in reading maps? (g) Maps showing distribution of forests are (i) Physical map (ii) Thematic Map (iii) Political map (b) The blue colour is used for showing (i) Water bodies (ii) Mountains (iii) Plains (c) A compass is used (i) To show symbols (ii) To find the main direction (iii) To measure distance A scale is necessary (i) For a map (d) (ii) For a sketch (iii) For symbols Draw a plan of your classroom and show the teachers table, blackboard, desks, door and windows. Draw a sketch of your school and locate the following :
(a) the principals room (c) the playground (e) some big trees (b) your classroom (d) the library (f) drinking water
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1.

Make the plan (in the space given below) of a fun-park where you can enjoy several activities : for example swings, slides, see-saw, merry-go-round, boating, swimming, looking into funny mirrors, etc. or anything else that you can think of.

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5
MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH

Word Origin In the Greek language, Lithos means Stone; Atmos means Vapour; Hudor means Water; and Bios means Life. Can you make words using the above?

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As you have read in the first chapter, the earth is the only planet which has life. Human beings can live here because the life sustaining elements of land, water and air are present on the earth. The surface of the earth is a complex zone in which three main components of the environment meet, overlap and interact. The solid portion of the earth on which we live is called the Lithosphere. The gaseous layers that surround the earth, is the Atmosphere, where oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide and other gases are found. Water covers a very big area of the earths surface and this area is called the Hydrosphere . The Hydrosphere comprises water in all its forms, that is, ice, water and water vapour. The Biosphere is the narrow zone where we find land, water and air together, which contains all forms of life.

LITHOSPHERE

The solid portion of the earth is called the Lithosphere. It comprises the rocks of the earths crust and the thin layers of soil that contain nutrient elements which sustain organisms. There are two main divisions of the earths surface. The large landmasses are known as the continents and the huge water bodies are called the ocean basins. All the oceans of the world are connected with one another. Look at the map of the world (Figure 5.1). Are all the land masses connected with one another? The level of seawater remains the same everywhere. Elevation of land is measured from the level of the sea, which is taken as zero.

MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH

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Figure 5.1 : The World : Continents and Oceans

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Do you know? Edmund Hillary (New Zealand) and Tenzing Norgay Sherpa (India) were the first men to climb the highest mountain peak Mt. Everest on the planet earth on 29 th May, 1953. Junko Tabei (Japan) was the first woman to reach the summit on 16th May, 1975. The first Indian woman to climb the highest peak on 23rd May, 1984 was Bachendri Pal.

The highest mountain peak Mt. Everest is 8,848 metres above the sea level. The greatest depth of 11,022 metres is recorded at Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. Could you imagine that depth of sea is much more than the highest point? Continents There are seven major continents. These are separated by large water bodies. These continents are Asia, Europe, Africa, North America, South America, Australia and Antarctica. Look at the map of the world (Figure 5.1) and notice that the greater part of the land mass lies in the Northern Hemisphere. Asia is the largest continent. It covers about onethird of the total land area of the earth. The continent lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer passes through this continent. Asia is separated from Europe by the Ural mountains on the west (Figure 5.1). The combined landmass of Europe and Asia is called the Eurasia (Europe + Asia). Europe is much smaller than Asia. The continent lies to the west of Asia. The Arctic Circle passes through it. It is bound by water bodies on three sides. Look at the map of the world and locate it. Africa is the second largest continent after Asia. The Equator or 00 latitude runs almost through the middle of the continent. A large part of Africa lies in the Northern Hemisphere. Look at the Figure 5.1; you will find that it is the only continent through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass. The Sahara Desert, the worlds largest hot desert, is located in Africa. The continent is bound on all sides by oceans and seas. Look at the world map (Figure 5.1). You will notice that the worlds longest river the Nile, flows through Africa. Notice where the Equator, the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn pass in the map of Africa. North America is the third largest continent of the world. It is linked to South America by a very narrow strip of land called the Isthmus of Panama. The continent lies completely in the Northern and Western Hemisphere. Three oceans surround this continent. Can you name these oceans?
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

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HYDROSPHERE

The earth is called the blue planet. More than 71 per cent of the earth is covered with water and 29 per cent is with land. Hydrosphere consists of water in all its forms. As running water in oceans and rivers and in lakes, ice in glaciers, underground water and the water vapour in atmosphere, all comprise the hydrosphere. More than 97% of the Earths water is found in the oceans and is too salty for human use. A large proportion of the rest of the water is in the form of icesheets and glaciers or under the ground and a very small percentage is available as fresh water for human

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South America lies mostly in the Southern Hemisphere. Which two oceans surround it on the east and the west? The Andes, worlds longest mountain range, runs through its length from north to south (Figure 5.1). South America has the worlds largest river, the Amazon. Australia is the smallest continent that Name the Strait lies entirely in the between India Southern Hemisphere. and Sri Lanka. It is surrounded on all sides by the oceans and seas. It is called an Figure 5.2 : Isthmus and Strait island continent. Antarctica, completely in the Southern Hemisphere, is a huge continent. The South Pole lies almost at the centre of this continent. As it is located in the South Polar Region, it is permanently covered with thick ice sheets. There are no permanent human settlements. Many countries have research stations in Antarctica. India also has research stations there. These are named as Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.

use. Hence, despite being a blue planet we face a shortage of water!!

Figure 5.3 : Comparative size of the continents

Count the squares given in Figure 5.3 and answer the following : (a) Name the largest continent; (b) Which is larger Europe or Australia?

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Oceans Oceans are the major part of hydrosphere. They are all interconnected. The ocean waters are always moving. The three chief movements of ocean waters are the waves, the tides and the ocean currents. The four major oceans are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Ocean, in order of their size (Figure 5.1). The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. It is spread over one-third of the earth. Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the earth, lies in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Ocean is almost circular in shape. Asia, Australia,
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ATMOSPHERE

The earth is surrounded by a layer of gas called the atmosphere. This thin blanket of air is an integral Thermosphere and important aspect of the planet. It provides us with the air we breathe and protects us from the harmful effects of suns rays. The atmosphere extends up to a height of about Mesosphere 1,600 kilometres. The atmosphere is divided into five layers based on composition, temperature and other properties. These layers starting from earths surface are called the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere. Stratosphere The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen, which make up about 99 per cent of clean, dry air. Nitrogen 78 per cent, oxygen 21 per cent and other gases like carbondioxide, argon and others Troposphere comprise 1 per cent by volume. Oxygen is the breath of life while nitrogen helps in the growth of living organisms. Carbon dioxide, though present in minute amount, is important as it absorbs heat radiated by the earth, thereby keeping the planet warm. It is also essential for the growth of plants. The density of the atmosphere varies with height. It Figure 5.4 : Layers of the Atmosphere

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Exosphere

North and South Americas surround it. Look at the map and find out the location of the continents around the Pacific Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest Ocean in the world. It is S shaped. It is flanked by the North and South Americas on the western side, and Europe and Africa on the eastern side. The coastline of Atlantic Ocean is highly indented. This irregular and indented coastline provides ideal location for natural harbours and ports. From the point of view of commerce, it is the busiest Ocean. The Indian Ocean is the only ocean named after a country, that is, India. The shape of ocean is almost triangular. In the north, it is bound by Asia, in the west by Africa and in the east by Australia. The Arctic Ocean is located within the Arctic Circle and surrounds the North Pole. It is connected with the Pacific Ocean by a narrow stretch of shallow water known as Berring strait. It is bound by northern coasts of North America and Eurasia.

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Figure 5.5 : A mountaineer

Figure 5.6 : The Biosphere 36


THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

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BIOSPHERE THE DOMAIN
OF

is maximum at the sea level and decreases rapidly as we go up. You know, the climbers experience problems in breathing due to this decrease in the density of air. They have to carry with them oxygen cylinders to be able to breathe at high altitudes. The temperature also decreases as we go upwards. The atmosphere exerts pressure on the earth. This varies from place to place. Some areas experience high pressure and some areas low pressure. Air moves from high pressure to low pressure. Moving air is known as wind.

LIFE

The biosphere is the narrow zone of contact between the land, water and air. It is in this zone that life, that is unique to this planet, exists. There are several

1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a)

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What are the four major domains of the earth? Name the major continents of the earth. (b) Name the two continents that lie entirely in the Southern Hemisphere. Name the different layers of atmosphere. Why is the earth called the blue planet? Why is the Northern Hemisphere called the Land Hemisphere? Why is the Biosphere important for living organisms? 37

species of organisms that vary in size from microbes and bacteria to huge mammals. All the living organisms including humans are linked to each other and to the biosphere for survival. The organisms in the biosphere may broadly be divided into the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom. The three domains of the earth interact with each other and affect each other in some way or the other. For example, cutting of forests for fulfilling our needs of wood, or clearing land for agriculture may lead to fast removal of soil from slopes. Similarly earths surface may be changed due to natural calamities like earthquakes. For example, there could be submergence of land, as happened in the case of Tsunami recently. Parts of Andaman & Nicobar islands were submerged under water. Discharge of waste material into lakes and rivers makes the water unsuitable for human use. It also damages other forms of life. Emission from industries, thermal power plants and vehicles, pollute the air. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important constituent of air. But increase in the amount of CO2 leads to increase in global temperatures. This is termed as global warming. There is thus, a need to limit the use of resources of the earth to maintain the balance of nature between the domains of the lithosphere, the atmosphere and the hydrosphere.

2. Tick the correct answers. (a) The mountain range that separates Europe from Asia is (i) the Andes (b) (ii) the Himalayas (iii) the Urals

The continent of North America is linked to South America by (i) an Isthmus (ii) a Strait (iii) a Canal

(c)

The major constituent of atmosphere by per cent is (i) Nitrogen (ii) Oxygen (iii) Carbon dioxide

(d)

The domain of the earth consisting of solid rocks is (i) the Atmosphere (ii) the Hydrosphere (iii) the Lithosphere

3. Fill in the blanks. (a)

1. 2. 3.

Map Skills 1.

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(e) Which is the largest continent? (i) Africa (ii) Asia (iii) Australia The deepest point on the earth is _____________ in the Pacific Ocean. The _____________ Ocean is named after a country. (b) (c) The _____________ is a narrow contact zone of land, water and air that supports life. (d) (e) The continents of Europe and Asia together are known as _____________. The highest mountain peak on the earth is _____________. Cut the outline of the continents from an outline map of the world and arrange them according to their decreasing sizes. Cut the outline of the continents from an outline map of the world and try to fit them together as a jig-saw puzzle. Collect pictures of expeditions to the Himalayas. Write about the kind of equipment carried by the climbers for protection against sunshine, temperature and the lack of air. On the outline map of the world, mark the following : Europe, Asia, Antarctica, South America, Australia, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Ural Mountains and Isthmus of Panama.
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6
MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
You must have seen some of the landform features as shown in the Figure 6.1 below. You will notice that the surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat. These landforms are a result of two processes. You will be amazed to know that the ground you are standing on is slowly moving. Within the earth, a continuous movement is taking place. The first, or the internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earths surface at several places.

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Figure 6.1 : Landforms

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Do you know? A hill is a land surface that rises higher than the surrounding area. Generally, a steep hill with an elevation of more than 600 metres is termed as a mountain. Name some mountains with a height of more than 8,000 metres.

Lets Do Making of Mountain : a

A Fold Mountain Crust

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Figure 6.2 : Fold Mountains (Himalayas) 40

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A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface. The mountains may have a small summit and a broad base. It is considerably higher than the surrounding area. Some mountains are even higher than the clouds. As you go higher, the climate becomes colder. In some mountains, there are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers. There are some mountains you cannot see as they are under the sea. Because of harsh climate, less people live in the mountain areas. Since the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming.
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1. All you require is a pile of paper. 2. Put the papers on your table. 3. Push the papers from both sides by your hands. 4. The sheet will be folded and rise into a peak. 5. You have made a mountain! In the same process our Himalayas and the Alps were formed!

The second, or the external process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface. The wearing away of the earths surface is called erosion. The surface is being lowered by the process of erosion and rebuilt by the process of deposition. These two processes are carried out by running water, ice and wind. Broadly, we can group different landforms depending on elevation and slope as mountains, plateaus and plains.

MOUNTAINS

Mountains may be arranged in a line known as range. Many mountain systems consist of a series of parallel ranges extending over hundreds of kilometres. The Himalayas, the Alps and the Andes are mountain ranges of Asia, Europe and South America, respectively (Figure 5.1). Mountains vary in their heights and shape. There are three types of mountains- F o l d Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains with rugged relief and high conical peaks. The Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems in the world. The range has considerably worn down due to the processes of erosion. The Appalachians in North America and the Ural mountains in Russia (Figure 5.1) have rounded features and low elevation. They are very old fold mountains. Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically. The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben. The Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems. Locate them on the world map in the atlas and find out some more examples of this type of landforms. Volcanic mountains are Figure 6.3 : A Block Mountain formed due to volcanic activity. Mt.Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt.Fujiyama in Japan are examples of such mountains. Mountains are very useful. The mountains are a storehouse of water. Many rivers have their source in the glaciers in the mountains. Reservoirs are made and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity. The river valleys and terraces are ideal for cultivation of crops. Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna. The forests provide fuel, fodder, shelter and other products like

Do you know? Mauna Kea (Hawaii) in the Pacific Ocean is an undersea mountain. It is higher than Mount Everest being 10,205 metres high.

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Figure 6.4 : A Volcanic Mountain

Can you name this sport?

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Figure 6.5 : Plateau 42

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gum, raisins, etc. Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists. They visit the mountains for their scenic beauty. Several sports like paragliding, hang gliding, river rafting and skiing are popular in the mountains. Can you name some places in the Himalayas associated with these sports?

P LATEAUS

A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes. The height of plateaus often varies from few hundred metres to several thousand metres. Plateaus, like mountains may be young or old. The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus. The East African Plateau in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and the Western plateau of Australia are other examples. The Tibet plateau (Figure 5.1, p.31) is the highest plateau in the world with a height of 4,000 to 6,000 metres above the mean sea level. Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in mineral deposits. As a result, many of the mining areas in the world are located in the plateau areas. The
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining. In India huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese are found in the Chhotanagpur plateau. In the plateau areas, there may be several waterfalls as the river falls from a great height. In India, the Hundru falls in the Chhotanagpur plateau on the river Subarnarekha and the Jog falls in Karnataka are examples of such waterfalls. The lava plateaus are rich in black soil that are fertile and good for cultivation. Many plateaus have scenic spots and are of great attraction to tourists.

P LAINS

Figure 6.6 : Plains 43

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Plains are large stretches of flat land. They are, generally, not more than 200 metres above mean sea level. Some plains are extremely level. Others may be slightly rolling and undulating. Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed. Generally, plains are very fertile. Construction of transport network is easy. Thus, these plains are very thickly-populated regions of the world. Some of the largest plains made by the rivers are found in Asia and North America. For example, in Asia, these plains are formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra in India and the Yangtze in China. Plains are the most useful areas for human habitation. There is great concentration of people as more flat land is available for building houses, as well as for cultivation.

Because of fertile soils, the land is highly productive for cultivation. In India too, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the most densely populated regions of the country.

LANDFORMS

AND THE

PEOPLE

1. Look carefully at photograph nos. 1-10. Write one sentence about each of the photograph. 2. Name the landform features shown in the photograph nos. 1,2 and 7. 3. What appears to be the main use of this land? (Photograph no. 9) 4. What activities do you see in the photograph nos. 3,6,8 and 9.

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THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT

Humans have been living on different kinds of landforms in different ways. Life is difficult in mountainous areas. Plains provide much better conditions. It is easy to grow crops, build a house or a road in a plain than a mountain. Can you point out some differences in the ways people live on different kinds of landforms? Sometimes, natural calamities such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption, storms and floods cause widespread destruction. Huge loss of life and property takes place. By creative awareness about such incidences we may lower the risks. Figure 6.7 : Rope You may find out from your own Bridge (Arunachal Pradesh) surroundings in how many ways we use the land and water. Quite often we use the land in a wasteful manner, for example constructing houses on a fertile land. Similarly we throw garbage on land or in water making them dirty. We should avoid using such important gifts of nature in a careless manner. The available land is not only for our use. It is our duty to leave Figure 6.8 : A polluted river the earth a better place for future generations as well.

5. What type of houses do you see in photograph nos. 4 and 5. 6. Name the water sports/games shown in photograph nos. 3 & 8. 7. Name two means of transport shown in photograph nos. 1 and 10.

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1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) What are the major landforms? What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau? What are the different types of mountains? How are mountains useful to man? How are plains formed? Why are the river plains thickly populated? Why are mountains thinly populated?

2. Tick the correct answers. (a) (b) (c) (i) elevation

3. Fill in the blanks. 1. 2. 3. 5.

1. What kind of landforms are found in your state? Based on the reading of this chapter, say how they are of use to the people.

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Map Skills (a) (b)

1. On an outline map of the world, mark the following : Mountain ranges: Himalayas, Rockies and Andes. Plateau : Tibet.

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The mountains differ from the hills in terms of (ii) slope (iii) aspect Glaciers are found in (i) the mountains (i) Kenya (ii) the plains (iii) the plateaus (iii) India The Deccan Plateau is located in (ii) Australia (d) (e) The river Yangtze flows in (i) South America (i) the Andes (ii) Australia (ii) the Alps (iii) China An important mountain range of Europe is (iii) the Rockies A ___________ is an unbroken flat or a low-level land. The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of _______________types of mountains. _____________ areas are rich in mineral deposits. The _________________ is a line of mountains. 4. The ____________areas are most productive for farming.
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7
OUR COUNTRY INDIA
India is a country of vast geographical expanse. In the north, it is bound by the lofty Himalayas. The Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Indian Ocean in the south, wash the shores of the Indian peninsula. India has an area of about 3.28 million sq. km. The north-south extent from Kashmir to Kanyakumari is about 3,200 km. And the east-west extent from Arunachal Pradesh to Kuchchh is about 2,900 km. The lofty mountains, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern Plains, the uneven plateau surface and the coasts and islands present a diversity of landforms. There is a great variety in the climate, vegetation, wildlife as well as in the language and culture. In this diversity, we find unity that is reflected in traditions that bind us as one nation. India has a population of more than a hundred crores since the year 2001. It is the second most populous country of the world after China.

LOCATIONAL SETTING

India is located in the northern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer (2330'N) passes almost halfway through the country (Figure 7.2). From south to north, main land of India extends between 84'N and 376'N latitudes. From west to east, India extends between 687'E and 9725'E longitudes. If we divide the world into eastern and western hemispheres, which hemisphere would India belong to? Due to great longitudinal extent of about 29, there could be a wide differences in local time of places located at two extreme points of India. As such, the difference between these two points would be of

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The peninsula is a piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides (figure 6.1). Do you know? Large countries whic h stretch extensively from east to west do not have a single Standard Time for the whole country. The USA and Canada have seven and six time zones respectively. Do you remember how many time zones are there in Russia?

about two hours. As you have learnt earlier, the local time changes by four minutes for every one degree of longitude. The sun rises two hours earlier in the east (Arunachal Pradesh) than in the west (Gujarat). You have already read earlier, why the local time of longitude of 8230' E has been taken as the Indian Standard Time. This meridian or longitude is also termed as the Standard Meridian of India.

INDIAS NEIGHBOURS
There are seven countries that share land boundaries with India. Find out names

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Figure 7.1 : India and its neighbouring countries 48
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N TA S I K PA
N

CHINA
(TIBET)

Figure 7.2 : Political map of India


OUR COUNTRY INDIA

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E P A L
BHUTAN BANGLADESH MYANMAR

49

of these countries from the Figure 7.1. How many of these countries do not have access to any ocean or sea? Across the sea to the south, lie our island neighbours Sri Lanka and Maldives. Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Palk Strait.

P OLITICAL

AND

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

India is a vast country. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into 28

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Figure 7.3 : India : Physical Divisions 50
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States and 7 Union Territories (Appendix-I). Delhi is the national capital. The states have been formed mainly on the basis of languages. Rajasthan is the largest state and Goa is the smallest state in terms of area. The states are further divided into districts.

Alluvial deposits : These are very fine soils, brought by rivers and deposited in the river basins. Tributary : A river or stream which contributes its water to a main river by discharging it into main river from either side (Figure 6.1).

P HYSICAL DIVISIONS
India is marked by a diversity of physical features such as mountains, plateaus, plains, coasts and islands. Standing as sentinels in the north are the lofty snowcapped Himalayas. Him+alaya mean the abode of snow. The Himalayan mountains are divided into three main parallel ranges. The northernmost is the Great Himalaya or Himadri. The worlds highest peaks are located in this range. Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to the south of Himadri. Many popular hill stations are situated here. Find out the names of five hill stations. The Shiwalik is the southernmost range. The Northern Indian plains lie to the south of the Himalayas. They are generally level and flat. These are formed by the alluvial deposits laid down by the rivers the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries. These river plains provide fertile land for cultivation. That is the reason for high concentration of population in these plains. In the western part of India lies the Great Indian desert. It is a dry, hot and sandy stretch of land. It has very little vegetation. To the south of northern plains lies the Peninsular plateau. It is triangular in shape. The relief is highly uneven. This is a region with numerous hill ranges and valleys. Aravali hills, one of the oldest ranges of the world, border it on the north-west side. The Vindhyas and the Satpuras are the important ranges. The rivers Narmada and Tapi flow through these ranges. These are west-flowing rivers that drain into the Arabian Sea. The Western Ghats or Sahyadris border the plateau in the west and the Eastern Ghats provide the eastern boundary. While the Western Ghats are almost continuous, the Eastern Ghats are broken and uneven (Figure 7.3). The plateau is rich in minerals like coal and iron-ore. To the West of the Western Ghats and the East of Eastern Ghats lie the Coastal plains . The western

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Do you know? The Ganga and the Brahmaputra form the worlds largest delta, the Sundarbans delta . The delta is triangular in shape. It is an area of land formed at the mouth of the river (Where rivers enter the sea, that point is called the mouth of the river, Figure 6.1). Lets Do Many girls are named after rivers eg. Yamuna, Mandakini, and Kaveri. Do you know anyone in your locality who is named after a river? Ask your parents and others and make a list of such names. Could you also find other names related to water e.g. Shabnam?
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Do you know? Corals are skeletons of tiny marine animals called Polyps. When the living polyps die, their skeletons are left. Other poplyps grow on top of the hard skeleton which grows higher and higher, thus forming the coral islands. Figure 7.4 shows Coral islands.

Figure 7.4 : Coral Islands

coastal plains are very narrow. The eastern Coastal plains are much broader. There are a number of east flowing rivers. The rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri drain into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers have formed fertile deltas at their mouth. The Sunderban delta is formed where the Ganga and Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal. Danger Waters

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OUR COUNTRY INDIA

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1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a) (b) (c)

2. Tick the correct answers. (a)

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Name the major physical divisions of India. India shares its land boundaries with seven countries. Name them. Which two major rivers fall into the Arabian Sea? (d) (e) (f) Name the delta formed by the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. How many States and Union Territories are there in India? Which states have a common capital? Why do a large number of people live in the Northern plains? Why is Lakshadweep known as a coral island? (g) The southernmost Himalayas are known as (i) Shiwaliks (ii) Himadri (iii) Himachal (b) Sahyadris is also known as (i) Aravali (ii) Western Ghats (iii) Himadri (c) The Palk Strait lies between the countries (i) Sri Lanka and Maldives (ii) India and Sri Lanka (iii) India and Maldives The Indian islands in the Arabian Sea are known as (i) Andaman and Nicobar Islands (d) (ii) Lakshadweep Islands (iii) Maldives
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Two groups of islands also form part of India. Lakshadweep Islands are located in the Arabian Sea . These are coral islands located off the coast of Kerala. The Andaman and the Nicobar Islands lie to the southeast of the Indian mainland in the Bay of Bengal. Do you know which group of islands were affected by the Tsunami in 2004? Find out through newspaper reports and by speaking to people how in different ways people faced this challenge when Tsunami struck the Indian coast. Tsunami is a huge sea wave generated due to an earthquake on the sea floor.

(e)

The oldest mountain range in India is the (i) Aravali hills (ii) Western ghats (iii) Himalayas

3. Fill in the blanks. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) India has an area of about ________________. The Greater Himalayas are also known as_________________. The largest state in India in terms of area is__________________. The river Narmada falls into the __________________ sea. The latitude that runs almost halfway through India is ___________.

Map skills

1. On an outline map of India, mark the following. (a) (b) (c) (e) Tropic of Cancer

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Standard Meridian of India State in which you live (d) Andaman Islands and Lakshadweep Islands Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats 55

8
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

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You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or hear others talking about weather. You must know that weather is about day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for several days you dont need any warm clothing. You also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes when it is very windy and chilly, you would like to have something hot to eat. Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are: Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to February Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy) June to September Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October and November

COLD WEATHER SEASON

OR

WINTER

During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are quite low in northern India.

HOT WEATHER SEASON

OR

SUMMER

In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high. Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.

Lets have fun : 1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits available in their regions. They are excellent thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the ill-effect of the harsh loo. Have you tried Sharbat, made from raw mango, bel, lemon, tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and buttermilk made from curds; for example chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make banana and mango milkshakes too. 2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much joy. All our languages have melodious songs on rains. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn two songs on rains and sing them together. Write or collect five poems on rains. Ask your friends, neighbours and family members for names for rains and other seasons in different languages. For instance, Varsha Hindi Pous Marathi Barish Urdu Borsha Bengali

S OUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON

This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon. The winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers, rainfall occurs.

S EASON

OF

Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons. The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season. However, the climate is about the average weather condition, which have been measured over many years. The climate of India has broadly been described as Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word mausim, which means seasons. Due to Indias location in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a bountiful crop.

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OR

RAINY SEASON

R ETREATING MONSOONS

OR

AUTUMN

What would happen if monsoons were weak, or even worse, failed to occur one year? Tick () the correct answer.

Crops will beaffected/not affected

The level of the water in a well willcome-up/go-down Summer will belonger/shorter 57

Lets Do On a map of India, locate the places mentioned in the paragraph.

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Figure 8.1 : Tropical Rain Forests

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NATURAL VEGETATION
We see a variety of plant life in our surroundings. How nice it is to play in a field with green grasses. There are also small plants called bushes and shrubs like cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides there are many tall trees some with many branches and leaves like neem, mango or some which stand with few leaves such as palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation. Do you wonder how these differ from each other. Different types of natural vegetation are dependent on different climatic conditions, among which the amount of rainfall is very important. Due to varied climatic conditions, India has a wide range of natural vegetation. Vegetation of India can be divided into five types Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical deciduous forest, Thorny bushes, Mountain vegetation and Mangrove forests.

The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore, we experience regional differences in the climate of India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the coast, these places are very humid. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the worlds highest rainfall , while in a particular year it might not rain at all in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.

TROPICAL RAIN F OREST


Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas which receive heavy rainfall. They are so dense that sunlight doesnt reach the ground. Many species of trees are found in these forests, which shed their leaves at different times of the
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year. Therefore, they always appear green and are called evergreen forest as you may notice in Figure 8.1. Important trees found in these forests are mahogany, ebony and rosewood. Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and a narrow strip of the Western slope of the Western Ghats are home of these forests.

TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS


In a large part of our country we have this type of forest. These forests are also called monsoon forests. They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. Important trees of these forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham. They are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and in parts of Maharashtra.

Figure 8.2 : Tropical Deciduous Forests

This type of vegetation is found in dry areas of the country. The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water. Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are important and are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat.
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THORNY BUSHES

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Figure 8.3 : Thorny Bushes

Figure 8.4 : Mountain Vegetation

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Figure 8.5 : Mangrove Vegetation 60

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MOUNTAIN VEGETATION
A wide range of species is found in the mountains according to the variation in height. With increase in height, the temperature falls. At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres most of the trees are conical in shape. These trees are called coniferous trees. Chir, Pine and Deodar are important trees of these forests.

MANGROVE FORESTS
These forests can survive in saline water. They are found mainly in Sunderbans in

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West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sundari is a well-known species of trees in mangrove forests after which Sunderbans have been named.

WHY

ARE

FORESTS NECESSARY?

Figure 8.6 : What we get from forests 61

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Forests are very useful for us. They perform various functions. Plants release oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon dioxide. The roots of the plants bind the soil; thus, they control soil erosion. Forests provide us with timber for furniture, fuel wood, fodder, medicinal plants and herbs, lac, honey, gum, etc. Forests are the natural habitat of wild life. Natural vegetation has been destroyed to a large extent because of the reckless cutting of trees. We should plant more trees and protect the existing ones and make people aware of the importance of trees. We can have special programmes like Van Mahotsav to involve more people in making our earth green.

Leelas parents planted a sapling of neem to celebrate her birth. On each birthday, a different sapling was planted. It was watered regularly and protected from severe heat, cold and animals. Children took care not to harm it. When Leela was 20, twentyone beautiful trees, stood in and around her house. Birds built their nests on them, flowers bloomed, butterflies fluttered around them, children enjoyed their fruits, swung on their branches and played in their shade.

WILD LIFE
Forests are home to a variety of wild life. There are thousands of species of animals and a large variety of reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms which dwell in the forest.

Figure 8.7 : Wildlife

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The tiger is our national animal. It is found in various parts of the country. Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of Asiatic lions. Elephants and one-horned rhinoceroses roam in the forests of Assam. Elephants are also found in Kerala and Karnataka. Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann of Kuchchh respectively. Wild goats, snow leopards, bears, etc. are found in the Himalayan region. Besides these, many other animals are found in our country such as monkey, wolf, jackal, nilgai, cheetal, etc. India is equally rich in bird life. The peacock is our national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons, mynah, geese, bulbul and ducks. There are several bird sanctuaries which have been created to give birds their natural habitat. These provide the birds protection from hunters. Can you name five birds that are commonly found in your area?
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?

There are several hundreds of species of snakes found in India. Cobras and kraits are important among them. Due to cutting of forests and hunting, several species of wildlife of India are declining rapidly. Many species have already become extinct. In order to protect them many national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been set up. The Government has also started Project Tiger and Project Elephant to protect these animals. Can you name some wildlife sanctuaries of India and locate them on a map? You can also contribute in conserving wildlife. You can refuse to buy things made from parts of the bodies of animals such as their bones, horns, fur, skins, and feathers. Every year we observe wildlife week in the first week of October, to create awareness of conserving the habitats of the animal kingdom.

Why do poachers kill tigers? What will happen if tigers vanish from our forests? Have you ever visited any tiger reserves or a zoo where tigers are kept?

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Migratory Birds Some birds such as the Pelican, Siberian Crane, Stork, Flamingo, Pintail Duck and Curlew migrate to our country in the winter season every year. Siberian Cranes migrate from Siberia. They arrive in December and stay till early March.

1. Answer the following questions briefly. (a)

2. Tick the correct answers. (a)

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Stork a migratory bird Which winds bring rainfall in India? Why is it so important? Name the different seasons in India. (b) (c) What is natural vegetation? (d) (e) (f) Name the different types of vegetation found in India. What is the difference between evergreen forest and deciduous forest? Why is tropical rainforest also called evergreen forest? The worlds highest rainfall occurs in (i) Mumbai (ii) Asansol (iii) Mawsynram (b) Mangrove forests can thrive in (i) saline water (ii) fresh water (iii) polluted water (c) Mahogany and rosewood trees are found in (i) mangrove forests (ii) tropical deciduous forests (iii) tropical evergreen forests Wild goats and snow leopards are found in (i) Himalayan region (d) (ii) Peninsular region (iii) Gir forests
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(e)

During the south west monsoon period, the moisture laden winds blow from (i) land to sea (ii) sea to land (iii) plateau to plains

3. Fill in the blanks. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Hot and dry winds known as ________________ blow during the day in the summers. The states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu receive a great amount of rainfall during the season of________________. _____________ forest in Gujarat is the home of ________________. _____________ is a well-known species of mangrove forests. ____________ are also called monsoon forests.

1. 2.

3. 4.

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Make a list of trees in your neighbourhood and collect pictures of plants, animals and birds and paste them in your copy. Plant a sapling near your home and nurture it and write down the changes you observe for a few months. Does any migratory bird come in your locality? Try to identify that. Be watchful in the winter season. Visit a zoo in your city or visit a nearby forest or sanctuary with your elders. Look carefully at the various types of wildlife there. 65

APPENDIX I

State and Union Territories of India State Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Capital Hyderabad Itanagar Dispur Patna Raipur Panaji Union Territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra & Nagar Haveli Daman & Diu Lakshadweep Puducherry Capital Port Blair Chandigarh Silvassa Daman Kavaratti Puducherry Delhi

Himachal Pradesh

Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala

Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab

Rajasthan Sikkim

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Uttar Pradesh Tripura West Bengal
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Tamil Nadu Uttarakhand

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Gandhi Nagar Chandigarh National Capital Territory of Delhi Shimla Srinagar Ranchi Bangalore Thiruvananthapuram Bhopal Mumbai Imphal Shillong Aizawl Kohima Bhubaneswar Chandigarh Jaipur Gangtok Chennai Dehradun Lucknow Agartala Kolkata
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APPENDIX II

Some Internet Sources for more information

www.sci.edu/public.html www.si.edu and www.nasm.edu http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ discoveryschool.com/dysee www.futureforests.com/calculators/flightcalculatorshop.asp www.nationalgeographic.com/earthpulse http://www.cpcb.nic.in

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Foreword
The National Curriculum Framework (NCF), 2005, recommends that childrens life at school must be linked to their life outside the school. This principle marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape our system and causes a gap between the school, home and community. The syllabi and textbooks developed on the basis of NCF signify an attempt to implement this basic idea. They also attempt to discourage rote learning and the maintenance of sharp boundaries between different subject areas. We hope these measures will take us significantly further in the direction of a child-centred system of education outlined in the National Policy on Education (1986). The success of this effort depends on the steps that school principals and teachers will take to encourage children to reflect on their own learning and to pursue imaginative activities and questions. We must recognise that, given space, time and freedom, children generate new knowledge by engaging with the information passed on to them by adults. Treating the prescribed textbook as the sole basis of examination is one of the key reasons why other resources and sites of learning are ignored. Inculcating creativity and initiative is possible if we perceive and treat children as participants in learning, not as receivers of a fixed body of knowledge. These aims imply considerable change in school routines and mode of functioning. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigour in implementing the annual calendar so that the required number of teaching days are actually devoted to teaching. The methods used for teaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbook proves for making childrens life at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress or boredom. Syllabus designers have tried to address the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and reorienting knowledge at different stages with greater consideration for child psychology and the time available for teaching. The textbook attempts to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on experience. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) appreciates the hard work done by the textbook development committee responsible for this book. We wish to thank the Chairperson of the advisory committee for textbooks in Social Sciences, at the higher secondary level, Professor Hari Vasudevan and the Chief Advisor for this book, Vibha Parthasarathi for guiding

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New Delhi 20 November 2006

Director National Council of Educational Research and Training

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the work of this committee. Several teachers contributed to the development of this textbook; we are grateful to their principals for making this possible. We are indebted to the institutions and organisations which have generously permitted us to draw upon their resources, material and personnel. We are especially grateful to the members of the National Monitoring Committee, appointed by the Department of Secondary and Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development under the Chairpersonship of Professor Mrinal Miri and Professor G.P. Deshpande, for their valuable time and contribution. As an organisation committed to systemic reform and continuous improvement in the quality of its products, NCERT welcomes comments and suggestions which will enable us to undertake further revision and refinement.

Hari Vasudevan, Professor, Department of History, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

Vibha Parthasarathi, Principal (Retd.), Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, New Delhi

MEMBERS

Anindita Sarkar, Lecturer, Miranda House, Delhi University, Delhi Anshu, Reader, Kirorimal College, Univeristy of Delhi, Delhi Ekta Sindhu, PGT, Indus Public School, Rohtak Mehar Singh, PGT, St. Marys School, Dwarka Rekha Lohan, PGT, Motilal Nehru School of Sports, Rai Samita Dasgupta, PGT, Anandalaya, Anand, Gujarat Syamala Srivatsa, TGT, Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, New Delhi

MEMBER COORDINATOR

Tannu Malik, Lecturer, Department of Education in Social Sciences and Humanities, NCERT, New Delhi

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CHIEF ADVISOR

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CHAIRPERSON, ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR TEXTBOOKS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE AT THE UPPER PRIMARY LEVEL

Acknowledgements
The National Council of Educational Research and Training acknowledges the contributions of Daulat Patel, Teacher (Retd.), Sardar Patel Vidyalaya, New Delhi; Swagata Basu, Lecturer, SSV (PG) College, Hapur and Shipra Nair, Darjiling in the development of this textbook. Acknowledgements are also due to Savita Sinha, Professor and Head, Department of Education in Social Sciences and Humanities, NCERT for her valuable support at every stage of preparation of this textbook. The Council is also grateful to the individuals and organisations as listed below for providing various photographs, illustrations and activity used in this textbook: Anshu, Reader, Kirorimal College, Delhi for photographs on page 14,18, 55,61,62, 67, 76 and Fig. 3.8, 6.2, 6.5, 6.6, 6.9, 6.10, 6.15, 7.7, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.11, 8.12, 9.4, 9.7 and 10.3; Seema Mathur, Reader, Sri Aurobindo College (Evening), New Delhi for Fig. 6.7, 6.12 and 7.1; Krishan Sheoran from Austria for a photograph on page 55, Fig. 6.13(a), 7.2, 7.3 and 7.5; Gitanjali Tahlan and Parikshit Tahlan from Rohtak for photographs on page 15, 61, Fig. 5.3, and 6.13(b); R. Pelisson, Sahara Met for Fig. 10.1; Shveta Uppal, NCERT for photographs on page 1, 5, 18 and Fig. 6.3, 7.4 and 7.8; Kalyan Banerjee, NCERT for a photograph on page 18, Fig. 6.1 and 7.9; ITDC/Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India for pictures on page 9, 76 and Fig. 3.9, 6.8, 7.6, 8.7, 8.9, 8.10, 8.13, 8.14, 10.5 and 10.6; DMD/ Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India for photographs on page 25, 35 and Fig. 3.3; Bluefish for photographs on page 9, 55, 61, Fig. 6.1, 7.6, and 9.6; Directorate of Extension, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India for a photograph on page 48; www.terradaily.com for Fig. 9.1; Times of India, New Delhi for news on page. 21, 33 and 50; Social Science Textbook for Class VII, part II (NCERT, 2005) for Fig. 6.11, 8.3 and 9.3 and Centre for Environmental Education, Ahmedabad for an activity on page 32. The Council also gratefully acknowledges the contribution of Anil Sharma, DTP Operator; Ajay Singh, Copy Editor and Dinesh Kumar, Incharge, Computer Station who have helped in giving a final shape to this textbook. The contribution of the Publication Department, NCERT is also duly acknowledged.

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The following are applicable to all the maps of India used in this textbook 1. Government of India, Copyright 2006 2. The responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publisher. 3. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. 4. The administrative headquarters of Chandigarh, Haryana and Punjab are at Chandigarh. 5. The interstate boundaries amongst Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya shown on this map are as interpreted from the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act.1971, but have yet to be verified. 6. The external boundaries and coastlines of India agree with the Record/Master Copy certified by Survey of India. 7. The state boundaries between Uttaranchal & Uttar Pradesh, Bihar & Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh have not been verified by the Governments concerned. 8. The spellings of names in this map, have been taken from various sources.

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Contents
FOREWORD Chapter 1 Environment Chapter 2 Inside Our Earth iii 16 7 11

Chapter 3 Our Changing Earth Chapter 4 Air Chapter 5 Water

Chapter 6 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Chapter 7 Human EnvironmentSettlement, Transport and Communication

Chapter 8 Human Environment Interactions Chapter 9 Life in the Temperate Grasslands Chapter 10 Life in the Deserts APPENDIX

The Tropical and the Subtropical Region

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12 19 20 29 30 38 39 46 47 54 55 64 65 70 71 77 78

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Environment

Ravi, Paramjeet, Jessy, Mustafa, Asha were all excited about making the list. Why is our environment changing? asked Iqbal. Its all because of our needs. They are

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After the long vacation, when Ravi started going to school again, he noticed that the only playground next to his school was dug up. People said that a huge building with many flats will be constructed there. Ravi was almost in tears, when he realised that the big playground with its soft grass, marigolds and butterflies is gone for ever. He shared his feelings with his classmates. In the assembly, the Principal too sadly observed, See how our environment is changing. In the class Ravi asked his teacher, What is environment? Whatever you see in your surroundings, said the teacher. Ravi thought aloud, That means, the school building, tables, chairs in the classroom, even that open field, the road, the garbage, my friends all are parts of our environment! Yes said the teacher, but wait.. Some objects are created by nature for example, mountains, rivers, trees, animals. Others are made by people for example roads, cars, clothes, books. Now work in pairs. Make a list with your classmate sitting next to you, of the creations of nature and by human beings.

Environment is our basic life support system. It provides the air we breath, the water we drink, the food we eat and the land where we live. How do human beings modify this natural environment? The car fumes pollute the air, water is collected in a pot, food is served in vessels and land is used to build factories. Human beings make cars, mills, factories and manufacture containers. This is how human beings modify natural environment.

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Parks

(A

r Ai he sp o m

) re

Water
(Hydrosphere)

Buildings

Bridges

Natural
Land (Lithosphere)

Individual

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Biotic The world of living organisms. e.g. plants and animals.


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Living Things (Biosphere) Industries

Human

Family

Economic

Community

Religion

Educational

Fig. 1.1: Components of Environment

increasing day by day; we are therefore modifying and at times even destroying our natural surroundings, the teacher replied. From the above conversation you understand that the place, people, things and nature that surround any living organism is called environment. It is a combination of natural and human made phenomena. While the natural environment refers to both biotic and abiotic conditions existing on the earth,

Abiotic The world of non-living elements. e.g. land.

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Roads Monuments Political Situation

Components of Environment

u Human ma man de made

human environment reveals the activities, creations and interactions among human beings.

Word Origin

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
Land, water, air, plants and animals comprise the natural environment. You are familiar with the meaning of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere from your previous class. Let us learn some more facts about these domains. Lithosphere is the solid crust or the hard top layer of the earth. It is made up of rocks and minerals and covered by a thin layer of soil. It is an irregular surface with various landforms such as mountains, plateaus, plains, valleys, etc. Landforms are found over the continents and also on the ocean floors. Lithosphere is the domain that provides us forests, grasslands for grazing, land for agriculture and human settlements. It is also a source of mineral wealth.

Environment: French word Environer/ Environner meaning neighbourhood.

Hydrosphere

The domain of water is referred to as hydrosphere. It comprises various sources of water and different types of water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, etc. It is essential for all living organisms. The atmosphere is the thin layer of air that surrounds the earth. The gravitational force of the earth holds the atmosphere around it. It protects us

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Atmosphere

Look at your surroundings. Make a list of uses that the land in your neighbourhood is being put to.

Biosphere

Lithosphere

Where does the water you use in your home and school come from? Make a list of different uses of water in our daily life. Have you seen anyone wasting water? How?

Fig. 1.2: Domains of the Environment

Observe the sky while coming to school. Make a note whether the day is cloudy, rainy, sunny, foggy etc.
ENVIRONMENT 3

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Lets do

Lets do

Lets do

Glossary
Ecosystem: It is a system formed by the interaction of all living organisms with each other and with the physical and chemical factors of the environment in which they live, all linked by transfer of energy and material.

from the harmful rays and scorching heat of the sun. It consists of a number of gases, dust and water vapour. The changes in the atmosphere produce changes in the weather and climate. Plant and animal kingdom together make biosphere or the living world. It is a narrow zone of the earth where land, water and air interact with each other to support life. What is ecosystem? At an NCC camp that Ravis class was attending, Jessy exclaimed, What a heavy downpour. It reminds me of my home in Kerala. You should come and see how it pours and pours and pours over the lush green fields and coconut plantations. Heera from Jaisalmer exclaimed, We get no rains. We see only kikar and sand, as far as the eyes can see. But you also find camels, said Ravi.

Sketch or bring photographs of your place like the students in the story.

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Lets do
Fig. 1.3: A Pond Ecosystem

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Heera says, Not just camels. If you visit our desert, you will see snakes, lizards and many insects too. Ravi wondered, Why do the animals, the vegetation and the way people live vary from place to place? Are they all related to each other? Oh yes, very much so, the teacher replied. All plants, animals and human beings depend on their immediate surroundings. Often they are also interdependent on each other. This relation between the living organisms, as well as the relation between the organisms and their surroundings form an ecosystem. There could be an ecosystem of large rain forest, grassland, desert, mountains, lake, river, ocean and even a small pond. Do you think the park in which Ravi and his friends played formed an ecosystem?

Do you know?
On 5 June every year the World Environment Day is celebrated.

Glossary
Barter System: It is a trade in which goods are exchanged without the use of money.

HUMAN ENVIRONMENT

Nurie, a girl from Mizoram from Ravis class often talks about the lush green surroundings of her place. Seeing Ravi upset at having lost his playground, Nurie invited him to visit her home state during the coming vacation. Ravis teacher asked the students to draw the landscape, houses and activities of the people and places they visit during the holidays.

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Human beings interact with the environment and modify it according to their need. Early humans adapted themselves to the natural surroundings. They led a simple life and fulfilled their requirements from the nature around them. With time needs grew and became more varied. Humans learn new ways to use and change environment. They learn to grow crops, domesticate animals and lead a settled life. The wheel was invented, surplus food was produced, barter system emerged, trade started and commerce developed. Industrial revolution enabled large scale production. Transportation became faster. Information revolution made communication easier and speedy across the world. Have you ever thought why you love eating a juicy watermelon in summer and hot roasted peanuts in winter? A perfect balance is necessary between the natural and human environment. Humans must learn to live and use their environment in a harmonious way.

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Lets do

Talk to some elderly person in your neighbourhood and collect information about The trees in his/ her neighbourhood when he/ she was your age. The indoor games he/she played. His/her favourite fruit at your age. How did they make themselves comfortable during hot summers and cold winters? Display your answers on a wall/bulletin board.
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Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) What is an ecosystem? (ii) What do you mean by natural environment? (iii) Which are the major components of the environment? (iv) Give four examples of human made environment. (v) What is lithosphere? (vi) Which are the two major components of biotic environment? (vii) What is biosphere? 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Which is not a natural ecosystem? (a) Desert (b) Aquarium (c) Forest (ii) Which is not a component of human environment? (a) Land (b) Religion (c) Community (iii) Which is a human made environment? (a) Mountain (b) Sea (c) Road (iv) Which is a threat to environment? (a) Growing plant (b) Growing population (c) Growing crops 3. Match the following. (i) Biosphere (a) (ii) Atmosphere (b) (iii) Hydrosphere (c) (iv) Environment (d) (e) (f)

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4. Give reasons. (i) Man modifies his environment (ii) Plants and animals depend on each other

5. Activity. Imagine an ideal environment where you would love to live. Draw the picture of your ideal environment.

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blanket of air which surrounds the earth domain of water gravitational force of the earth our surroundings narrow zone where land water and air interact relation between the organisms and their surroundings

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Inside Our Earth

INTERIOR OF THE EARTH

Just like an onion, the earth is made up of several concentric layers with one inside another (Fig. 2.1). The uppermost layer over the earths surface is called the crust. It is the thinnest of all the layers. It is about 35 km. on the continental masses and only 5 km. on the ocean floors. The main mineral constituents of the continental mass are silica and alumina. It is thus called sial (si-silica and al- alumina ). The oceanic crust mainly consists of silica and magnesium; it is therefore called sima (si-silica and ma-magnesium) (Fig. 2.2). Just beneath the crust is the mantle which extends up to a depth of 2900 km. below the crust.

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Crust Lithosphere Mantle Core-mantle boundary Outer core Inner core

The deepest mine in the world, is in South Africa. It is about 4 km. deep. In search for oil engineers have dug a hole about 6 km. deep. To reach to the centre of the earth (which is not possible!) you will have to dig a hole 6000 km. deep on the ocean floor.

Fig. 2.1: Interior of the Earth

Continental Crust

Continent

Ocean

Fig. 2.2: Continental Crust and Oceanic Crust

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Do you know?
Oceanic Crust

The earth, our homeland is a dynamic planet. It is constantly undergoing changes inside and outside. Have you ever wondered what lies in the interior of the earth? What is the earth made up of?

Do you know?
The crust forms only 0.5 per cent of the volume of the earth, 16 per cent consists of the mantle and 83 per cent makes the core. The radius of the earth is 6371 km.

The innermost layer is the core with a radius of about 3500 km. It is mainly made up of nickel and iron and is called nife (ni nickel and fe ferrous i.e. iron). The central core has very high temperature and pressure.

ROCKS

AND

MINERALS

The earths crust is made up of various types of rocks. Any natural mass of mineral matter that makes up the earths crust is called a rock. Rocks can be of different colour, size and texture. There are three major types of rocks: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. When the molten magma cools, it becomes solid. Rocks thus formed are called igneous rocks. They are Word Origin also called primary rocks. There are two types of igneous rocks: intrusive rocks and extrusive rocks. Igneous: Latin word Can you imagine lava coming out from the volcanoes? Ignis meaning fire. Lava is actually fiery red molten magma coming out from Sedimentary: Latin the interior of the earth on its surface. When this molten word sedimentum lava comes on the earths surface, it rapidly cools down meaning settle down. and becomes solid. Rocks formed in such a way on the Metamorphic: Greek crust are called extrusive igneous rocks. They have a word metamorphose very fine grained structure. For example, basalt. The meaning change of form. Deccan plateau is made up of basalt rocks. Sometimes the molten magma cools down deep inside the earths crust. Solid rocks so formed are called intrusive igneous rocks. Since they cool down slowly they form large Glossary grains. Granite is an example of such a rock. Grinding Fossils: The remains stones used to prepare paste/powder of spices and grains of the dead plants and are made of granite. animals trapped in Rocks roll down, crack, and hit each other and are the layers of rocks are broken down into small fragments. These smaller particles called fossils. are called sediments. These sediments are transported and deposited by wind, water, etc. These loose sediments are compressed and hardened to form layers of rocks. These types of rocks are called sedimentary rocks. For example, sandstone is made from grains of sand. These rocks may also contain fossils of plants, animals and other microorganisms that once lived on them. Igneous and sedimentary rocks can change into metamorphic rocks under great heat and pressure (Fig. 2.3). For example, clay changes into Fig. 2.3: Sedimentary rock turned into a Metamorphic rock slate and limestone into marble.
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Rocks are very useful to us. The hard rocks are used for making roads, houses and buildings. You use stones in many games. For example, seven stones (pitthoo), hopscotch (stapu/kit kit), five stones (gitti). Find out some more such games by asking your grand parents, parents, neighbours, etc.
Lets do
Collect pictures of some monuments and find out which are the rocks used to build them. Two pictures have been collected for you.

The Red Fort is made of red sandstone

You will be surprised to know that one type of rock changes to another type under certain conditions in a cyclic manner. This process of transformation of the rock from one to another is known as the rock cycle. You have already learnt when the molten magma cools; it solidifies to become igneous rock. These igneous rocks are broken down into small particles that are transported and deposited to form sedimentary rocks. When the igneous and sedimentary rocks are subjected to heat and pressure they change into metamorphic rocks. The metamorphic rocks which are still under great heat and pressure melt down to form molten magma. This molten magma again can cool down and solidify into igneous rocks (Fig. 2.4). Fig. 2.4:

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The Taj Mahal is made of white marble Rock Cycle INSIDE OUR EARTH 9

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Lets do
What are the minerals found in your state? Collect some samples to show in your class.

Rocks are made up of different minerals. Minerals are naturally occurring substances which have certain physical properties and definite chemical composition. Minerals are very important to humankind. Some are used as fuels. For example, coal, natural gas and petroleum. They are also used in industries iron, aluminium, gold, uranium, etc, in medicine, in fertilisers, etc.

Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) What are the three layers of the earth? (ii) What is a rock? (iii) Name three types of rocks. (iv) How are extrusive and intrusive rocks formed? (v) What do you mean by a rock cycle? (vi) What are the uses of rocks? (vii) What are metamorphic rocks?

2. Tick the correct answer. (i) The rock which is made up of molten magma is (a) Igneous (b) Sedimentary (c) Metamorphic (ii) The innermost layer of the earth is (a) Crust (b) Core (c) Mantle
(iii) Gold, petroleum and coal are examples of

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3. Match the following. (i) Core (a) (ii) Minerals (b) (iii) Rocks (c) (iv) Clay (d) (v) Sial (e) (f) (g)

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(a) Rocks (b) Minerals (iv) Rocks which contain fossils are (a) Sedimentary rocks (b) Metamorphic rocks (c) Igneous rocks (v) The thinnest layer of the earth is (a) Crust (b) Mantle (c) Fossils (c) Core Earths surface Used for roads and buildings Made of silicon and alumina Has definite chemical composition Innermost layer Changes into slate Process of transformation of the rock

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4. Give reasons. (i) We cannot go to the centre of the earth. (ii) Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediments. (iii) Limestone is changed into marble. 5. For fun. (i) What are the minerals most commonly used in the following objects? (ii) Identify some more objects made up of different minerals.

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Pan/Tava Hammer Bell Lamp

Karhai

Ornaments

INSIDE OUR EARTH

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3 Our Changing Earth

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Lithospheric plates: The earths crust consists of several large and some small, rigid, irregularlyshaped plates (slabs) which carry continents and the ocean floor.

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Earth movements Endogenic forces Sudden forces Diastrophic forces Earthquake Volcano Building mountains

Take a small coloured paper pellet and put it in a beaker half filled with water. Place the beaker on a tripod stand and heat it. As the water warms up, you will observe that the paper pellet is moving upward along with the warm layers of water and then sinks back along with the cooler layers of water. The molten magma inside the earth moves in a similar manner.

Erosional and Depositional

Glossary

Landslides

Fig. 3.1: Evolution of Landforms

Endogenic forces sometimes produce sudden movements and at the other times produce slow movements. Sudden movements like earthquakes and volcanoes cause mass destruction over the surface of the earth.

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Exogenic forces River Wind Sea-waves Glaciers

Activity

The lithosphere is broken into a number of plates known as the Lithospheric plates. You will be surprised to know that these plates move around very slowly just a few millimetres each year. This is because of the movement of the molten magma inside the earth. The molten magma inside the earth moves in a circular manner as shown in the activity. The movement of these plates causes changes on the surface of the earth. The earth movements are divided on the basis of the forces which cause them. The forces which act in the interior of the earth are called as Endogenic forces and the forces that work on the surface of the earth are called as Exogenic forces (Fig. 3.1).

A volcano is a vent (opening) in the earths crust through which molten material erupts suddenly (Fig. 3.2).
Gases and ash Crater Vent Lava
Lava tube

Word Origin
Endo (inside) Exo (outside) Endogenic Exogenic

+ genic (origin)

Activity
Take a container, fill it with water and close it with a lid. Put the water to boil. Now put some peas, spoon and beads on top on the lid. What do you notice? As the water boils the lid begins to shake. The things which you have put on the lid also vibrate. The beads roll down and the spoon vibrates to make a sound. In the same manner, the earth vibrates when an earthquake occurs.

Crust Mantle Magma Chamber

Similarly, when the Lithospheric plates move, the surface of the earth vibrates. The vibrations can travel all round the earth. These vibrations are called earthquakes (Fig. 3.3). The place in the crust where the movement starts is called the focus. The place on the surface above the focus is called the epicentre . Vibrations travel outwards from the epicentre as waves. Greatest damage is usually closest to the epicentre and the strength of the earthquake decreases away from the centre.
Plate boundary Epicentre Seismic waves radiate out in all directions

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Fig. 3.2: A Volcano
Focus this is where the earthquake occurs. It is the origin of the seismic energy.

Fig. 3.3: Origin of an Earthquake

There are three types of earthquake waves: 1. P waves or longitudinal waves 2. S waves or transverse waves 3. L waves or surface waves Try to find out the properties of these waves from an encyclopedia.
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Do you know?

Although earthquakes cannot be predicted, the impact can certainly be minimised if we are prepared before-hand. Some common earthquake prediction methods adopted locally by people include studying animal behaviour; fish in the ponds get agitated, snakes come to the surface. Earthquake A Case Study

EARTHQUAKE HITS BHUJ

A massive earthquake measuring 6.9 on Richter scale hit Bhuj Town on 26th January 2001.
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Do you know?

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An earthquake is measured with a machine called a seismograph. The magnitude of the earthquake is measured on the Richter scale. An earthquake of 2.0 or less can be felt only a little. An earthquake over 5.0 can cause damage from things falling. A 6.0 or higher magnitude is considered very strong and 7.0 is classified as a major earthquake.

A Seismograph

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School worst affected and 31 teachers are feared to have lost 4 Destruction of Bhuj their lives following Phone lines, water pipelines and power the collapse of stations transmission school buildings.
lines were knocked out.
Gujarat appeals for financial help. The Chief Minister of Gujarat has launched

3 BHUJ RELIEF EFFORT 6 Emergency declared BLIGHTED.. in quake zone Three days after the and medical supplies The President declares not reaching everyone. quake, concern rose Atleast 971 students about food, blankets a state of emergency. 7 CMS APPEAL TO THE CENTRE
an appeal for the Centre to deal with the disaster.

Activity

1. Read the Earthquake A case study given in the form of headlines that appeared in the newspapers after the quake. Arrange the events in the right sequence of their happening. 2. Imagine if a quake suddenly shook in the middle of the school day, where would you go for safety?

EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS

Where to take shelter during an earthquake Safe Spot Under a kitchen counter, table or desk, against an inside corner or wall. Stay Away from Fire places, areas around chimneys, windows that shatter including mirrors and picture frames. Be Prepared Spread awareness amongst your friends and family members and face any disaster confidently.

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5 Fire

Fig. 3.3a: Destruction caused by an Earthquake in Gujarat

in the city

Hundreds of fires started as charcoal, cookers overturned.

MAJOR LAND FORMS


The landscape is being continuously worn away by two processes weathering and erosion. Weathering is the breaking up of the rocks on the earths surface. Erosion is the wearing away of the landscape by different agents like water, wind and ice. The eroded material is carried away or transported by water, wind, etc. and eventually deposited. This process of erosion and deposition create different landforms on the surface of the earth. Work of a River The running water in the river erodes the landscape. When the river tumbles at steep angle over very hard rocks or down a steep valley side it forms a waterfall (Fig. 3.4).

Do you know?
There are thousands of small waterfalls in the world. The highest waterfall is Angel Falls of Venezuela in South America. The other waterfalls are Niagara falls located on the border between Canada and USA in North America and Victoria Falls on the borders of Zambia and Zimbabwe in Africa.

Softer rock undercut by the power of the water

As the river enters the plain it twists and turns forming large bends known as meanders. Due to continuous erosion and deposition along the sides of the meander, the ends of the meander loop come closer and closer. In due course of time the meander loop cuts off from the river and forms a cut-off lake, also called an ox-bow lake. At times the river overflows its banks. This leads to the flooding of the neighbouring areas. As it floods, it deposits layers of fine soil and other material called sediments along its banks. This leads to the formation of a flat fertile floodplain. The raised banks are called levees. As the river approaches the sea, the speed of the flowing water decreases and the Fig. 3.5: Features made by a river in a flood plain

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Hard rock

The Niagra falls

Fig. 3.4: Waterfall

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Lets do
Find out the names of a few rivers of the world that form a delta.

river begins to break up into a number of streams called distributaries. The river becomes so slow that it begins to deposit its load. Each distributary forms its own mouth. The collection of sediments from all the mouths forms a delta.

Main river

Distributary

Fig. 3.6: A Delta

Fig.

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Fig. 3.8: A Glacier

Work of Sea Waves The erosion and deposition of the sea waves gives rise to Stack coastal landforms. Seawaves continuously strike at the rocks. Cracks develop. Over time they become larger and wider. Thus, hollow like caves are formed on the rocks. They Sea Arch are called sea caves . As these cavities become bigger and Sea Cave bigger only the roof of the caves remain, thus forming sea arches. Further, erosion 3.7: Features made by sea waves breaks the roof and only walls are left. These wall like features are called stacks. The steep rocky coast rising almost vertically above sea water is called sea cliff. The sea waves deposit sediments along the shores forming beaches. Work of Ice Glaciers are rivers of ice which too erode the landscape by bulldozing soil and stones to expose the solid rock below. Glaciers carve out deep hollows. As the ice melts they get filled up with water and become beautiful lakes in the mountains. The material carried by the glacier such as rocks big and small, sand and silt gets deposited. These deposits form glacial moraines.

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Fig. 3.9: Sand Dunes

1. Answer the following questions. (i) Why do the plates move? (ii) What are exogenic and endogenic forces? (iii) What is erosion? (iv) How are flood plains formed? (v) What are sand dunes? (vi) How are beaches formed? (vii) What are ox bow lakes?

2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Which is not an erosional feature of sea waves? (a) Cliff (b) Beach (c) Sea cave (ii) The depositional feature of a glacier is: (a) Flood plain (b) Beach (c) Moraine (iii) Which is caused by the sudden movements of the earth? (a) Volcano (b) Folding (c) Flood plain (iv) Mushroom rocks are found in: (a) Deserts (b) River valleys (c) Glaciers (v) Ox bow lakes are found in: (a) Glaciers (b) River valleys (c) Deserts

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Exercises

Work of wind Have you ever visited a desert? Try to collect some pictures of sand dunes. An active agent of erosion and deposition in the deserts is wind. In deserts you can see rocks in the shape of a mushroom, commonly called mushroom rocks. Winds erode the lower section of the rock more than the upper part. Therefore, such rocks have narrower base and wider top. When the wind blows, it lifts and transports sand from one place to another. When it stops blowing the sand falls and gets deposited in low hill like structures. These are called sand dunes (Fig. 3.9). When the grains of sand are very fine and light, the wind can carry it over very long distances. When such sand is deposited in large areas, it is called loess. Large deposits of loess is found in China.

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5. Activity. Observe the photographs given below. These are various features made by a river. Identify them and also tell whether they are erosional or depositional or landforms formed by both.
Photograph Name of the Feature Type (Erosional or Depositional or Both)

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3. Match the following. (i) Glacier (a) Sea shore (ii) Meanders (b) Mushroom rock (iii) Beach (c) River of ice (iv) Sand dunes (d) Rivers (v) Waterfall (e) Vibrations of earth (vi) Earthquake (f) Sea cliff (g) Hard bed rock (h) Deserts 4.Give reasons. (i) Some rocks have a shape of a mushroom. (ii) Flood plains are very fertile. (iii) Sea caves are turned into stacks. (iv) Buildings collapse due to earthquakes.

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6. For fun. Solve the crossword puzzle with the help of given clues.

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2. 4. 7. 9. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

Loop like the bend of a river Solid form of water Moving mass of ice Sudden descent of water in the bed of a river Natural cavity on weak rocks formed by action of waves Embankment on a river that keeps it in its channel Large body of sea water Dry area where sand dunes are found Small hill of sand caused by the action of the wind Flat plain formed by river deposits during time of flood

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1. Rise and fall of water caused by friction of wind on water surface 3. Flow of water in a channel 5. Steep perpendicular face of a rock along a sea coast 6. Debris of boulder and coarse material carried by glacier 8. Crescent shaped lake formed by a meandering river 10. Fine sand deposited by the action of the wind 13. Isolated mass of rising steep rock near a coastline 14. Alluvial tracts of land formed by the river deposits at the mouth of a river
OUR CHANGING EARTH 19

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4 Air
Carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere creates a green house effect by trapping the heat radiated from the earth. It is therefore called a greenhouse gas and without it the earth would have been too cold to live in. However, when its level in the atmosphere increases due to factory smoke or car fumes, the heat retained increases the temperature of the earth. This is called global warming. This rise in temperature causes the snow in coldest parts of the world to melt. As a result the sea level rises, causing floods in the coastal areas. There may be drastic changes in the climate of a place leading to extinction of some plants and animals in the long run.

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COMPOSITION
OF THE

ATMOSPHERE

Do you know that the air we take in while breathing is actually a mixture of many gases? Nitrogen and oxygen are two gases which make up the bulk of the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, helium, ozone, argon and hydrogen are found in lesser quantities. Apart from these gases, tiny dust particles are also present in the air. The pie chart gives you the percentage of different constituents of air (Fig. 4.1). Nitrogen is the most plentiful gas in the air. When we inhale, we take some amount of nitrogen into our lungs and exhale it. But plants need nitrogen for their Fig. 4.1: Constituents of Air survival. They can not take

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Do you know?

Our earth is surrounded by a huge blanket of air called atmosphere. All living beings on this earth depend on the atmosphere for their survival. It provides us the air we breathe and protects us from the harmful effects of the suns rays. Without this blanket of protection, we would be baked alive by the heat of the sun during day and get frozen during night. So it is this mass of air that has made the temperature on the earth liveable.

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Read and Ponder: Is global warming a serious issue in todays world?


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nitrogen directly from the air. Bacteria, that live in the soil and roots of some plants, take nitrogen from the air and change its form so that plants can use it. Oxygen is the second most plentiful gas in the air. Humans and animals take oxygen from the air as they breathe. Green plants produce oxygen during photosynthesis. In this way oxygen content in the air remains constant. If we cut trees then this balance gets disturbed. Carbon dioxide is another important gas. Green plants use carbon dioxide to make their food and release oxygen. Humans or animals release carbon dioxide. The amount of carbon dioxide released by humans or animals seems to be equal to the amount used by the plants which make a perfect balance. However, the balance is upset by burning of fuels, such as coal and oil. They add billions of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year. As a result, the increased volume of carbon dioxide is affecting the earths weather and climate.

Do you know?
When air is heated, it expands, becomes lighter and goes up. Cold air is denser and heavy. That is why it tends to sink down. When hot air rises, cold air from surrounding area rushes there to fill in the gap. That is how air circulation takes place.

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STRUCTURE

OF THE

ATMOSPHERE

Our atmosphere is divided into five layers starting from the earths surface. These are Troposphere , Stratosphere , Mesosphere , Thermosphere and Exosphere (Fig. 4.2). Troposphere: This layer is the most important layer of the atmosphere. Its average height is 13 km. The air we breathe exists here. Almost all the weather phenomena like rainfall, fog and hailstorm occur in this layer.

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Fig. 4.2: Layers of the Atmosphere

Stratosphere: Above the troposphere lies the stratosphere. It extends up to a height of 50 km. This layer is almost free from clouds and associated weather phenomenon, making conditions most ideal for flying aeroplanes. One important feature of stratosphere is that it contains a layer of ozone gas. We have just learnt how it protects us from the harmful effect of the sun rays. Mesosphere: This is the third layer of the atmosphere. It lies above the stratosphere. It extends up to the height of 80 km. Meteorites burn up in this layer on entering from the space. Thermosphere: In thermosphere temperature rises very rapidly with increasing height. Ionosphere is a part of this layer. It extends between

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80-400 km. This layer helps in radio transmission. In fact, radio waves transmitted from the earth are reflected back to the earth by this layer. Exosphere: The upper most layer of the atmosphere is known as exosphere. This layer has very thin air. Light gases like helium and hydrogen float into the space from here.

Lets do

WEATHER AND CLIMATE


Is it going to rain today? Will it be bright and sunny today? How many times have we heard this from anxious cricket fans speculating the fate of a One Day match? If we imagine our body to be a radio and the mind its speaker, weather is something that fiddles with its control knobs. Weather is this hour-to-hour, day to day condition of the atmosphere. A hot or humid weather may make one irritable. A pleasant, breezy weather may make one cheerful and even plan for an outing. Weather can change dramatically from day to day. However, the average weather condition of a place for a longer period of time represents the climate of a place. Now do you understand why we have daily weather forecasts. Temperature The temperature you feel everyday is the temperataure of the atmosphere. The degree of hotness and coldness of the air is known as temperature. The temperature of the atmosphere changes not only between day and night but also from season to season. Summers are hotter than winters. An important factor that influences the distribution of temperature is insolation . Insolation is the incoming solar energy intercepted by the earth. The amount of insolation decreases from the equator towards the poles. Therefore, the

For ten days note down weather report from a local newspaper and observe the changes occurring in the weather.

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Thermometer: Measures the temperature Rain Gauge: Measures the amount of rainfall Fig. 4.3: Weather Instruments

You will be surprised to know that the earth receives only 1 in 2,000,000,0000 parts of the suns energy.

Barometre: Measures atmospheric pressure

Wind Vane: Shows the direction of the wind

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Do you know?
AIR 23

Do you know?
The standard unit of measuring temperature is degree Celsius. It was invented by Anders Celsius. On the Celsius scale the water freezes at 0C and boils at 100C.

Do you know?

On the moon there is no air and hence no air pressure. Astronauts have to wear special protective space suits filled with air when they go to the moon. If they did not wear these space suits, the counter pressure exerted by the body of the astronauts would make the blood vessels burst. The astronauts would bleed.

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Do you know?

A wind is named after the direction from which it blows, e.g. the wind blowing from the west is called westerly.

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Air Pressure You will be surprised to know that air above us presses us with a great force on our bodies. However, we dont even feel it. This is because the air presses us from all directions and our body exerts a counter pressure. Air pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by the weight of air on the earths surface. As we go up the layers of atmosphere, the pressure falls rapidly. The air pressure is highest at sea level and decreases with height. Horizontally the distribution of air pressure is influenced by temperature of air at a given place. In areas where temperature is high the air gets heated and rises. This creates a low-pressure area. Low pressure is associated with cloudy skies and wet weather. In areas having lower temperature, the air is cold. It is therefore heavy. Heavy air sinks and creates a high pressure area. High pressure is associated with clear and sunny skies. The air always moves from high pressure areas to low pressure areas. Wind The movement of air from high pressure area to low pressure areas is called wind. You can see wind at work as it blows dry leaves down the pavement or uproots trees during a storm. Sometimes when the wind blows gently you can even see it blowing away smoke or fine dust. At times wind can be so strong that it is difficult to walk against it. You must have experienced it is not easy to hold an umbrella on a windy day. Think of some other examples when strong winds have created

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temperature decreases in the same manner. Now do you understand why poles are covered with snow? If the earths temperature rises too high, it would become too warm for some crops to grow. Temperature in cities is much higher than that of villages. The concrete and metals in buildings and the asaphalt of roads get heated up during the day. This heat is released during the night. Also, the crowded high rise buildings of the cities trap the warm air and thus raise the temperature of the cities.

problems for you. Winds can be broadly divided into three types.
1.

90N
High Pressure Polar Easterlies

Permanent winds The trade 60N Sub-Polar Low Pressure winds, westerlies and easterlies are the permanent winds. P r e v a i l i n g We s t e r l i e s These blow constantly 35N Sub - Tropical High Pressure (Horse Latitudes) 30N throughout the year in a 23.5N T r o p i c o f C a n c e r particular direction. Northeast Trade Winds
T ropic of Capricor n

2.

23.5S 30S

Sub - Tropical High Pressure (Horse Latitudes) Prevailing We s t e r l i e s

35S

Orissa, located on the eastern seacoast of India is prone to cyclones that originate in the Bay of Bengal. On 17-18 October 1999, cyclone hit five districts of the state. Another supercyclone occurred on the 29 October 1999, that devastated large portions of the state. The damages caused were mainly due to three factors: wind velocity, rain and Destruction caused by a cyclone tidal surge. The winds of upto 260 km. per hour lasted for over 36 hours. These high velocity winds uprooted trees and damaged the kutcha houses. Roof tops of several industrial sheds and other houses were also blown away. Power supply and telecom lines snapped completely. Heavy rain occurred under the influence of the cyclone for three days continuously. These rains led to flooding in the major rivers of Orissa. The cyclonic winds caused tidal waves that swept 20 km. inland and brought massive destruction to the coastal areas. The 7 to 10 m high tidal wave intruded suddenly and caused massive damage to the standing paddy crops.

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60S
Sub-Polar Low Pressure Polar Easterlies High Pressure

3.

Local winds These blow only during a particular period of the day or year in a small area. For example, land and sea breeze. Do you recall the hot and dry local wind of northern planes of India? It is called loo.

90S

Fig. 4.4: Major Pressure Belts and Wind System

CYCLONE NATURES FURY

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Seasonal winds These winds change their direction in different seasons. For example monsoons in India.

Equatorial Low

Pressure (Doldrums)

Southeast Trade Winds

The cyclone originated as a depression in the Gulf of Thailand, near east of Port Blair, on 25 October 1999 and gradually moved in a northwestward direction. It intensified into a supercyclone and hit the area between Erasama and Balikuda in Orissa on 29 October at 10.30 a.m. The supercyclone swept entire the coast of Orissa including the cities of Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack and 28 coastal towns. About 13 million people were affected. A large number of livestock were killed. Standing crops of paddy, vegetables and fruits were heavily damaged. Due to salinisation caused by tidal surge, large tracts of agricultural land have turned infertile. Large tracts of sal, teak and bamboo plantations have disappeared. The mangrove forests between Paradeep and Konark vanished.

Cyclonic Rainfall

Moist air

Relief (Orographic) Rainfall

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Convectional Rainfall

Fig. 4.5: Types of Rainfall 26 OUR ENVIRONMENT

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Warm air Warm air

Cold air

Moisture When water evaporates from land and different water bodies, it becomes water vapour. Moisture in the air at any time, is known as humidity. When the air is full of water vapour we call it a humid day. As the air gets warmer, its capacity to hold the water vapour increases and so it becomes more and more humid. On a humid day, clothes take longer to dry and sweat from our body does not evaporate easily, making us feel very uncomfortable. When the water vapour rises, it starts cooling. The water vapour condenses causing formation of droplets of water. Clouds are just masses of such water droplets. When these droplets of water become too heavy to float in air, then they come down as precipitation. Jet planes flying in the sky leave a white trail behind them. The moisture from their engines condenses. We see trails of this condensed moisture for some time when there is no air movement to disturb it. Precipitation that comes down to the earth in liquid form is called rain. Most of the ground water comes from rainwater. Plants help preserve water. When trees on hill sides are cut, rainwater flows down the bare mountains and can cause flooding of low lying areas. On the basis of mechanism, there are three types of rainfall: the convectional rainfall, the orographic rainfall and the cyclonic rainfall (Fig. 4.5).

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Rainfall is very important for the survival of plants and animals. It brings fresh water to the earths surface. If rainfall is less water scacity and drought occur. On the other hand if it is more, floods take place.

Do you know?
Other forms of precipitation are snow, sleet, hail.

2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Which of the following gases protects us from harmful sun vays? (a) Carbon dioxide (b) Nitrogen (c) Ozone (ii) The most important layer of the atmosphere is (a) Troposphere (b) Thermosphere (c) Mesosphere

(iii) Which of the following layers of the atmosphere is free from clouds? (a) Troposphere (b) Stratosphere (c) Mesosphere (iv) As we go up the layers of the atmosphere, the pressure (a) Increases (b) Decreases (c) Remains the same (v) When precipitation comes down to the earth in the liquid form, it is called (a) Cloud (b) Rain (c) Snow 3. Match the following. (i) Trade Winds (ii) Loo (iii) Monsoon (iv) Wind (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Incoming solar energy Seasonal wind Horizontal movement of Air Layer of ozone gas Permanent wind Local wind

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4. Give reasons. (i) Wet clothes take longer time to dry on a humid day? (ii) Amount of insolation decreases from equator towards poles?
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1. Answer the following questions. (i) What is atmosphere? (ii) Which two gases make the bulk of the atmosphere? (iii) Which gas creates green house effect in the atmosphere? (iv) What is weather? (v) Name three types of rainfall? (vi) What is air pressure?

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Exercises

5. For fun. (i) Solve this Crossword puzzle with the help of given clues:

6. An Indian tree having extraordinary quality of providing oxygen round the clock 8. Gas present in atmosphere occupying only 0.03% by volume 11. Outermost layer of atmosphere 12. Mixture of many gases 14. Life giving gas 15. Air in motion 16. An indian tree valued highly for medicinal properties 18. Gas protecting us from harmful sunrays 19. Low pressure area

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1. Amount of water vapour in air 2. Condensation of water vapours around dust particles in atmosphere 3. Example of local wind blowing in summer in northern india 4. Short term changes in atmosphere 5. Precipitation in liquid form 7. Blanket of air around the earth 9. Instrument to measure pressure 10. Incoming solar radiation 13. Reduces visibility in winters 17. It is ....... time when sun is overhead

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(ii) Make a weather calendar for one week. Use pictures or symbols to show different types of weather. You can use more than one symbol in a day, if the weather changes. For example, the sun comes out when rain stops. An example is given below:

Day
1.

Weather Sunny day

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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5 Water

Make your own Terrarium

A Terrarium

Fill one-fourth of a big jar with soil and press it well. Put a thin layer of humus on top of it. Plant the largest plants first and then arrange the smaller ones around them. Spray the arrangement with water and close the jar. The water that evaporates from the leaves and soil condenses and falls back in the form of drops of water.

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Activity

Terrarium: It is an artificial enclosure for keeping small house plants.

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Glossary

When you think of water, what images come to your mind? You think of rivers, the waterfalls, the pitter patter of raindrops, water in your taps... Children love to float paper boats in rain puddles. By noon the puddles vanish. Where does the water go? The suns heat causes evaporation of water vapour. When the water vapour cools down, it condenses and forms clouds. From there it may fall on the land or sea in the form of rain, snow or sleet. The process by which water continually changes its form and circulates between oceans, atmosphere and land is known as the water cycle (Fig 5.1). Our earth is like a terrarium. The same water Condensation that existed centuries ago still exists today. The Precipitation water used to irrigate a field in Haryana may have flowed down the Amazon River a hundred years ago. The major sources of fresh water are the rivers, ponds, Run off springs and Evaporation glaciers. The ocean bodies and the seas contain salty water. The water of the oceans is salty or saline as it Fig. 5.1: Water Cycle contains large

amount of dissolved salts. Most of the salt is sodium chloride or the common table salt that you eat.
WATER 31

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Fig. 5.2: World Major Seas, Lakes and Rivers

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Do you know?
Salinity is the amount of salt in grams present in 1000 grams of water. The average salinity of the oceans is 35 parts per thousand.

DISTRIBUTION OF WATER BODIES


We all know that three-fourth of the earth surface is covered by water. If there is more water than land on this earth, why do so many countries face water scarcity? Is all the water on earth available to us? The following table gives the distribution of water in percentage. Oceans Ice-caps Ground water Fresh water lakes Inland seas and salt lakes Atmosphere Rivers : : : : : : : 97.3 Saline Water 02.0 0.68 0.009 0.009 0.0019 0.0001

Dead sea in Israel has salinity of 45 parts per thousand. Swimmers can float in it because the increased salt content makes it dense.

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Take 2 litres of water. Let it represent the total water on the surface of the earth. Measure out 12 spoons of water from this vessel into another bowl. The water that is left behind in the vessel represents the salty water found in oceans and seas. This water is obviously not fit for consuming. It is saline (contains salts). The 12 spoons of water that was taken in a bowl is the total amount of fresh water on earth. The figure shows us the distribution of this fresh water. See for yourself how much water can actually be used by you.

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100.00
Activity
9 Spoons = icecaps 2 Spoons = ground water 1 Drop = rivers

Do you know?

Water distribution can be demonstrated by a simple activity (see activity box).

Spoons = fresh water lakes

Distribution of fresh water

Water is absolutely essential for survival. Water alone can quench our thirst when we are thirsty. Now dont you think we are wasting a precious resource when we use water carelessly?

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Fresh Water

Why is water important for us? Suggest some ways in which water can be conserved (a) in your home (b) in your school

OCEAN CIRCULATION

There is something magical about walking bare feet on the seashore. The wet sand on the beach, the cool breeze, the seabirds, the smell of the salt in the air and music of the waves; everything is so fascinating. Unlike the calm waters of ponds and lakes, ocean water keeps moving continuously. It is never still. The movements that occur in oceans can be broadly categorised as: waves, tides and currents.

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Fig. 5.3: Pacific Ocean

March 22 is celebrated as World Water Day when the need to conserve water is reinforced in different ways.

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Do you know?
WATER 33

Do you know?
Waves are formed when winds scrape across the ocean surface. The stronger the wind blows, the bigger the wave becomes.

Waves When you are playing throw ball on the beach and the ball falls into the water, what happens? It is fun to watch how the ball gets washed back to the shore by the waves. When the water on the surface of the ocean rises and falls alternately, they are called waves.

Do you know?
Tsunami is a Japanese word that means Harbour waves as the harbours get destroyed whenever there is tsunami.

Tsunami or the harbour wave struck havoc in the Indian Ocean on the 26 December 2004. The wave was the result of the earthquake that had its epicenter close to the western boundary of Sumatra. The magnitude of the earthquake was 9.0 on the Richter scale. As the Indian plate went under the Burma plate, there was a sudden movement of the sea floor, causing the earthquake. The ocean floor was displaced by about 10 20m and tilted in a downwardly direction. A huge mass of ocean water flowed to fill in the gap that was being created by the displacement. This marked the withdrawal of the water mass from the coastlines of the landmasses in the south and southeast Asia. After thrusting of the Indian plate below the Burma plate, the water mass rushed back towards the coastline. Tsunami travelled at a speed of about 800km. per hour, comparable to speed of commercial aircraft and completely washed away

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Fig. 5.4: Waves

During a storm, the winds blowing at very high speed form huge waves. These may cause tremendous destruction. An earthquake, a volcanic eruption or underwater landslides can shift large amounts of ocean water. As a result a huge tidal wave called tsunami, that may be as high as 15m., is formed. The largest tsunami ever measured was 150m. high. These waves travel at a speed of more than 700 km. per hour. The tsunami of 2004 caused wide spread damage in the coastal areas of India. The Indira point in the Andaman and Nicobar islands got submerged after the tsunami.

TSUNAMI THE EARTHS PANDEMONIUM

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Tides The rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day is called a tide. It is high tide when water covers much of the shore by rising to its highest level. It is low tide when water falls to its lowest level and recedes from the shore.
WATER 35

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The tsunami that ravaged the South and South east Asian coasts in December 2004, is the most devastating tsunami in the last several hundred years. The large damage caused to life and property was primarily a result of lack of monitoring, the early warning systems and knowledge among the coast dwellers of Indian ocean. The first indication that tsunami is approaching is the rapid withdrawal of water from the coastal region, followed by destructive wave. When this happened on the coast, instead of people going to high ground, they started assembling at the coast to view the miracle. As a consequence there was a large casualty of curious onlookers when the gigantic wave (tsunami) struck.

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Destruction caused by tsunami on Tamil Nadu Coast

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some of the islands in the Indian ocean. The Indira point in the Andaman and Nicobar islands that marked the southernmost point of India got completely submerged. As the wave moved from earthquake epicenter from Sumatra towards the Andaman islands and Sri Lanka the wave length decreased with decreasing depth of water. The travel speed also declined from 700-900km. per hour to less than 70km. per hour. Tsunami waves travelled upto a depth of 3 km. from the coast killing more than 10,000 people and affected more than lakh of houses. In India, the worst affected were the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. While the earthquake cannot be predicted in advance, it is possible to give a three-hour notice of a potential tsunami. Such early warning systems are in place across the Pacific ocean, but not in the Indian Ocean. Tsunamis are rare in the Indian Ocean as the seismic activity is less as compared to the Pacific.

Neap Tide

Sun

Spring Tide

Sun

Sun

Fig. 5.5: Spring

Fill three-fourths of a bucket with tap water. Heat the water by putting an immersion rod on one side of the bucket. On the other side introduce an ice tray just removed from the freezer. Add a drop of red ink to observe the path of current by the process of convection.

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Activity

The strong gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon on the earths surface causes the tides. The water of the earth closer Earth to the moon gets pulled under the influence of the moons gravitational force and causes high tide. During the full moon and new moon days, the sun, the moon and the earth are in the same line and the tides are highest. These tides Earth are called spring tides. But when Moon the moon is in its first and last quarter, the ocean waters get drawn in diagonally opposite directions by the gravitational pull of sun and earth resulting in low tides. These tides are called neap tides (Fig. 5.5). Earth High tides help in navigation. Moon They raise the water level close to the shores. This helps the ships to arrive at the harbour more easily. Tides and Neap Tide The high tides also help in fishing. Many more fish come closer to the shore during the high tide. This enables fishermen to get a plentiful catch. The rise and fall of water due to tides is being used to generate electricity in some places.
Moon

OCEAN CURRENTS

Ocean currents are streams of water flowing constantly on the ocean surface in definite directions. The ocean currents may be warm or cold (Fig. 5.6). Generally, the warm ocean currents originate near the equator and move towards the poles. The cold currents carry water from polar or higher latitudes to tropical or lower latitudes. The Labrador Ocean current is cold current while the Gulf Stream is a warm current. The ocean current influence the temperature conditions of the area. Warm currents bring about warm temperature over land surface. The areas where the warm and cold currents meet provide the best fishing grounds of the

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world. Seas around Japan and the eastern coast of North America are such examples. The areas where a warm and cold current meet also experience foggy weather making it difficult for navigation.

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1. Answer the following questions. (i) What is precipitation? (ii) What is water cycle? (iii) What are the factors affecting the height of the waves? (iv) Which factors affect the movement of ocean water? (v) What are tides and how are they caused? (vi) What are ocean currents? 2. Give reasons. (i) Ocean water is salty. (ii) The quality of water is deterioting.

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Fig. 5.6: Ocean Currents

Exercises

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WATER 37

3. Tick the correct answer. (i) The process by which water continually changes its form and circulates between oceans, atmosphere and land (a) Water cycle (b) Tides (c) Ocean currents (ii) Generally the warm ocean currents originate near (a) Poles (b) Equator (c) None of these (iii) The rythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice in a day is called (a) Tide (b) Ocean current (c) Wave 4. Match the following. (i) Caspian Sea (ii) Tide (iii) Tsunami (iv) Ocean currents 5. For fun. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Largest lake Periodic rise and fall of water Strong seismic waves Streams of water moving along definite paths Water cycle

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Carry on Detective

Be a Detective (i) The name of one river is hidden in each of the sentences below. Spot it. Example: Mandira, Vijayalakshmi and Surinder are my best friends Answer: Ravi (a) The snake charmers bustee, stables where horses are housed, and the piles of wood, all caught fire accidentally. (Hint: Another name for River Brahmputra) (b) The conference manager put pad, material for reading and a pencil for each participant. (Hint: A distributary on the Ganga-Brahmputra delta) (c) Either jealousy or anger cause a persons fall (Hint: Name of a juicy fruit!) (d) Bhavani germinated the seeds in a pot (Hint: Look for her in West Africa) (e) I am a zonal champion now declared the excited athlete. (Hint: The river that has the biggest basin in the world) (f) The tiffin box rolled down and all the food fell in dusty potholes. (Hint: Rises in India and journeys through Pakistan) (g) Malini leaned against the pole when she felt that she was going to faint. (Hint: Her delta in Egypt is famous) (h) Samantha mesmerised everybody with her magic tricks. (Hint: London is situated on her estuary) (i) In this neighbourhood, please dont yell! Owners of these houses like to have peace. Warned my father when we moved into our new flat. (Hint: colour!) (j) Write the following words, Marc! On, go, in.. said the teacher to the little boy in KG Class. (Hint: Rhymes with bongo) Now make some more on your own and ask your classmates to spot the hidden name. You can do this with any name: that of a lake, mountains, trees, fruits, school items etc.

(ii) With the help of an atlas, draw each river which you discoverd in For fun (i), on an outline map of the world.

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Natural Vegetation and Wild Life


Now can you tell why Salima saw changes in the natural vegetation as she climbed higher and higher? What types of vegetations did she see in the Himalayas starting with the foothills and going to the higher altitudes?

Salima was excited about the summer camp she was attending. She had gone to visit Manali in Himachal Pradesh along with her class mates. She recalled how surprised she was to see the changes in the landform and natural vegetation as the bus climbed higher and higher. The deep jungles of the foothills comprising sal and teak slowly disappeared. She could see tall trees with thin pointed leaves and cone shaped canopies on the mountain slopes. She learnt that those were coniferous trees. She noticed blooms of bright flowers on tall trees. These were the rhododendrons. From Manali as she was travelling up to Rohtang pass she saw that the land was covered with short grass and snow in some places. From Salimas observations, we surmise that there is a close relationship between height of land and the character of vegetations. With the change in height, the climate changes and that changes natural vegetation. The growth of Fig. 6.1: Rhododendron vegetation depends on temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors like slope and thickness of soil. The type and thickness of natural vegetation varies from place to place because of the variation in these factors. Natural vegetation is generally classified in to three broad categories as follows: (a) Forests: Which grow where temperature and rainfall are plentiful to support a tree cover. Depending upon these factors, dense and open forests are grown.

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Lets do

Like Salima, when you go to visit any new place, notice the type of natural vegetation occurring there and try to think of factors responsible for the growth of such vegetation in that habitat. Note down if any human interference has taken place in that area in terms of deforestation, grazing, cultivation of cash crops, constructional activities etc.

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Fig. 6.2: Thorny shrubs

Do you know?

The tropical evergreen forest in Brazil is so enormous that it is like the lungs of the earth: Can you tell why?

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Do you know?

Anaconda, one of the worlds largest snakes is found in the tropical rainforest. It can kill and eat a large animal such as a crocodile.
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FORESTS
Fig. 6.3: A Tropical Evergreen Forest

(b) Grasslands: Which grow in the region of moderate rain. (c) Shrubs: Thorny shrurbs and scrubs grow in the dry region (Fig. 6.2). Salima was sharing her experience of Himalayan trip with her father. Her father visited various places in the world. He told Salima about his observations of the variety of vegetation in different parts of different continents.He mentioned about coniferous forests in the sub polar regions, thorny bushes in the deserts, thick tropical hardwood forest in the humid regions and many more. Salima realised the Himalayas have almost all variety of vegetation which one can see while moving from the equator to the polar region. The changes in the type of natural vegetation occur mainly because of the changes of climatic condition. Let us get to know the different types of natural vegetation of the world with their characteristic features and wildlife inhabiting there.

Tropical Evergreen Forests These forests are also called tropical rainforests (Fig. 6.3). These thick forests occur in the regions near the equator and close to the tropics. These regions are hot and receive heavy rainfall throughout the year. As there is no particular dry season, the trees do not shed their leaves altogether. This is the reason they are called evergreen. The thick canopies of the closely spaced trees do not allow the sunlight to penetrate inside the forest even in the day time. Hardwood trees like rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common here.

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Temperate Evergreen Forests The temperate evergreen forests are located in the midlatitudinal coastal region (Fig. 6.7). They are commonly found along the eastern margin of the continents, e.g., In south east USA, South China and in South East Brazil. They comprise both hard and soft wood trees like oak, pine, eucalyptus, etc.

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Fig. 6.4: A Tropical Deciduous Forest Fig. 6.7: A Temperate Evergreen Forest NATURAL VEGETATION
AND

Fig. 6.5: A Tiger

Fig. 6.6: A Golden Langoor

Fig. 6.8: Elephants WILD LIFE 41

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Tropical Deciduous Forests Tropical deciduous are the monsoon forests found in the large part of India,northern Australia and in central America (Fig. 6.4).These regions experience seasonal changes. Trees shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water. The hardwood trees found in these forests are sal, teak, neem and shisham. Hardwood trees are extremely useful for making furniture, transport and constructional materials. Tigers, lions, elephants, langoors and monkeys are the common animals of these regions (Fig. 6.5, 6.6 and 6.8).

Lets do
Where in India do tropical evergreen and tropical deciduous forests occur? Name the states. Which type of forest dominates most part of India?

Fig. 6.9: A Pheasant

Temperate Deciduous Forests As we go towards higher latitudes, there are more temperate deciduous forests (Fig. 6.11). These are found in the north eastern part of USA, China, New Zealand, Chile and also found in the coastal regions of Western Europe. They shed their leaves in the dry season. The common trees are oak, ash, beech, etc. Deer, foxes, wolves are the animals commonly found. Birds like pheasants, monals are also found here (Fig. 6.9 and 6.10).

Fig. 6.10: A Monal

Do you know?

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Mediterranean trees adapt themselves to dry summers with the help of their thick barks and wax coated leaves which help them reduce transpiration. Mediterranean regions are known as Orchards of the world for their fruit cultivation.

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Fig. 6.11: A Temperate Deciduous Forest

Mediterranean Vegetation You have learnt that most of the east and north east margins of the continents are covered by temperate evergreen and deciduous trees. The west and south west margins of the continents are different. They have Mediterranean vegetation (Fig. 6.12). It is mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Africa and Asia, hence the name. This kind of vegetation is also found outside the actual Mediterranean region in California in the USA, south west Africa, south western

Fig. 6.12: A vineyard in the Mediterranean Region

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South America and South west Australia. These regions are marked for hot dry summers and mild rainy winters. Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated here because people have removed the natural vegetation in order to cultivate what they want to. There isnt much wildlife here. Coniferous Forests In the higher latitudes (50 70) of Northern hemisphere the spectacular Coniferous forests are found (Fig. 6.13 a and b). These are also called as Taiga. These forests are also seen in the higher altitudes. These are the trees which Salima found in the Himalayas in abundance. They are tall, softwood evergreen trees. The woods of these trees are very useful for making pulp, which is used for manufacturing paper and newsprint. Match boxes and packing boxes are also made from softwood. Chir, pine, cedar are the important variety of trees in these forests. Silver fox, mink, polar bear are the common animals found here.

Lets do
Look around in your surroundings and find out the articles made of hard wood and soft wood. Find out and learn the names of few trees of your locality.

Fig. 6.13 (a): A Coniferous Forest

GRASSLANDS

Tropical grasslands: These occur on either side of the equator and extend till the tropics (Fig. 6.14). This vegetation grows in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall. The grass can grow very tall, about 3 to 4 metres in height. Savannah grasslands of Africa are of this type. Elephants, zebras, giraffes, deer, leopards are common in tropical grasslands (Fig. 6.15).

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Fig. 6.14: Tropical Grassland NATURAL VEGETATION
AND

Taiga means pure or untouched in the Russian language

Fig. 6.13 (b): Snow covered Coniferous Forest

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Do you know?
WILD LIFE 43

Temperate grasslands: These are found in the midlatitudinal zones and in the interior part of the continents. Usually, grass here is short and nutritious.Wild buffaloes, bisons, antilopes are common in the temperate region. Thorny bushes: These are found in the dry desert like regions.Tropical deserts are located on the western Fig. 6.15: Giraffes margins of the continents. The vegetation cover is scarce here because of scanty rain and scorching heat. Identify the desert regions in the world map. Can you name the Do you know? great desert of India? Name some of the common animals Grasslands are of the desert which you have learnt earlier. known by different If you reach the polar region you will find the place names in different extremely cold. The growth of natural vegetation is very regions. limited here. Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs Tropical Grasslands are found here. It grows during the very short summer. East Africa- Savanna This is called Tundra type of vegetation. This vegetation Brazil- Campos is found in the polar areas of Europe, Asia and North Venezuela- Llanos America. The animals have thick fur and thick skin to Temperate Grasslands protect themselves from the cold climatic conditions. Seal, Argentina- Pampas walruses, musk-oxen, Arctic owl, Polar bear and snow N. America- Prairie foxes are some of the animals found here (Fig. 6.16). S. Africa- Veld Salimas father showed her some photographs of thick C. Asia- Steppe forests. In some of the photographs, Salima observed Australia- Down that people were cutting trees and clearing the forests. Her father explained that the local people wanted their land for agriculture and settlements, so they cleared up the forests. Salima started wondering if all forests are cleared, then where will the wild life go? Will the forest take its original shape again? If people go on cutting the trees like Walrus Polar Bear this, will there be enough oxygen, water vapour, timber, fruits, nuts available in future? Do you agree with Salima? Hold a discussion with your friends about the depletion of our diversified flora and fauna. Seal Suggest some measures to Fig. 6.16 conserve them.
44 OUR ENVIRONMENT

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Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) Which are the two factors on which the growth of vegetation mostly depends? (ii) Which are the three broad categories of natural vegetation? (iii) Name the two hardwood trees commonly found in tropical evergreen forest. (iv) In which part of the world are tropical deciduous forest found? (v) In which climatic conditions are citrus fruits cultivated? (vi) Mention the uses of coniferous forest. (vii) In which part of the world is seasonal grassland found? 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Mosses and Lichens are found in: (a) Desertic Vegetation (b) Tropical evergreen forest (c) Tundra vegetation (ii) Thorny bushes are found in: (a) Hot and humid tropical climate (b) Hot and dry desertic climate (c) Cold polar climate (iii) In tropical evergreen forest, one of the common animals is: (a) Monkey (b) Girraffe (c) Camel (iv) One important variety of coniferous forest is: (a) Rosewood (b) Pine (c) Teak (v) Steppe grassland is found in (a) S. Africa (b) Australia (c) Central Asia 3. Match the following. (i) Walrus (a) (ii) Cedar (b) (iii) Olives (c) (iv) Elephants (d) (v) Campos (e) (vi) Downs (f) (g)

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4. Give reasons. (i) The animals in polar region have thick fur and thick skin. (ii) Tropical deciduous trees shed their leaves in the dry season. (iii) The type and thickness of vegetation changes from place to place. 5. Activity. (i) Collect pictures and photographs of forests and grasslands of different parts of world. Write one sentence below each picture. (ii) Make a collage of rainforest, grassland and coniferous forests.
NATURAL VEGETATION
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Soft wood tree An animal of tropical deciduous forest A polar animal Temperate grassland in Australia Thorny shrubs A citrus fruit Tropical grassland of Brazil
WILD LIFE 45

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6. For fun. In the crossword table given below, some words are hidden. They are all about vegetation and wildllife and are to be found horizontally and vertically. Two have been worked out for you. Work in pairs with a friend.
M B T A N A C O N D A P G B T C T E L E P H A N A P I G T C A L R F A U N A P A L M D H M F I L I O N O N P M X R L G D O E S A I R P S L H E N C T I G E R E L H Z N V T R E E X E N E E B C O N E S N A A M P S D C A M W A L R U S B H R F H I E E O A D O X V A O L C A M E L P E E P A L N D E E R A C M S J

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C O R W N S E V C T D O S P D S A R C T H E G R R S K M S O A E S A K A F P E M A E S T U S C R G A U S F R M H R A T N A A T G I R W L K S A I Q Y V A B I G R E A I U S U B S R A I E I A B E O N N A A B R G R A O A D E A C R D H A U O R P U S W L N E D E X L Z L B N A S O T E X O A M P

O X S

H R

U B

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D K M Q U M O N K E Y A K S

In Chapter 1 you have learnt that early human beings depended entirely on nature for food, clothing and Do you know? shelter; but with time they learnt new skills to grow food, build homes and develop better means of transport and The place where a communication. In this way they modified the building or a environment where they lived. settlement develops is Settlements are places where people build their called its site. The natural homes. Early human beings lived on trees and in caves. conditions for When they started to grow crops it became necessary to selection of an ideal have a permanent home. The settlements grew near the site areriver valleys as water was available and land was fertile. 1. favourable climate With the development of trade, commerce and 2. availability of manufacturing, human settlements became larger. water Settlement flourished and civilizations developed near 3. suitable land river valleys. Do you recall the names of civilization that 4. fertile soil grew along the banks of rivers Indus, Tigris, Nile and Hwang-He. Settlements can be permanent or temporary . Settlements which are occupied for a short time are called temporary settlements . The people living in deep forests, hot and cold deserts and mountains often dwell in such temporary settlements. They practice hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation and transhumance. However more and more settlements today are permanent settlements. In these settlements, people Fig. 7.1: Human Settlement build homes to live in.

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Glossary

Transhumance: It is a seasonal movement of people. People who rear animals move in search of new pastures according to changes in seasons.

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Fig. 7.3: Scattered Settlement 48 OUR ENVIRONMENT

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Fig. 7.2: Compact Settlement

It was Marys birthday party. She and her friends were waiting for Gurpreet to arrive so that Mary could cut the cake. At last Gurpreet arrived- tired, coughing and wheezing. She explained that the traffic jam was terrible. Marys mother Mrs.Thomas patted Gurpreets back and sighed, Oof! The pollution in our city! Prasad had recently come from his village. He asked, Why do we have such traffic jams and such pollution in the cities? The number of vehicles is increasing day by day due to the growing population in the cities, Marys father, Mr. Thomas replied. Mary asked, Then why are people coming to the cities? Her mother replied, They come looking for jobs, better education and medical facilities. Mary further enquired, If so many people keep coming to cities, where will all the people live? Mr. Thomas said, That is why you see so many slums and squatter settlements where people stay in congested and unhygienic conditions. Shortage of power and water supply are common problems in the cities. Prasad said, Our villages may not have big cinema halls, well-equipped schools and good hospitals, but we have lot of open spaces and fresh air to breathe in. When my grandfather was sick we had to rush him to the city hospital. From the above conversation we can identify two different pictures of settlements the rural and the urban settlements. The villages are rural settlement where people are engaged in activities like agriculture, fishing, forestry, crafts work and trading etc. Rural settlements can be compact or scattered. A compact settlement is a closely built area of dwellings, wherever flat land is available (Fig. 7.2). In a scattered settlement dwellings are spaced over an extensive area. This type of settlement is mostly found in hilly tracts, thick forests, and regions of extreme climate (Fig. 7.3). In rural areas, people build houses to suit their environment. In regions

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TRANSPORT

Transport is the means by which people and goods move. In the early days it took a great deal of time, to travel long distances. People had to walk and used animals to carry their goods. Invention of the wheel made transport easier. With the passage of time different means of transport developed but even today people use animals for transport (Fig. 7.5).

Fig. 7.5: Horse cart as a mode of transportation

In our country donkeys, mules, bullocks and camels are common. In the Andes Mountains of South America, llamas are used, as are yaks in Tibet. The early traders from other countries used to take several months to reach India. They took either the sea route or the land route. Aeroplanes have made travel faster. Now it takes only 6-8 hours to travel from India to Europe. Modern means of transport thus saves time and energy.

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HUMAN ENVIRONMENT SETTLEMENT, TRANSPORT
AND

of heavy rainfall, they have slanting roofs. Places where water accumulates in the rainy season the houses are constructed on a raised platform or stilts (Fig. 7.4). Thick mud walled houses with thatched roofs are very common in areas of hot climate. Local materials like stones, mud, clay, straw etc are used to construct houses. Fig. 7.4: Houses on Stilts The towns are small and the cities are larger urban settlements. In urban areas the people are engaged in manufacturing, trading, and services. Name some of the villages, towns and cities of your state.

Where do you find dwellings made of ice? Who makes them and what are they called?

List the different modes of transport used by the students of your class while coming to school.

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COMMUNICATION 49

Do you know?

The railways carry heavy goods and people over long distances quickly and The train from Xining to Lhasa runs at cheaply. The invention of the steam an altitude of 4,000m above sea level engine and the Industrial Revolution and the highest point is 5,072 m helped in speedy development of rail transport. Diesel and electric engines have largely replaced the steam engines. In places super fast trains have been introduced to make the journey faster. The railway network is well developed over the plain areas. Advanced technological skills have enabled laying of railway lines in difficult mountain terrains also. But these are much fewer in number. Indian railway network is well developed. It is the largest in Asia.
Do you know?
OUR ENVIRONMENT

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Fig. 7.6: Metalled Road Fig. 7.7: Unmetalled Road

RAILWAYS

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There are several National and State highways in India. The latest development in India is the construction of Express Ways. The Golden Quadrilateral connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.

The four major means of transport are roadways, railways, waterways and airways.

ROADWAYS
The most commonly used means of transport especially for short distances are roads. They can be metalled (pucca) and unmetalled (kutcha) (Fig. 7.6 and 7.7). The plains have a dense network of roads. Roads have also been build in terrains like deserts, forests and even high mountains. Manali-Leh highway in the Himlayan Mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world. Roads built underground are called subways/under paths. Flyovers are built over raised structures.

Do you know?
The Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway system connecting St. Petersburg in Western Russia to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast.

WATERWAYS

You have already learnt that since early days waterways were used for transportation. Waterways are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances. They are mainly of two types inland waterways and sea routes. Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways. Some of the important inland waterways are the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system, the Great Lakes in North America and the river Nile in Africa. Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another. These routes are connected with the ports. Some of the important ports of the world are Singapore and Mumbai in Asia, New York, Los Angeles in North America, Rio de Janerio in South America, Durban and Cape Town in Africa, Sydney in Australia, London and Rotterdam in Europe (Fig. 7.11). Can you name some more ports of the world? Fig. 7.8: Inland Waterways

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Trans Siberian Railway HUMAN ENVIRONMENT SETTLEMENT, TRANSPORT
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COMMUNICATION 51

AIRWAYS
This is the fastest way of transport developed in the early twentieth century. It is also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels. Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather like fog and storms. It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways. Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas and in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes and medicines (Fig. 7.9). Some of the important airports are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo (Fig. 7.11).

Fig. 7.9: A Helicopter

Find out the names of some newspapers and TV news channels in English, Hindi and a regional language.

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Fig. 7.10: Progress in the means of communication 52 OUR ENVIRONMENT

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COMMUNICATION

Communication is the process of conveying messages to others. With the development of technology humans have devised new and fast modes of communication. The Fig. 7.10 explains the evolution of the communication system. The advancement in the field of communication has brought about an information revolution in the world. Different modes of communication are used to provide information, to educate as well as to entertain. Through newspapers, radio and television we can communicate with a large number of people. They are therefore called mass media. The satellites have made communication even faster. Satellites have helped in oil exploration, survey of forest, underground water, mineral wealth, weather forecast and disaster warning. Now we can send electronic mails or e-mails through Internet. Wireless telephonic communications through cellular phones have become very popular today. Internet not only provides us with worldwide information and interaction but has also made our lives more comfortable. Now we can reserve tickets for railways, airways and even cinemas and hotels sitting at home. With this kind

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of inter connectivity of people, services and institutions across the world, we are a large global society.
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COMMUNICATION 53

Fig. 7.11: World Major Sea Ports and Airports

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Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) What are the four means of transport? (ii) What do you understand by the term settlement? (iii) Which are the activities practised by the rural people? (iv) Mention any two merits of railways. (v) What do you understand by communication? (vi) What is mass media?

3. Match the following. (i) Internet

4. Give reasons. (i) Todays world is shrinking.

5. For fun. (i) Conduct a survey in your locality and find out how people commute to their respective workplaces using (a) more than two modes of transport (b) more than three modes of transport (c) stay within walking distance. (ii) Mention which mode of communication you will prefer most in the following situations (a) Your grandfather has suddenly fallen ill. How will you inform the doctor? (b) Your mother wants to sell the old house. How will she spread this news? (c) You are going to attend the marriage of your cousin for which you will be absent from the school for the next two days. How will you inform the teacher? (d) Your friend has moved out with his/her family to New York. How will you keep in touch on a daily basis?

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(a) areas where people are engaged in manufacturing, trade and services (ii) Canal route (b) closely built area of houses (iii) Urban areas (c) houses on stilts (iv) Compact settlement (d) inland waterway (e) a means of communication

2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Which is NOT a means of communication? (a) telephone (b) books (c) table (ii) Which type of road is constructed under the ground? (a) fly over (b) expressways (c) subways (iii) Which mode of transport is most suitable to reach an island? (a) ship (b) train (c) car (iv) Which vehicle does not pollute the environment (c) cycle (b) bus (c) aeroplane

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In these pictures Renuka, you can see people from different parts of the world some from dry deserts, some from frozen lands and some from hot wet rainforests. They look so different from me, observed Renuka. They may look different, but they share the same basic needs of life food, clothing and shelter, explained Shrikant Uncle. Their children do the same things as you probably do, play games, quarrel sometimes and then make-up, sing, dance and help the families with various things that need to be done. They live closer to nature and very early in their lives have learnt to care for nature. They learn how to catch fish and how to collect material from the forests.

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Fig. 8.1: People from various parts of the world

Renuka was excited. Shrikant Uncle was home after a gap of nearly four months. He was a wildlife photographer and travelled widely. Renukas interest in wildlife and forests began at an early age, when her uncle introduced her to books on nature. Pictures of distant lands and people, who lived there, always fascinated her.

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In Chapters 8, 9 and 10, you will learn about the life of people in the different natural regions of the world.
Do you know?
When Spanish explorers discovered the Amazon river, they were attacked by a group of local tribes wearing headgears and grass skirts. These people reminded them of the fierce tribes of women warriors known in ancient Roman Empire as the Amazons. Hence the name Amazon.

LIFE

IN THE

AMAZON BASIN

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Tributaries: These are small rivers that join the main river. The main river along with all its tributaries that drain an area forms a river basin or the catchment area. The Amazon Basin is the largest river basin in the world.

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Glossary
Fig. 8.2: The Amazon Basin in South America

Before learning about the Amazon basin, let us look at the map (Fig. 8.2). Notice that the tropical region lies very close to the equator; between 10N and 10S. So, it is referred to as the equatorial region. The river Amazon flows through this region. Notice how it flows from the mountains to the west and reaches the Atlantic Ocean to the east. The place where a river flows into another body of water is called the rivers mouth. Numerous tributaries join the Amazon River to form the Amazon basin. The river basin drains portions of Brazil, parts of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Columbia and a small part of Venezuela. Name the countries of the basin through which the equator passes.

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CLIMATE
As you now know, the Amazon Basin stretches directly on the equator and is characterized by hot and wet climate throughout the year. Both day and nights are almost equally hot and humid. The skin feels sticky. It rains almost everyday, that too without much warning. The day temperatures are high with very high humidity. At night the temperature goes down but the humidity remains high.

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As it rains heavily in this region, thick forests grow (Fig. 8.3). The forests are in fact so thick that the dense roof created by leaves and branches does not allow the sunlight to reach the ground. The ground remains dark and damp. Only shade tolerant vegetation may grow here. Orchids, bromeliads grow as plant parasites. Fig. The rainforest is rich in fauna. Birds such as toucans (Fig. 8.4), humming birds, bird of paradise with their brilliantly coloured plumage, oversized bills for eating make them different from birds we commonly see in India. These birds also make loud sounds in the forests. Animals like Fig. 8.4 : Toucans monkeys, sloth and ant-eating tapirs are found here (Fig. 8.5). Various species of reptiles and snakes also thrive in these jungles. Crocodiles, snakes, pythons abound. Anaconda and boa constrictor are some of the species. Besides, the basin is home to thousands of species of insects. Several species of fishes including the flesheating Piranha fish is also found in the river. This basin is thus extraordinarily rich in the variety of life found there. Fig. 8.5 : Tapir

PEOPLE

OF THE

People grow most of their food in small areas after clearing some trees in the forest. While men hunt and fish along the rivers, women take care of the crops. They mainly grow
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8.3 : The Amazon Forest

Bromeliads are special plants that store water in their leaves. Animals like frogs use these pockets of water for laying their eggs.

RAINFORESTS

Some TV channels broadcast documentaries on the wildlife of the world. Try to watch some of the films and share your experience with the class.
AND THE

SUBTROPICAL REGION

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RAINFORESTS

Do you know?

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Fig. 8.6: Gradual Destruction of Forests

Slash and Burn is a way of cultivating land where farmers clear a piece of land by slashing or cutting down trees and bushes. These are then burnt, which releases the nutrients into the soil. Now crops are grown in this cleared field for a few years. After repeatedly using the patch of land, the soil looses its nutrients. So it is abandoned. Then they clear another plot of land to plant. In the mean time young trees grow in the old field. In this way soil fertility is restored. People can then return to it and start cultivating it again.

tapioca, pineapple and sweet potato. As hunting and fishing are uncertain it is the women who keep their families alive by feeding them the vegetables they grow. They practice slash and burn agriculture. The staple food is manioc, also known as cassava that grows under the ground like the potato. They also eat queen ants and egg sacs. Cash crops like coffee, maize and cocoa are also grown. The rainforests provide a lot of wood for the houses. Some families live in thatched houses shaped like beehives. There are other large apartment-like houses called Maloca with a steeply slanting roof. Life of the people of the Amazon basin is slowly changing. In the older days the heart of the forest, could be reached only by navigating the river. In 1970 the Trans Amazon highway made all parts of the rainforest accessible. Aircrafts and helicopters are also used for reaching various places. The indigenous population was pushed out from the area and forced to settle in new areas where they continued to practice their distinctive way of farming. The developmental activities are leading to the gradual destruction of the biologically diverse rainforests. It is estimated that a large area of the rainforest has been disappearing annually in the Amazon basin. You can see that this destruction of forests has a much wider implication (Fig. 8.6). The topsoil is washed away as the rains fall and the lush forest turns into a barren landscape.

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LIFE

IN THE

GANGA-BRAHMAPUTRA BASIN

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INDIA
Fig. 8.8: Ganga-Brahmputra Basin HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: THE TROPICAL
AND THE

The tributaries of rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra together form the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin in the Indian subcontinent (Fig. 8.8). The basin lies in the sub-tropical region that is situated between 10N to 30N latitudes. The tributaries of the River Ganga like the Ghaghra, the Son, the Chambal, the Gandak, the Kosi and the tributaries of Brahmaputra drain it. Look at the atlas and find names of some tributaries of the River Brahmaputra. Fig. 8.7 Brahmaputra river The plains of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, the mountains and the foothills of the

SUBTROPICAL REGION

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Lets do
River Brahmaputra is known by different names in difference places. Find the other names of the river.

Collect some handicrafts made from jute, bamboo and silk. Display them in the class. Find out in which area they were made?

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Activity
Fig. 8.9 : Paddy Cultivation

Population density: It means the number of persons that live in one sq. km. of area e.g. the population density of Uttarakhand is 159 while the density of West Bengal is 904 and that of Bihar is 880.

Fig. 8.10 : Tea Garden in Assam

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Glossary

Himalayas and the Sundarbans delta are the main features of this basin. Ox-bow lakes dot the plain area. The area is dominated by monsoon climate. The monsoon brings rains from mid-June to mid-September. The summers are hot and the winters cool. Look at the map of India (Fig. 8.8). Find out the states in which the Ganga-Brahmputra basin lies. The basin area has varied topography. The environment plays a dominant role in the distribution of the population. The mountain areas with steep slopes have inhospitable terrain. Therefore less number of people live in the mountain area of the GangaBrahmaputra basin. The plain area provides the most suitable land for human habitation. The soil is fertile. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people where flat land is available to grow crops. The density of population of the plains is very high. The main crop is paddy (Fig. 8.9). Since cultivation of paddy requires sufficient water, it is grown in the areas where the amount of rainfall is high. Wheat, maize, sorghum, gram and millets are the other crops that are grown. Cash crops like sugarcane and jute are also grown. Banana plantations are seen in some areas of the plain. In West Bengal and Assam tea is grown in plantations (Fig. 8.10). Silk is produced through the cultivation of silk worms in parts of Bihar and Assam. In the mountains and hills, where the slopes are gentle, crops are grown on terraces. The vegetation cover of the area varies according to the type of landforms. In the Ganga and Brahmaputra plain tropical deciduous trees grow, along with teak, sal and peepal. Thick bamboo groves are common in the Brahmaputra plain. The delta area is covered with the

Fig. 8.11 : One horned rhinoceros

Lake: A source of livelihood


(A case study)

Binod is a fisherman living in the Matwali Maun village of Bihar. He is a happy man today. With the efforts of the fellow fishermen Ravindar, Kishore, Rajiv and others, he cleaned the maun or the ox-bow A clean lake lake to cultivate different varieties of fish. The local weed (vallineria, hydrilla) that grows in the lake is the food of the fish. The land around the lake is fertile. He sows crops such as paddy, maize and pulses in these fields. The buffalo is used to plough the land. The community is satisfied. There is enough fish catch from the river enough fish to eat and enough fish

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Fig. 8.12 : Crocodiles HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: THE TROPICAL
AND THE

Terrace Farming

In the fresh waters of River Ganga and River Brahmaputra, a variety of dolphin locally called Susu (also called blind dolphin) is found. The presence of Susu is an indication of the health of the river. The untreated industrial and urban wastes with high amount of chemicals are killing this species.

Blind Dolphin
SUBTROPICAL REGION

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Do you know?
61

mangrove forests. In parts of Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, coniferous trees like pine, deodar and fir can be seen because the climate is cool and the slopes are steep. There is a variety of wildlife in the basin. Elephants, tigers, deer and monkeys are common. The one-horned rhinoceros is found in the Brahmaputra plain. In the delta area, Bengal tiger, crocodiles and alligator are found. Aquatic life abounds in the fresh river waters, the lakes and the Bay of Bengal Sea. The most popular varieties of the fish are the rohu, catla and hilsa. Fish and rice is the staple diet of the people living in the area.

Do you know?
Terraces are built on steep slopes to create flat surfaces on which crops are grown. The slope is removed so that water does not run off rapidly.

Fig. 8.14: 62

The Ganga-Brahmaputra plain has several big towns and cities. The cities of Allahabad, Kanpur, Varanasi, Lucknow, Patna and Kolkata all with the population of more than ten lakhs are located along the River Ganga (Fig. 8.13). The Fig. 8.13: Varanasi along the River Ganga wastewater from these towns and industries is discharged into the rivers. This leads to the pollution of the rivers. All the four ways of transport are well developed in the Ganga-Brahmaputra basin. In the plain areas the roadways and railways transport the people from one place to another. The waterways, is an effective means of transport particularly along the rivers. Kolkata is an important port on the River Hooghly. The plain area also has a large number of airports. Tourism is another important activity of the basin. Taj Mahal on the banks of River Yamuna in Agra, Allahabad on the confluence of the Rivers Ganga and Yamuna, Buddhists stupas in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, Lucknow with its Imambara, Assam with Kaziranga and Manas with wild life sanctuaries and Arunachal Pradesh with a distinct tribal culture are some of the places worth a visit (Fig. 8.14). Tiger in Manas Wildlife sanctuary

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to sell in the market. They have even begun supply to the neighbouring town. The community is living in harmony with nature. As long as the pollutants from nearby towns do not find their way into the lake waters, the fish cultivation will not A Polluted Lake face any threat.

Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) Name the continent in which the Amazon Basin is located. (ii) What are the crops grown by the people of the Amazon Basin. (iii) Name the birds that you are likely to find in the rainforests of the Amazon. (iv) What are the major cities located on the River Ganga. (v) Where is the one-horned rhinoceros found? 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Toucans are a type of (a) birds (b) animals (ii) Manioc is the staple food of (a) Ganga Basin (b) Africa

(c) crops (c) Amazon

(iii) Kolkata is located on the river (a) Orange (b) Hooghly (c) Bhagirathi (iv) Deodars and firs are a type of (a) Coniferous trees (b) Deciduous trees (c) shrubs (v) Bengal tiger is found in (a) mountains (b) delta area (c) Amazon 3. Match the following. (i) Cotton textile (ii) Maloca (iii) Piranha (iv) Silk worm (v) Kaziranga (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Assam Terrace farming Sericulture Slanting roof Ganga plain Varanasi Fish

4. Give reasons. (i) The rainforests are depleting. (ii) Paddy is grown in the Ganga-Brahmaputra plains.

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5. Map skills. (i) On an outline map of the Indian Sub-continent, draw the rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra from the source to the mouth. Also show the important tributaries of both the rivers. (ii) On the political map of South America, draw the equator. Mark the countries through which the equator passes. 6. For fun. Make a collage to show places of attractions in India. You can divide the class in different groups to show attractions based on mountain landscapes, coastal beaches, wildlife sanctuaries and places of historical importance.

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HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: THE TROPICAL
AND THE

SUBTROPICAL REGION

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7. Activity. Collect under mentioned material and observe how destruction of trees effect the soil cover. Material (i) Three small flowerpots or food cans (e.g., cold drinks tin cans), (ii) one big can with holes punched in the bottom (this will act as a sprinkling can), (iii) twelve coins or bottle caps (iv) soil. Steps Take three small cans or pots. Fill them with soil till the top. Press the soil to make it level with the top of the can. Now put four coins or bottle caps on the soil of each can. Take the big can that has been punched with holes and fill it with water. You can also take the sprinkling can from your garden. Now, sprinkle water on the three cans. On the first can sprinkle water very slowly so that no soil splashes out. Let moderate amount of water be sprinkled on the second can. On the third can, sprinkle the water heavily. You will observe that unprotected soil splashes out. Where the rain is heavy the amount of soil that splashes out is the maximum and least in case of the first can. The coins or caps represent the tree covers. It is clear that if the land is cleared completely of the vegetation, the soil cover will quickly disappear.

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THE PRAIRIES

The temperate grasslands of North America are known as the Prairies (Fig. 9.1). It is a region of flat, gently sloping or hilly land. For the most part, prairies are treeless but, near the low lying plains, flanking river valleys, woodlands can be found. Tall grass, upto two metres high, dominates, the landscape. It is actually a sea of grass. The prairies are bound by the Rocky Mountains in the West and the Great Lakes in the East. Look at the map of North America (Fig. 9.2). You can see that the prairies cover parts of United States of America and parts of Canada. In the USA, the area is drained by the tributaries of Mississippi and the Canadian prairies are drained by the tributaries of Saskatchewan Rivers. Fig. 9.1:

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The Prairies

Just as a forest can be defined as the place where trees are the main type of vegetation, grassland can be defined as a region where grasses form the dominant type of plant life. Grasslands make up almost a quarter of the total land surface. The types of plants that grow here greatly depend on what the climate and soil are like. As climate plays an important role in the formation of grasslands, it is generally used as a basis to divide the worlds grasslands into two broad categories: those that occur in the temperate region and those that occur in the tropical regions.

The word Prairie originated from Latin word priata which means meadow.

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Word Origin

Do you know?
The grasslands of Prairies were the home of native Americans often called Red Indians. They were the actual habitant of the continent. The Prairies were home of other tribes also like the Apache, the Crow, the Cree and the Pawnee.

Do you know?

Chinook is a hot wind that blows in winter and therefore raises the temperature within a short time. This increase in temperature results in the melting of snow, making pasture land available for grazing of animals.

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Fig. 9.2: The Prairies in North America

CLIMATE

Being located in the heart of a continent, the climate is of continental type with extreme temperatures. The summers are warm with temperatures of around 20C, while in winter -20C has been recorded in Winnipeg, Canada. In winters a thick blanket of snow covers this region. The annual rainfall is moderate and is ideal for the growth of grass. Due to the absence of the north-south barrier, a local wind Chinook blows here.

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FLORA AND FAUNA


Prairies are practically tree-less. Where water is available, trees such as willows, alders and poplars grow. Places that receive rainfall of over 50 cm, are suitable for farming as the soil is fertile. Though the major crop of this area is maize, other crops including potatoes, soybean, cotton and alfa-alfa is also grown. Areas where rainfall is very little or unreliable, grasses are short and sparse. These areas are suitable for cattle rearing. Large cattle farms called ranches are looked after by Fig. 9.3: A Cowboy with his horse sturdy men called cowboys (Fig. 9.3). Bison or the American buffalo is the most Glossary important animal of this region Combine: A single (Fig. 9.4). It nearly got extinct machine which can due to its indiscriminate hunting combine the tasks of and is now a protected species. sowing, ploughing and The other animals found in this threshing i.e. a three region are rabbits, coyotes, -in-one. Fig. 9.4: A Bison gophers and Prairie dog.

PEOPLE

The people of this region are very hardworking. They have successfully harnessed technology to utilise their rich natural resources. Two of the most developed countries in the world - the USA and Canada are located in this region. Scientific methods of cultivation and use of tractors, harvesters and combines has made North America a surplus food producer. The Prairies are also known as the Granaries of the world, due to the huge surplus of wheat production. Dairy farming is another major industry. The dairy belt extends from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast in the east. Dairy farming and extensive agriculture both promote setting up of food processing industries. Large mineral deposits particularly coal and iron and a good network of roads, railways and canals in this region have made it the most industrialised region in the world.

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Important cities in the American prairies are Chicago, Minneapolis, Indianapolis, Kansas and Denver. In the Canadian prairies the important cities are Edmonton, Saskatoon, Calgary and Winnipeg.
TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS 67

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Do you know?

Do you know?
The Veld name was given by the Dutch settlers before South Africa was colonised by the British.

THE VELDS
The temperate grasslands of South Africa are called the velds (Fig. 9.5). Velds are rolling plateaus with varying heights ranging from 600 m to 1100 m. It is bound by the Drakensburg Mountains on the east. To its west lies the Kalahari desert. On the northeastern part, high velds are located that attain a height of more than 1600 m, in some places. Look at the map of Africa. Name the countries that are covered by the Velds. The tributaries of rivers Orange and Limpopo drain the region.

Some type of grass grows on almost every surface of the earth. List names of places where you have observed grass growing, e.g., lawns, cricket field, between cracks of a side walk etc.

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Velds lie in the Southern hemisphere. When it is summers in velds, what season would it be in the prairies?
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Lets do
Lets do
Fig. 9.5: Veld in Africa

CLIMATE
The velds have a mild climate due to the influence of the Indian Ocean. Winters are cold and dry. Temperatures vary between 5C and 10C and July is the coldest month. Summers are short and warm. Johannesburg records about 20C temperature in the summer.

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The velds receive rainfall mainly in the summer months from November to February. This is mainly because of the warm ocean currents that wash the shores of the velds. If the rainfall is scanty in the winter months from June till August, drought may occur.

FLORA AND FAUNA


The vegetation cover is sparse. Grasses dominate the landscape. Red grass grows in bush velds. In the high velds acacia and maroola are seen to be growing. The animals of the velds are primarily lions, leopards, cheetah and kudu (Fig. 9.6).

Velds are known for cattle rearing and mining. The soils are not very fertile in the velds due to the presence of discontinuous grasses exposing barren surface. However where the land is fertile crops are grown. The main crops are maize, wheat, barley, oats and potato. Cash crops like tobacco, sugarcane and cotton are also grown. Sheep rearing is the most important occupation of the people. Sheep is bred mainly for wool and has given rise to the wool industry in the velds. Merino sheep is a popular species and their wool is very warm. Dairy farming is the next important occupation. Cattle are reared in the warmer and wetter regions and the dairy products like butter, cheese are produced for both domestic supply and also for export. The velds have rich reserve of minerals. Iron and steel industry has developed where coal and iron are present. Gold and diamond mining are major occupations of people of this region. Johannesburg is known for being the gold capital of the world. Kimberley is famous for its diamond mines (Fig. 9.7). Mining of diamond and gold in South Africa led to the establishment of trade ties with Britain and gradually South Africa became a British Colony. This mineral rich area has a well-developed network of transport. Fig. 9.7:

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Diamond Mine, Kimberley TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS 69 LIFE
IN THE

PEOPLE

Fig. 9.6: A Leopard

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Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) What are the Temperate Grasslands of North America called? (ii) What are the cattle farms in the North American Grasslands known as? (iii) Name the rivers that drain the Velds. (iv) When is the rainy season in the Velds? (v) What is the major occupation of the people of the South African grasslands? 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) River Mississippi drains (a) Canada (b) Africa (c) USA (ii) Drakensberg Mountains are to the west of (a) Prairies (b) Velds (c) Pampas (iii) Merino is a species of (a) fish (b) elephant (iv) Kimberley is famous for (a) diamonds (b) silver (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (c) sheep

3. Match the following. (i) Cowboys (ii) Gold (iii) Kudu (iv) Chinook (v) Coal

4. Give reasons. (i) The Prairies are known as the Granaries of the World. (ii) Rise of wool industry in the Velds.

5. Map skills. On an outline map of North America, mark the Rocky mountains, the Great Lakes, river Mississippi, river Saskatchewan, the cities Chicago and Winnipeg. 6. For fun. Make a grass whistle You will require a blade of grass about 5 cm in length. Be sure to choose the grass blade longer than your thumb. The blade of grass should be fairly thick. Choose the grass that is broad and wide. Narrow blade is difficult to hold. Put your thumbs together as your nails are facing you. Stretch the blade of grass lengthwise between the thumbs and the base of the hand. Your hands should be cupped to create a hollow or a narrow opening between your palms. You should just be able to see the edge of the grass only through the narrow opening. Place your lips over the opening and blow gently into the palm. You may even feel the grass blade vibrating as you blow. As you gradually blow you will hear sound of whistle created by grass.

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(c) platinum Iron and Steel Prairies Hot wind Velds Johannesberg Animal

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10

Life in the Deserts

THE HOT DESERT SAHARA

Look at the map of the world and the continent of Africa. Locate the Sahara desert covering a large part of North Africa. It is the worlds largest desert. It has an area of around 8.54 million sq. km. Do you recall that India has an area of 3.2 million sq. km? The Sahara desert touches eleven countries. These are Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia and Western Sahara. Fig. 10.1: The Sahara Desert When you think of a desert the picture that immediately comes to your mind is that of sand. But besides the vast stretches of sands, that Sahara desert is covered with, there are also gravel plains and elevated plateaus with bare rocky surface. These rocky surfaces may be more than 2500m high at some places.

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In Chapter 5, you have seen that water means life to plants, animals and people. It is difficult for anyone to live in places where there is no water to drink, where there is no grass for their cattle to feed on and where there is no water to help the crops to grow. We will now learn about the places in the world where people have learned to cope with extreme harsh temperatures; in some places as hot as fire and some as cold as ice. These are the desert areas of the world. These are characterised by low rainfall, scanty vegetation and extreme temperatures. Depending on the temperatures there can be hot deserts or cold deserts. The people inhabit these lands wherever little water is available to practise agriculture.

Desert: It is an arid region characteriesed by extremely high or low temperatures and has scarce vegetation.

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Glossary

Do you know?
You will be surprised to know that present day Sahara once used to be a lush green plain. Cave paintings in Sahara desert show that there used to be rivers with crocodiles. Elephants, lions, giraffes, ostriches, sheep, cattle and goats were common animals. But the change in climate has changed it to a very hot and dry region.
Mo roc co

Do you know?

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Al Azizia in the Sahara desert, south of Tripoli, Libya recorded the highest temperature of 57.7C in 1922.

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Fig. 10.2: Sahara in Africa

Climate The climate of the Sahara desert is scorching hot and parch dry. It has a short rainy season. The sky is cloudless and clear. Here, the moisture evaporates faster than it accumulates. Days are unbelievably hot. The temperatures during the day may soar as high as 50C, heating up the sand and the bare rocks, which in turn radiates heat making everything around hot. The nights may be freezing cold with temperatures nearing zero degrees. Flora and Fauna Vegetation in the Sahara desert includes cactus, date palms and acacia. In some places there are oasis green islands with date palms surrounding them. Camels, hyenas, jackals, foxes, scorpions, many varieties of

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snakes and lizards are the prominent animal species living there.

Do you know?
Scientists have actually found skeletons of fish in this desert. What could have happened?
Fig. 10.3: Oasis in the Sahara Desert

People The Sahara desert despite its harsh climate has been inhabited by various groups of people, who pursue different activities. Among them are the Bedouins and Tuaregs. These groups are nomadic tribes rearing livestock such as goats, sheep, camels and horses. These animals provide them with milk, hides from which they make leather for belts, slippers, water bottles; hair is used for mats, carpets, clothes and blankets. They wear heavy robes as protection against dust storms and hot winds. The oasis in the Sahara and the Nile Valley in Egypt supports settled population. Since water is available, the people grow date palms. Crops such as rice, wheat, barley and beans are also grown. Egyptian cotton, famous worldwide is grown in Egypt. The discovery of oil a product in great demand throughout the world, in Algeria, Libya and Egypt is constantly transforming the Sahara desert. Other minerals of importance that are found in the area include iron, phosphorus, manganese and uranium. The cultural landscape of the Sahara is undergoing change. Gleaming glass cased office buildings tower over mosques and superhighways crisscross the ancient camel paths. Trucks are replacing camels in the salt trade. Tuaregs are seen acting as guides to foreign tourists. More and more nomadic herdsmen are taking to city life finding jobs in oil and gas operations.

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Depressions are formed when the wind blows away the sands. In the depressions where underground water reaches the surface, an oasis is formed. These areas are fertile. People may settle around these water bodies and grow date palms and other crops. Sometimes the oasis may be abnormally large. Tafilalet Oasis in Morocco is a large oasis with an area of about 13,000 sq.km.
DESERTS 73

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Do you know?

Word Origin

THE COLD DESERT - LADAKH


Ladakh is a cold desert lying in the Great Himalayas, on the eastern side of Jammu and Kashmir (Fig. 10.4). The Karakoram Range in the north and the Zanskar mountains in the south enclose it. Several rivers flow through Ladakh, Indus being the most important among them. The rivers form deep valleys and gorges. Several glaciers are found in Ladakh, for example the Gangri glacier. The altitude in Ladakh varies from about 3000m in Kargil to more than 8,000m in the Karakoram. Due to its high altitude, the climate is extremely cold and dry. The air at this altitude is so thin that the heat of the sun can be felt intensely. The day temperatures in summer are just above zero degree and the night temperatures well below 30C. It is freezing cold in the winters when the temperatures may remain below 40C for most of the time. As it lies

Ladakh is made up of two words La meaning mountain pass and Dak meaning country

Do you know?
Drass, one of the coldest inhabited places on earth is located in Ladakh.

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Fig. 10.4: Ladakh

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in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, there is little rainfall, as low as 10 cm every year. The area experiences freezing winds and burning hot sunlight. You will be surprised to know that if you sit in the sun with your feet in the shade, you may suffer from both sunstroke and frost bite at the same time. Flora and Fauna Due to high aridity, the vegetation is sparse. There are scanty patches of grasses and shrubs for animals to graze. Groves of willows and poplars are seen in the valleys. During the summers, fruit trees such as apples, apricots and walnuts bloom. Several species of birds are sighted in Ladakh. Robins, redstarts, Tibetan snowcock, raven and hoopoe are common. Some of these are migratory birds. The animals of Ladakh are wild goats, wild sheep, yak and special kinds of dogs. The animals are reared to provide for the milk, meat and hides. Yaks milk is used to make cheese and butter. The hair of the sheep and goat is used to make woollens.

Do you know?

Ladakh is also known as Khapa-chan which means snow land.

Do you know?

People Do you know? Do you find any resemblance between the people of Ladakh and the inhabitants of Tibet and Central Asia? The people here are either Muslims or Buddhists. In The finest cricket bats are made from the fact several Buddhists monasteries dot the Ladakhi wood of the willow landscape with their traditional gompas. Some trees. famous monasteries are Hemis, Thiksey, Shey and Lamayuru (Fig. 10.5). In the summer season the people are busy cultivating barley, potatoes, peas, beans and turnip. The climate in winter months is so harsh that people keep themselves engaged in festivities and ceremonies. The women are very hard working. They work not only in the house and fields, but also manage small business and shops. Leh, the capital of Ladakh is well connected both by road and air. The National Highway 1A connects Leh to Kashmir Valley through the Zoji la Pass. Can you name some more passes in the Himalayas? Fig. 10.5 Thiksey Monastery

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The Chiru or the Tibetan antelope is an endangered species. It is hunted for its wool known as shahtoosh, which is light in weight and extremely warm.

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Do you know?
Manali - Leh highway crosses four passes, Rohtang la, Baralacha la Lungalacha la and Tanglang la. The highway opens only between July and September when snow is cleared from the road.

Baralacha la

1. Answer the following questions. (a) What are the two types of deserts found in the world? (b) In which continent is the Sahara desert located? (c) What are the climatic conditions of the Ladakh desert? (d) What mainly attracts tourists to Ladakh? (e) What type of clothes the people of the Sahara desert wear? (f) Name the trees that grow in Ladakh. 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Sahara is located in which part of Africa (a) eastern (b) northern (c) western (ii) Sahara is what type of desert (a) cold (b) hot (c) mild (iii) The Ladakh desert is mainly inhabited by (a) Christians and Muslims (b) Buddhists and Muslims (c) Christians and Buddhists (iv) Deserts are characterised by (a) scanty vegetation (b) heavy precipitation (c) low evaporation

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Exercises

Tourism is a major activity with several tourists streaming in from within India and abroad. Visits to the gompas, treks to see the meadows and glaciers, witnessing ceremonies and festivities are important activities. Life of people is undergoing change due Fig. 10.6. Ladakhi Women in Traditional Dress to modernisation. But the people of Ladakh have over the centuries learned to live in balance and harmony with nature. Due to scarcity of resources like water and fuel, they are used with reverence and care. Nothing is discarded or wasted.

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(v) Hemis in the Ladakh is a famous (a) temple (b) church (vi) Egypt is famous for growing (a) wheat (b) maize 3. Match the following. (i) Oasis (ii) Bedouins (iii) Oil (iv) Gangri (v) Lamayuru (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

(c) monastery (c) cotton

5. Map skills. (i) On the outline map of Africa, mark the Sahara desert and any four countries around it. (ii) On the outline map of India, mark the Karakoram Range, Zanskar Range, Ladakh and Zoji La pass. 6. For fun.

This is a class room activity involving all the students. The teacher will create a list of desert creatures. The number of the creatures should be same as the number of students in the class. The creatures can be picked up from the categories of mammals, birds and reptiles. Mammals can include camel, yak, fox, sheep, goat, antelope Birds raven, eagle, vulture, turkey Reptiles snakes Assign one desert creature to each student. Ask the student to write three characteristics of the creature on plain sheet of paper. (students can use index cards of size 10 cm 15 cm). Questions such as - in what type of deserts it is found? Major adaptation? Use to man? These characteristics will be used as clues in the guessing game. On the board make three columns mammals, birs and reptiles. Paste a sheet of paper in the column under the particular category. The class can be divided in three to four groups. They will compete against each other in the desert game. Each group now takes turn in guessing the correct answer. Explain to the class that they have to guess what animal matches the characteristics listed on the paper. For example: Animal of hot desert Has double set of eyelashes to keep away the sand The hide is used for making water bottles The correct answer is camel. Within the group there will be a student who has prepared the card. That student should not answer. Ten points are awarded for the correct answer. This game will enable students to understand the desert. You can play the same game by taking different types of fruits, flora and the clothes the people wear.
LIFE
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Desert Game
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4. Give reasons. (i) There is scanty vegetation in the deserts. (ii) People of the Sahara desert wear heavy robes.

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Libya monastery glacier depressions with water cold desert Sahara

APPENDIX

Some Internet Sources for More Information


http://school.discovery.com/ http://nationalgeographic.com/

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http://www.incredibleindia.org/ http://www.wikipedia.org/ http://www.greenpeace.org/ http://www.britannica.com/ http;//www.animalplanet.co.uk/

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d e h s T i l R b E u C p N re e b o t t
Foreword iii Chapter 1 Resources 18 Chapter 2 Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources Chapter 3 Mineral and Power Resources Chapter 4 Agriculture Chapter 5 Industries 9 23 24 39 40 49 50 65 66 75 Chapter 6 Human Resources

CONTENTS

Resources

Mona and Raju were helping Amma to clean their house. Look at all these things. clothes, utensils, foodgrains, combs, this bottle of honey, books..Each of these has a use, said Mona. That is why they are important, said Amma. These are resources... What is a resource? was Rajus question to Amma. Anything that can be used to satisfy a need is a resource, replied amma. Look around you and observe, you will be able to identify many types of resources. The water you drink when you are thirsty, the electricity you use in your house, the rickshaw you use to get home from school, the textbook you use to study are all resources. Your father has prepared a tasty snack for you. The fresh vegetables he has used are also a resource. Water, electricity, rickshaw, vegetable and textbook have something in common. They have all been used by you, so they have utility. Utility or usability is what makes an object or substance a resource.

How does something become a resource? Raju now wanted to know. Amma told the children that things become resources only when they have a value. Its use or utility gives it a value. All resources have some value. said Amma.

Value means worth. Some resources have economic value, some do not. For example, metals may have an economic value, a beautiful landscape may not. But both are important and satisfy human needs. Some resources can become economically valuable with time. Your grandmothers home remedies have no commercial value today. But if they are patented and sold by a medical firm tomorrow, they could become economically valuable.

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Lets do List out five resources you use in your home and five you use in your classroom. Glossary Patent: It means the exclusive right over any idea or invention.

Glossary Technology: It is the application of latest knowledge and skill in doing or making things.

Activity Circle those resources from Ammas list that have no commercial value as yet.

Ammas List Cotton cloth Iron ore Intelligence

Medicinal plants Coal deposits

Medical knowledge

Beautiful scenery Agricultural land

Clean environment Old folk songs Good weather

Resourcefulness

A good singing voice Grandmothers home remedies Affection from friends and family

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Time and technology are two important factors that can change substances into resources. Both are related to the needs of the people. People themselves are the most important resource. It is their ideas, knowledge, inventions and discoveries that lead to the creation of more resources. Each discovery or invention leads to many others. The discovery of fire led to the practice of cooking and other processes while the invention of the wheel ultimately resulted in development of A very newer modes of transport. The technology valuable one! to create hydroelectricity has turned energy in fast So I am a flowing water into an resource too! important resource.

RESOURCES

Resources are generally classified into natural, human made and human.

Natural Resources

Resources that are drawn from Nature and used without much modification are called natural resources. The air we breathe, the water in our rivers and lakes, the soils, minerals are all natural resources. Many of these resources are free gifts of nature and can be used directly. In some cases tools and technology may be needed to use a natural resource in the best possible way. Natural resources are classified into different groups depending upon their level of development and use; origin; stock and distribution.

On the basis of their development and use resources can be classified into two groups, actual resources and potential resources.

Actual resources are those resources whose quantity is known. These resources are being used in the present. The rich deposits of coal in Ruhr region of Germany and petroleum in the West Asia, the dark soils of the Deccan plateau in Maharashtra are all actual resources.

Potential resources are those whose entire quantity may not be known and these are not being used at

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present. These resources could be used in the future. The level of technology we have at present may not be advanced enough to easily utilise these resources. The uranium found in Ladakh is an example of potential resource that could be used in the future. High speed winds were a potential resource two hundred years ago. Today they are an actual resource and wind farms generate energy using windmills like in Netherlands. You will find some in Nagercoil in Tamil Nadu and on the Gujarat coast. Based on their origin, resources can be abiotic or biotic. Abiotic resources are non-living while biotic resources are living. Soils, rocks and minerals are abiotic but plants and animals are biotic resources.

Natural resources can be broadly categorised into renewable and non-renewable resources. Renewable resources are those which get renewed or replenished quickly. Some of these are unlimited and are not affected by human activities, such as solar and wind energy. Yet careless use of certain renewable resources like water, soil and forest can affect their stock. Water seems to be an unlimited renewable resource. But shortage and drying up of natural water sources is a major problem in many parts of the world today.

Non-renewable resources are those which have a limited stock. Once the stocks are exhausted it may take thousands of years to be renewed or replenished. Since this period is much more than human life spans, such resources are considered non-renewable. Coal, petroleum and natural gas are some examples. On the basis of their distribution resources can be ubiquitous or localised. Resources that are found everywhere like the air we breathe, are ubiquitous. But those which are found only in certain places are localised, like copper and iron ore. The distribution of natural resources depends upon number of physical factors like terrain, climate and altitude. The distribution of resources is unequal because these factors differ so much over the earth.

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Fig. 1.1: Windmills Glossary Stock of Resource It is the amount of resources available for use. Lets do Think of a few renewable resources and mention how their stock may get affected by overuse.
RESOURCES 3

Human Made Resources


Lets do Make a list of five human made resources that you can observe around you.

Sometimes, natural substances become resources only when their original form has been changed. Iron ore was not a resource until people learnt to extract iron from it. People use natural resources to make buildings, bridges, roads, machinery and vehicles, which are known as human made resources. Technology is also a human made resource. So people like us use natural resources to make human made resources, said Mona nodding in understanding. Yes, said Raju.

Do you know? Human Resource refer to the number (quantity) and abilities (mental and physical) of the people. Though, there are differing views regarding treatment of humans as a resource, one cannot deny the fact that it is the abilities of human that help in transfering the physical material into valuable resource.

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Human Resources
People can make the best use of nature to create more resources when they have the knowledge, skill and the technology to do so. That is why human beings are a special resource. People are human resources. Education and health help in making people a valuable resource. Improving the quality of peoples skills so that they are able to create more resources is known as human resource development.
Crops ruined due to drought. Can I find a solution?. thats it! its all thanks to the knowledge, education and skill we could find a solution Read and Ponder: Humans are interdependent on each other. Farmers provide food grains for every one. Scientists suggest various means to combat problems related to agriculture and improve farm production.
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Mona had a nightmare. She dreamt that all the water on the earth had dried up and all the trees cut down. There was no shade and nothing to eat or drink. People were suffering and roaming around desperately looking for food and shade. She told her mother about the dream. Amma can this really happen? she asked.

Yes, Amma replied. If we are not careful then even renewable resources can become very scarce and the non- renewable ones can definitely get exhausted. What can we do about it, Raju asked. Lots, replied Amma. Using resources carefully and giving them time to get renewed is called resource conservation. Balancing the need to use resources and also conserve them for the future is called sustainable development. There are many ways of conserving resources. Each person can contribute by reducing consumption, recycling and reusing thing. Ultimately it makes a difference because all our lives are linked. That evening the children and their friends made packets and shopping bags out of old newspapers, discarded clothes and baskets from bamboo sticks. We will give a few to every family we know, said Mona. After all it is for a very good cause, said Mustafa, To save our resources and to keep our earth alive. I am going to be very careful not to waste paper, said Jessy. Many trees are cut down to make paper, she explained. I will see that electricity is not wasted in my house, shouted Mustafa. Electricity comes from water and coal.

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Glossary Sustainable Development Carefully utilising resources so that besides meeting the requirements of the present, also takes care of future generations.
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Some Principles of Sustainable Development said Asha. Every drop of water is precious Respect and care for all forms of life Improve the quality of human life Conserve the earths vitality and diversity Minimise the depletion of natural resources Change personal attitude and practices toward the environment Enable communities to care for their own environment.

I will make sure that water is not wasted at home,

Together we can make a difference! chorused the children. These are some of the things Mona, Raju and their friends did. What about you? How are you going to help in conserving resources? The future of our planet and its people is linked with our ability to maintain and preserve the life support system that nature provides. Therefore it is our duty to ensure that. all uses of renewable resources are sustainable the diversity of life on the earth is conserved the damage to natural environmental system is minimised.

Exercises

1. Answer the following questions. (i) Why are resources distributed unequally over the earth? (ii) What is resource conservation? (iii) Why are human resources important? (iv) What is sustainable development?

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2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Which one of the following does NOT make substance a resource? (a) utility (b) value (c) quantity (ii) Which one of the following is a human made resource? (a) medicines to treat cancer (b) spring water (c) tropical forests (iii) Complete the statement. Biotic resources are (a) derived from living things (b) made by human beings (c) derived from non-living things 3. Differentiate between the followings. (a) Potential and actual resources (b) Ubiquitous and localised resources
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4. Activity Rahiman paani raakhiye, Bin paani sab soon. Paani gaye na ubere Moti, manus, choon [Says Rahim, keep water, as without water there is nothing. Without water pearl, swan and dough cannot exist. ] These lines were written by the poet Abdur Rahim Khankhana, one of the nine gems of Akbars court. What kind of resource is the poet referring to? Write in 100 words what would happen if this resource disappeared?

For Fun 1. Pretend that you live in the prehistoric times on a high windy plateau. What are the uses you and your friends could put the fast winds to? Can you call the wind a resource? Now imagine that you are living in the same place in the year 2138. Can you put the winds to any use? How? Can you explain why the wind is an important resource now? 2. Pick up a stone, a leaf, a paper straw and a twig. Think of how you can use these as resources. See the example given below and get creative! You can use a stone Use/Utility

To play stapu As a paper-weight To crush spices To decorate your garden/room To open a bottle In a catapult

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toy tool tool decoration piece tool weapon Use/Utility
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You can use a straw

Use/Utility

You can use a twig

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Use/Utility
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In a small village in Tanzania, Africa, Mamba gets up very early in the morning to fetch water. She has to walk a long way and returns after a few hours. She then helps her mother in the house and joins her brothers in taking care of their goats. All her family owns is a piece of rocky land around their small hut. Mambas father can barely grow some maize and beans on it after toiling hard. This is not enough to feed their family for the whole year. Peter lives in the heart of the sheep rearing region in New Zealand where his family runs a wool processing factory. Everyday when he returns from school, Peter watches his uncle taking care of their sheep. Their sheep yard is situated on a wide grassy plain with hills in the far distance. It is managed in a scientific way using the latest technology. Peters family also grows vegetables through organic farming. Mamba and Peter stay in two different parts of the world and lead very different lives. This difference is because of the differences in the quality of land, soil, water, natural vegetation, animals and the usage of technology. The availability of such resources is the main reason places differ from each other.

LAND

Land is among the most important natural resources. It covers only about thirty per cent of the total area of the earths surface and all parts of this small percentage are not habitable. The uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world is mainly due to varied characteristics of land and climate. The rugged topography, steep slopes of the mountains, low-lying areas susceptible to water

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Lets do Observe the land, type of soil and water availability in the region you live. Discuss in your class, how it has influenced the lifestyle of people there. Do you know? Ninety per cent of the world population occupies only thirty per cent of land area. The remaining seventy per cent of the land is either sparsely populated or uninhabited.

Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources

logging, desert areas, thick forested areas are normally sparsely populated or uninhabited. Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture. Hence, these are the densely populated areas of the world.

LAND USE
Land is used for different purposes such as agriculture, forestry, mining, building houses, roads and setting up of industries. This is commonly termed as Land use. Can you list out the different ways in which Mambas and Peters family use their land? The use of land is determined by physical factors such as topography, soil, climate, minerals and availability of water. Human factors such as population and technology are also Fig. 2.1: Salzburg in Austria important determinants of Notice in how many ways the land has been used in the land use pattern.
above picture. Table 2.1 : Land use in selected countries

Notes

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Countries Australia Brazil Canada China France India Japan Russia UK USA World Percentage of area in Cropland Pasture Forest Other Use 6 14 24 56 9 20 66 5 5 4 39 52 10 34 14 42 35 21 27 17 57 4 22 17 12 2 19 67 8 5 44 44 29 46 10 16 21 26 32 21 11 26 31 32
Study the above table and answer the following: (i) Name the countries having the highest percentage of land under cropland, forest, pasture and other uses. (ii) How would you relate the land use patterns of these countries with the probable economic activities?
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Land can also be divided on the basis of private land and community land. Private land is owned by individuals whereas, community land is owned by the community for common uses like collection of fodder, fruits, nuts or medicinal herbs. These community lands are also called common property resources. People and their demands are ever growing but the availability of land is limited. The quality of land also differs from place to place. People started encroaching the common lands to build up commercial areas, housing complexes in the urban areas and to expand the agricultural land in the rural areas. Today the vast changes in the land use pattern also reflect the cultural changes in our society. Land degradation, landslides, soil erosion, desertification are the major threats to the environment because of the expansion of agriculture and constructional activities.
1. 2.

3.

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4.

Lets do Talk to some elderly person in your family or neighbourhood and collect information about changes in the land use over years, where you live. Display your findings on a bulletin board in your classroom.

Fig. 2.2: Change in land use over time

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LAND RESOURCE

Growing population and their ever growing demand has led to a large scale destruction of forest cover and arable land and has created a fear of losing this natural
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resource. Therefore, the present rate of degradation of land resources must be checked. Afforestation, land reclamation, regulated use of chemical pesticide and fertilisers and checks on overgrazing are some of the common methods used to conserve land.

Landslides
Landslides are simply defined as the mass movement of rock, debris or earth down a slope. They often take place in conjunction with earthquakes, floods and volcanoes. A prolonged spell of rainfall can cause heavy landslide that can block the flow of river for quite some time. The formation of river blocks can cause havoc to the settlements downstream on its bursting. In the hilly terrain landslides have been a major and widely spread natural disaster that often strike life and property and occupy a position of major concern.

A Case Study A massive landslide hit Pangi village near Reckong Peo in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh and damaged a 200-meter stretch of old Hindustan-Tibet road, National Highway - 22. This landslide was triggered by intense blasting at Pangi village. Due to the blasting this weak zone of slope collapsed and caused intense damage to the road and nearby villages. The Pangi village was completely vacated to avoid any possible loss of life. Mitigation Mechanism Advancement in scientific techniques has empowered us to understand what factors cause landslides and how to manage them. Some broad mitigation techniques of landslide are as follows: Hazard mapping locate areas prone to landslides. Hence, such areas can be avoided for building settlements. Construction of retention wall to stop land from slipping. Increase in the vegetation cover is an effective way to arrest landslide. The surface drainage control works are Retention Wall implemented to control the movement of landslide along with rain water and spring flows.

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A Landslide
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SOIL
The thin layer of grainy substance covering the surface of the earth is called soil. It is closely linked to land. Landforms determine the type of soil. Soil is made up of organic matter, minerals and weathered rocks found on the earth. This happens through the process of weathering. The right mix of minerals and organic matter make the soil fertile.
Top soil with humus and vegetation

Glossary Weathering The breaking up and decay of exposed rocks, by temperature changes, frost action, plants, animals and man.

FACTORS

OF

SOIL FORMATION

The major factors of soil formation are the nature of the parent rock and climatic factors. Other factors are the topography, role of organic material and time taken for the composition of soil formation. All these differ from place to place.
Parent Rock Determines colour, texture, chemical properties mineral, content, permeability

Relief Altitude and slope, determine accumulation of soil

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Sub soil with sand, silt and clay Weathered rock material Parent rock Do you know? It takes hundreds of years to make just one centimetre of soil.
Fig. 2.3: Soil Profile

Soil

Climate Temperature, Rainfall influence rate of weathering and humus

Flora, Fauna and Micro-organism Affect the rate of humus formation Fig. 2.4: Factors affecting soil formation
LAND, SOIL, WATER, NATURAL VEGETATION

Time Determines thickness of soil profile

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Activity In India soils could be alluvial, black, red, laterite, desertic and mountain soil. Collect a handful of different types of soil and observe how they are different?

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Fig 2.5: Terrace Farming

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Mulching: The bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture. Contour barriers: Stones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to collect water. Rock dam: Rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water. This prevents gullies and further soil loss.
Fig 2.6: Contour Ploughing

Soil erosion and depletion are the major threats to soil as a resource. Both human and natural factors can lead to degradation of soils. Factors which lead to soil degradation are deforestation, overgrazing, overuse of chemical feritilisers or pesticides, rain wash, landslides and floods. Some methods of soil conservation are

Fig 2.7: Shelter Belts

Terrace farming: These are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They can reduce surface run-off and soil erosion (Fig. 2.5). Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash. Contour ploughing: Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope (Fig. 2.6). Shelter belts: In the coastal and dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil cover (Fig. 2.7).

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Activity Take two trays A and B of same size. Make six holes in the end of these trays and then fill them with the same amount of soil. Leave the soil in tray A bare while grow grass in tray B. When the grass in tray B has grown few centimetres high, place both the trays in such a way that they are on a slope. Pour one mug of water from the same height into trays. Collect the muddy water that trickles down the holes of both trays in two separate containers and compare how much soil is washed out of each tray?

WATER

Water is a vital renewable natural resource. Threefourths of the earths surface is covered with water. It is therefore appropriately called the water planet. It was in the primitive oceans that life began almost 3.5 billion years back. Even today, the oceans cover two-thirds of the earths surface and support a rich variety of plant and animal life. The ocean water is however saline and not fit for human consumption. Fresh water accounts for only about 2.7 per cent. Nearly 70 per cent of this occurs as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and mountain regions. Due to their location they are inaccessible. Only 1 per cent of freshwater is available and fit for human use. It is found as ground water, as surface water in rivers and lakes and as water vapour in the atmosphere. Fresh water is therefore, the most precious substance on earth. Water can neither be added nor subtracted from the earth. Its total volume remains constant. Its abundance only seems to vary because it is in constant motion, cycling through the oceans, the air, the land and back again, through the processes of evaporation, precipitation and run-off. This as you already know is referred to as the water cycle.

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Do you know? In 1975, the consumption of water for human use was 3850cu km/year. It soared to more than 6000 cu km/year in the year 2000. Do you know? A dripping tap wastes1200 litres in a year.
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Humans use huge amounts of water not only for drinking and washing but also in the process of production. Water for agriculture, industries, generating electricity through reservoirs of Activity dams are the other An average urban Indian uses about 135 litres usages. Increasing of water every day. population, rising Use Litres per person per day demands for food and Drinking 3 cash crops, increasing Cooking 4 urbanisation and rising Bathing 20 standards of living Flushing 40 Washing clothes 40 are the major factors Washing utensils 20 leading to shortages in Gardening 23 supply of fresh water Total 135 either due to drying Can you suggest some ways to bring down this use? up of water sources or water pollution.
Do you know? Have you ever heard about a water market? Amreli city in Saurastra region with a population of 1.25 lakhs is completely dependent on purchasing water from the nearby talukas.

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PROBLEMS
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WATER AVAILABILITY

There is scarcity of water in many regions of the world. Most of Africa, West Asia, South Asia, parts of western USA, north-west Mexico, parts of South America and entire Australia are facing shortages in fresh water supply. Countries located in climatic zones most susceptible to droughts face great problems of water scarcity. Thus, water shortage may be a consequence of variation in seasonal or annual precipitation or the scarcity is caused by overexploitation and contamination of water sources.

CONSERVATION RESOURCES

OF

WATER

Fig 2.8: Yamuna is getting polluted due to sewage, industrial effluents and garbage
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Access to clean and adequate water sources is a major problem facing the world today. Steps have to be taken to conserve this dwindling resource. Even though water is a renewable resource, its overuse and pollution make it unfit for use. Discharge of untreated or partially treated sewage, agricultural chemicals and industrial effluents in water bodies are major contaminants. They pollute water with nitrates, metals and pesticides.

DEVELOPMENT

Most of these chemicals being non-biodegradable reach human bodies through water. Water pollution can be controlled by treating these effluents suitably before releasing them in water bodies. Forest and other vegetation cover slow the surface runoff and replenish underground water. Water harvesting is another method to save surface runoff. Water is used for irrigating fields. The canals should be properly lined to minimise losses by water seepage. Sprinklers effectively irrigate the area by checking water losses through seepage and evaporation. In dry regions with high rates of evaporation, drip or Fig 2.9: A Water Sprinkler trickle irrigation is very useful. The valuable water resource can therefore be conserved by adopting these means of conservation. Do you know?

NATURAL VEGETATION

Some school children were visiting an exhibition on handicrafts. The articles in the exhibition were collected from different parts of the country. Mona picked up a bag and exclaimed, This is a beautiful handbag! Yes, it is made from Jute, the teacher said. Do you see those baskets, lamp shades and chairs? Those are made of canes and bamboos. In the eastern and north eastern humid regions of India, bamboo grows in plenty. Jassy was excited to see a silk scarf. See this beautiful scarf. The teacher explained that silk is obtained from silk worms that are bred on Mulberry trees. The children understood that plants provide us with many different products that we use in our day-to-day life. Natural vegetation and wildlife exist only in the narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere that we call biosphere. In the biosphere living beings are inter-related and interdependent on each other for survival. This life supporting system is known as the ecosystem. Vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources. Plants provide us with timber, give shelter to animals, produce oxygen we breathe, protects soils so essential for growing crops, act as shelter belts, help in Fig 2.10: Silk Worms

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Rain water harvesting is the process of collecting rain water from roof tops and directing it to an appropriate location and storing if for future use. On an average, one spell of rain for two hours is enough to save 8,000 litres of water.

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Do you know? Vultures in the Indian subcontinent were dying of kidney failure shortly after scavenging livestock treated with diclofenac, a painkiller that is similar to aspirin or ibuprofen. Efforts are on to ban the drug for livestock use and breed vultures in captivity.

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DISTRIBUTION
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storage of underground water, give us fruits, nuts, latex, turpentine oil, gum, medicinal plants and also the paper that is so essential for your studies. There are innumerable uses of plants and you can add some more. Wildlife includes animals, birds, insects as well as the aquatic life forms. They provide us milk, meat, hides and wool. Insects like bees provide us honey, help in Fig 2.11: Brahma Kamal pollination of flowers and a Medicinal Herb have an important role to play as decomposers in the ecosystem. The birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well. Vulture due to its ability to feed on dead livestock is a scavenger and considered a vital cleanser of the environment. So animals big or small, all are integral to maintaining Fig 2.12: A Blue Kingfisher balance in the ecosystem.

NATURAL VEGETATION

Fig. 2.13: Grassland and Forest RESOURCES


AND

The growth of vegetation depends primarily on temperature and moisture. The major vegetation types of the world are grouped as forests, grasslands, scrubs and tundra. In areas of heavy rainfall, huge trees may thrive. The forests are thus associated with areas having abundant water supply. As the amount of moisture decreases the size of trees and their density reduces. In the regions of moderate rainfall short stunted trees and grasses grow forming the grasslands of the world. In dry areas of low rainfall, thorny shrubs and scrubs grow. In such areas plants have deep roots and

DEVELOPMENT

leaves have thorny and waxy surface to reduce loss of moisture by transpiration. Tundra vegetation of cold Polar Regions comprise of mosses and lichens. Forests are broadly classified as evergreen and deciduous depending on when they shed their leaves. Evergreen forests do not shed their leaves simultaneously in any season of the year. Deciduous forests shed Fig. 2.14: A Python in a forest their leaves in a particular season to conserve loss of moisture through transpiration. These forests are further classified as tropical or temperate based on their location in different latitudes. You have learnt in detail about the various forest types, their distribution and the associated animal life in the previous class. Today there are many more people in the world than there were two centuries back. To feed the growing numbers, large areas of forests have been cleared to grow crops. Forest cover all over the world is vanishing rapidly. Fig. 2.15: A collage of a forest made by school students There is an urgent need to conserve this valuable resource.

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

Forests are our wealth. Plants give shelter to the animals and together they maintain the ecosystem. Changes of climate and human interferences can cause the loss of natural habitats for the plants and animals. Many species have become vulnerable or endangered and some are on the verge of extinction. Deforestation, soil erosion, constructional activities, forest fires, tsunami and landslides are some of the human made and natural factors which

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Fig. 2.16: Loss of rainforest in Great Nicobar after Tsunami
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Fig. 2.17: Black buck also needs protection

Activity Read the news item and find out how fire started in California ? Could it be avoided?

Know More Forest fire is a threat to entire region of fauna and flora. It occurs mainly due to three reasons. 1. Natural fire due to lightening etc. 2. Fire due to heat generated in the litter due to carelessness of people. 3. Purposely caused fire by local inhabitants. Some Control Measures 1. Prevention of human-caused fires through education. 2. Prompt detection of fires through well co-ordinated network of obsevation points, efficient ground patroling and communication network.
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Forest Fire
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together accelerate the process of extinction of these great natural resources. One of the major concerns is the increasing incidents of poaching that result in a sharp decline in the number of particular species. The animals are poached for collection and illegal trade of hides, skins, nails, teeth, horns as well as feathers. Some of these animals are tiger, lion, elephant, deer, black buck, crocodile, rhinoceros, snow leopard, ostrich and peacock. These can be conserved by increasing awareness.

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National parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves are made to protect our natural vegetation and Glossary wildlife. Conservation of creeks, lakes, and wetlands is National Park necessary to save the precious resource from depletion A natural area There is a balance in the environment if the relative designated to number of species is not disturbed. Human activities protect the in several parts of the world have disturbed the natural ecological integrity of one or more habitats of many species. Due to indiscriminate killings, ecosystems for several birds and animals have either become extinct or present and future are on the verge of extinction. generations Awareness programmes like social forestry and Vanamohatasava should be encouraged at the regional and community level. School children should be encouraged for bird watching and visiting nature camps so that they appreciate the habitat of varied species. Many countries have passed laws declaring that the trades as well as killing of birds and animals are illegal. In India, killing of lions, tigers, deers, great Indian bustards and peacocks have been banned Fig. 2:18: Herd of Cheetals An international convention CITES has been established that lists several species of animals and birds in which trade Glossary is prohibited. Biosphere reserves Conservation Series of protected of plants and areas linked animals is an through a global network, intended ethical duty of to demonstrate every citizen.
the relationship between conservation and development.

Fig. 2:19: Elephant herd in Kaziranga National Park

Do you know? CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. It aims to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected. Bears, dolphins, cacti, corals, orchids and aloes are some examples.
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Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation? (ii) Write any two reasons for land degradation today. (iii) Why is land considered an important resource? (iv) Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.

2. Tick the correct answer. (a) time

3. Match the followings. (i) Land use (ii) Humus

4. State whether the given statement is true or false. If true, write the reasons. (ii) Water availability per person in India is declining.

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(v) Suggest three ways to conserve water.
(i) Which one of the following is NOT a factor of soil formation? (b) soil texture (c) organic matter (ii) Which one of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes? (a) shelter belts (b) mulching (c) terrace cultivation (iii) Which one of the following is NOT in favour of the conservation of nature? (a) switch off the bulb when not in use (c) dispose polypacks after shopping (b) close the tap immediately after using (a) prevent soil erosion (b) land suitable for agriculture (iii) Rock dams (c) productive use of land (iv) Arable land (d) organic matter deposited on top soil (e) contour ploughing (i) GangaBrahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region. (iii) Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called intercropping. ecosystem. (iv) Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the
DEVELOPMENT

5. Activity Discuss some more reasons which are responsible for changes of land use pattern. Has your place undergone any change in the land use pattern?

RESOURCES

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Find out from your parents and elderly people. You can conduct an interview by asking the following questions. Place When your When your grand parents were parents were in their 30s in their 30s Why do you think this is happening? Are common areas and open spaces disappearing?

Rural Number of cattle and poultry owned Number of trees and ponds in the village

Main occupation of the head of the family Urban Number of cars owned

Number of rooms in the house Number of metalled roads

Number of flyovers in the city Number of parks and playgrounds

o n

Based on the table you have just completed, draw a picture of land use patterns that you foresee in your neighbourhood after 20 years. Why do you think that land use patterns change over the years?

d e h s T i l R b E u C p N re e b o t t
LAND, SOIL, WATER, NATURAL VEGETATION
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WILDLIFE RESOURCES

23

Mineral and Power Resources


Kiri was visiting Sukant in his native place near Dhanbad. Kiri was amazed to see that large areas were black. Sukant, why is this place so black and dusty? she asked. This is because of the coal mines nearby. Do you see the trucks? They are carrying the mineral coal, replied Sukant. What are minerals?, asked Kiri. Sukant replied, Have you ever seen a baker baking Fig. 3.1: Loading of a truck in biscuits? The flour, milk, sugar a coal mine and sometimes eggs are mixed together. While eating the baked biscuits can you see these ingredients separately? Just as in the biscuits, there are a number of things that you cannot see, rocks on this earth have several materials called minerals mixed in them. These minerals are scattered throughout the earths rocky crust. A naturally occurring substance that has a definite chemical composition is a mineral. Minerals are not evenly distributed over space. They are concentrated in a particular area or rock formations. Some minerals are Do you know? found in areas which are not easily accessible such as The salt in your the Arctic ocean bed and Antarctica. food and graphite in Minerals are formed in different types of geological your pencil are also environments, under varying conditions. They are minerals. created by natural processes without any human interference. They can be identified on the basis of their physical properties such as colour, density, hardness and chemical property such as solubility.

TYPES

OF

MINERALS

There are over three thousand different minerals. On the basis of composition, minerals are classified mainly as metallic and non-metallic minerals (Fig. 3.2). Minerals
Metallic Ferrous Non-ferrous Fig. 3.2: Classification of Minerals Non-metallic

Do you know?
A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals but without definite composition of constituent of mineral. Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores. Although more than 2,800 types of minerals have been identified, only about 100 are considered ore minerals.

Metallic minerals contain metal in raw form. Metals are hard substances that conduct heat and electricity and have a characteristic lustre or shine. Iron ore, bauxite, manganese ore are some examples. Metallic minerals may be fer rous or non-ferrous. Ferrous minerals like iron ore, manganese and chromites contain iron. A non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain some other metal such as gold, silver, copper or lead. Non-metallic minerals do not contain metals. Limestone, mica and gypsum are examples of such minerals. The mineral fuels like coal and petroleum are also non-metallic minerals. Minerals can be extracted by mining, drilling or quarrying (Fig 3.3). Extraction of Minerals
Mining Open cast mining Shaft mining Fig. 3.3: Extraction of Minerals Drilling Quarrying

The process of taking out minerals from rocks buried under the earths surface is called mining. Minerals that lie at shallow depths are taken out by removing the surface layer; this is known as open-cast mining. Deep bores, called shafts, have to be made to reach mineral deposits that lie at great depths. This is called shaft mining. Petroleum and natural gas occur far below the earths surface. Deep wells are bored to take them out, this is called drilling (Fig 3.4). Minerals that lie near the surface are simply dug out, by the process known as quarrying.
MINERAL
AND

Fig. 3.4: Off shore drilling of oil


POWER RESOURCES 25

DISTRIBUTION

OF

MINERALS

Do you know? You can always tell if a rock contains copper because then the rock looks blue in colour.

Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Some are found in igneous rocks, some in metamorphic rocks while others occur in sedimentary rocks. Generally, metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus. Iron-ore in north Sweden, copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada, iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Sedimentary rock formations of plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic minerals like limestone. Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France, manganese deposits of Georgia and Ukraine and phosphate beds of Algeria are some examples. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also found in the sedimentary strata.

ASIA
China and India have large iron ore deposits. The continent produces more than half of the worlds tin.

Fig. 3.5: World: Distribution of Iron, Copper and Bauxite


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China, Malaysia and Indonesia are among the worlds leading tin producers. China also leads in production of lead, antimony and tungsten. Asia also has deposits of manganese, bauxite, nickel, zinc and copper.

EUROPE
Europe is the leading producer of iron-ore in the world. The countries with large deposits of iron ore are Russia, Ukraine, Sweden and France. Minerals deposits of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel are found in eastern Europe and European Russia.

Do you know? Switzerland has no known mineral deposit in it.

NORTH AMERICA
The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones: the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian region and the mountain ranges of the west. Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are mined in the Canadian Shield Region, coal in the Appalachians region. Western Cordilleras have vast deposits of copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver.

Lets do Identify the Canadian Shield, the Appalachians, Western Cordilleras and Lake Superior with the help of an atlas.

Fig 3.6: World: Distribution of Mineral Oil and Coal


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27

SOUTH AMERICA
Brazil is the largest producer of high grade iron-ore in the world. Chile and Peru are leading producers of copper. Brazil and Bolivia are among the worlds largest producers of tin. South America also has large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, chromium, manganese, bauxite, mica, platinum, asbestos and diamond. Mineral oil is found in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Columbia.

Do you know? A green diamond is the rarest diamond. The oldest rocks in the world are in Western Australia. They date from 4,300 million years ago, only 300 million years after the earth was formed.

AFRICA
Africa is rich in mineral resources. It is the worlds largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum. South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the worlds gold. The other minerals found in Africa are copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite. Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.

AUSTRALIA
Australia is the largest producer of bauxite in the world. It is a leading producer of gold, diamond, iron ore, tin and nickel. It is also rich in copper, lead, zinc and manganese. Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie areas of western Australia have the largest deposits of gold.

Activity With the help of an atlas, on an outline map of India, mark the distribution of iron, bauxite, manganese and mica.

ANTARCTICA
The geology of Antarctica is sufficiently well known to predict the existence of a variety of mineral deposits, some probably large. Significant size of deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted. Iron ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial quantities.

DISTRIBUTION

IN

INDIA

Iron: India has deposits of high grade iron ore. The

mineral is found mainly in Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka. Bauxite: Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
28 RESOURCES
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deposits mainly occur in Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. India is the largest producer and exporter of mica in the world. Copper: It is mainly produced in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Manganese: Indias manganese deposits lie in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Limestone: Major limestone producing states in India are Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. Gold: Kolar in Karnataka has deposits of gold in India. These mines are among the deepest in the world which makes mining of this ore a very expensive process. Salt: It is obtained from seas, lakes and rocks (Fig 3.8). India is one of the worlds leading producers and exporters of salt.

Mica: Mica

Fig. 3.7: Quarrying of limestone

USES

OF

MINERALS

Fig. 3.8: Extraction of salt from Sambhar lake in Rajasthan

Minerals are used in many industries. Minerals which are used for gems are usually hard. These are then set in various styles for jewellery. Copper is another metal used in everything from coins to pipes. Silicon, used in the computer industry is obtained from quartz. Aluminum obtained from its ore bauxite is used in automobiles and airplanes, bottling industry, buildings and even in kitchen cookware.

Lets do List uses of any five minerals.

Minerals are a non-renewable resource. It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals. The rate of formation is much smaller than the rate at which the humans consume these minerals. It is necessary to reduce wastage in the process of mining. Recycling of metals is another way in which the mineral resources can be conserved.

us

CONSERVATION

OF

MINERALS

Re du

Re

ce
Minerals

Recycle
Think and Act

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POWER RESOURCES
Sunnys mother begins her day by switching on the geyser. She irons Sunnys school uniform before waking him up. She then rushes to the kitchen to prepare a glass of orange juice for him in the blender. Sunny, have you finished taking bath? Come and have your breakfast, calls out mother while preparing breakfast on the gas stove for Sunny. While going to school Sunny forgets to switch off lights and fans. When mother switches them off she thinks that life in the cities may be more comfortable, but its dependency on more and more gadgets all of which consume energy has led to a wide gap between the demand and the supply. With the advent of science and technology the life styles are changing very fast. Power or energy plays a vital role in our lives. We also need power for industry, agriculture, transport, communication and defense. Power resources may be broadly categorised as conventional and non-conventional resources.

Fig. 3.9: National Power Grid to supply Electricity

Conventional Sources
Conventional sources of energy are those which have been in common use for a long time. Firewood and fossil fuels are the two main conventional energy sources. Firewood It is widely used for cooking and heating. In our country more than fifty per cent of the energy used by villagers comes from fire wood.

Fig 3.10: Conventional Sources of Energy

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Remains of plants and animals which were buried under the earth for millions of years got converted by the heat and pressure into fossil fuels. Fossil fuel such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are the main sources of conventional energy. The reserves of these minerals are limited. The rate at which the growing world population is consuming them is far greater than the rate of their formation. So, these are likely to be exhausted soon. Coal This is the most abundantly found fossil fuel. It is used as a domestic fuel, in industries such as iron and steel, steam engines and to generate electricity. Electricity from coal is called thermal power. The coal which we are using today was formed millions of years ago when giant ferns and swamps got buried under the layers of earth. Coal is therefore referred to as Buried Sunshine. The leading coal producers of the world are China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa and France. The coal producing areas of India are Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand. Petroleum The petrol that keeps your car running as well as the oil that keeps your cycle from squeaking, both began as a thick black liquid called Petroleum. It is found between the layers of rocks and is drilled from oil fields located in off-shore and coastal areas. This is then sent to refineries which process the crude oil and produce a variety of products like diesel, petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants. Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold as they are very valuable. The chief petroleum producing countries are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The other major producers are USA, Russia, Venezuela, and Algeria. The leading producers in India are Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers.
Fig 3.11: A woman carrying firewood in North East India

Fig 3.12: A view of a Thermal Power Station

Word Origin The word petroleum is derived from Latin words Petra meaning rock, oleum meaning oil. So, petroleum means rock oil.

Fig 3.13: Crude Oil

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31

Natural Gas Natural gas is found with petroleum deposits and is released when crude oil is brought to the surface. It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel. Russia, Norway, UK and the Netherlands are the major producers of natural gas. In India Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai have natural gas resources. Very few countries in the world have sufficient natural gas reserves of their own. The sharp increase in our consumption of fossil fuels has led to their depletion at an alarming rate. The toxic pollutants released from burning these fuels are also a cause for concern. Unchecked burning of fossil fuel is like an unchecked dripping tap which will eventually run dry. This has led to the tapping of various nonconventional sources of energy that are cleaner alternatives to fossil fuels. Hydel Power Rain water or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights. The falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity. This is called hydro electricity. The water discharged after the generation of electricity is used for irrigation. One fourth of the worlds electricity is produced by hydel power. The leading producers of hydel power in the world are Paraguay, Norway, Brazil, and

Do you know? Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a popular ecofriendly automobile fuel as it causes less pollution than petroleum and diesel.

Do you know?
Norway was the first country in the world to devlop hydroelectricity.

Water reservoir

Generator

Turbine

Fig. 3.14: Hydel Power


32 RESOURCES
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China. Some important hydel power stations in India are Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley projects.

NOn-COnVEnTIOnAL SOURCES

OF

EnERGY

The increasing use of fossil fuels is leading to its shortage. It is estimated that if the present rate of consumption continues, the reserves of these fuel will get exhausted. Moreover, their use also causes environmental pollution. Therefore, there is need for using non-conventional sources such as solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy which are renewable. Solar energy Suns heat and light energy can be felt by us every day. Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in

Fig. 3.15: Salal Hydroelectric Project Jammu and Kashmir

Fig 3.16: Non-conventional Sources of Energy


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33

Activity Solar Cooker Take an old car tube. Inflate it and keep it on a wooden platform. Paint an aluminium vessel black from outside and add 1 cup rice with 2 cups of water to it. Close the vessel with a lid and place the vessel in the inner circle of the tube. Now place a glass frame over the tube and keep the set out in the sun. After the glass frame is placed, air can neither come in nor go out but the sun rays coming into the closed cavity enclosed by the tube, get trapped and cannot escape. The temperature increases slowly cooking the rice over a few hours.

solar cells to produce electricity. Many of these cells are joined into solar panels to generate power for heating and lighting purpose. The technology of utilising solar energy benefits a lot of Fig 3.17: Solar Panels to trap solar energy tropical countries that are blessed with abundant sun shine. Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals. Wind Energy Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy. Wind mills have been used for grinding grain and lifting water since times immemorial. In modern time wind mills, the high speed winds rotate the wind mill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity. Wind farms having clusters of such wind mills are located in coastal regions and in mountain passes where strong and steady winds blow. Windfarms are found in Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are noted for their wind energy production. Nuclear Power Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radio active elements like uranium and thorium. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power. The greatest producers of nuclear power are USA and Europe. In India Rajasthan and Jharkhand have large deposits of Uranium. Thorium is found in large quantities in the Monozite sands of Kerala. The nuclear Fig. 3.18 : Nuclear power station , power stations in India Kalpakkam

Do you know? The site of the worlds first solar and wind powered bus shelter is in Scotland.
34 RESOURCES
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are located in Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu, Tarapur in Maharastra, Ranapratap Sagar near Kota in Rajasthan, Narora in Uttar Pradesh and Kaiga in Karnataka.

Fig. 3.19 : Nuclear Energy

Geothermal Energy Heat energy obtained from the (a) (b) earth is called geothermal energy. The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper. Some times this heat energy may surface itself in the form of hot springs. This heat energy can be used to generate power. Geothermal energy in the form of hot springs Fig. 3.20 : (a) Geothermal Energy in Manikaran has been used for cooking, (b) Cooking food with the help of Geothermal Energy heating and bathing for several
turbine Natural crack Steam Well Water generator

Fig. 3.21 : Geothermal Energy


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35

Do you know? The first tidal energy station was built in France.

years. USA has the worlds largest geothermal power plants followed by New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America. In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh.

TIDAL ENERGY
Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy. Tidal energy can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of the sea. During high tide the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity. Russia, France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.

Fig. 3.22: Tidal Energy

BIOGAS
Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas. The organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in biogas digesters to emit biogas which is essentially a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure each year. Energy is everywhere but we can see that harnessing this energy is both difficult as well as costly. Each one of us can make a difference by not wasting energy. Energy saved is energy generated. Act now and make brighter energy future.

Fig. 3.23 : Biogas


36 RESOURCES
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Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) Name any three common minerals used by you every day. (ii) What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located? (iii) Name two regions rich in natural gas resources. (iv) Which sources of energy would you suggest for (a) rural areas 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals? (a) They are created by natural processes. (b) They have a definite chemical composition. (c) They are inexhaustible. (d) Their distribution is uneven. (ii) Which one of the following is NOT a producer of mica? (a) Jharkhand (b) Karnataka (a) Bolivia (b) Ghana (c) Rajasthan (d) Andhra Pradesh (c) Chile (d) Zimbabwe (b) coastal areas (c) Arid regions (v) Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.

(iii) Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?

(iv) Which one of the following practices will NOT conserve LPG in your kitchen. (a) Soaking the dal for some time before cooking it. (b) Cooking food in a pressure cooker. (c) Keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking. (d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame. 3. Give reasons. (i) Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams. (ii) Most industries are concentrated around coal mines. (iii) Petroleum is referred to as black gold. (iv) Quarrying can become a major environmental concern. 4. Distinguish between the followings. (i) Conventional and non conventional sources of energy (ii) Biogas and natural gas (iii) Ferrous and nonferrous minerals (iv) Metallic and nonmetallic minerals
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37

5. Activity (i) Use pictures from old magazines to show different kinds of fuels used by us in our lives and display them on your bulletin board. (ii) Design a poster highlighting energy conservation tips you would take for your school. (iii) Salmas class took up an action campaign to do an energy audit of their school by surveying electricity consumption.They prepared survey sheets for the students of the school.

Sl. No.

Appliance

Electricity Audit Quantity Usage Time Quantity (No. being (Approx. (No. actualused) No. of ly needed) working hours)

Is it switched on even when not in use? (Yes or No)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Fluorescent Tube light 40 W Incandescent Bulb 40 W / 60 W Co-impact fluorescent lamps Fans Exhaust Fans Electric Bell / Buzzer TV Computers Air Conditioners Refrigerators Oven / Hot Case Public Address System Water Pump / Water Cooler Overhead Projector Photostat Machine Any other

38

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Using the data collected during the survey, students calculated the units consumed for one month and the approximate expenditure and compared it with the electricity bill of the previous month. They also calculated the approximate cost of electricity consumed by fans, lights and other appliances not switched off. Thus, they highlighted the amount that could be saved and suggested simple energy conservation habits like Switching off the appliances when not in use. Minimal usage as per requirement. Maximising the use of natural breeze and light by keeping the windows open. Keeping the lights dust free. The appropriate maintenance and usage of appliances as per the given instructions. Can you add some more tips to this list? You could conduct a similar survey at home and then extend it to your appartment and make your neighbours also energy wise.

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Agriculture
Gurpreet, Madho and Tina were walking through the village where they saw a farmer tilling land. The farmer told them that he was growing wheat and had just added manure to the soil to make it more fertile. He told the children that the wheat would fetch a good price in the mandi from where it would be taken to factories to make bread and biscuits from flour. This transformation from a plant to a finished product involves three types of economic activities. These are primary, secondary and tertiary activities. Primary activities include all those connected with extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture, fishing and gathering are good examples. Secondary activities are concerned with the processing of these resources. Manufacturing of steel, baking of bread and weaving of cloth are examples of this activity. Tertiary activities provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services. Transport, trade, banking, insurance and advertising are examples of tertiary activities. Agriculture is a primary activity. It includes growing crops, fruits, vegetables, flowers and rearing of livestock. In the world, 50 per cent of persons are engaged in agricultural activity. Two-thirds of Indias population is still dependent on agriculture. Favourable topography of soil and climate are vital for agricultural activity. The land on which the crops are grown is known as arable land (Fig. 4.1). In the map you can see that agricultural activity is concentrated in those regions of the world where suitable factors for the growing of crops exist.

Word Origin The word agriculture is derived from Latin words ager or agri meaning soil and culture meaning, cultivation.

Fig. 4.1: World Distribution of Arable Land

Do you know?
Agriculture The science and art of cultivation on the soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. It is also called farming. Sericulture Commercial rearing of silk worms. It may supplement the income of the farmer. Pisciculture Breeding of fish in specially constructed tanks and ponds. Viticulture Cultivation of grapes. Horticulture Growing vegetables, flowers and fruits for commercial use.

Agri Seri Pisci Viti Horti + Culture

FARM SYsTEM
Agriculture or farming can be looked at as a system. The important inputs are seeds, fertilisers, machinery and
AGRICULTURE 41

Inputs

Processes

Outputs

Physical Inputs
Sunshine Temperature Slope Soil Rainfall

Machinery

Human Inputs

Storage
Seeds Ploughing Sowing Spraying

Crops

Labour Machinery Chemicals Fig 4.3: Physical and human farm inputs

Chemicals

Fig 4.2: The farm system of an arable farm

labour. Some of the operations involved are ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding and harvesting. The outputs from the system include crops, wool, dairy and poultry products.

TYPES OF FARMING
Interesting Fact Organic Farming In this type of farming, organic manure and natural pesticides are used instead of chemicals. No genetic modification is done to increase the yield of the crop.

Farming is practised in various ways across the world. Depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology, farming can be classified into two main types. These are subsistence farming and commercial farming.

Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmers family. Traditionally, low levels of technology and household labour are used to produce on small output. Subsistence farming can be further classified as intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence farming. In intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. Climate with large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permit growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot. Rice is the main crop. Other crops include wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds. Intensive subsistence agriculture is prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia.

42

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Primitive subsistence agriculture includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding. Shifting cultivation is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of southeast Asia and Northeast India. These are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation. A plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Shifting cultivation is also known as slash and burn agriculture.

Do you know? Shifting cultivation is known by different names in different parts of the world Jhumming North-East India Milpa -Mexico Roca - Brazil. Ladang - Malaysia

Nomadic herding is practised in the semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. In this type of farming, herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes. This type of movement arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain. Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared. They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders and their families. Fig 4.4: Nomadic Herders with

Commercial Farming
In commercial farming crops are grown and animals are reared for sale in market. The area cultivated and the amount of capital used is large. Most of the work is done by machines. Commercial farming includes commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture (Fig 4.5). In commercial grain farming crops are grown for commercial purpose. Wheat and maize are common commercially grown grains. Major areas where commercial grain farming is pracised are temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia. These areas are sparsely populated with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares. Severe winters restrict the growing season and only a single crop can be grown. In mixed farming the land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock.

their camels

Fig 4.5: A Sugarcane plantation

AGRICULTURE

43

It is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Plantations are a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka are some examples.
Fig 4.6 : A Banana Plantation

Major Crops
A large variety of crops are grown to meet the requirement of the growing population. Crops also supply raw materials for agro based industries. Major food crops are wheat, rice, maize and millets. Jute and cotton are fibre crops. Important beverage crops are tea and coffee. is the staple diet of the tropical and sub-tropical regions. Rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall. It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water. China leads in the production of rice followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt. In favourable climatic conditions as in West Bengal and Bangladesh two to three crops are grown in a year.

Rice: Rice is the major food crop of the world. It

Fig 4.7: Rice Cultivation

Fig 4.8: Wheat Harvesting

Wheat: Wheat requires moderate temperature and

rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest. It thrives best in well drained loamy soil. Wheat is grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India. In India it is grown in winter.

Millets: They are also known as coarse grains and


Fig 4.9: Bajra Cultivation
44 RESOURCES
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can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils. It is a hardy crop that needs low rainfall and high to

DEVELOPMENT

moderate temperature and adequate rainfall. Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India. Other countries are Nigeria, China and Niger. Maize requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine. It needs well-drained fertile soils. Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico.

Maize:

Do you know? Maize is also know as corn. Various colourful varieties of maize are found across the world.

Fig 4.10: Maize Cultivation

high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth. It grows best on black and alluvial Fig 4.11: Cotton Cultivation soils. China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt are the leading producers of cotton. It is one of the main raw materials for the cotton textile industry.

Cotton: Cotton requires

Jute: Jute was also known as the Golden Fibre. It grows


well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate. This crop is grown in the tropical areas. India and Bangladesh are the leading producers of jute.

and wet climate and welldrained loamy soil. Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop. Brazil is the leading producer followed by Fig 4.12: Coffee Plantation Columbia and India.

Coffee: Coffee requires warm

Interesting Fact Who discovered the Coffee Plant? There are different versions about the discovery of coffee. In about AD 850, Kaldi, an Arab goat-herder, who was puzzled by the queer antics of his flock, tasted the berries of the evergreen bush on which the goats were feeding. On experiencing a sense of exhilaration, he proclaimed his discovery to the world.

Tea: Tea is a beverage crop grown on plantations. This

requires cool climate and well distributed high rainfall throughout the year for the growth of its tender leaves.
AGRICULTURE 45

It needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes. Labour in large number is required to pick the leaves. Kenya, India, China, Sri Lanka produce the best quality tea in the world.

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
Agricultural Development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of increasing population. This can be achieved in many ways such as increasing the cropped area, the number of crops grown, improving irrigation facilities, use of fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds. Mechanisation of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development. The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase food security. Agriculture has developed at different places in different parts of the world. Developing countries with large populations usually practise intensive agriculture where crops are grown on small holdings mostly for subsistence. Larger holdings are more suitable for commercial agriculture as in USA, Canada and Australia. With the help of two case studies of farms one from India and the other from the USA, let us understand about agriculture in the developing and a developed country.

Fig 4.13: Tea Plantation

Do you know? Food security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.

A Farm in India

There is a small village Adilabad in Ghazipur district of Uttar Pradesh. Munna Lal is a small farmer in this village who has farmland of about 1.5 hectares. His house is in the main village. He purchases high yielding varieties of seeds from the market every alternate year. The land is fertile and he grows atleast two crops in a year which are normally wheat or rice and pulses. The farmer takes advice of his friends and elders as well as government agricultural officers regarding farming practices. He takes a tractor on rent for ploughing his field, though some of his friends still use traditional method of using bullocks for ploughing. There is a tubewell in the nearby field which he takes on Fig 4.14: Farmers ploughing rent to irrigate his field.
a field
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Munna Lal also has two buffaloes and few hens. He sells milk in the cooperative store located in the nearby town. He is a member of the co-operative society which also advises him on the type of fodder for his animals, safety measures to protect the health of the livestock and artificial insemination. All the members of the family help him in various farm activities. Sometimes, he takes credit from a bank or the agricultural co-operative society to buy HYV seeds and implements. He sells his produce in the mandi located in the nearby town. Since majority of the farmers do not have lack storage facilities, they are forced to sell the produce even when the market is not favourable to them. Fig 4.15: An Agricultural Field in India In recent years, the government has taken some steps to develop storage facilites.

A Farm in the USA


The average size of a farm in the USA is much larger than that of an Indian farm. A typical farm size in the USA is about 250 hectares. The farmer generally resides in the farm. Some of the major crops grown are corn, soyabean, wheat, cotton and sugarbeet. Joe Horan, a farmer in the Midwest USA, in Iowa State owns about 300 hectares of land. He grows corn on his field after making sure Fig 4.16: A Farm in the USA that soil and water resources meet the needs of this crop. Adequate measures are taken to control pests that can damage the crop. From time to time he sends the soil samples to a soil testing laboratory to check whether the nutrients are sufficient or not. The results help Joe Horan to plan a scientific fertiliser programme. His computer is linked to the satellite which gives him a precise picture of his field. This helps him to Fig 4.17: Spray of Pesticides use chemical fertilisers
AGRICULTURE 47

Fig 4.18: Mechanised Harvesting in the USA

and pesticides wherever they are required. He uses tractors, seed drills, leveller, combined harvester and thresher to perform various agricultural operations. A grains are stored in the automated grain storage or despatched to market agencies. The farmer in USA works like a businessman and not like a peasant farmer.

Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) What is agriculture? (ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture? (iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages? (iv) What is plantation agriculture? (v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth. 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Horticulture means (a) growing of fruits and vegetables (c) growing of wheat (ii) Golden fibre refers to (a) tea (b) cotton (iii) Leading producers of coffee (a) Brazil (b) India 3. Give reasons. (i) In India agriculture is a primary activity. (ii) Different crops are grown in different regions. 4. Distinguish between the followings. (i) Primary activites and tertiary activities (ii) Subsistence farming and intenstive farming. 5. Activity (i) Collect seeds of wheat, rice, jowar, bajra, ragi, maize, oilseeds and pulses available in the market. Bring them to the class and find out in which type of soil they grow. (ii) Find out the difference between the life style of farmers in the USA and India on the basis of pictures collected from magazines, books, newspapers and the internet. (b) primitive farming

(c) jute (c) Russia

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6. For Fun Solve the crossword puzzle with the help of given clues.
2

3 4

5 7 9 10

6 8

11 12 13

14

Across 1. Crop that needs well drained fertile soils, moderate temperatures and lots of sunshine (5) 2. Increasing production through use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers and pesticides (5,10) 4. USA, Canada, Russia, Australia are major producers of this crop (5) 10. Type of farming to meet family needs (11) 13. Rearing of animals for sale (9) 14. Growing grapes for wines (11)

Down 1. Coarse grains are also called (7) 3. Cultivation involving slash and burn (8) 5. Growing of crops, vegetables (11) fruits and

6. Tea, coffee, sugarcane and rubber are grown in (11) 7. Requires 210 frost-free days for growth (6) 8. Growing of flowers (12) 9. Also called Golden Fibre (4) 11. Also known as paddy (4) 12. Activity concerned with extraction of natural resources (7)
AGRICULTURE 49

Industries
Have you ever given a thought to the fact that the note book you use for writing has come to you after a long process of manufacturing. It started its life as part of a tree. It was cut down and transported to the pulp mill. There the wood of the tree was processed and converted into wood pulp. The wood pulp was mixed with chemicals and finally changed into paper by machines. This paper found its way to the press where ink made from chemicals was used to print the lines on the pages. The pages were then bound in the form of a note book, packed and sent to the market for sale. Finally, it reached your hands.
Journey begins...

Secondary activities or manufacturing change raw materials into products of more value to people. As you have seen pulp was changed into paper and paper into a note book. These represent the two stages of the manufacturing process. The paper made from pulp and cloth made from cotton have had value added to them at each stage of the manufacturing process. In this way the finished product has more value and utility than the raw material that it is made from. Industry refers to an economic activity that is concerned with production of goods, extraction of minerals or the provision of services. Thus we have iron and steel industry (production of goods), coal mining industry (extraction of coal) and tourism industry (service provider).

...paper made... ...recycle...

Activity Trace the journey of your shirt from a cotton field to your wardrobe.

CLASSIFICATION

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Industries can be classified on the basis of raw materials, size and ownership.

Raw Materials: Industries may be agro based, mineral based, marine based and forest based depending on the type of raw materials they use. Agro based industries use plant and animal based products as their raw materials. Food processing, vegetable oil, cotton textile, dairy products and leather industries are examples of agro-based industries. Mineral based industries are primary industries that use mineral ores as their raw materials. The products of these industries feed other industries. Iron made from iron ore is the product of mineral based industry. This is used as raw material for the manufacture of a number of other products, such as heavy machinery, building materials and railway coaches. Marine based industries use products from the sea and oceans as raw materials. Industries processing sea food or manufacturing fish oil are some examples. Forest based industries utilise forest produce as raw materials. The industries associated with forests are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, furniture and buildings.

Activity Give some examples of agro based industries.

Size: It refers to the amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production. Based on size, industries can be classified into small scale and large scale industries. Cottage or household industries are a type of small scale industry where the products are manufactured by hand, by the artisans. Basket weaving, pottery and other handicrafts are examples of cottage industry. Small scale industries use lesser amount of capital and technology as compared to large scale industries that produce large volumes of products. Investment of capital is higher and the technology used is superior in large scale industries. Silk weaving and food processing industries are small scale industries(Fig 5.1). Production of Fig 5.1: Stages in food processing of automobiles and heavy machinery are large Gorgon nut (makhana) scale industries. Ownership: Industries can be classified into private sector, state owned or public sector, joint sector and cooperative sector. Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals. The public sector industries are owned and operated by the government, such as Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
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Fig 5.2: Sudha dairy in Co-operative sector

and Steel Authority of India Limited. Joint sector industries are owned and operated by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Maruti Udyog Limited is an example of joint sector industry. Co-operative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. Anand Milk Union Limited and Sudha Dairy are a success stories of a co-operative venture.

FACTORS AFFECTING LOCATION

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Fig 5.3: Locational factors for industries

The factors affecting the location of industries are the availability of raw material, land, water, labour, power, capital, transport and market. Industries are situate d where some or all of these factors are easily available. Sometimes, the government provides incentives like subsidised power, lower transport cost and other infrastructure so that industries may be located in backward areas. Industrialisation often leads to development and growth of towns and cities.

INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM
An industrial system consists of inputs, processes and outputs. The inputs are the raw materials, labour and costs of land, transport, power and other infrastructure. The processes include a wide range of activities that convert the raw material into finished products. The outputs are the end product and the income earned from it. In case of the textile industry the inputs may be cotton, human labour, factory and transport cost. The processes include ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing and printing. The output is the shirt you wear.

Activity Find out the inputs, outputs and processes involved in the manufacture of a leather shoe.

INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
Industrial regions emerge when a number of industries locate close to each other and share the benefits of their closeness. Major industrial regions of the world are eastern North America, western and central Europe, eastern Europe and eastern Asia (Fig 5.4). Major

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Fig 5.4: Worlds Industrial Regions

industrial regions tend to be located in the temperate areas, near sea ports and especially near coal fields. India has several industrial regions like MumbaiPune cluster, Bangalore-Tamil Nadu region, Hugli region, Ahmedabad-Baroda region, Chottanagpur industrial belt, Vishakhapatnam-Guntur belt, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut region and the Kollam-Thiruvanathapuram industrial cluster. Industrial Disaster
In industries, accidents/disasters mainly occur due to technical failure or irresponsible handling of hazardous material. One of the worst industrial disasters of all time occurred in Bhopal on 3 December 1984 around 00:30 a.m. It was a technological accident in which highly poisonous Methyl Isocynate (MIC) gas along with Hydrogen Cyanide and other reaction products leaked out of the pesticide factory of Union Carbide. The official death toll was 3,598 in 1989. Thousands, who survived still suffer from one or many ailments like blindness, impaired immune system, gastrointestinal disorders etc. Union Carbide Factory
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In another incident, on 23 December 2005, due to gas well blowout in Gao Qiao, Chongging, China, 243 people died, 9,000 were injured and 64,000 were evacuated. Many people died because they were unable to run after the explosion. Those who could not escape in time suffered burns to their eyes, skin and lungs from the gas.

Risk Reduction Measures


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Densely populated residential areas should be separated far away from the industrial areas. Rescue operation People staying in the vicinity of industries should be aware of in Gao Qiao the storage of toxins or hazardous substances and their possible effects in case if an accident occurs. Fire warning and fighting system should be improved. Storage capacity of toxic substances should be limited. Pollution dispersion qualities in the industries should be improved.

DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR INDUSTRIES


Do you know? Emerging industries are also known as Sunrise Industries.These include Information technology, Wellness, Hospitality and Knowledge.

The worlds major industries are the iron and steel industry, the textile industry and the information technology industry. The iron and steel and textile industry are the older industries while information technology is an emerging industry. The countries in which iron and steel industry is located are Germany, USA, China, Japan and Russia. Textile industry is concentrated in India, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan. The major hubs of Information technology industry are the Silicon valley of Central California and the Bangalore region of India.

Iron and Steel Industry


Glossary Smelting It is the process in which metals are extracted from their ores by heating beyond the melting point

Like other industries iron and steel industry too comprises various inputs, processes and outputs. This is a feeder industry whose products are used as raw material for other industries. The inputs for the industry include raw materials such as iron ore, coal and limestone, along with labour, capital, site and other infrastructure. The process of converting iron ore into steel involves many stages. The raw material is put in the blast furnace where it undergoes smelting (Fig 5.6). It is then refined. The output obtained is steel which may be used by other industries as raw material.

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8 tonnes of coal

4 tonnes of iron ore

1 tonne of limestone

1 tonne of steel

Fig 5.5: Manufacturing of steel

Steel is tough and it can easily be shaped, cut, or made into wire. Special alloys of steel can be made by adding small amounts of other metals such as aluminium, nickel, and copper. Alloys give steel unusual hardness, toughness, or ability to resist rust. Steel is often called the backbone of modern industry. Almost everything we use is either made of iron or steel or has been made with tools and machinery of these metals. Ships, trains, trucks, and autos are made largely of steel. Even the safety pins and the needles you use are made from steel. Oil wells are drilled with steel machinery. Steel pipelines transport oil. Minerals are mined with steel equipment. Farm machines are mostly steel. Large buildings have steel framework. Before 1800 A.D. iron and steel industry was located where raw materials, power supply and 2: The best location running water were easily from 1800 to 1950 available. Later the ideal location for the industry was near coal fields and close to canals and railways. After 1950, iron and steel industry began to be located on large areas of flat land near sea ports. This is because by this time steel works had become very large and iron ore had to be imported from overseas (Fig 5.7). In India, iron and steel industry has developed taking

Fig. 5.6: From iron ore to steel in a blast furnace


1: The best location before 1800

3: The best location since 1950

Fig 5.7: The changing location of the iron and steel industry

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Fig 5.8: World: Major Iron Ore Producing Areas

advantage of raw materials, cheap labour, transport and market. All the important steel producing centres such as Bhilai, Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro are situated in a region that spreads over four states West Bengal, Jharkhand, Odisha and Chhattisgarh. Bhadravati and Vijay Nagar in Karnataka, Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Salem in Tamil Nadu are other important steel centres utilising local resources. Indias steel production increased from one million tonne in 1947 to 30 million tonnes in 2002.

JAMSHEDPUR
Before 1947, there was only one iron and steel plant in the country Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited (TISCO). It was privately owned. After Independence, the government took the initiative and set up several iron and steel plants. TISCO was started in 1907 at Sakchi, near the confluence of the rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai in Jharkhand. Later on Sakchi was renamed as Jamshedpur. Geographically, Jamshedpur is the most conveniently situated iron and steel centre in the country.
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Sketch

Fig 5.9: Location of iron and steel industry in Jamshedpur

Sakchi was chosen to set up the steel plant for several reasons. This place was only 32 km away from Kalimati station on the Bengal-Nagpur railway line. It was close to the iron ore, coal and manganese deposits as well as to Kolkata, which provided a large market. TISCO, gets coal from Jharia coalfields, and iron ore, limestone, dolomite and manganese from Odisha and Chhattisgarh. The Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers ensured sufficient water supply. Government initiatives provided adequate capital for its later development. In Jamshedpur, several other industrial plants were set up after TISCO. They produce chemicals, locomotive parts, agricultural equipment, machinery, tinplate, cable and wire. The development of the iron and steel industry opened the doors to rapid industrial development in India. Almost all sectors of the Indian industry depend heavily on the iron and steel industry for their basic infrastructure. The Indian iron and steel industry consists of large integrated steel plants as well as mini

Lets do With the help of an atlas identify some iron and steel industries in India and mark their location on an outline map of India.

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steel mills. It also includes secondary producers, rolling mills and ancillary industries. Pittsburgh : It is an important steel city of the United States of America. The steel industry at Pittsburgh enjoys locational advantages. Some of the raw material such as coal is available locally, while the iron ore comes from the iron mines at Minnesota, about 1500 km from Pittsburgh. Between these mines and Pittsburgh is one of the worlds best routes for shipping ore cheaply the famous Great Lakes waterway. Trains carry the ore from the Great Lakes to the Pittsburgh area. The Ohio, the Monogahela and Allegheny rivers provide adequate water supply. Today, very few of the large steel mills are in Pittsburgh itself. They are located in the valleys of the Monogahela and Allegheny rivers above Pittsburgh and along the Ohio River below it. Finished steel is transported to the market by both land and water routes. The Pittsburgh area has many factories other than steel mills. These use steel as their raw material to make many different products such as railroad equipment, heavy machinery and rails.

Do you know? The names of Great Lakes are Superior, Huron, Ontario, Michigan and Erie. Lake Superior is the largest of these five lakes. It lies higher upstream than others.

COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY


Word Origin The term textile is derived from the Latin word texere which means to weave.

Weaving cloth from yarn is an ancient art. Cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax have been used for making cloth. The textile industry can be divided on the basis of raw materials used in them. Fibres are the raw material of textile industry. Fibres can be natural or man-made. Natural fibres are obtained from wool, silk, cotton, linen and jute. Man made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon. The cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. Till the industrial revolution in the 18th century, cotton cloth was made using hand spinning techniques (wheels) and looms. In 18th century power looms facilitated the development of cotton textile industry, first in Britain and later in other parts of the world. Today India, China, Japan and the USA are important producers of cotton textiles. India has a glorious tradition of producing excellent quality cotton textiles. Before the British rule, Indian

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Fig 5.10: World : Major cotton textile manufacturing regions

hand spun and hand woven cloth already had a wide market. The Muslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos of Calicut and Gold-wrought cotton of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara were known worldwide for their quality and design. But the production of hand woven cotton textile was expensive and time consuming. Hence, traditional cotton textile industry could not face the competition from the new textile mills of the West, which produced cheap and good quality fabrics through mechanized industrial units. The first successful mechanized textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854. The warm, moist climate, a port for importing machinery, availability of raw material and skilled labour resulted in rapid expansion of the industry in the region. Initially this industry flourished in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat because of favourable humid climate. But today, humidity can be created artificially, and raw cotton is a pure and not weight losing raw material, so this industry has spread to other parts

Do you know? The first textile mill in the country was established at Fort Gloster near Kolkata in 1818 but it closed down after some time.

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Do you know? About one-third of the Indian textile industrys total production is exported.

of India. Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry and Panipat are some of the other important centres. Ahmedabad : It is located in Gujarat on the banks of the Sabarmati river. The first mill was established in 1859. It soon became the second largest textile city of India, after Mumbai. Ahmedabad was therefore often referred to as the Manchester of India. Favourable locational factors were responsible for the development of the textile industry in Ahmedabad. Ahmedabad is situated very close to cotton growing area. This ensures easy availability of raw material. The climate is ideal for spinning and weaving. The flat terrain and easy availability of land is suitable for the establishment of the mills. The densely populated states of Gujarat and Maharashtra provide both skilled and semi-skilled labour. Well developed road and railway network permits easy transportation of textiles to different parts of the country, thus providing easy access to the market. Mumbai port nearby facilitates import of machinery and export of cotton textiles. But in the recent years, Ahmedabad textile mills have been having some problems. Several textile mills have closed down. This is primarily due to the emergence of new textile centres in the country as well as nonupgradation of machines and technology in the mills of Ahmedabad. Osaka : It is an important textile centre of Japan, also known as the Manchester of Japan. The textile industry developed in Osaka due to several geographical factors. The extensive plain around Osaka ensured that land was easily available for the growth of cotton mills. Warm humid climate is well suited to spinning and weaving. The river Yodo provides sufficient water for the mills. Labour is easily available. Location of port facilitates import of raw cotton and for exporting textiles. The textile industry at Osaka depends completely upon imported raw materials. Cotton is imported from Egypt, India, China and USA. The finished product is mostly exported and has a good market due to good quality and low price. Though it is one of the important textile cities in the country, of late, the cotton textile industry of Osaka has been replaced by other industries, such as

Activity Collect different types of pieces of cloth from a tailors shop and classify them under cotton, silk, synthetic and woollen. Find out the raw materials used in their manufacturing.

Lets do On an outline map of the world mark the places which provide raw material to cotton textile industry of Osaka

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iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment and cement.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT)


Imagine how much could be accomplished if companies could operate on a twenty-four hour workday. Some software companies in the United States of America and in Bangalore, India have joined hands to achieve this. There are many ways in which this form of shift work across oceans. For example, two software professionals, Danny in Silicon Valley, California and Smitha in Bangalore are working on a joint project. While Smitha in Bangalore sleeps, Danny in California is working. At the end of his workday, he sends a message to Smitha, updating his progress. When she arrives at work in Bangalore, a couple of hours later, she notices that a message awaits her. She gets to work on the project straight away. By the end of her workday she relays the results of her efforts back to California. By the way they communicate and work together, it is as if they were sitting in adjoining offices. The information technology industry deals Fig 5.11: A View of an IT industry in the storage, processing and distribution of information. Today, this industry has become global. This is due to a series of technological, political, and socio-economic events. The main factors guiding the location of these industries are resource availability, cost and infrastructure. The major hubs of the IT industry Activity are the Silicon Valley, California and Bangalore, India. Bangalore has Bangalore is located on the Deccan Plateau from where it gets the name Silicon Plateau. The city is known for its mild climate throughout the year. Silicon Valley, is a part of Santa Clara Valley, located next to the Rocky Mountains of North America. The area has temperate climate with the temperatures rarely dropping below 0 degrees centigrade. The locational advantages of the Silicon plateau, Bangalore and Silicon Valley, California are discussed on the next page. You may notice the similarities between the two cities. There are other emerging information technology hubs in metropolitan centres of India such as Mumbai,
some important public sector industries and research institutions. Find out the full forms of the organisations listed below. BEL, BHEL, HAL, NAL, DRDO, ISRO, ITI , IISc, NCBS and UAS

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Do you know? Why do high technology industries group together? They can be located near main road/ highways for easy access. Firms can benefit from exchange of knowledge. Services and facilities such as roads, car parks and waste disposal can be organised efficiently.

Bangalore has the largest number of educational institutions and IT colleges in India.

The city was considered dust free with low rents and low cost of living.

The state government of Karnataka was the first to announce an IT Policy in 1992. The city has the largest and widest availability of skilled managers with work experience.

Fig 5.12: Locational advantages Silicon plateau - Bangalore

Close to some of the most advanced scientific and technological centres in the world Pleasant climate with an attractive and a clean environment. Plenty of space for development and future expansion. Located close to major roads and airports Good access to markets and skilled work force

Interesting Fact Being Bangalored means to lose ones job to someone in the city of Bangalore. A few years ago many IT jobs in the USA were outsourced to countries like India where equally skilled labour was available at lower salaries.

Fig. 5.13: Locational advantages of Silicon valley - California

New Delhi, Hyderabad and Chennai. Other cities such as Gurgaon, Pune, Thiruvanthapuram, Kochi and Chandigarh are also important centres of the IT industry. However, Bangalore has always had a unique advantage, as a city with highest availability of middle and top management talent.

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Exercises
1. Answer the following questions. (i) What is meant by the term industry? (ii) Which are the main factors which influence the location of an industry? (iii) Which industrty is often referred to as the backbone of modern industry and why? (iv) Why cotton textile industry rapidly expanded in Mumbai? (v) What are the similarities between information technology industry in Bangalore and California? 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Silicon Valley is located in (a) Bangalore (b) California (c) Ahmedabad (ii) Which one of the following industries is known as sunrise industry? (a) Iron and steel indstury (b) Cotton textile (c) Information technology (iii) Which one of the following is a natural fibre? (a) nylon (b) jute (c) acryclic 3. Distinguish between the followings. (i) Agro-based and mineral based industry (ii) Public sector and joint sector industry 4. Give two examples of the following in the space provided : (i) Raw Materials: _____________ and _____________________ (ii) End products: _______________ and _________________________ (iii) Tertiary Activities: ________________ and __________ (iv) Agro-based Industries: ____________ and ____________ (v) Cottage Industries: ___________ and ________________ (vi) Co-operatives: ______________________ and _____________

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5. Activity How to identify a location for establishing an industry Divide your class into groups. Each group is a Board of Directors faced with the problem of choosing a suitable site for an iron and steel plant of Developen Dweep. A team of technical experts has submitted a report with notes and a map. The team considered access to iron ore, coal, water and limestone, as well as the main market, sources of labour and port facilities. The team has suggested two sites, X and Y. The Board of Directors has to take the final decision about where to locate the steel plant. Read the report submitted by the team. Study the map to find out the distances of the resources from each site. Give each resource a weight from 1 to 10, according to its importance. The greater the pull of the factor on the industry the higher the weight from 1 to 10. Complete the table on the next page. The site with the lowest total should be the most satisfactory site. Remember each group of directors can decide differently.

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Report
Factors/Resources affecting the location of a proposed Iron and Steel Plant on Developen Dweep. Iron ore: This is a very large deposit of low grade iron ore. Long distance transportation of the ore would be uneconomic. Coal: The only coalfield contains rich deposits of high grade coal. Transportation of the coal is by railway, which is relatively cheap. Limestone: This is widely available over the island, but the purest deposits are in the Chuna Mountains. Water: Both the tributaries of River Neel carry sufficient water to supply a large iron and steel plant in all seasons. The sea water because of its high salt content is unsuitable. Market: It is expected that the chief market for the Plants products will be the engineering works of Rajdhanipur. Transport costs for the products- mainly small steel bars and light steel plates would be relatively low. Labour supply: This will have to be recruited mainly from the unskilled workers in the 3 fishing villages of Hil, Rah and Sing. It is expected that most workers will commute daily from their present homes. Port facilities: These are at present minimal. There is a good, deep natural harbour at port Paschimpur developed to import metal alloys.
Distance from X Distance from Y Weighting* 1-10 Distance X weight for site X Distance X weight for site Y

Resource

Iron ore Coal Limestone Water Chief market Labour supply Total =
* the larger the pull, the higher the weighting

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Human Resources
People are a nations greatest resource. Natures bounty becomes significant only when people find it useful. It is people with their demands and abilities that turn them into resources. Hence, human resource is the ultimate resource. Healthy, educated and motivated people develop resources as per their requirements. Human resources like other resources are not equally distributed over the world. They differ in their educational levels, age and sex. Their numbers and characteristics also keep changing.
There are 500 children in my school. My village has 1,000 people.

Do you know? The Government of India has a Ministry of Human Resource Development. The Ministry was created in 1985 with an aim to improve peoples skills. This just shows how important people are as a resource for the country.

How many people do you think, there are in the whole world? There are 30 children in my class.

6.6 billion people.

How do you write that in numbers?

DISTRIBUTION

OF

POPULATION
Of every 100 people in the world...

The way in which people are spread across the earth surface is known as the pattern of population distribution. More than 90 per cent of the worlds population lives in about 10 per cent of the land surface. The distribution of population in the world is extremely uneven. Some areas are very crowded and some are sparely populated. The crowded areas are south and south east Asia, Europe and north eastern North America. Very few people live in high latitude areas, tropical deserts, high mountains and areas of equatorial forests. Many more people live north of the Equator than south of the Equator. Almost three-quarters of the worlds people live in two continents Asia and Africa. Sixty per cent of the worlds people stay in just 10 countries. All of them have more than a 100 million people.

live in Asia

live in Europe

live in Africa

live in Central and South America

live in Northern live in Oceania America (Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific island)

Fig. 6.1: World population by continents

Activity Study Fig. 6.1 and find out : of the worlds total population which continent has (a) only 5 per cent (b) only 13 per cent (c) only 1 per cent (d) only 12 per cent

Fig. 6.2: Worlds most populous countries Locate and label these countries on the outline map of the world.
Source: Census of India, 2011 Provisional Population Totals, Paper 1 of 2011 India Series 1

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Do you know? Average density of population in India is 382 persons per square km.

DENSITY

OF

POPULATION

Population density is the number of people living in a unit area of the earths surface. It is normally expressed as per square km. The average density of population in the whole world is 51 persons per square km. South Central Asia has the highest density of population followed by East and South East Asia
Because the size or area of the hall is much larger than that of the classroom. However, when all the students of the school come into the hall, the hall too starts looking crowded.

When all the 30 students are present, our classroom seems very crowded. But when the same class is seated in the school assembly hall, it seems so open and empty. Why?

FACTORS AFFECTING DISTRIBUTION


Geographical Factors

OF

POPULATION

Activity
Look at Fig 6.2 and find out: of these countries how many are in Asia? Colour them on a world map.

Topography: People always prefer to live on plains rather than mountains and plateaus because these areas are suitable for farming, manufacturing and service activities. The Ganga plains are the most densely populated areas of the world while mountains like Andes, Alps and Himalayas are sparsely populated. Climate: People usually avoid extreme climates that are very hot or very cold like Sahara desert, polar regions of Russia, Canada and Antarctica. Soil: Fertile soils provide suitable land for agriculture. Fertile plains such as Ganga and Brahmaputra in India, Hwang-He, Chang Jiang in China and the Nile in Egypt are densely populated. Water: People prefer to live in the areas where fresh water is easily available. The river valleys of the world are densely populated while deserts have spare population. Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits are more populated. Diamond mines of South Africa and discovery of oil in the Middle east lead to settling of people in these areas.

Social, Cultural and Economic Factors

Social: Areas of better housing, education and health facilities are more densely populated e.g., Pune.
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Cultural: Places with religion or cultural significance attract people. Varanasi, Jerusalem and Vatican city are some examples. Economic: Industrial areas provide employment opportunities. Large number of people are attracted to these areas. Osaka in Japan and Mumbai in India are two densely populated areas.

Glossary Life expectancy It is the number of years that an average person can expect to live.

POPULATION CHANGE
The population change refers to change in the number of people during a specific time. The world population has not been stable. It has increased manifold as seen in the Fig 6.3. Why? This is actually due to changes in the number of births and deaths. For an extremely long period of human history, until the 1800s, the worlds population grew steadily but slowly. Large numbers of babies were born, but they died early too. This was as there were no proper health facilities. Sufficient food was not available for all the people. Farmers were not able to produce enough to meet the food requirements of all the people. As a result the total increase in population was very low. In 1804, the worlds population reached one billion. A hundred and fifty five years later, in 1959, the worlds population reached 3 billion. This is often called population explosion. In 1999, 40 years later, the population doubled to 6 billion. The main reason for this growth was that with better food supplies and medicine, deaths were reducing, while the number of births still remained fairly high. Births are usually measured using the birth rate i.e. the number of live births per 1,000 people. Deaths are usually measured using the death rate i.e. the number of deaths per 1,000 people. Migrations is the movement of people in and out of an area. Births and deaths are the natural causes of population change. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate of a country is called the natural growth rate. The population increase in the world is mainly due to rapid Fig 6.3: World Population Growth increase in natural growth rate.
HUMAN RESOURCES 69

Po

a n Incre pulatio

se

Population Steady

Popula

tion D ecrea

se

reas ion Inc olpulat

Polpulation steady
Birth Rate Death Rate

Polpula
Birth Rate

tion de

crease

Death Rate

Birth Rate

Death Rate

Birth rate more than death rate: population increase

Birth rate and death rate same: population stays the same Fig 6.4: Balance of Population

Death rate more than birth rate:population decreases

Glossary Immigration When a person enters a new country. Emigration When a person leaves a country.

Migration is another way by which population size changes. People may move within a country or between countries. Emigrants are people who leave a country; Immigrants are those who arrive in a country. Countries like the United States of America and Australia have gained in-numbers by in-migration or immigration. Sudan is an example of a country that has experienced a loss in population numbers due to out-migration or emigration. The general trend of international migrations is from the less developed nations to the more developed nations in search of better employment opportunities. Within countries large number of people may move from the rural to urban areas in search of employment, education and health facilities.

PATTERNS

OF

POPULATION CHANGE

Rates of population growth vary across the world (Fig 6.5). Although, the worlds total population is rising rapidly, not all countries are experiencing this growth. Some countries like Kenya have high population growth rates. They had both high birth rates and death rates. Now, with improving health care, death rates have fallen, but birth rates still remain high leading to high growth rates. In other countries like United Kingdom, population growth is slowing because of both low death and low birth rates.

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Fig. 6.5: World: Differing rates of population growth

POPULATION COMPOSITION
How crowded a country is, has little to do with its level of economic development. For example, both Bangladesh and Japan are very densely populated but Japan is far more economically developed than Bangladesh. I build I tell stories bridges. to my To understand the role of grandchildren. people as a resource, we need to know more about their qualities. People vary greatly I take in their age, sex, literacy care of my I sing at home. level, health condition, weddings. occupation and income level. It is essential to understand these characteristics of I am researching the people. Population I am a for medicines to composition refers to the farmer. cure cancer. structure of the population. The composition of Think: Every human being is potential resource for the society. population helps us to know What will be your contribution as a human resource?
HUMAN RESOURCES 71

how many are males or females, which age group they belong to, how educated they are and what type of occupations they are employed in, what their income levels and health conditions are. An interesting way of studying the population composition of a country is by looking at the population pyramid, also called an age-sex pyramid. A population pyramid shows The total population divided into various age groups, e.g., 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years. The percentage of the total population, subdivided into males and females, in each of those groups.
What is this triangular looking diagram? This is a population pyramid.

Fig. 6.6: Population Pyramid


Whats that? It shows the pre-sent number of males and females in a country along with their age groups.

Can I play detective and investigate the population of a country.

Sure, lets study three countries.

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The shape of the population pyramid tells the story of the people living in that particular country. The numbers of children (below 15 years) are shown at the bottom and reflect the level of births. The size of the top shows the numbers of aged people (above 65 years) and reflects the number of deaths. The population pyramid also tells us how many dependents there are in a country. There are two groups of dependents young dependents (aged below 15 years) and elderly dependents (aged over 65 years). Those of the working age are the economically active. The population pyramid of a country in which birth Fig. 6.7: Population and death rates bothe are high is broad at the base and Pyramid of Kenya rapidly narrows towards the top. This is because although, many children are born, a large percentage of them die in their infancy, relatively few become adults and there are very few old people. This situation is typified by the pyramid shown for Kenya (Fig 6.7). In countries where death rates (especially amongst the very young) are decreasing, the pyramid is broad in the younger Fig. 6.8: Population Pyramid age groups, because of India more infants survive to adulthood. This can be seen in the pyramid for India (Fig 6.8). Such populations contain a relatively large number of young people and which means a strong and expanding labour force. In countries like Japan, low birth rates make the pyramid narrow at the base (Fig 6.9). Decreased death rates allow numbers of people to reach old age. Skilled, spirited and hopeful young people endowed with a positive outlook are the future of any nation. We in India are fortunate to have such a resource. They must be educated and provided skills and opportunities to become able and Fig. 6.9: Population Pyramid productive.
of Japan
HUMAN RESOUrCES 73

Exercise
1. Answer the following questions. (i) Why are people considered a resource? (ii) What are the causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world? (iii) The world population has grown very rapidly. Why? (iv) Discuss the role of any two factors influencing population change. (v) What is meant by population composition? (vi) What are population pyramids? How do they help in understanding about the population of a country? 2. Tick the correct answer. (i) Which does the term population distribution refer to? (a) How population in a specified area changes over time. (b) The number of people who die in relation to the number of people born in a specified area. (c) The way in which people are spread across a given area. (ii) Which are three main factors that cause population change? (a) Births, deaths and marriage (b) Births, deaths and migration (c) Births, deaths and life expectancy (iii) In 1999, the world population reached (a) 1 billion (b) 3 billion (c) 6 billion (iv) What is a population pyramid? (a) A graphical presentation of the age, sex composition of a population. (b) When the population density of an area is so high that people live in tall buildings. (c) Pattern of population distribution in large urban areas. 3. Complete the sentences below using some of the following words. sparsely, favourable, fallow, artificial, fertile, natural, extreme, densely When people are attracted to an area it becomes ....................... populated Factors that influence this include ....................... climate; good supplies of ....................... resources and ....................... land.

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4. Activity Discuss the characteristics of a society with too many under 15s and one with too few under 15s. Hint : need for schools; pension schemes, teachers, toys, wheel chairs, labour supply, hospitals.

Some Internet Sources for More Information


www.ndmindia.nic.in www.environmentdefense.org www.freefoto.com www.worldgame.org/worldmeters www.cseindia.org www.mnes.nic.in www.undp.org/popin
HUMAN RESOURCES 75

Notes

TEXTBOOK

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GEOGRAPHY

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA-I

SOCIAL S CIENCE

FOREWORD
The National Curriculum Framework, (NCF) 2005, recommends that childrens life at school must be linked to their life outside the school. This principle marks a departure from the legacy of bookish learning which continues to shape our system and causes a gap between the school, home and community. The syllabi and textbooks developed on the basis of NCF signify an attempt to implement this basic idea. They also attempt to discourage rote learning and the maintenance of sharp boundaries between different subject areas. We hope these measures will take us significantly further in the direction of a child-centred system of education outlined in the National Policy on Education (1986). The success of this effort depends on the steps that school principals and teachers will take to encourage children to reflect on their own learning and to pursue imaginative activities and questions. We must recognise that, given space, time and freedom, children generate new knowledge by engaging with the information passed on to them by adults. Treating the prescribed textbook as the sole basis of examination is one of the key reasons why other resources and sites of learning are ignored. Including creativity and initiative is possible if we perceive and treat children as participants in learning, not as receivers of a fixed body of knowledge. These aims imply considerable change in school routines and mode of functioning. Flexibility in the daily time-table is as necessary as rigour in implementing the annual calendar so that the required number of teaching days are actually devoted to teaching. The methods used for teaching and evaluation will also determine how effective this textbook proves for making childrens life at school a happy experience, rather than a source of stress or boredom. Syllabus designers have tried to address the problem of curricular burden by restructuring and reorienting knowledge at different stages with greater consideration for child psychology and the time available for teaching. The textbook attempts to enhance this endeavour by giving higher priority and space to opportunities for contemplation and wondering, discussion in small groups, and activities requiring hands-on experience. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) appreciates the hard work done by the textbook development committee responsible for this book. We wish to thank the Chairperson of the advisory group in Social Sciences, Professor Hari Vasudevan and the Chief Advisor for this book, Professor M. H. Qureshi for guiding the work of this committee. Several teachers contributed to the development of this textbook; we are grateful to their principals for making this possible. We are indebted to the institutions and organisations which have generously permitted us to draw upon their resources, material and personnel. We are especially grateful to the members

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of the National Monitoring Committee, appointed by the Department of Secondary and Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development under the Chairpersonship of Professor Mrinal Miri and Professor G.P. Deshpande, for their valuable time and contribution. As an organisation committed to systemic reform and continuous improvement in the quality of its products, NCERT welcomes comments and suggestions which will enable us to undertake further revision and refinement.

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New Delhi 20 December 2005

Director National Council of Educational Research and Training

TEXTBOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE


CHAIRPERSON, ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR TEXTBOOKS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL

CHIEF ADVISOR

M. H. Qureshi, Professor, CSRD, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

K. Jaya, PGT, Convent of Jesus and Mary, Bangla Sahib Road, New Delhi Saroj Sharma, TGT (Retd.), Mothers International School, Sri Aurboindo Marg, New Delhi Sudeshna Bhattacharya, Reader, Miranda House, Chhatra Marg, Delhi University, Delhi MEMBER-COORDINATOR

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Tannu Malik, Lecturer, DESSH, NCERT, New Delhi
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Punam Behari, Reader, Miranda Hosue, Chhatra Marg, Delhi University, Delhi

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Hari Vasudevan, Professor, Department of History, University of Calcutta, Kolkata

CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
Part III (Articles 12 35)
(Subject to certain conditions, some exceptions and reasonable restrictions) guarantees these

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Right against Exploitation for prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour; for prohibition of employment of children in hazardous jobs.

Right to Freedom of expression, assembly, association, movement, residence and profession; of certain protections in respect of conviction for offences; of protection of life and personal liberty; of free and compulsory education for children between the age of six and fourteen years; of protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.

Right to Freedom of Religion freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion; freedom to manage religious affairs; freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion; freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in educational institutions wholly maintained by the State. Cultural and Educational Rights for protection of interests of minorities to conserve their language, script and culture; for minorities to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. Right to Constitutional Remedies by issuance of directions or orders or writs by the Supreme Court and High Courts for enforcement of these Fundamental Rights.

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Right to Equality before law and equal protection of laws; irrespective of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth; of opportunity in public employment; by abolition of untouchability and titles.

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Fundamental Rights

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The National Council of Educational Research and Training acknowledges the contributions of B.S. Butola, Professor, CSRD, JNU; Jebachh Singh, PGT Geography, Sir G. D. Patlipura, Inter School, Patna and Krishna Kumar Upadhyaya, PGT Geography, K.V.A.F.S., Bareily in the development of this textbook. Acknowledgements are also due to Savita Sinha, Professor and Head, Department of Education in Social Science and Humanities, NCERT for her valuable support at every stage of preparation of this textbook.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

M.H. Qureshi, Professor, CSRD, JNU for figure 2.7; ITDC/Ministry of Tourism, Govt. of India for Figures 2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 2.11, 3.5, 4.1 and pictures of river, migratory birds and a picture of montane forests on pages 23, 48 and 51 respectively, picture of desert on Cover I, picture of clouds on Cover IV; Cross Section Interactive for a picture of lions on page 48; Tourism of Andaman and Nicobar, Govt. of India for Figure 2.11; Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India for Figures 2.5, 3.6, picture of corals on page 15 and picture of forest on Cover I; Photo Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India for Figure 2.10; Business Line for Figure 3.2 and Hindustan Times, New Delhi for news in two collages given on pages 38 and 50.

The Council also gratefully acknowledges the contributions of Anil Sharma and Arvind Sharma, DTP Operators; Sameer Khatana and Amar Kumr Prusty, Copy Editors; Shreshtha and Deepti Sharma, Proof Readers and Dinesh Kumar, Incharge, Computer Station who have helped in giving a final shape to this textbook. The efforts of the Publication Department, NCERT are also duly acknowledged.

The following are applicable to all the maps of India used in this book

Government of India, Copyright 2006 The responsibility for the correctness of internal details rests with the publisher. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the appropriate base line. The administrative headquarters of Chandigarh, Haryana and Punjab are at Chandigarh. The interstate boundaries amongst Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya shown on this map are as interpreted from the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act.1971, but have yet to be verified. The external boundaries and coastlines of India agree with the Record/Master Copy certified by Survey of India. The state boundaries between Uttaranchal & Uttar Pradesh, Bihar & Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh have not been verified by the Governments concerned. The spellings of names in this map, have been taken from various sources.

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The Council is also grateful to the individuals and organisations as listed below for providing various photographs and illustrations used in this textbook:

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CONTENTS

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CHAPTER 5 Natural Vegetation and Wild Life CHAPTER 6 Population G LOSSARY

CHAPTER 4 Climate

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CHAPTER 3 Drainage

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CHAPTER 2 Physical Features of India

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1 7 17 26 42 53 61

CHAPTER 1 India Size and Location

FOREWORD

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INDIA SIZE

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LOCATION

ndia is one of the ancient civilisations in the world. It has achieved multi-faceted socioeconomic progress during the last five decades. It has moved forward displaying remarkable progress in the field of agriculture, industry, technology and overall economic development. India has also contributed significantly to the making of world history.

The Tropic of Cancer (23 30'N) divides the country into almost two equal parts. To the southeast and southwest of the mainland, lie the Andaman and Nicobar islands and the Lakshadweep islands in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea respectively. Find out the extent of these groups of islands from your atlas.
The southernmost point of the Indian Union Indira Point got submerged under the sea water in 2004 during the Tsunami.

LOCATION
India is a vast country. Lying entirely in the Northern hemisphere (Figure 1.1) the main land extends between latitudes 84'N and 376'N and longitudes 687'E and 9725'E.
180W 150 120 90 60 30W 0

SIZE
The land mass of India has an area of 3.28 million square km. Indias total area accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical
30E 60 90 120 150 180E 75N

North America

60

Europe

Asia

45

30

PACIFIC OCEAN

ATLANTIC OCEAN South America

Africa

PACIFIC OCEAN INDIAN OCEAN Australia

15N

15S

30

45

60

Antartica

75S

Figure 1.1 : India in the World

area of the world. From the Figure 1.2 it is clear that India is the seventh largest country of the world. India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km and the total length of the coast line of the mainland including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 km. India is bounded by the young fold mountains in the northwest, north and north east. South of about 22 north latitude, it begins to taper, and extends towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on its east. Look at Figure 1.3 and note that the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of the mainland is about 30. Despite this fact the east-west extent appears to be smaller than the north-south extent. From Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh there is a time lag of two hours. Hence, time along the Standard Meridian of India (8230'E) passing through Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time for the whole country. The latitudinal extent influences the duration of the day and night, as one moves from south to north.

Why 8230'E has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India? Why is the difference between the durations of day and night hardly felt at Kannyakumari but not so in Kashmir?

INDIA AND THE WORLD


The Indian landmass has a central location between the East and the West Asia. India is a southward extension of the Asian Continent. The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the West and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India. Note that the Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the western coast and with Southeast and East Asia from the eastern coast. No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has and indeed, it is Indias eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.
Since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Indias distance from Europe has been reduced by 7,000 km.

Source : United Nations Demographic Year Book 2009-2010

Figure 1.2 : Seven Largest Countries of the World

CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Figure 1.3 : India : Extent and Standard Meridian

INDIA SIZE AND LOCATION

Figure 1.4 : India on International Highway of Trade and Commerce

Indias contacts with the World have continued through the ages but her relationships through the land routes are much older than her maritime contacts. The various passes across the mountains in the north have provided passages to the ancient travellers, while the oceans restricted such interaction for a long time. These routes have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since ancient times. The ideas of the Upanishads and the Ramayana, the stories of Panchtantra, the Indian numerals and the decimal system thus could reach many parts of the world. The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries. On the other hand, the influence of Greek sculpture, and the architectural styles of dome and minarets from West Asia can be seen in different parts of our country.

The number of Union Territories along the western and eastern coasts. Area-wise which is the smallest and which is the largest state? The states which do not have an international border or lie on the coast Classify the states into four groups each having common frontiers with (i) Pakistan, (ii) China, (iii) Myanmar, and (iv) Bangladesh.

India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest, China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east. Our southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries, namely

INDIAS NEIGHBOURS
India occupies an important strategic position in South Asia. India has 28 states and 7 Union Territories (Figure 1.5).
4

Before 1947, there were two types of states in India the provinces and the Princely states. Provinces were ruled directly by British officials who were appointed by the Viceroy. Princely states were ruled by local, hereditary rulers, who acknowledged sovereignity in return for local autonomy.

CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Figure 1.5 : India and Adjacent Countries

Sri Lanka and Maldives. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar while Maldives Islands are situated to the south of the Lakshadweep Islands.
INDIA SIZE AND LOCATION

India has had strong geographical and historical links with her neighbours. Look at the physical map of Asia in your atlas, and note how India stands apart from the rest of Asia.
5

EXERCISE
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below. (i) The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through (a) Rajasthan (c) Chhattisgarh (b) Orissa (d) Tripura (ii) The easternmost longitude of India is (a) 97 25' E (c) 77 6' E (b) 68 7' E (d) 82 32' E (iii) Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim have common frontiers with (a) China (c) Nepal (b) Bhutan (d) Myanmar (iv) If you intend to visit Kavarati during your summer vacations, which one of the following Union Territories of India you will be going to (a) Puducherry (c) Andaman and Nicobar (b) Lakshadweep (d) Diu and Daman (v) My friend hails from a country which does not share land boundary with India. Identify the country. (a) Bhutan (c) Bangladesh (b) Tajikistan (d) Nepal 2 Answer the following questions briefly. (i) Name the group of islands lying in the Arabian sea. (ii) Name the countries which are larger than India. (iii) Which island group of India lies to its south-east? (iv) Which island countries are our southern neighbours? 3 The sun rises two hours earlier in Arunachal Pradesh as compared to Gujarat in the west but the watches show the same time. How does this happen? 4 The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why? MAP SKILLS 1. Identify the following with the help of map reading. (i) The Island groups of India lying in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. (ii) The countries constituting Indian Subcontinent. (iii) The states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes. (iv) The northernmost latitude in degrees. (v) The southernmost latitude of the Indian mainland in degrees. (vi) The eastern and the western most longitude in degrees. (vii) The place situated on the three seas. (viii) The strait separating Sri Lanka from India. (ix) The Union Territories of India. PROJECT/ACTIVITY (i) (ii) Find out the longitudinal and latitudinal extent of your state. Collect information about the Silk Route. Also find out the new developments, which are improving communication routes in the regions of high altitude.

CONTEMPORARY INDIA

PHYSICAL F EATURES

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INDIA

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PLATE

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Mantle

PLATE

Mantle

PLATE

Transform Boundary

Figure 2.1 : Plate Boundaries

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ou have already learnt earlier that India is a vast country with varied landforms. What kind of terrain do you live in? If you live in the plains you are familiar with the vast stretches of plain land. In contrast, if you live in hilly region, the rugged terrain with mountains and valleys are common features. In fact, our country has practically all major physical features of the earth i.e. mountains, plains, deserts, plateaus and islands. You must be wondering how these physical features have been formed. We will learn more about major physical features of India and how they have been formed. We find different types of rocks; some are very hard like marble which has been used for making the Taj Mahal, and some are very soft like soap stone which is used in making talcum powder. The colour of soil varies from one place to the other because soil is formed out of different types of rocks. Have you ever thought about the causes of these variations? Most of these variations are caused due to differences in rock formations. India is a large landmass formed during different geological periods which has influenced her relief. Besides geological formations, a number of processes such as weathering, erosion and deposition have created and modified the relief to its present form. Earth scientists have attempted to explain the formation of physical features with the help of some theories based on certain evidences. One such plausible theory is the Theory of Plate Tectonics. According to this theory, the crust (upper part) of the earth has been formed out of seven major and some minor plates. (Figure 2.2)

The movement of the plates results in the building up of stresses within the plates and the continental rocks above, leading to folding, faulting and volcanic activity. Broadly, these plate movements are classified into three types(Figure 2.1). While some plates come towards each other and form convergent boundary. Some plates move away from each other and form divergent boundary. In the event of two plates coming together they may either collide and crumble, or one may slide under the other. At times, they may also move horizontally past

Divergent Boundary

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Mantle

Figure 2.2 : World : Plate Margins

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each other and form transform boundary. The movement of these plates have changed the position and size of the continents over millions of years. Such movements have also influenced the evolution of the present landform features of India.
Most volcanoes and earthquakes in the world are located at plate margins, but some do occur within the plates.

Gondwana land: It is the southern part of the ancient super continent Pangea with Angara Land in the northern part.

The oldest landmass, (the Peninsula part), was a part of the Gondwana land. The Gondwana land included India, Australia, South Africa, South America and Antarctica as one single land mass. The convectional currents split the crust into a number of pieces, thus leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate after being separated from the Gondwana land, towards north. The northward drift resulted in the collision of the plate with the much larger Eurasian Plate. Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks which were accumulated in the geosyncline known as the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and Himalaya.

The Himalayan uplift out of the Tethys sea and subsidence of the northern flank of the peninsular plateau resulted in the formation of a large basin. In due course of time this depression, gradually got filled with deposition of sediments by the rivers flowing from the mountains in the north and the peninsular plateau in the south. A flat land of extensive alluvial deposits led to the formation of the northern plains of India. The land of India displays great physical variation. Geologically, the Peninsular Plateau constitutes one of the ancient landmasses on the earths surface. It was supposed to be one of the most stable land blocks. The Himalayas and the Northern Plains are the most recent landforms. From the view point of geology, Himalayan mountains form an unstable zone. The whole mountain system of Himalaya represents a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers. The northern plains are formed of alluvial
CONTEMPORARY INDIA

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deposits. The peninsular plateau is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks with gently rising hills and wide valleys.

MAJOR PHYSIOGRAPHIC D IVISIONS


The physical features of India can be grouped under the following physiographic divisions (Figure 2.4): (1) The Himalayan Mountains (2) The Northern Plains (3) The Peninsular Plateau (4) The Indian Desert (5) The Coastal Plains (6) The Islands The Himalayan Mountains The Himalayas, geologically young and structurally fold mountains stretch over the

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Figure 2.3 : Himalayas

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA

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northern borders of India. These mountain ranges run in a west-east direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. The Himalayas represent the loftiest and one of the most rugged mountain barriers of the world. They form an arc, which covers a distance of about 2,400 Km. Their width varies from 400 Km in Kashmir to 150 Km in Arunachal Pradesh. The altitudinal variations are greater in the eastern half than those in the western half. The Himalaya consists of three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent. A number of valleys lie between these ranges. The northern most range is known as the Great or Inner Himalayas or the Himadri. It is the most continuous range consisting of the loftiest peaks with an average height of 6,000 metres. It contains all the prominent Himalayan peaks.

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Figure 2.4 : Relief

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Some Highest Peaks of the Himalayas Peak Mt. Everest Kanchenjunga Makalu Dhaulagiri Nanga Parbat Annapurna Nanda Devi Kamet Namcha Barwa Gurla Mandhata Country Nepal India Nepal Nepal India Nepal India India India Nepal Height in metres 8848 8598 8481 8172 8126 8078 7817 7756 7756 7728

alluvium. The longitudinal valley lying between lesser Himalaya and the Shiwaliks are known as Duns. Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun and Patli Dun are some of the well-known Duns.

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Location of Mussoorie, Nainital, Ranikhet from your atlas and also name the state where they are located.

The range lying to the south of the Himadri forms the most rugged mountain system and is known as Himachal or lesser Himalaya. The ranges are mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks. The altitude varies between 3,700 and 4,500 metres and the average width is of 50 Km. While the Pir Panjal range forms the longest and the most important range, the Dhaula Dhar and the Mahabharat ranges are also prominent ones. This range consists of the famous valley of Kashmir, the Kangra and Kullu Valley in Himachal Pradesh. This region is well known for its hill stations.

The outer most range of the Himalayas is called the Shiwaliks. They extend over a width of 10-50 Km and have an altitude varying between 900 and 1100 metres. These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by rivers from the main Himalayan ranges located farther north. These valleys are covered with thick gravel and

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA

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The names of the glaciers and passes that lie in Great Himalayas The name of the states where highest peaks are located.

Besides the longitudinal divisions, the Himalayas have been divided on the basis of regions from west to east. These divisions have been demarcated by river valleys. For example, the part of Himalayas lying between Indus and Satluj has been traditionally known as Punjab Himalaya but it is also known regionally as Kashmir and Himachal Himalaya from west to east respectively. The part of the Himalayas lying between Satluj and Kali rivers is known as Kumaon Himalayas. The Kali and Tista rivers demarcate the Nepal Himalayas and the part lying between Tista and Dihang rivers is known as Assam Himalayas. There are regional names also in these broad categories. Find out some regional names of the Himalayas The Brahmaputra marks the eastern most boundary of the Himalayas. Beyond the Dihang gorge, the Himalayas bend sharply to the south and spread along the eastern boundary of India. They are known as the Purvachal or the Eastern hills and mountains. These hills running through the north-eastern states are mostly composed of strong sandstones which are sedimentary rocks. Covered with dense forests, they mostly run as parallel ranges and valleys. The Purvachal comprises the

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Figure 2.5 : The Himalayas

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The folds of Great Himalayas are asymmetrical in nature. The core of this part of Himalayas is composed of granite. It is perennially snow bound, and a number of glaciers descend from this range.

Majuli, in the Brahmaputra River is the largest inhabited riverine island in the world.

Figure 2.6 : Mizo Hills

The Northern Plain The northern plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems, namely the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. This plain is formed of alluvial soil. The deposition of alluvium in a vast basin lying at the foothills of the Himalaya over millions of years, formed this fertile plain. It spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq. km. The plain being about 2400 Km long and 240 to 320 Km broad, is a densely populated physiographic division. With a rich soil cover combined with adequate water supply and favourable climate it is agriculturally a very productive part of India.

Figure 2.7 : The Northern Plains

The rivers coming from northern mountains are involved in depositional work. In the lower course, due to gentle slope, the velocity of the river decreases which results in the formation of riverine islands.

The Ganga plain extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers. It is spread over the states of North India, Haryana, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, partly Jharkhand and West Bengal to its East, particularly in Assam lies the Brahmaputra plain. The northern plains are generally deseribed as flat land with no variations in its relief. It is not true. These vast plains also have diverse relief features. According to the variations in relief features, the Northern plains can be divided into four regions. The rivers, after descending from the mountains deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 km in width lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks. It is known as bhabar. All the streams disappear in this bhabar belt. South of this belt, the streams and rivers re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region known as terai. This was a thickly forested region full of wildlife. The forests have been cleared to create agricultural land and to settle migrants from Pakistan after partition. Locate Dudhwa National Park in this region. The largest part of the northern plain is formed of older alluvium. They lie above the flood plains of the rivers and present a terrace like feature. This part is known as bhangar .
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Doab is made up of two words- do meaning two and ab meaning water. Similarly Punjab is also made up two words- Punj meaning five and ab meaning water.

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Patkai hills, the Naga hills, Manipur hills and the Mizo hills.

The rivers in their lower course split into numerous channels due to the deposition of silt. These channels are known as distributaries. The Northern Plain is broadly divided into three sections. The Western part of the Northern Plain is referred to as the Punjab Plains. Formed by the Indus and its tributaries, the larger part of this plain lies in Pakistan. The Indus and its tributariesthe Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj originate in the Himalaya. This section of the plain is dominated by the doabs.

The soil in this region contains calcareous deposits locally known as kankar. The newer, younger deposits of the flood plains are called khadar. They are renewed almost every year and so are fertile, thus, ideal for intensive agriculture. The Peninsular Plateau The Peninsular plateau is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land and thus, making it a part of the oldest landmass. The plateau has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills. This plateau consists of two broad divisions, namely, the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau. The part of the Peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands. The Vindhyan range is bounded by the Central Highlands on the south and the Aravalis on the northwest. The further westward extension gradually merges with the sandy and rocky desert of Rajasthan. The flow of the rivers draining this region, namely the Chambal, the Sind, the Betwa and Ken is from southwest to northeast, thus indicating the slope. The Central Highlands are wider in the west but narrower in the east. The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. The Chotanagpur plateau marks the further eastward extension, drained by the Damodar river.

Figure 2.8 : A waterfall in Chotanagpur Plateau

The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada. The Satpura range flanks its broad base in the north while the Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and the Maikal range form its eastern extensions. Locate these hills and ranges in the physical map of India. The Deccan Plateau is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards. An extension of the Plateau is also visible in the northeast locally known as the Meghalaya, Karbi-Anglong Plateau and North Cachar Hills. It is separated by a fault from the Chotanagpur Plateau. Three Prominent hill ranges from the west to east are the Garo, the Khasi and the Jaintia Hills. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats mark the western and the eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau respectively. Western Ghats lie parallel to the western coast. They are continuous and can be crossed through passes only. Locate the Thal, Bhor and the Pal Ghats in the Physical map of India. The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats. Their average elevation is 900 1600 metres as against 600 metres of the Eastern Ghats. The Eastern Ghats stretch from the Mahanadi Valley to the Nigiris in the south. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and irregular and dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal. The Western Ghats cause orographic rain by facing the rain bearing moist winds to rise along the western slopes of the Ghats. The Western Ghats are known by different local names. The height of the Western Ghats progressively increases from north to south. The highest peaks include the Anai Mudi (2,695metres) and the Doda Betta (2,637 metres). Mahendragiri (1,501 metres) is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats. Shevroy Hills and the Javadi Hills are located to the southeast of the Eastern Ghats. Locate the famous hill stations of Udagamandalam, popularly known as Ooty and the Kodaikanal. One of the distinct features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as Decean Trap. This is of volcanic origin hence the rocks are igneous. Actually these rocks have denuded over time and are responsible for the formation of black soil. The Aravali Hills lie on the western and northwestern margins of the

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peninsular plateau. These are highly eroded hills and are found as broken hills. They extend from Gujarat to Delhi in a southwest-northeast direction. The Indian Desert The Indian desest lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills. It is an undulating sandy plain covered with sand dunes. This region receives very low rainfall below 150 mm per year. It has arid climate with low vegetation cover. Streams appear during the rainy season. Soon after they disappear into the sand as they do not have enough water to reach the sea. Luni is the only large river in this region.

Figure 2.10 : The Coastal Plains

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The Islands
Figure 2.9 : The Indian Desert

The Chilika Lake is the largest salt water lake in India. It lies in the state of Orissa, to the south of the Mahanadi delta.

Barchans (crescent shaped dunes) cover larger areas but longitudinal dunes become more prominent near the Indo-Pakistan boundary. If you visit Jaisalmer, you may go to see a group of barchans.

You have already seen that India has a vast main land. Besides this, the country has also two groups of islands. Can you identify these island groups?

The Coastal Plains

The Peninsular plateau is flanked by stretch of narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east . The western coast, sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, is a narrow plain. It consists of three sections. The northern part of the coast is called the Konkan (Mumbai Goa), the central stretch is called the Kannad Plain while the southern stretch is referred to as the Malabar coast.
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Locate the Lakshadweep Islands group lying close to the Malabar coast of Kerala. This group of islands is composed of small coral isalnds. Earlier they were known as Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindive. In 1973 these were
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Figure 2.11 : An Island

The plains along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level. In the northern part, it is referred to as the Northern Circar, while the southern part is known as the Coromandel Coast. Large rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri have formed extensive delta on this coast. Lake Chilika is an important feature along the eastern coast.

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named as Lakshadweep. It covers small area of 32 sq km. Kavaratti island is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep. This island group has great diversity of flora and fauna. The Pitti island, which is uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary.
Corals Coral polyps are short-lived microscopic organisms, which live in colonies. They flourish in shallow, mud free and warm waters. They secrete calcium carbonate. The coral secretion and their skeletons from coral deposits in the form of reefs:. they are mainly of three kinds: barrier reef. fringing reef and atolls. The Great Barrier Reef of Australia is a good example of the first kind of coral reefs. Atolls are circular or horse shoe shaped coral reefs.

starategic importance for the country. There is great diversity of flora and fauna in this group of islands too. These islands lie close to equator and experience equatorial climate and has thick forest cover.

Indias only active volcano is found on Barren island in Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands.

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EXERCISE
PHYSICAL FEATURES OF INDIA

Now you see the elongated chain of islands located in the Bay of Bengal extending from north to south. These are Andaman and Nicobar islands. They are bigger in size and are more numerous and scattered. The entire group of islands is divided into two broad categories The Andaman in the north and the Nicobar in the south. It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains. These island groups are of great

A detailed account of the different physiographic units highlights the unique features of each region. It would, however, be clear that each region complements the other and makes the country richer in its natural resources. The mountains are the major sources of water and forest wealth. The northern plains are the granaries of the country. They provide the base for early civilisations. The plateau is a storehouse of minerals, which has played a crucial role in the industrialisation of the country. The coastal region and island groups provide sites for fishing and port activities. Thus, the diverse physical features of the land have immense future possibilities of development.

1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below. (i) A landmass bounded by sea on three sides is referred to as (a) Coast (c) Peninsula (b) Island (d) none of the above (ii) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called as (a) Himachal (c) Purvachal (b) Uttarakhand (d) none of the above (iii) The western coastal strip, south of Goa is referred to as (a) Coromandel (c) Kannad (b) Konkan (d) Northern Circar (iv) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is (a) Anai Mudi (c) Mahendragiri (b) Kanchenjunga (d) Khasi 2 Answer the following questions briefly. (i) What are tectonic plates? (ii) Which continents of today were part of the Gondwana land?
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4. 5. 6. 7.

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PROJECT/ACTIVITY
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On an outline map of India show the following. (i) Mountain and hill ranges the Karakoram, the Zaskar, the Patkai Bum, the Jaintia, the Vindhya range, the Aravali, and the Cardamom hills. (ii) Peaks K2, Kanchenjunga, Nanga Parbat and the Anai Mudi. (iii) Plateaus, Chotanagpur and Malwa (iv) The Indian Desert, Western Ghats, Lakshadweep Islands

Locate the peaks, passes, ranges, plateaus, hills, and duns hidden in the puzzle. Try to find where these features are located. You may start your search horizontally, vertically or diagonally.

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(iii) What is the bhabar? (iv) Name the three major divisions of the Himalayas from north to south. (v) Which plateau lies between the Aravali and the Vindhyan ranges? (vi) Name the island group of India having coral origin. Distinguish between (i) Converging and diverging tectonic plates (ii) Bhangar and Khadar (iii) Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats Describe how the Himalayas were formed. Which are the major physiographic divisions of India? Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau. Give an account of the Northern Plains of India. Write short notes on the following. (i) The Indian Desert (ii) The Central Highlands (iii) The Island groups of India

DRAINAGE
he term drainage describes the river system of an area. Look at the physical map. You will notice that small streams flowing from different directions come together to form the main river, which ultimately drains into a large water body such as a lake or a sea or an ocean. The area drained by a single river system is called a drainage basin. A closer observation on a map will indicate that any elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland, separates two drainage basins. Such an upland is known as a water divide (Figure 3.1).
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subcontinent. Accordingly, the Indian rivers are divided into two major groups: the Himalayan rivers; and the Peninsular rivers. Apart from originating from the two major physiographic regions of India, the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers are different from each other in many ways. Most of the Himalayan rivers are perennial. It means that they have water throughout the year. These rivers receive water from rain as well as from melted snow from the lofty mountains. The two major Himalayan rivers, the Indus and the Brahmaputra originate from the north of the mountain ranges. They have cut through the mountains making gorges. The Himalayan rivers have long courses from their source to the sea. They perform intensive erosional activity in their upper courses and carry huge loads of silt and sand. In the middle and the lower courses, these rivers form meanders, oxbow lakes, and many other depositional features in their

Figure 3.1 : Water Divide

The worlds largest drainage basin is of the Amazon river

Which river has the largest basin in India?

DRAINAGE SYSTEMS IN INDIA


The drainage systems of India are mainly controlled by the broad relief features of the
Figure 3.2 : A Gorge

Drainage Patterns The streams within a drainage basin form certain patterns, depending on the slope of land, underlying rock structure as well as the climatic conditions of the area. These are dendritic, trellis, rectangular, and radial patterns. The dendritic pattern develops where the river channel follows the slope of the terrain. The stream with its tributaries resembles the branches of a tree, thus the name dendritic. A river joined by its tributaries, at approximately right angles, develops a trellis pattern. A trellis drainage pattern develops where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other. A rectangular drainage pattern develops on a strongly jointed rocky terrain. The radial pattern develops when streams flow in different directions from a central peak or dome like structure. A combination of several patterns may be found in the same drainage basin.

floodplains. They also have well-developed deltas (Figure 3.3).


Source of River

Upper Course

shallower courses as compared to their Himalayan counterparts. However, some of them originate in the central highlands and flow towards the west. Can you identify two such large rivers? Most of the rivers of peninsular India originate in the Western Ghats and flow towards the Bay of Bengal. The Himalayan Rivers

Middle Course

The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These rivers are long, and are joined by many large and important tributaries. A river alongwith its tributaries may be called a river system.
Meander

Ox-Bow Lake

The Indus River System The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar. Flowing west, it enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. It forms a picturesque gorge in this part. Several tributaries, the Zaskar, the Nubra, the Shyok and the Hunza, join it in the Kashmir region. The Indus flows through Baltistan and Gilgit and emerges from the mountains at Attock. The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum join together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan. Beyond this, the Indus flows southwards eventually reaching the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. The Indus plain has a very gentle slope. With a total length of 2900 km, the Indus is one of the longest rivers

Lower Course

Delta

Figure 3.3 : Some Features Made by Rivers

A large number of the Peninsular rivers are seasonal, as their flow is dependent on rainfall. During the dry season, even the large rivers have reduced flow of water in their channels. The Peninsular rivers have shorter and

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Figure 3.4 : Major Rivers and Lakes

DRAINAGE

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of the world. A little over a third of the Indus basin is located in India in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the Punjab and the rest is in Pakistan.
According to the regulations of the Indus Water Treaty (1960), India can use only 20 per cent of the total water carried by Indus river system. This water is used for irrigation in the Punjab, Haryana and the southern and western parts of Rajasthan.

The Ganga River System The headwaters of the Ganga, called the Bhagirathi is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devaprayag in Uttarakhand. At Haridwar the Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains.

The main tributaries, which come from the peninsular uplands, are the Chambal, the Betwa and the Son. These rise from semi arid areas, have shorter courses and do not carry much water in them. Find out where and how they ultimately join the Ganga. Enlarged with the waters from its right and left bank tributaries, the Ganga flows eastwards till Farakka in West Bengal. This is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta. The river bifurcates here; the Bhagirathi-Hooghly (a distributary) flows southwards through the deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal. The mainstream, flows southwards into Bangladesh and is joined by the Brahmaputra. Further down stream, it is known as the Meghna. This mighty river, with waters from the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra, flows into the Bay of Bengal. The delta formed by these rivers is known as the Sunderban delta.
The Sundarban Delta derived its name from the Sundari tree which grows well in marshland. It is the worlds largest and fastest growing delta. It is also the home of Royal Bengal tiger.

Figure 3.5 : Confluence of Bhagirathi and Alaknanda at Devaprayag

The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas, a few of them being major rivers such as the Yamuna, the Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi. The river Yamuna rises from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas. It flows parallel to the Ganga and as a right bank tributary, meets the Ganga at Allahabad. The Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi rise in the Nepal Himalaya. They are the rivers, which flood parts of the northern plains every year, causing widespread damage to life and property but enriching the soil for the extensive agricultural lands.
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The length of the Ganga is over 2500 km. Look at figure 3.4; can you identify the type of drainage pattern formed by the Ganga river system? Ambala is located on the water divide between the Indus and the Ganga river systems. The plains from Ambala to the Sunderban stretch over nearly 1800 km, but the fall in its slope is hardly 300 metres. In other words, there is a fall of just one metre for every 6 km. Therefore, the river develops large meanders. The Brahmaputra River System The Brahmaputra rises in T ibet east of Mansarowar lake very close to the sources of the Indus and the Satluj. It is slightly longer than the Indus, and most of its course lies outside India. It flows eastwards parallel to the Himalayas. On reaching the Namcha Barwa (7757 m), it takes a U turn and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh through a gorge. Here, it is called the Dihang and it is joined by the Dibang, the Lohit, and many other
CONTEMPORARY INDIA

tributaries to form the Brahmaputra in Assam.


Brahmaputra is known as the Tsang Po in Tibet and Jamuna in Bangladesh.

All the tributaries of the Narmada are very short and most of these join the main stream at right angles. The Narmada basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The Tapi Basin The Tapi rises in the Satpura ranges, in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh. It also flows in a rift valley parallel to the Narmada but it is much shorter in length. Its basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. The coastal plains between Western Ghats and the Arabian sea are very narrow. Hence, the coastal rivers are short. The main west flowing rivers are Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharathpuzha and Periyar. Find out the states in which these rivers drain the water. The Godavari Basin The Godavari is the largest Peninsular river. It rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in the Nasik district of Maharashtra. Its length is about 1500 km. It drains into the Bay of Bengal. Its drainage basin is also the largest among the peninsular rivers. The basin covers parts of Maharashtra (about 50 per cent of the basin area lies in Maharashtra), Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. The Godavari is joined by a number of tributaries such as the Purna, the Wardha, the Pranhita, the Manjra, the Wainganga and the Penganga. The last three tributaries are very large. Because of its length and the area it covers, it is also known as the Dakshin Ganga. The Mahanadi Basin The Mahanadi rises in the highlands of Chhattisgarh. It flows through Odisha to reach the Bay of Bengal. The length of the river is about 860 km. Its drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odisha. The Krishna Basin Rising from a spring near Mahabaleshwar, the Krishna flows for about 1400 km and reaches the Bay of Bengal. The Tungabhadra, the Koyana, the Ghatprabha, the Musi and the Bhima are some of its tributaries. Its drainage
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In Tibet the river carries a smaller volume of water and less silt as it is a cold and a dry area. In India it passes through a region of high rainfall. Here the river carries a large volume of water and considerable amount of silt. The Brahmaputra has a braided channel in its entire length in Assam and forms many riverine islands. Do you remember the name of the worlds largest riverine island formed by the Brahmaputra? Every year during the rainy season, the river overflows its banks, causing widespread devastation due to floods in Assam and Bangladesh. Unlike other north Indian rivers the Brahmaputra is marked by huge deposits of silt on its bed causing the river bed to rise. The river also shifts its channel frequently. The Peninsular Rivers The main water divide in Peninsular India is formed by the Western Ghats, which runs from north to south close to the western coast. Most of the major rivers of the Peninsula such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers make deltas at their mouths. There are numerous small streams flowing west of the Western Ghats. The Narmada and the Tapi are the only long rivers, which flow west and make esturies. The drainage basins of the peninsular rivers are comparatively small in size. The Narmada Basin The Narmada rises in the Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh. It flows towards the west in a rift valley formed due to faulting. On its way to the sea, the Narmada creates many picturesque locations. The Marble rocks, near Jabalpur where the Narmada flows through a deep gorge, and the Dhuadhar falls where the river plunges over steep rocks, are some of the notable ones.

DRAINAGE

basin is shared by Maharasthra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The Kaveri Basin The Kaveri rises in the Brahmagri range of the Western Ghats and it reaches the Bay of Bengal in south of Cuddalore, in Tamil Nadu. Total length of the river is about 760 km. Its main tributaries are Amravati, Bhavani, Hemavati and Kabini. Its basin drains parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
The river Kaveri makes the second biggest waterfall in India, known as Sivasamudram. The hydroelectric power generated from the falls is supplied to Mysore, Bangalore and the Kolar Gold Field.
in India. The name of the biggest waterfall

Beside these major rivers, there are some smaller rivers flowing towards the east. The Damoder, the Brahmani, the Baitarni and the Subarnrekha are some notable examples. Locate them in your atlas.
71 per cent of the worlds surface is covered with water, but 97 per cent of that is salt water. Of the 3 per cent that is available as freshwater, three quarters of it is trapped as ice.

LAKES
You may be familiar with the valley of Kashmir and the famous Dal Lake, the house boats and shikaras, which attract thousands of tourists every year. Similarly, you may have visited some other tourist spot near a lake and enjoyed boating, swimming and other water games. Imagine that if Srinagar, Nainital and other tourists places did not have a lake would they have been as attractive as they are today? Have you ever tried to know the importance of lakes in making a place attractive to tourists? Apart from attraction for tourists lakes are also useful to human beings in many ways.
Lakes of large extent are called the seas, like the Caspian, the Dead and the Aral seas.

India has many lakes. These differ from each other in the size, and other characteristics. Most lakes are permanent; some contain water only during the rainy season, like the lakes in the basins of inland drainage of semi-arid regions. There are some of the lakes which are the result of the action of glaciers and ice sheets, while the others have been formed by wind, river action, and human activities. A meandering river across a flood plain forms cut-offs that later develop into ox-bow lakes. Spits and bars form lagoons in the coastal areas, eg the Chilika lake, the Pulicat lake, the Kolleru lake. Lakes in the region of inland drainage are sometimes seasonal; for example, the Sambhar lake in Rajasthan, which is a salt water lake. Its water is used for producing salt. Most of the fresh water lakes are in the Himalayan region. They are of glacial origin. In other words, they formed when glaciers dug out a basin, which was later filled with snowmelt. The Wular lake in Jammu and Kashmir, in contrast, is the result of the tectonic activity. It is the largest freshwater lake in India. The Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani are some other important fresh water lakes. Apart from natural lakes, the damming of the rivers for the generation of hydel power has also led to the formation of Lakes such as Guru Gobind Sagar (Bhakra Nangal Project).

Figure 3.6 : Loktak Lake

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Activity Make a list of natural and artifcial lakes with the help of the atlas. National River Conservation Plan (NRCP)

Lakes are of great value to human beings. A lake helps to regulate the flow of a river. During heavy rainfall, it prevents flooding and during the dry season, it helps to maintain an even flow of water. Lakes can also be used for developing hydel power. They moderate the climate of the surroundings; maintain the aquatic ecosystem, enhance natural beauty, help develop tourism and provide recreation.

ROLE OF RIVERS IN THE ECONOMY


Rivers have been of fundamental importance throughout the human history. Water from the rivers is a basic natural resource, essential for various human activities. Therefore, the river banks have attracted settlers from ancient times. These settlements have now become big cities. Make a list of cities in your state which are located on the bank of a river. Using rivers for irrigation, navigation, hydro-power generation is of special significance particularly to a country like India, where agriculture is the major source of livelihood of the majority of its population.

The activities of Ganga Action Plan (GAP) phase-I, initiated in 1985, were declared closed on 31st March 2000. The Steering Committee of the National River Conservation Authority reviewed the progress of the GAP and necessary correction on the basis of lessons learnt and experiences gained from GAP Phase-I. These have been applied to the major polluted rivers of the country under the NRCP. The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) Phase-II, has been merged with the NRCP. The expanded NRCP now covers 152 towns located along 27 interstate rivers in 16 states. Under this action plan, pollution abatement works are being taken up in 57 towns. A total of 215 schemes of pollution abatement have been sanctioned. So far, 69 schemes have been completed under this action plan. A million litres of sewage is targeted to be intercepted, diverted and treated.

RIVER POLLUTION
The growing domestic, municipal, industrial and agricultural demand for water from rivers naturally affects the quality of water. As a result, more and more water is being drained out of the rivers reducing their volume. On the other hand, a heavy load of untreated

sewage and industrial effluents are emptied into the rivers. This affects not only the quality of water but also the self-cleansing capacity of the river. For example, given the adequate streamflow, the Ganga water is able to dilute and assimilate pollution loads within 20 km of large cities. But the increasing urbanisation and industrialisation do not allow it to happen and the pollution level of many rivers has been rising. Concern over rising pollution in our rivers led to the launching of various action plans to clean the rivers. Have you heard about such action plans? How does our health get affected by polluted river water? Think about life of human beings without fresh water. Arrange a debate on this topic in the class.

EXERCISE
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below. (i) Which one of the following describes the drainage patterns resembling the branches of a tree? (a) Radial (c) Centrifugal (b) Dendritic (d) Trellis

DRAINAGE

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(ii) In which of the following states is the Wular lake located? (a) Rajasthan (c) Punjab (b) Uttar Pradesh (d) Jammu and Kashmir (iii) The river Narmada has its source at (a) Satpura (c) Amarkantak (b) Brahmagiri (d) Slopes of the Western Ghats (iv) Which one of the following lakes is a salt water lake? (a) Sambhar (c) Wular (b) Dal (d) Gobind Sagar (v) Which one of the following is the longest river of the Peninsular India? (a) Narmada (c) Godavari (b) Krishna (d) Mahanadi (vi) Which one amongst the following rivers flows through a rift valley? (a) Mahanadi (c) Krishna (b) Tungabhadra (d) Tapi 2. Answer the following questions briefly. (i) What is meant by a water divide? Give an example. (ii) Which is the largest river basin in India? (iii) Where do the rivers Indus and Ganga have their origin? (iv) Name the two headstreams of the Ganga. Where do they meet to form the Ganga? (v) Why does the Brahmaputra in its Tibetan part have less silt, despite a longer course? (vi) Which two Peninsular rivers flow through trough? (vii) State some economic benefits of rivers and lakes. 3. Below are given names of a few lakes of India. Group them under two categories natural and created by human beings. (a) Wular (b) Dal (c) Nainital (d) Bhimtal (e) Gobind Sagar (f) Loktak (g) Barapani (h) Chilika (i) Sambhar (j) Rana Pratap Sagar (k) Nizam Sagar (l) Pulicat (m) Nagarjuna Sagar (n) Hirakund 4. Discuss the significant difference between the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers. 5. Compare the east flowing and the west flowing rivers of the Peninsular plateau. 6. Why are rivers important for the countrys economy? Map Skills (i) (ii) On an outline map of India mark and label the following rivers: Ganga, Satluj, Damodar, Krishna, Narmada, Tapi, Mahanadi, and Brahmaputra. On an outline map of India mark and label the following lakes: Chilika, Sambhar, Wular, Pulicat, Kolleru.

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Project/Activity Solve this crossword puzzle with the help of given clues. Across 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Down 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. A tributary of Indus originating from Himachal Pradesh. The river flowing through fault, drains into the Arabian Sea. A river of south India, which receives rain water both in summer and winter. A river which flows through Ladakh, Gilgit and Pakistan. An important river of the Indian desert. The river which joins Chenab in Pakistan. A river which rises at Yamunotri glacier. Nagarjuna Sagar is a river valley project. Name the river? The longest river of India. The river which originates from a place known as Beas Kund. The river which rises in the Betul district of MP and flows westwards. The river which was known as the Sorrow of West Bengal. The river on which the reservoir for India Gandhi canal has been built. The river whose source lies near Rohtang Pass. The longest river of Peninsular India?

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4
CLIMATE
n the last two chapters you have read about the landforms and the drainage of our country. These are the two of the three basic elements that one learns about the natural environment of any area. In this chapter you will learn about the third, that is, the atmospheric conditions that prevail over our country. Why do we wear woollens in December or why it is hot and uncomfortable in the month of May, and why it rains in June - July? The answers to all these questions can be found out by studying about the climate of India. Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years). Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time. The elements of weather and climate are the same, i.e. temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity and precipitation. You may have observed that the weather conditions fluctuate very often even within a day. But there is some common pattern over a few weeks or months, i.e. days are cool or hot, windy or calm, cloudy or bright, and wet or dry. On the basis of the generalised monthly atmospheric conditions, the year is divided into seasons such as winter, summer or rainy seasons. The world is divided into a number of climatic regions. Do you know what type of climate India has and why it is so? We will learn about it in this chapter.
The word monsoon is derived from the Arabic word mausim which literally means season. Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.

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In certain places there is a wide difference between day and night temperatures. In the Thar Desert the day temperature may rise to 50C, and drop down to near 15C the same night. On the other hand, there is hardly any difference in day and night temperatures in the Andaman and Nicobar islands or in Kerala.

Let us now look at precipitation. There are variations not only in the form and types of precipitation but also in its amount and the seasonal distribution. While precipitation is mostly in the form of snowfall in the upper parts of Himalayas, it rains over the rest of the country. The annual precipitation varies from over 400 cm in Meghalaya to less than 10 cm in Ladakh and western Rajasthan. Most parts of the country receive rainfall from June to September. But some parts like the Tamil Nadu

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The climate of India is described as the monsoon type. In Asia, this type of climate is found mainly in the south and the southeast. Despite an overall unity in the general pattern, there are perceptible regional variations in climatic conditions within the country. Let us take two important elements temperature and precipitation, and examine how they vary from place to place and season to season. In summer, the mercury occasionally touches 50C in some parts of the Rajasthan desert, whereas it may be around 20C in Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir. On a winter night, temperature at Drass in Jammu and Kashmir may be as low as minus 45C. Thiruvananthapuram, on the other hand, may have a temperature of 22C.

Latitude

CLIMATIC CONTROLS
There are six major controls of the climate of any place. They are: latitude , altitude , pressure and wind system, distance from the sea (continentality), ocean currents and relief features. Due to the curvature of the earth, the amount of solar energy received varies according to latitude. As a result, air temperature generally decreases from the equator towards the poles. As one goes from the surface of the earth to higher altitudes , the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. The hills are therefore cooler during summers. The pressure and wind system of any area depend on the latitude and altitude of the place. Thus it influences the temperature and rainfall pattern. The sea exerts a moderating influence on climate: As the distance from the sea increases, its moderating influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather conditions. This condition is known as continentality (i.e. very hot during summers and very cold during winters). Ocean currents along with onshore winds affect the climate of the coastal areas, For example, any coastal area with warm or cold currents flowing past it, will be warmed or cooled if the winds are onshore.
CLIMATE

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Altitude Pressure and Winds

The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east. Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer, belongs to the tropical area. All the remaining area, north of the Tropic, lies in the sub-tropics. Therefore, Indias climate has characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climates.

India has mountains to the north, which have an average height of about 6,000 metres. India also has a vast coastal area where the maximum elevation is about 30 metres. The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of these mountains that this subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to central Asia.

The climate and associated weather conditions in India are governed by the following atmospheric conditions: Pressure and surface winds; Upper air circulation; and Western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones.

India lies in the region of north easterly winds. These winds originate from the subtropical high-pressure belt of the northern
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Why the houses in Rajasthan have thick walls and flat roofs? Why is it that the houses in the Tarai region and in Goa and Mangalore have sloping roofs? Why houses in Assam are built on stilts?

FACTORS AFFECTING INDIAS CLIMATE

coast gets a large portion of its rain during October and November. In general, coastal areas experience less contrasts in temperature conditions. Seasonal contrasts are more in the interior of the country. There is decrease in rainfall generally from east to west in the Northern Plains. These variations have given rise to variety in lives of people in terms of the food they eat, the clothes they wear and also the kind of houses they live in.

Why most of the worlds deserts are located in the western margins of continents in the subtropics?

Finally, relief too plays a major role in determining the climate of a place. High mountains act as barriers for cold or hot winds; they may also cause precipitation if they are high enough and lie in the path of rain-bearing winds. The leeward side of mountains remains relatively dry.

hemisphere. They blow south, get deflected to the right due to the Coriolis force, and move on towards the equatorial low-pressure area. Generally, these winds carry very little moisture as they originate and blow over land. Therefore, they bring little or no rain. Hence, India should have been an arid land, but, it is not so. Let us see why?
Coriolis force: An apparent force caused by the earths rotation. The Coriolis force is responsible for deflecting winds towards the right in the northern hemisphere and towards the left in the southern hemisphere. This is also known as Ferrels Law.

Himalayas, all through the year except in summer. The western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north and north-western parts of the country are brought in by this westerly flow. In summer, the subtropical westerly jet stream moves north of the Himalayas with the apparent movement of the sun. An easterly jet stream, called the sub-tropical easterly jet stream blows over peninsular India, approximately over 14N during the summer months.
Western Cyclonic Disturbances

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Jet stream: These are a narrow belt of high altitude (above 12,000 m) westerly winds in the troposphere. Their speed varies from about 110 km/h in summer to about 184 km/h in winter. A number of separate jet streams have been identified. The most constant are the mid-latitude and the sub tropical jet stream.

The pressure and wind conditions over India are unique. During winter, there is a high-pressure area north of the Himalayas. Cold dry winds blow from this region to the low-pressure areas over the oceans to the south. In summer, a low-pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as over northwestern India. This causes a complete reversal of the direction of winds during summer. Air moves from the high-pressure area over the southern Indian Ocean, in a south-easterly direction, crosses the equator, and turns right towards the low-pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. These are known as the Southwest Monsoon winds. These winds blow over the warm oceans, gather moisture and bring widespread rainfall over the mainland of India. The upper air circulation in this region is dominated by a westerly flow. An important component of this flow is the jet stream. These jet streams are located approximately over 27-30 north latitude, therefore, they are known as subtropical westerly jet streams. Over India, these jet streams blow south of the

THE INDIAN M ONSOON


The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. The sailors who came to India in historic times were one of the first to have noticed the phenomenon of the monsoon. They benefited from the reversal of the wind system as they came by sailing ships at the mercy of winds. The Arabs, who had also come to India as traders named this seasonal reversal of the wind system monsoon.

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The western cyclonic disturbances are weather phenomena of the winter months brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region. They usually influence the weather of the north and north-western regions of India. Tropical cyclones occur during the monsoon as well as in October November, and are part of the easterly flow. These distrurbances affect the coastal regions of the country. Have you read or heard about the disasters caused by them on Orissa and Andhra Pradesh coast?

Figure 4.1 : Arrival of Monsoon

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CLIMATE

Figure 4.2 : Atmospheric Conditions over the Indian Subcontinent in the Month of January

Figure 4.3 : Atmospheric Conditions over the Indian Subcontinent in the Month of June

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The monsoons are experienced in the tropical area roughly between 20 N and 20 S. To understand the mechanism of the monsoons, the following facts are important. (a) The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates low pressure on the landmass of India while the seas around experience comparatively high pressure. (b) The shift of the position of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in summer, over the Ganga plain (this is the equatorial trough normally positioned about 5N of the equator. It is also known as the monsoontrough during the monsoon season). (c) The presence of the high-pressure area, east of Madagascar , approximately at 20S over the Indian Ocean. The intensity and position of this high-pressure area affects the Indian Monsoon. (d) The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer, which results in strong vertical air currents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau at about 9 km above sea level. (e) The movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas and the presence of the tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian peninsula during summer.
Inter Tropical Convergence Zone The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ,) is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes. This is where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge. This convergence zone lies more or less parallel to the equator but moves north or south with the apparent movement of the sun.

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Apart from this, it has also been noticed that changes in the pressure conditions over the southern oceans also affect the monsoons. Normally when the tropical eastern south Pacific Ocean experiences high pressure, the tropical eastern Indian Ocean experiences low pressure. But in certain years, there is a reversal in the pressure conditions and the eastern Pacific has lower pressure in comparison to the eastern Indian Ocean. This periodic change in pressure
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THE O NSET OF THE MONSOON AND WITHDRAWAL

The Monsoon, unlike the trades, are not steady winds but are pulsating in nature, affected by different atmospheric conditions encountered by it, on its way over the warm tropical seas. The duration of the monsoon is between 100120 days from early June to mid-September. Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is known as the burst of the monsoon, and can be distinguished from the pre-monsoon showers. The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula generally by the first week of June. Subsequently, it proceeds into two the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch. The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai about ten days later on approximately the 10th of June. This is a fairly rapid advance. The Bay of Bengal branch also advances rapidly and arrives in Assam in the first week of June. The lofty mountains causes the monsoon winds to deflect towards the west
CONTEMPORARY INDIA

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El Nino: This is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current. El Nino is a Spanish word meaning the child, and refers to the baby Christ, as this current starts flowing during Christmas. The presence of the El Nino leads to an increase in sea-surface temperatures and weakening of the trade winds in the region.

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conditions is known as the Southern Oscillation or SO. The difference in pressure over Tahiti (Pacific Ocean, 18S/149W) and Darwin in northern Australia (Indian Ocean, 1230S/131E) is computed to predict the intensity of the monsoons. If the pressure differences were negative, it would mean below average and late monsoons. A feature connected with the SO is the El Nino phenomenon in which a warm ocean current that flows past the Peruvian Coast, in place of the cold Peruvian current, every 2 to 5 years. The changes in pressure conditions are connected to the El Nino. Hence, the phenomenon is referred to as ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillations).

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THE SEASONS
The monsoon type of climate is characterised by a distinct seasonal pattern. The weather conditions greatly change from one season to the other. These changes are particularly noticeable in the interior parts of the country. The coastal areas do not experience much variation in temperature though there is variation in rainfall pattern. How many seasons are experienced in your place? Four main seasons can be identified in India the cold weather season, the hot weather season, the advancing monsoon and the retreating monsoon with some regional variations.
CLIMATE

over the Ganga plains. By mid-June the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Saurashtra-Kuchchh and the central part of the country. The Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal branches of the monsoon merge over the northwestern part of the Ganga plains. Delhi generally receives the monsoon showers from the Bay of Bengal branch by the end of June (tentative date is 29th of June). By the first week of July, western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and eastern Rajasthan experience the monsoon. By mid-July, the monsoon reaches Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country (Figure 4.3). Withdrawal or the retreat of the monsoon is a more gradual process (Figure 4.4). The withdrawal of the monsoon begins in northwestern states of India by early September. By mid-October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of the peninsula. The withdrawal from the southern half of the peninsula is fairly rapid. By early December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of the country. The islands receive the very first monsoon showers, progressively from south to north, from the last week of April to the first week of May. The withdrawal, takes place progressively from north to south from the first week of December to the first week of January. By this time the rest of the country is already under the influence of the winter monsoon.

The Cold Weather Season (Winter) The cold weather season begins from midNovember in northern India and stays till February. December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India. The temperature decreases from south to the north. The average temperature of Chennai, on the eastern coast, is between 24 - 25 Celsius, while in the northern plains, it ranges between 10 15 Celsius. Days are warm and nights are cold. Frost is common in the north and the higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall. During this season, the northeast trade winds prevail over the country. They blow from land to sea and hence, for most part of the country, it is a dry season. Some amount of rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as, here they blow from sea to land. In the northern part of the country, a feeble high-pressure region develops, with light winds moving outwards from this area. Influenced by the relief, these winds blow through the Ganga valley from the west and the northwest. The weather is normally marked by clear sky, low temperatures and low humidity and feeble, variable winds. A characteristic feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains is the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest. These low-pressure systems, originate over the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia and move into India, along with the westerly flow. They cause the much-needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains. Although the total amount of winter rainfall locally known as mahawat is small, they are of immense importance for the cultivation of rabi crops. The peninsular region does not have a welldefined cold season. There is hardly any noticeable seasonal change in temperature pattern during winters due to the moderating influence of the sea. The Hot Weather Season (Summer) Due to the apparent northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northward. As such, from March to May, it is hot weather season
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Figure 4.4 : Advancing Monsoon

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Advancing Monsoon (The Rainy Season) By early June, the low-pressure condition over the northern plains intensifies. It attracts, the trade winds of the southern hemisphere. These south-east trade winds originate over the warm subtropical areas of the southern oceans. They cross the equator and blow in a southCLIMATE

in India. The influence of the shifting of the heat belt can be seen clearly from temperature recordings taken during March-May at different latitudes. In March, the highest temperature is about 38 Celsius, recorded on the Deccan plateau. In April, temperatures in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are around 42 Celsius. In May, temperature of 45 Celsius is common in the northwestern parts of the country. In peninsular India, temperatures remain lower due to the moderating influence of the oceans. The summer months experience rising temperature and falling air pressure in the northern part of the country. Towards the end of May, an elongated low-pressure area develops in the region extending from the Thar Desert in the northwest to Patna and Chotanagpur plateau in the east and southeast. Circulation of air begins to set in around this trough. A striking feature of the hot weather season is the loo. These are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds blowing during the day over the north and northwestern India. Sometimes they even continue until late in the evening. Direct exposure to these winds may even prove to be fatal. Dust storms are very common during the month of May in northern India. These storms bring temporary relief as they lower the temperature and may bring light rain and cool breeze. This is also the season for localised thunderstorms, associated with violent winds, torrential downpours, often accompanied by hail. In West Bengal, these storms are known as the Kaal Baisakhi. Towards the close of the summer season, pre-monsoon showers are common especially, in Kerala and Karnataka. They help in the early ripening of mangoes, and are often referred to as mango showers.

westerly direction entering the Indian peninsula as the south-west monsoon. As these winds blow over warm oceans, they bring abundant moisture to the subcontinent. These winds are strong and blow at an average velocity of 30 km per hour. With the exception of the extreme north-west, the monsoon winds cover the country in about a month. The inflow of the south-west monsoon into India brings about a total change in the weather. Early in the season, the windward side of the Western Ghats receives very heavy rainfall, more than 250 cm. The Deccan Plateau and parts of Madhya Pradesh also receive some amount of rain in spite of lying in the rain shadow area. The maximum rainfall of this season is received in the north-eastern part of the country. Mawsynram in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills receives the highest average rainfall in the world. Rainfall in the Ganga valley decreases from the east to the west. Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat get scanty rainfall. Another phenomenon associated with the monsoon is its tendency to have breaks in rainfall. Thus, it has wet and dry spells. In other words, the monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time. They are interspersed with rainless intervals. These breaks in monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough. For various reasons, the trough and its axis keep on moving northward or southward, which determines the spatial distribution of rainfall. When the axis of the monsoon trough lies over the plains, rainfall is good in these parts. On the other hand, whenever the axis shifts closer to the Himalayas, there are longer dry spells in the plains, and widespread rain occur in the mountainous catchment areas of the Himalayan rivers. These heavy rains bring in their wake, devastating floods causing damage to life and property in the plains. The frequency and intensity of tropical depressions too, determine the amount and duration of monsoon rains. These depressions form at the head of the Bay of Bengal and cross over to the mainland. The depressions follow the axis of the monsoon

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Figure 4.5 : Retreating Monsoon

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trough of low pressure. The monsoon is known for its uncertainties. The alternation of dry and wet spells vary in intensity, frequency and duration. While it causes heavy floods in one part, it may be responsible for droughts in the other. It is often irregular in its arrival and its retreat. Hence, it sometimes disturbs the farming schedule of millions of farmers all over the country. Retreating/Post Monsoons (The Transition Season) During October-November, with the apparent movement of the sun towards the south, the monsoon trough or the low-pressure trough over the northern plains becomes weaker. This is gradually replaced by a high-pressure system. The south-west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually. By the beginning of October, the monsoon withdraws from the Northern Plains. The months of October-November form a period of transition from hot rainy season to dry winter conditions. The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in
Mawsynram, the wettest place on the earth is also reputed for its stalagmite and stalactite caves.

deltas of the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri are frequently struck by cyclones, which cause great damage to life and property. Sometimes, these cyclones arrive at the coasts of Orissa, West Bengal and Bangladesh. The bulk of the rainfall of the Coromandel Coast is derived from depressions and cyclones.

DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL
Parts of western coast and northeastern India receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. However, it is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Rainfall is equally low in the interior of the Deccan plateau, and east of the Sahyadris. Why do these regions receive low rainfall? A third area of low precipitation is around Leh in Jammu and Kashmir. The rest of the country receives moderate rainfall. Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan region. Owing to the nature of monsoons, the annual rainfall is highly variable from year to year. Variability is high in the regions of low rainfall such as parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats. As such, while areas of high rainfall are liable to be affected by floods, areas of low rainfall are drought-prone (Figure 4.6 and 4.7).

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MONSOON
AS A

temperature. While day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant. The land is still moist. Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes rather oppressive during the day. This is commonly known as October heat. In the second half of October, the mercury begins to fall rapidly in northern India. The low-pressure conditions, over northwestern India, get transferred to the Bay of Bengal by early November. This shift is associated with the occurrence of cyclonic depressions, which originate over the Andaman Sea. These cyclones generally cross the eastern coasts of India cause heavy and widespread rain. These tropical cyclones are often very destructive. The thickly populated
CLIMATE

You have already known the way the Himalayas protect the subcontinent from extremely cold winds from central Asia. This enables northern India to have uniformly higher temperatures when compared to other areas on the same latitudes. Similarly, the peninsular plateau, under the influence of the sea from three sides, has moderate temperatures. Despite such moderating influences, there are great variations in the temperature conditions. Nevertheless, the unifying influence of the monsoon on the Indian subcontinent is quite perceptible. The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons. Even the uncertainties of rain and uneven distribution
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UNIFYING BOND

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Figure 4.6 : Seasonal Rainfall (June-September)

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Figure 4.7 : Annual Rainfall

CLIMATE

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Activity (i) On the basis of the news items above, find out the names of places and the seasons described. (ii) Compare the rainfall description of Chennai and Mumbai and explain the reasons for the difference (iii) Evaluate flood as a disaster with the help of a case study.

are very much typical of the monsoons. The Indian landscape, its animal and plant life, its entire agricultural calendar and the life of the people, including their festivities, revolve around this phenomenon. Year after year, people of India from north to south and from

east to west, eagerly await the arrival of the monsoon. These monsoon winds bind the whole country by providing water to set the agricultural activities in motion. The river valleys which carry this water also unite as a single river valley unit.

EXERCISE
1. Choose the correct answer from the four alternatives given below. (i) Which one of the following places receives the highest rainfall in the world? (a) Silchar (c) Cherrapunji (b) Mawsynram (d) Guwahati (ii) The wind blowing in the northern plains in summers is known as: (a) Kaal Baisakhi (c) Trade Winds (b) Loo (d) None of the above (iii) Which one of the following causes rainfall during winters in north-western part of India. (a) Cyclonic depression (c) Western disturbances (b) Retreating monsoon (d) Southwest monsoon (iv) Monsoon arrives in India approximately in: (a) Early May (c) Early June (b) Early July (d) Early August (v) Which one of the following characterises the cold weather season in India? (a) Warm days and warm nights (b) Warm days and cold nights (c) Cool days and cold nights (d) Cold days and warm nights 2. Answer the following questions briefly. (i) What are the controls affecting the climate of India? (ii) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate? (iii) Which part of India does experience the highest diurnal range of temperature and why? (iv) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar coast? (v) What are Jet streams and how do they affect the climate of India? (vi) Define monsoons. What do you understand by break in monsoon? (vii) Why is the monsoon considered a unifying bond? 3. Why does the rainfall decrease from the east to the west in Northern India. 4. Give reasons as to why. (i) Seasonal reversal of wind direction takes place over the Indian subcontinent? (ii) The bulk of rainfall in India is concentrated over a few months. (iii) The Tamil Nadu coast receives winter rainfall. (iv) The delta region of the eastern coast is frequently struck by cyclones. (v) Parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats are drought-prone.

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5. Describe the regional variations in the climatic conditions of India with the help of suitable examples. 6. Discuss the mechanism of monsoons. 7. Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the cold season. 8. Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India. MAP SKILLS On (i) (ii) (iii) an outline map of India, show the following. Areas receiving rainfall over 400 cm. Areas receiving less than 20 cm of rainfall. The direction of the south-west monsoon over India.

FOR DOING IT YOURSELF

1. In Table-I the average mean monthly temperatures and amounts of rainfall of ten representative stations have been given. It is for you to study on your own and convert them into temperature and rainfall graphs. A glance at these visual representations will help you to grasp instantly the smilarities and differences between them. One such graph (Figure 1) is already prepared for you. See if you can arrive at some broad generalisations about our diverse climatic conditions. We hope you are in for a great joy of learning. Do the Figure 1 : Temperature and Rainfall of Delhi following activities. 2. Re-arrange the ten stations in two different sequences: (i) According to their distance from the equator. (ii) According to their altitude above mean sea-level. 3. (i) Name two rainiest stations. (ii) Name two driest stations. (iii) Two stations with most euqable climate. (iv) Two stations with most extreme climate. (v) Two stations most influenced by the Arabian branch of southwest monsoons. (vi) Two stations most influenced by the Bay of Bengal branch of south-west monsoons. (vii) Two stations influenced by both branches of the south-west monsoons (viii) Two stations influenced by retreating and north-east monsoons. (ix) Two stations receiving winter showers from the western disturbances. (x) The two hottest stations in the months of (a) February (b) April (c) May (d) June
40 CONTEMPORARY INDIA

no N C tt E o R be T re pu

bl

is

(i) Find out which songs, dances, festivals and special food preparations are associated with certain seasons in your region. Do they have some commonality with other regions of India? (ii) Collect photographs of typical rural houses, and clothing of people from different regions of India. Examine whether they reflect any relationship with the climatic condition and relief of the area.

he

PROJECT /ACTIVITY

Table I
Stations Temperature ( C) Bangalore Rainfall (cm) Temperature ( C) Mumbai Rainfall (cm) Temperature ( C) Kolkata Rainfall (cm) Temperature ( C) Delhi Rainfall (cm) Temperature ( C) Jodhpur Rainfall (cm) Temperature ( C) Chennai Rainfall (cm) Temperature ( C) Nagpur Rainfall (cm) Temperature ( C) Shillong Rainfall (cm) Latitude Altitude Jan (Metres) 20.5 1258'N 909 0.7 24.4 19 N 11 0.2 19.6 2234' N 6 1.2 14.4 29 N 219 2.5 16.8 2618' N 224 0.5 24.5 134' N 7 4.6 21.5 219' N 312 1.1 9.8 2434' N 1461 2.3 11.3 2.9 1.7 15.9 5.6 1.6 18.5 2.1 19.2 1.3 23.9 1.3 28.3 1.8 32.7 3.8 35.5 4.5 32.0 8.7 27.7 0.6 25.7 0.3 27.7 0.3 30.4 1.0 33.0 3.1 32.5 10.8 31.0 13.1 30.2 1.5 19.2 1.3 26.6 1.0 29.8 1.8 33.3 7.4 33.9 19.3 31.3 17.8 29.0 2.8 16.7 3.4 23.3 5.1 30.0 13.4 33.3 29.0 33.3 33.1 30.0 33.4 29.4 25.3 28.9 11.9 20.1 5.7 12.7 25.6 1.3 2.7 19.4 15.6 0.2 1.0 0.2 22.0 27.1 30.1 1.8 30.4 50.6 29.9 61.0 28.9 36.9 28.7 26.9 28.9 4.8 27.6 1.0 183.4 23.4 19.7 0.9 24.4 1.1 26.7 4.5 28.3 10.7 30.0 7.1 28.9 11.1 27.2 13.7 27.2 16.4 27.2 15.3 27.8 6.1 1.3 88.9 27.2 25.0 Feb. Mar. 22.7 25.2 Apr. May. Jun. 27.1 26.7 24.2 Jul. 23.0 Aug. Sep. Otc. Nov. Dec. Annual Rainfall 23.0 23.1 22.9 18.9 20.2

is
29.8 28.0 11.3 11.9 30.6 27.3 27.9 26.7 5.5 28.6 18.5 2.0 20.9 20.0 30.2 26.5 17.2 18.8 26.7 27.3 6.1 0.5 34.3 3.8 14.6 13.8 16.1 1.3 12.2 0.8

22.2 20.5

bl
37.6 21.1 35.9 26.2 2.6.2 22.3 17.2 1.3

no N C tt E o R be T re pu
1.4 14.6 29.5 47.6 Temperature ( C) Thiruvananthapuram 829' N Rainfall (cm) Temperature ( C) Leh 34 N Rainfall (cm) 34N 26.7 2.3 27.3 2.1 28.3 3.7 28.7 28.6 26.6 61 10.6 6.1 20.8 35.6 8.5 7.2 0.6 1.0 0.8 0.8 10.0 0.5 14.4 0.5 3506 0.5

4. Now find out (i) Why are Thiruvananthapuram and Shillong rainier in June than in July? (ii) Why is July rainier in Mumbai than in Thiruvananthapuram? (iii) Why are southwest monsoons less rainy in Chennai? (iv) Why is Shillong rainier than Kolkata? (v) Why is Kolkata rainier in July than in June unlike Shillong which is rainier in June than in July? (vi) Why does Delhi receive more rain than Jodhpur? 5. Now think why Thiruvananthapuram has equable climate? Chennai has more rains only after the fury of monsoon is over in most parts of the country? Jodhpur has a hot desert type of climate? Leh has moderate precipitation almost throughut the year? while in Delhi and Jodhpur most of the rain is confined to nearly three months, in Thiruvananthapuram and Shillong it is almost nine months of the year? In spite of these facts see carefully if there are strong evidences to conclude that the monsoons still provide a very strong framework lending overall climatic unity to the whole country.
CLIMATE 41

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67.0 27.0 0.8 20.1 14.9 0.2 0.2 36.6 25.9 24.7 35.0 13.9 128.6 23.1 20.7 1.0 124.2 13.3 10.4 0.6 225.3 26.6 26.5 20.6 7.5 0.0 5.6 0.5 8.5 181.2

d
0.4 162.5

NATURAL VEGETATION

AND

WILD LIFE

ave you observed the type of trees, bushes, grasses and birds in the fields and parks in and around your school? Are they similar or there are variations? India being a vast country you can imagine the types of bio-forms available throughout the country. Our country India is one of the twelve mega bio-diversity countries of the world. With about 47,000 plant species India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. There are about 15,000 flowering plants in India which account for 6 per cent in the worlds total number of flowering plants. The country has many non-flowering plants such as ferns, algae and fungi. India also has approximately 90,000 species of animals as well as a rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters. Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is termed as a virgin vegetation. Thus, cultivated crops and fruits, orchards form part of vegetation but not natural vegetation.
The virgin vegetation, which are purely Indian are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.

RELIEF
Land Land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. Do you expect the same type of vegetation in mountainous, plateau and plain areas or in dry and wet regions? The nature of land influences the type of vegetation. The fertile level is generally devoted to agriculture. The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wild life. Soil The soils also vary over space. Different types of soils provide basis for different types of vegetation. The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes while wet, marshy, deltaic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation. The hill slopes with some depth of soil have conical trees.

CLIMATE
Temperature The character and extent of vegetation are mainly determined by temperature along with humidity in the air, precipitation and soil. On the slopes of the Himalayas and the hills of the Peninsula above the height of 915 metres, the fall in the temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth, and changes it from tropical to subtropical temperate and alpine vegetation.

The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular region or period. Similarly, the species of animals are referred to as fauna. This huge diversity in flora and fauna kingdom is due to the following factors.

Table 5.1 : Temperature Characteristics of the Vegetation Zones

Vegetation Zones

Mean annual Average Temp. (in degree C) Above 24C 17C to 24C 7C to 17 C Below 7C

Mean Temp. inJan. in degrees C Above 18 10C to 18C -1C to (-10 ) C Below1C

Remarks

Tropical Sub-tropical Temperate Alpine

No Frost Frost is rare Frost some snow Snow

Source : Environment Atlas of India, June 2001, Central Pollution Control Board Delhi

Photoperiod (Sunlight ) The variation in duration of sunlight at different places is due to differences in latitude, altitude, season and duration of the day. Due to longer duration of sunlight, trees grow faster in summer.
Why are the southern slopes in Himalayan region covered with thick vegetation cover as compared to northern slopes of the same hills?

development of industries and mining, urbanisation and over-grazing of pastures.


Activity Celebrate Van Mahotsav in your school/locality and plant few spalings and notice their growth

Precipitation In India almost the entire rainfall is brought in by the advancing southwest monsoon (June to September) and retreating northeast monsoons. Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to other areas of less rainfall.
Why have the western stopes of the Western Ghats covered with thick forests and not the eastern slopes?

The vegetation cover of India in large parts is no more natural in the real sense. Except in some inaccessible regions like the Himalayas, the hilly region of central India and the marusthali, the vegetation of most of the areas has been modified at some places, or replaced or degraded by human occupancy.
Activity Study the bar graph (Figure 5.1) and answer the following questions. (i) Name the state having maximum area under forest cover. (ii) Name the union territory having minimum area under forest cover and why?

Have you ever thought as to why forests are important for human beings? Forests are renewable resources and play a major role in enhancing the quality of environment. They modify local climate, control soil erosion, regulate stream flow, support a variety of industries, provide livelihood for many communities and offer panoramic or scenic view for recreation. It controls wind force and temperature and causes rainfall. It provides humus to the soil and shelter to the wild life. Indias natural vegetation has undergone many changes due to several factors such as the growing demand for cultivated land,

According to India State of Forest Report 2011, the forest cover in India is 21.05 per cent.

ECOSYSTEM
Plants occur in distinct groups of communities in areas having similar climatic conditions. The nature of the plants in an area, to a large extent, determines the animal life in that area. When the vegetation is altered, the animal life also changes. All the plants and animals in an area are interdependent and interrelated to each other in their physical environment, thus,
43

NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE

AREA IN PERCENT

STATE/UT
Source : India State of Forest Report 2011

Figure 5.1 Area under Forest Cover

forming an ecosystem. Human beings are also an integral part of the ecosystem. How do the human beings influence the ecology of a region? They utilise the vegetation and wild life. The greed of human beings leads to over utilisation of these resources. They cut the trees and kill the animals creating ecological imbalance. As a result some of the plants and animals have reached the verge of extinction. Do you know that a very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life is called a biome. The biomes are identified on the basis of plants.

areas of the Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coast.

TYPES OF VEGETATION
The following major types of vegetation may be identified in our country (Figure 5.3). (i) Tropical Evergreen Forests (ii) Tropical Deciduous Forests (iii) Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs (iv) Montane Forests (v) Mangrove Forests Tropical Evergreen Forests These forests are restricted to heavy rainfall
Figure 5.2 : Tropical Evergreen Forest

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Figure 5.3 : Natural Vegetation Study the given map for the forest cover and try to find the reasons as to why certain states have more area under forest as compared to others?

NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE

45

They are at their best in areas having more than 200 cm of rainfall with a short dry season. The trees reach great heights up to 60 metres or even above. Since the region is warm and wet throughout the year, it has a luxuriant vegetation of all kinds trees, shrubs, and creepers giving it a multilayered structure. There is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves. As such, these forests appear green all the year round. Some of the commercially important trees of this forest are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona. The common animals found in these forests are elephants, monkey, lemur and deer. The one horned rhinoceros are found in the jungles of Assam and West Bengal. Besides these animals plenty of birds, bats, sloth, scorpions and snails are also found in these jungles. Tropical Deciduous Forests These are the most widespread forests of India. They are also called the monsoon forests and spread over the region receiving rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm. Trees of this forest-type shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry summer. On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous. The former is found in areas receiving rainfall between 200 and 100 cm. These forests exist, therefore, mostly in the eastern part of the country northeastern states, along the foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Orissa and Chhattisgarh, and on the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. Teak is the most dominant species of this forest. Bamboos, sal, shisham, sandalwood, khair, kusum, arjun, mulberry are other commercially important species. The dry deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall between 100 cm and 70 cm. These forests are found in the rainier parts of the peninsular plateau and the plains of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. There are open stretches in which Teak, Sal, Peepal, Neem grow. A large part of this region has been cleared for cultivation and some parts are used for grazing.
46

Figure 5.4 : Tropical Deciduous Forest

In these forests, the common animals found are lion, tiger, pig, deer and elephant. A huge variety of birds, lizards, snakes, and tortoises are also found here. The Thorn Forests and Scrubs In regions with less than 70 cm of rainfall, the natural vegetation consists of thorny trees and bushes. This type of vegetation is found in the north-western part of the country including semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana. Acacias, palms, euphorbias and cacti are the main plant species. Trees are scattered and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil in order to get moisture. The stems are succulent to conserve water. Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize evaporation. These forests give way to thorn forests and scrubs in arid areas.

Figure 5.5 : Thorn Forests and Scrubs

CONTEMPORARY INDIA

In these forests, the common animals are rats, mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass, horses and camels. Montane Forests In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation. As such, there is a succession of natural vegetation belts in the same order as we see from the tropical to the tundra region. The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres. Evergreen broad-leaf trees such as oaks and chestnuts predominate. Between 1500 and 3000 metres, temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar, are found. These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas, places having high altitude in southern and north-east India. At higher elevations, temperate grasslands are common. At high altitudes, generally more than 3,600 metres above sea-level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests. However, they get progressively stunted as they approach the snow-line. Ultimately through shrubs and scrubs, they merge into the Alpine grasslands. These are used extensively for

grazing by nomadic tribes like the Gujjars and the Bakarwals. At higher altitudes, mosses and lichens form part of tundra vegetation. The common animals found in these forests are Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair. Mangrove Forests The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides. Mud and silt get accumutated on such coasts. Dense mangroves are the common varieties with roots

Figure 5.7 : Mangrove Forests

of the plants submerged under water. The deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Krishana, the Godavari and the Kaveri are covered by such vegetation. In the GangaBrahamaputra delta, sundari trees are found, which provide durable hard timber. Palm, coconut, keora, agar, also grow in some parts of the delta. Royal Bengal Tiger is the famous animal in these forests. Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also found in these forests.
Let us discuss : What will happen if plants and animals disappear from the earths surface? can the human beings survive under such a situation? Why is bio-diversity necessary and why should it be conserved?

Figure 5.6 : Montane Forests

NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE

47

MEDICINAL PLANTS India is known for its herbs and spices from ancient times. Some 2,000 plants have been described in Ayurveda and atleast 500 are in regular use. The World Conservation Unions Red list has named 352 medicinal plants of which 52 are critically threatened and 49 endangered. The commonly used plants in India are: Sarpagandha Jamun Arjun Babool Neem Tulsi Plant Kachnar : Used to treat blood pressure; it is found only in India. : The juice from ripe fruit is used to prepare vinegar which is carminative and diuretic, and has digestive properties. The powder of the seed is used for controlling diabetes. : The fresh juice of leaves is a cure for earache. It is also used to regulate blood pressure. : Leaves are used as a cure for eye sores. Its gum is used as a tonic. : Has high antibiotic and antibacterial properties. : Is used to cure cough and cold. : Is used to cure asthma and ulcers. The buds and roots are good for digestive problems. Identify more medicinal plants in your area. Which plants are used as medicines by local people to cure some diseases?
Source : Medicinal Plants by Dr. S.K. Jain, 5th edition 1994, National Book Trust of India

different species of deer are some other animals found in India. It also has several species of monkeys.
Wildlife Protection Act, was implemented in 1972 in India.

India is the only country in the world that has both tigers and lions. The natural habitat of the Indian lion Activity is the Gir forest in Gujarat. Tigers are Can you identify the type of forest shown in this picture? found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, Identify some trees in it. What type of similarity/ dissimilarity you notice in this type of vegetation from the Sundarbans of West Bengal and the the one found in your region? Himalayan region. Leopards too are members of the cat family. They are WILD LIFE important among animals of prey. Like its flora, India is also rich in its fauna. It has approximately 90,000 of animal species. Do you know The country has about 2,000 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the worlds total. There The Gir Forest is the last remaining habitat are 2,546 species of fish, which account for of the Asiatic lion. nearly 12% of the worlds stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the worlds The Himalayas harbour a hardy range of amphibians, reptiles and mammals. animals, which survive in extreme cold. The elephants are the most majestic Ladakhs freezing high altitudes are a home to animals among the mammals. They are found yak, the shaggy horned wild ox weighing in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and around one tonne, the Tibetan antelope, the Kerala. One-horned rhinoceroses are the other bharal (blue sheep), wild sheep, and the kiang animals, which live in swampy and marshy (Tibetan wild ass). Furhtermore, the ibex, bear, lands of Assam and West Bengal. Arid areas snow-leopard and very rare red panda are of the Rann of Kachchh and the Thar Desert found in certain pockets. are the habitat for wild ass and camels In the rivers, lakes and coastal areas, respectively. Indian bison, nilgai (blue bull), chousingha (four horned antelope), gazel and turtles, crocodiles and gharials are found. The
48 CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Dampara

Figure 5.8 : Wildlife Reserves

NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE

49

latter is the only representative of a variety of crocodile, found in the world today. Bird life in India is colourful. Peacocks, pheasants, ducks, parakeets, cranes and pigeons are some of the birds inhabiting the forests and wetlands of the country. We have selected our crops from a biodiverse environment i.e. from the reserve of edible plants. We also experimented and selected many medicinal plants. The animals were selected from large stock provided by nature as milch animal. They also provided us draught power, transportation, meat, eggs. The fish provide nutritive food. Many insects help in pollination of crops and fruit trees and exert biological control on such insects, which are harmful. Every species has a role to play in the ecosystem. Hence, conservation is essential. As has been mentioned earlier due to excessive exploitation of the plants and animal resources by human beings, the ecosystem

has been disturbed. About 1,300 plant species are endangered and 20 species are extinct. Quite a few animal species are also endangered and some have become extinct. The main causes for this major threat to nature are hunting by greedy hunters for commercial purposes. Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits, introduction of alien species and reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation, are also responsible for the imbalance. To protect the flora and fauna of the country, the government has taken many steps. (i) Fourteen biosphere reserves have been set up in the country to protect flora and fauna. Four out of these, the Sunderbans in the West Bengal, Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand, the Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu and the Nilgiris (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) have been included in the world network of Biosphese reserves.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Activity Find out from the above newspaper cuttings, the main concern highlighted in the given news items. Collect more information about various endangered species from newspapers and magazines. Find out various steps taken by the Indian government to protect them. Discribe how you can contribute to the protection of endangered animals and birds?

50

CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Migratory Birds Some of the wetlands of India are popular with migratory birds. During winter, birds, such as Siberian Crane come in large numbers. One such place favourable with birds is the Rann of Kachchh. At a place where the desert merges with the sea, flamingo with their brilliant, pink plumage, come in thousands to build nest mounds from the salty mud and raise their young ones. It is one among many extraordinary sights in the country. Is it not a rich natural heritage of ours?
Fourteen Bio-reserves

Sunderbans Gulf of Mannar The Nilgiris Nanda Devi Nokrek Great Nicobar Manas

Simlipal Dihang-Dibang Dibru Saikhowa Agasthyamalai Kanchenjunga Pachmari Achanakmar-Amarkantak

(iii) Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other ecodevelopmental projects have been introduced. (iv) 89 National Parks, 490 Wildlife sanctuaries and Zoological gardens are set up to take care of Natural heritage. All of us must realise the importance of the natural ecosystem for our own survival. It is possible if indiscriminate destruction of natural environment is put to an immediate end.

(ii) Financial and technical assistance is provided to many Botanical Gardens by the government since 1992.

EXERCISE
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below: (i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to? (a) Tundra (b) Tidal (a) 100 cm (b) 50 cm (a) Punjab (c) Odisha (c) Himalayan (d) Tropical Evergreen (c) 70 cm (d) less than 50 cm (b) Delhi (d) West Bengal

(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than

(iii) In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?

(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserve? (a) Manas (b) Nilgiri (c) Gulf of Mannar (d) Nanda devi

NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILD LIFE

51

2. Answer the following questions briefly. (i) Define an ecosystem. (ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants and animals in India? (iii) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples. (iv) Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation. 3. Distinguish between (i) Flora and Fauna (ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous forests 4. Name different types of Vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes. 5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why? 6. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna? Map Skills On an outline map of India, label the following. (i) Areas of Evergreen Forests (ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests (iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country Project/Activity (i) Find some trees in your neighbourhood having medicinal values. (ii) Find ten occupations getting raw material from forests and wild life. (iii) Write a poem or paragraph showing the importance of wild life. (iv) Write the script of a street play giving the importance of tree plantation and try to enact it in your locality. (v) Plant a tree either on your birthday or one of your family members birthday. Note the growth of the tree and notice in which season it grows faster.

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA

6
POPULATION*

an you imagine a world without human beings? Who would have utilised resources and created the social and cultural environment? The people are important to develop the economy and society. The people make and use resources and are themselves resources with varying quality. Coal is but a piece of rock, until people were able to invent technology to obtain it and make it a resource. Natural events like a river flood or Tsunami becomes a disaster only when they affect a crowded village or a town. Hence, population is the pivotal element in social studies. It is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive significance and meaning. Resources, calamities and disasters are all meaningful only in relation to human beings. Their numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics or qualities provide the basic background for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment. Human beings are producers and consumers of earths resources. Therefore, it is important to know how many people are there in a country, where do they live, how and why their numbers are increasing and what are their characteristics. The census of India provides us with information regarding the population of our country.

We are primarily concerned with three major questions about the population: Population size and distribution: How many people are there and where are they located? (ii) Population growth and processes of population change: How has the population grown and changed through time? (iii) Characteristics or qualities of the population: What are their age, sexcomposition, literacy levels, occupational structure and health conditions? (i)

POPULATION SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION


Indias Population Size and Distribution by Numbers Indias population as on March 2001 stood at 1,028 million, which account for 16.7 per cent of the worlds population. These 1.02 billion people are unevenly distributed over our countrys vast area of 3.28 million square km, which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the worlds area (Figure 6.1) The 2001 Census data reveals that Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 166 million people is the most populous state of India. Uttar Pradesh accounts for about 16 per cent of the

Census A census is an official enumeration of population done periodically. In India the first census was held in the year 1872. The first complete census, however was taken in the year 1881. Since then censuses have been held regularly every tenth year. The Indian Census is the most comprehensive source of demographic, social and economic data. Have you ever seen a census report? Check in your library if it has one.

* Kindly see appendix for Census 2011 provisional data

POPULATION

Rest of the world, 83.3%

is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. India is one of the most densely populated countries of the world.

Do You Know

Only Bangladesh and Japan have higher average population densities than India. Find out the population densities of Bangladesh and Japan.

India, 16.7%

AREA

Rest of the world, 97.6%

The population density of India in the year 2001 was 324 persons per sq km. Densities vary from 904 persons per sq km in West Bengal to only 13 persons per sq km in Arunachal Pradesh. A study of the figure 6.3 shows the pattern of uneven distribution of population densities at the state level.
Activity

India, 2.4%

Study the figure 6.3 and compare it with figure 2.4 and figure 4.7. Do you find any corelation between these maps?

Fig 6.1 : Indias share of worlds area and population

countrys population. On the other hand, the Himalayan state Sikkim has a population of just about 0.5 million and Lakshadweep has only 60 thousand people. Almost half of Indias population lives in just five states. These are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh. Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms of area, has only 5.5 per cent of the total population of India (Figure 6.2)
Others 51.2%

Note the states with population densities below 250 persons per square km. Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in these areas. Which states have density below 100 persons per square km? Assam and most of the Peninsular states have moderate population densities. Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of the terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils have influenced population densities in these areas. The Northern Plains and Kerala in the south have high to very high population densities because of the flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall. Identify the three states of the Northern Plains with high population densities.

Andhra Pradesh 7.41%

W. Bengal 7.79%

Bihar 8.02%

Uttar Pradesh 16.16%

Maharashtra 9.42%

Figure 6.2 : Distribution of Population What could be the reason of uneven distribution of population in India?

POPULATION GROWTH AND PROCESSES OF POPULATION CHANGE


Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The numbers, distribution and composition of the population are constantly changing. This is the influence of the interaction of the three processes, namely-births, deaths and migrations.
CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Indias Population Distribution by Density Population density provides a better picture of the uneven distribution. Population density

54

HARYANA

Figure 6.3 : Density of Population in India

POPULATION

55

Population Growth Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/territory during a specific period of time, say during the last ten years. Such a change can be expressed in two ways: in terms of absolute numbers and in terms of percentage change per year. The absolute numbers added each year or decade is the magnitude of increase. It is obtained by simply subtracting the earlier population (e.g. that of 1991) from the later population (e.g. that of 2001). It is referred to as the absolute increase. The rate or the pace of population increase is the other important aspect. It is studied in per cent per annum, e.g. a rate of increase of 2 per cent per annum means that in a given year, there was an increase of two persons for every 100 persons in the base population. This is referred to as the annual growth rate. Indias population has been steadily increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1028 million in 2001.
Table 6.1 : The Magnitude and Rate of Indias Population Growth

Table 6.1 and figure 6.4 reveal that from 1951 to 1981, the annual rate of population growth was steadily increasing; which explains the rapid increase in population from 361 million in 1951 to 683 million in 1981.
Table 6.1 reveals that despite the decline in growth rates, the number of people being added every decade is steadily increasing. Why?

Year

Total Population (in millions) 361.0 439.2 548.2 683.3 846.4 1028.7

Absolute Increase in the decade (in million) 42.43 78.15 108.92 135.17 163.09 182.32

Annual Growth Rate (%) 1.25 1.96 2.20 2.22 2.14 1.93

1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001

Since 1981, however, the rate of growth started declining gradually. During this period, birth rates declined rapidly. Still 182 million people were added to the total population in the 1990s alone (an annual addition larger than ever before). It is essential to realise that India has a very large population. When a low annual rate is applied to a very large population, it yields a large absolute increase. When more than a billion people increase even at a lower rate, the total numbers being added becomes very large. Indias current annual increase in population of 15.5 million is large enough to neutralise efforts to conserve the resource endowment and environment. The declining trend of the growth rate is indeed a positive indicator of the efforts of birth control. Despite that, the total additions to the population base continue to grow, and India may overtake China in 2045 to become the most populous country in the world.

12

2.5

Annual Growth Rate %

10

Population in Millions

8 1.5 6 1 4 0.5

Total Pupulation

0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001

Annual Growth

Year

Figure 6.4 : Indias Population and Population Growth Rates during 1951-2001

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Processes of Population Change/Growth There are three main processes of change of population : birth rates, death rates and migration. The natural increase of population is the difference between birth rates and death rates. Birth rate is the number of live births per thousand persons in a year. It is a major component of growth because in India, birth rates have always been higher than death rates. Death rate is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates. Till 1980, high birth rates and declining death rates led to a large difference between birth rates and death rates resulting in higher rates of population growth. Since 1981, birth rates have also started declining gradually, resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth. What are the reasons for this trend? The third component of population growth is migration. Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Internal migration does not change the size of the population, but influences the distribution of population within the nation. Migration plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population.
Activity On a map, trace the migration of each of your grandparents and parents since their birth. Try and analyse the reasons for each move.

population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition. In India, the rural-urban migration has resulted in a steady increase in the percentage of population in cities and towns. The urban population has increased from 17.29 per cent of the total population in 1951 to 27.78 per cent in 2001. There has been a significant increase in the number of million plus cities from 23 to 35 in just one decade i.e. 1991 to 2001. Age Composition The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. It is one of the most basic characteristics of a population. To an important degree, a persons age influences what he needs, buys, does and his capacity to perform. Consequently, the number and percentage of a population found within the children, working age and aged groups are notable determinants of the populations social and economic structure. The population of a nation is generally grouped into three broad categories: Children (generally below 15 years) They are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.

India : Age Structure

Adults, 58.7% Aged, 6.9% Children, 34.4%

In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the push factor in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the pull of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions. Migration is an important determinant of population change. It changes not only the
Figure 6.5: India: Age Composition

POPULATION

57

Working Age (15-59 years) They are economically productive and biologically reproductive. They comprise the working population. Aged (Above 59 years) They can be economically productive though they may have retired. They may be working voluntarily but they are not available for employment through recruitment. The percentage of children and the aged affect the dependency ratio because these groups are not producers. The proportion of the three groups in Indias population is already presented in figure 6.5 .
(i) Activity : How many children do you know who are engaged as household helpers, labourers in your locality? How many adults do you know in your locality who are unemployed? What do you feel are the reasons for this? variations?

What could be the reasons for such

Literacy Rates Literacy is a very important quality of a population. Obviously, only an informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development projects. Low levels of literacy are a serious obstacle for economic improvement. According to the Census of 2001, a person aged 7 years. and above who can read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate. There has been a steady improvement in the literacy levels in India. The literacy rate in the country as per the Census of 2001 is 64.84 per cent; 75.26 per cent for males and 53.67 per cent for females. Why do such differences exist? Occupational Structure The percentage of population that is economically active is an important index of development. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. An enormous variety of occupations are found in any country. Occupations are generally classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary activities include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying etc. Secondary activities include manufacturing industry, building and construction work etc. Tertiary activities include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services. The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary, and tertiary activities. Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities. In India, about 64 per cent of the population is engaged only in agriculture. The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors
CONTEMPORARY INDIA

(ii) (iii)

Sex Ratio Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males in the population. This information is an important social indicator to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time. The sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavourable to females. Find out why this is so? Table 6.2 shows the sex ratio from 1951-2001.
Table 6.2 : India : Sex Ratio 1951-2001 Census year 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Sex ratio (Females per 1000 males) 946 941 930 934 929 933

females per 1000 females for every only 821 females has just 861.

Kerala has a sex ratio of 1058 males, Pondicherry has 1001 1000 males, while Delhi has per 1000 males and Haryana

58

is about 13 and 20 per cent respectively. There has been an occupational shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times. Health Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development. Sustained efforts of government programmes have registered significant improvements in the health conditions of the Indian population. Death rates have declined from 25 per 1000 population in 1951 to 8.1 per 1000 in 2001 and life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.6 years in 2001. The substantial improvement is the result of many factors including improvement in public health, prevention of infectious diseases and application of modern medical practices in diagnosis and treatment of ailments. Despite considerable achievements, the health situation is a matter of major concern for India. The per capita calorie consumption is much below the recommended levels and malnutrition afflicts a large percentage of our population. Safe drinking water and basic sanitation amenities are available to only onethird of the rural population. These problems need to be tackled through an appropriate population policy. Adolescent Population The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. It constitutes one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescents are generally grouped in the age-group of 10 to 19 years. They are the most important resource for the future. Nutrition requirements of adolescents are higher than those of a normal child or adult. Poor nutrition can lead to deficiency and stunted growth. But in India, the diet available to adolescents is inadequate in all nutrients. A large number of adolescent girls suffer from

anaemia. Their problems have so far not received adequate attention in the process of development. The adolescent girls have to be sensitised to the problems they confront. Their awareness can be improved through the spread of literacy and education among them. National Population Policy Recognising that the planning of families would improve individual health and welfare, the Government of India initiated the comprehensive Family Planning Programme in 1952. The Family Welfare Programme has sought to promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis. The National Population Policy 2000 is a culmination of years of planned efforts. The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age, reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births, achieving universal immunisation of children against all vaccine preventable diseases, promoting delayed marriage for girls, and making family welfare a people-centered programme. NPP 2000 and Adolescents NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention. Besides nutritional requirements, the policy put greater emphasis on other important needs of adolescents including protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). It called for programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriage and child-bearing, education of adolescents about the risks of unprotected sex, making contraceptive services accessible and affordable, providing food supplements, nutritional services, strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage. People are the nations most valuable resource. A well- educated healthy population provides potential power.

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59

EXERCISE
1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below. (i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of the population in (a) the area of departure (b) the area of arrival (a) high birth rates (b) high life expectancies (c) both the area of departure and arrival (d) none of the above (c) high death rates (d) more married couples

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to (a) the total population of an area (b) the number of persons added each year (c) the rate at which the population increases (d) the number of females per thousand males (iv) According to the Census 2001, a literate person is one who (a) can read and write his/her name (b) can read and write any language (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding (d) knows the 3 Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic) 2. Answer the following questions briefly. (i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981? (ii) Discuss the major components of population growth. (iii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate. (iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change? 3. Distinguish between population growth and population change. 4. What is the relation between occupational structure and development? 5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population? 6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy 2000? PROJECT/ACTIVITY Conduct a class census by preparing a questionnaire. The questionnaire should contain minimum five questions. Questions should relate to students, their family members, their class performance, their health etc. Each student is required to fill up the questionnaire. Compile the information in numerical terms (in terms of percentage). Present the information through pie-chart, bar-diagram or in any other way.

60

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GLOSSARY
Adolescence : Adolescence is a period in which a person is no longer a child and not yet an adult. Such persons are grouped in the age group of 10 to 19 years. : A level tract of land made up of alluvium or fine rock material brought down by a river. : The total population of an area at the beginning of a given time period. : Plant communities occuring in distinct groups in areas having similar climatic conditions. : The number of live births for every 1000 persons in a year. : In meteorology; it denotes an area of relatively low atmospheric pressure, which is found mainly in temperate regions. In geology, it refers to a hollow sunken area of the earths surface. : The number of deaths per 1000 persons in year. : The average number of persons per unit area, such as a square kilometre. : The ratio of people of dependent age (below 15 and above 60 years) to people of economically active ages (15-59 years). : A system which comprises the physical environment and the organisms living therein. : Surroundings or the conditions under which a person or thing exists and develops his or its character. It covers both physical and cultural elements. : A linear break in rocks of the earths crust along which there has been displacement in a horizontal, vertical or oblique direction. : The animal life of a given area. : The total vegetation or plant cover of a region. : A bend in the rock strata resulting from compression of an area of the earths crust. : A narrow, shallow, elongated basin with a sinking bottom in which a considerable thickness of sediments was deposited by the rivers coming from Angara and Gondwanaland. : A mass of snow and ice that moves slowly under the influence of gravity along a confined course away from its place of accumulation. : The growth rate of population indicates the rate at which the population is growing. In estimating the growth rate the increase in population is compared with the base population. It can be measured annually or over a decade. : It refers to the contiguous stretch of landmass from Jammu and Kashmir to Kanniyakumari and from Gujarat to Arunachal Pradesh. : The local time along the Standard Meridian of India (8230'E). : A drainage system in which the waters of the rivers do not reach the oceans but fall into an inland sea or lake.

Alluvial plain Base population Biome Birth rate Depression

Death rate Density of population Dependency ratio Ecosystem Environment

Fault Fauna Flora Fold Geosyncline

Glacier Growth rate of population

Indian Mainland Indian Standard Time Inland drainage

POPULATION

61

Igneous rocks Lagoon Lake Lithospheric Plates Life expectancy Local Time Metamorphic rocks

Migration

Million Plus cities Monsoon Mountain National park Plain Plateau Plate Tectonics Relief Subsidence Sedimentary rocks Sex-ratio Sub-Continent Tectonic Young mountains

: Rocks formed as a result of solidification of magma either below the earths surface or above it. : A salt-water lake separated from the sea by the sandbars and spits. : A body of water that lies in a hollow in the earths surface and is entirely surrounded by land. : Large segments of the earths crust composed of continental and oceanic lithospheric parts, floating above the asthenosphere. : The average number of years one is expected to live. : The time of a place determined by the midday sun is called the local time. : Deformation and alteration of pre-existing igneous and sedimentary rocks as a result of changes in physical and chemical conditions due to intense heat or pressure. : Movement of people from one place to another. Internal migration means movement of people within a country and external migration means movement of people between countries. When people come to a country from another country, it is called immigration and when they leave that country, it is called emigration. : Cities with a population of more than one million or 10 lakh. : A complete reversal of winds over a large area leading to a change of seasons. : An upward projected features of the earths surface that rises to high altitude and usually possesses steep slopes. : A reserved area for preserving its natural vegetation, wild life and the natural environment. : An extensive area of flat or gently undulating land. : An extensive elevated area of relatively flat land. : The scientific concept that explains the movements of the crustal plates. : The differences in elevation or the physical outline of the land surface or ocean floor. : In meteorology, it is the downward movement of the air. In geology, it refers to the sinking of a portion of the earths surface. : Rocks composed of sediments and generally having a layered structure. : Sex-ratio is defined as the number of females per thousand males. : A big landmass, which stands out as a distinct geographical unit from the rest of the continent. : Forces originating within the earth and responsible for bringing widespread changes in the landform features. : The fold mountains formed during the most recent major phase of folding in the earths crust.

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APPENDIX
Chapter 6: Population* Page no.53, column 2, line 17 20 Indias population as on March 2011 stood at 1,210 million, which accounts for 17.5 per cent of the world population. These 1.21 billion people are unevenly distributed Page no.53, column 2, line 24 25 The 2011 Census data reveals that Uttar Pradesh with a population size of 199 million Page no.54, Figure 6.1 Indias share of population 17.5 Rest of the world 82.5 Page no.54, column 1, line 2 4 Sikkim has a population of just 0.6 million and Lakshadweep has only 64,429 people. Page no.54, column 1, line 810 Rajasthan, the biggest state in terms of area has only 6 per cent of the total population of India. Page no.54, column 1, Figure 6.2: Distribution of Population

Fig. 6.2: Distribution of Population * For 2011 only provisional data is available. Hence, data/analysis are provisional. Source: Census of India 2011 63

POPULATION APPENDIX

Page no.54, column 2, line 8 12 The population density of India in the year 2011 was 382 persons per square km. Densities vary from 1,102 persons per square km in Bihar to only 17 persons per square km in Arunachal Pradesh. Page no.55, Figure 6.3: Density of Population in India

Fig. 6.3: Density of Population 2011

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Page no.56 , column 1, line 20-22 Indias population has been steadily increasing from 361 million in 1951 to 1,210 million in 2011. Page no.56 , column 1, Table 6.1: The Magnitude and Rate of Indias Population Growth

Census Years

Population

Decadal growth Absolute Percent 13697063 -772177 27656025 39683342 42427510 78146681 108924881 135169445 163091942 5.75 (0.31) 11.00 14.22 13.31 21.64 24.80 24.66 23.87 21.54 17.64

Change in decadal Growth Absolute Percent -14469240 28428202 12027317 2744168 35719171 30778200 26244564 27922497 19224455 -860411 -6.05 11.31 3.22 -0.91 8.33 3.16 -0.14 17.12 10.54 -0.47

Average annual exponential growth rate (%) 056 -0.03 1.04 1.33 1.25 1.96 2.20 2.22 2.16 1.97 1.64

Progressive growth rate over 1901 (%) 5.75 5.42 17.02 33.67 51.47 84.25 129.94 186.64 255.05 331.52 407.64

1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

238396327 252093390 251321213 278977238 318660580 361088090 439234771 548159652 683329097 846421039

1028737436 182316397 1210193422 181455986

Table 6.1: The Magnitude and Rate of Indias Population Growth

In chapter 6, page no.56, Figure 6.4: Indias Population and Population Growth Rates during 1951-2011

Fig. 6.4(a): Indias Population Growth Rates during 1951-2011 APPENDIX 65

Fig. 6.4(b): Indias Population 1901-2011

Page no.57, column 2, line 6-11 The urban population has increased from 17.29 per cent of the total population in 1951 to 31.80 per cent in 2011. There has been a significant increase in the number of million plus cities from 35 to 53 in just one decade, i.e. 2001 to 2011. Source: Census of India, 2011 Page no.58, column 1, line 30-31 Table 6.2 shows the sex ratio from 19512011. Page no.58, column 1, Table 6.2: India : Sex Ratio 1901-2011.

Census year

Sex ratio (Females per 1000 males) 972 964 955 950 945 946 941 930 934 927 933 940

Page no.58, column 1, Do You Know? Kerala has a sex ratio of 1084 females per Table 6.2: India : Sex Ratio 1901-2011 1000 males, Puducherry has 1038 females per every 1000 males, while Delhi has only 866 females per thousand males and Haryana has just 877 females per thousand males. Page no.58, column 2, line 15-18 The literacy rate in the country as per the Census of 2011 is 74.04 per cent; 82.14 per cent for males and 65.46 per cent for females. Page no.59, column 1, line 14-16 .1951 to 7.2* per 1000 in 2011 and life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.7** years in 2011.

1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

*Source: SRS bulletin,Volume 46, No.1 December, 2011 **United Nations World Fact Book (September 17, 2009) 66 CONTEMPORARY INDIA

Contents
Foreword 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Resources and Development Forest and Wildlife Resources Water Resources Agriculture iii

14

Minerals and Energy Resources Manufacturing Industries

Life Lines of National Economy AppendixI

AppendixII

AppendixIII

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Glossary

T i l R b E u C p e N r e b o t t

23

34

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1

50

65

81

94 95 97

98

Can you identify and name the various items used in making life comfortable in our villages and towns. List the items and name the material used in their making. Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as Resource.

Fig. 1.1: Interdependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions

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T i l R b E u C p e N r e b o t t
Fig. 1.2: Classification of resources

The process of transformation of things available in our environment involves an inter - dependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions. Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development. Do you think that resources are free gifts of nature as is assumed by many? They are not. Resources are a function of human activities. Human beings themselves are essential components of resources. They transform material available in our environment into resources and use them. These resources can be classified in the following ways
(a) On the basis of origin biotic and abiotic (b) On the basis of exhaustibility renewable and non-renewable (c) On the basis of ownership individual, community, national and international (d) On the basis of status of development potential, developed stock and reserves.

d e h s

Identify at least two resources from each category.

playgrounds in urban areas are de facto accessible to all the people living there. National Resources: Technically, all the resources belong to the nation. The country has legal powers to acquire even private property for public good. You might have seen roads, canals, railways being constructed on fields owned by some individuals. Urban Development Authorities get empowered by the government to acquire land. All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles (19.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the nation.

TYPES OF R ESOURCES
On the Basis of Origin Biotic Resources: These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc. Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals. On the Basis of Exhaustibility Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc. The renewable resource may further be divided into continuous or flow (Fig.1.2).

Non-Renewable Resources: These occur over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use. On the Basis of Ownership

Individual Resources: These are also owned privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by government against the payment of revenue. In villages there are people with land ownership but there are many who are landless. Urban people own plots, houses and other property. Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are some of the examples of resources ownership by individuals. Make a list of resources owned by your household. Community Owned Resources: There are resources which are accessible to all the members of the community. Village commons (grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots,
2 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

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T i l R b E u C p e N r e b o t t

Inter national Resources: There ar e international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.

d e h s

Do you know that India has got the right to mine manganese nodules from the bed of the Indian Ocean from that area which lies beyond the exclusive economic zone. Identify some other resources which are international in nature.

On the Basis of the Status of Development Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised. For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.

Developed Resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation. The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility.

Stock: Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these, are included among

stock. For example, water is a compound of two inflammable gases; hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have the required technical know-how to use them for this purpose. Hence, it can be considered as stock. Reserves are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical know-how but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements. River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilised only to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future. Prepare a list of stock and reserve, resources that you are familiar with from your local area.

An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for a sustained quality of life and global peace. If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues, the future of our planet is in danger. Therefore, resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life. Sustainable existence is a component of sustainable development. Sustainable development Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.

DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES

Resources are vital for human survival as well as for maintaining the quality of life. It was believed that resources are free gifts of nature. As a result, human beings used them indiscriminately and this has led to the following major problems.

Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals. Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two segments i.e. haves and have nots or rich and poor.

Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation. 1 . Imagine, if the oil supply gets exhausted one day, how would this affect our life style? 2 . Plan a survey in your colony/village to investigate peoples attitude towards recycling of the domestic/agricultural wastes. Ask questions about : (a) What do they think about resources they use? (b) What is their opinion about the wastes, and its utilisation? (c) Collage your results.

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RESOURCE PLANNING
RESOURCES
AND

Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, 1992 In June 1992, more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit. The Summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socioeconomic development at the global level. The assembled leaders signed the Declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity. The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century. Agenda 21 It is the declaration signed by world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), which took place at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It aims at achieving global sustainable development. It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities. One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

d e h s

Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources. It has importance
DEVELOPMENT 3

in a country like India, which has enormous diversity in the availability of resources. There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources. There are some regions which can be considered self sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources. For example, the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits. Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development. The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources. The cold desert of Ladakh is relatively isolated from the rest of the country. It has very rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals. This calls for balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels.

The availability of resources is a necessary condition for the development of any region, but mere availability of resources in the absence of corresponding changes in technology and institutions may hinder development. There are many regions in our country that are rich in resources but these are included in economically backward regions. On the contrary there are some regions which have a poor resource base but they are economically developed.
Can you name some resource rich but economically backward regions and some resource poor but economically developed regions? Give reasons for such a situation.

Prepare a list of resources found in your state and also identify the resources that are important but deficit in your state. Resource Planning in India

Resource planning is a complex process which involves : (i) identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources. (ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans. (iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans. India has made concerted efforts for achieving the goals of resource planning right from the First Five Year Plan launched after Independence. What resources are being developed in your surroundings by the community/village panchayats/ward level communities with the help of community participation?
4 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

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The history of colonisation reveals that rich resources in colonies were the main attractions for the foreign invaders. It was primarily the higher level of technological development of the colonising countries that helped them to exploit resources of other regions and establish their supremacy over the colonies. Therefore, resources can contribute to development only when they are accompanied by appropriate technological development and institutional changes. India has experienced all this in different phases of colonisation. Therefore, in India, development, in general, and resource development in particular does not only involve the availability of resources, but also the technology, quality of human resources and the historical experiences of the people.

d e h s

Conservation of Resources: Resources are vital for any developmental activity. But irrational consumption and over-utilisation of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important. This had been the main concern of the leaders and thinkers in the past. For example, Gandhiji was very apt in voicing his concern about resource conservation in these words: There is enough for everybodys need and not for any bodys greed. He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level. He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses.

At the international level, the Club of Rome advocated resource conservation for the first time in a more systematic way in 1968. Subsequently, in 1974, Gandhian philosophy was once again presented by Schumacher in his book Small is Beautiful. The seminal contribution with respect to resource conservation at the global level was made by the Brundtland Commission Report, 1987. This report introduced the concept of Sustainable Development and advocated it as a means for resource conservation, which was subsequently published in a book entitled Our Common Future. Another significant contribution was made at the Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992.

LAND UTILISATION
Land resources are used for the following purposes: 1. Forests 2. Land not available for cultivation (a) Barren and waste land (b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc. 3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land) (a) Permanent pastures and grazing land, (b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in net sown area), (c) Cultruable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years). 4. Fallow lands (a) Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year), (b) Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years). 5. Net sown area Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

LAND R ESOURCES

We live on land, we perform our economic activities on land and we use it in different ways. Thus, land is a natural resource of utmost importance. It supports natural vegetation, wild life, human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems. However, land is an asset of a finite magnitude, therefore, it is important to use the available land for various purposes with careful planning. India has land under a variety of relief features, namely; mountains, plateaus, plains and islands. About 43 per cent of the land area is plain, which provides facilities for agriculture and industry. Mountains account for 30 per cent of the total surface area of the country and ensure perennial flow of some rivers, provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects. About 27 per cent of the area of the country is the plateau region. It possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.

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The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc. Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km Land use data, however, is available only for 93 per cent of the total geographical area because the land use reporting for most of the north-east states except Assam has not been done fully. Moreover, some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not been surveyed. Try to do a comparison between the two pie charts (Fig. 1.4 ) given for land use and find out why the net sown area and the land under forests have changed from 1960-61 to 2002-03 very marginally.
DEVELOPMENT 5

Fig 1.3: India : Land under important Relief Features

The land under permanent pasture has also decreased. How are we able to feed our huge cattle population on this pasture land and what are the consequences of it? Most of the other than the current fallow lands are either of poor quality or the cost of cultivation of such land is very high. Hence, these lands are cultivated once or twice in about two to three years and if these are included in the net sown area then the percentage of NSA in India comes to about 54 per cent of the total reporting area. The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands. Find out reasons for the low proportion of net sown area in these states. Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, as it was outlined in the National Forest
6 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

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Fig. 1.4

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Policy (1952). It was considered essential for maintenance of the ecological balance. The livelihood of millions of people who live on the fringes of these forests depends upon it. A part of the land is termed as waste land and land put to other non-agricultural uses. Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc. Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it, has resulted in land degradation. This, in turn, has serious repercussions on society and the environment.
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LAND D EGRADA TION MEASURES

CONSERVA TION

We have shared our land with the past generations and will have to do so with the future generations too. Ninety-five per cent of our basic needs for food, shelter and clothing

are obtained from land. Human activities have not only brought about degradation of land but have also aggravated the pace of natural forces to cause damage to land. At present, there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India. Approximately, 28 per cent of it belongs to the category of forest degraded area, 56 per cent of it is water eroded area and the rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits. Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying too have contributed significantly in land degradation.

Fig. 1.5

Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of over-burdening. In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation. In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. In the states of Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and

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SOIL
AS A

alkalinity in the soil. The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land. In recent years, industrial effluents as waste have become a major source of land and water pollution in many parts of the country. There are many ways to solve the problems of land degradation. Afforestation and proper management of grazing can help to some extent. Planting of shelter belts of plants, control on over grazing, stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes are some of the methods to check land degradation. Proper management of waste lands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.

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RESOURCE

Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on
Top soil the upper soil layer Subsoil weathered rocks sand and silt clay

Substratum weathered parent rock material

Unweathered parent bed rock

Fig. 1.6: Soil Profile

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the earth. The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil upto a few cm in depth. Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil. Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil. Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important. Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials (Fig. 1.6). On the basis of the factors responsible for soil formation, colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical and physical properties, the soils of India can be classified in different types. Classification of Soils

India has varied relief features, landforms, climatic realms and vegetation types. These have contributed in the development of various types of soils.
Alluvial Soils

This is the most widely spread and important soil. In fact, the entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil. These have been deposited by three important Himalayan river systems the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. These soils also extend in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor. Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.

The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. As we move inlands towards the river valleys, soil particles appear some what bigger in size. In the upper
8 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

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Black Soil

reaches of the river valley i.e. near the place of the break of slope, the soils are coarse. Such soils are more common in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos and Terai. Apart from the size of their grains or components, soils are also described on the basis of their age. According to their age alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar). The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar. It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar. Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile. Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated. Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.

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These soils are black in colour and are also known as regur soils. Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil. It is believed that climatic condition along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil. This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra,

Fig. 1.7: Alluvial Soil

Fig. 1.8: Black Soil

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India: Major Soil Types

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Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys. The black soils are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material. They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture. In addition, they are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime. These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents. They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.
Red and Yellow Soils

the soil is low because most of the micro organisms, particularly the decomposers, like bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature. Laterite soils are suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers. These soils are mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of Orissa and Assam. After adopting appropriate soil conservation techniques particularly in the hilly areas of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, this soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee. Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nut.
Arid Soils

Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau. Yelllow and red soils are also found in parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats. These soils develop a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
Laterite Soil

Laterite has been derived from the Latin word later which means brick. The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain. Humus content of

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Forest Soils

Arid soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water. Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture. The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water. After proper irrigation these soils become cultivable as has been in the case of western Rajasthan.

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Fig. 1.10: Arid Soil

Fig. 1.9: Laterite Soil

These soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available. The soils texture varies

CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

according to the mountain environment where they are formed. They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes. In the snow covered areas of Himalayas, these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content. The soils found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile. Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion. The processes of soil formation and erosion, go on simultaneously and generally there is a balance between the two. Sometimes, this balance is disturbed due to human activities like deforestation, over-grazing, construction and mining etc., while natural forces like wind, glacier and water lead to soil erosion. The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies. The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land. In the Chambal basin such lands are called ravines. Sometimes

Fig. 1.12: Gully Erosion

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water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion . Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as wind erosion. Soil erosion is also caused due to defective methods of farming. Ploughing in a wrong way i.e. up and down the slope form channels for the quick flow of water leading to soil erosion. Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. This is called contour ploughing. Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion. Western and central Himalayas have well developed terrace farming. Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping. Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such trees are called shelter belts. These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.

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State of Indias Environment The village of Sukhomajri and the district of Jhabua have shown that it is possible to reverse land degradation. Tree density in Sukhomajri increased from 13 per hectare in 1976 to 1,272 per hectare in 1992; Regeneration of the environment leads to economic well-being, as a result of greater resource availability, improved agriculture and animal care, and
DEVELOPMENT 11

consequently, increased incomes. Average annual household income in Sukhomajri ranged from Rs 10,000-15,000 between 1979 and 1984; Peoples management is essential for ecological restoration. With people being made the decision-makers by the Madhya Pradesh government, 2.9 million hectares or about 1 per cent of Indias land area, are being greened across the state through watershed management.

Source: The Citizens Fifth Report,1999 Centre of Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi

1. Multiple choice questions. Renewable (b) Biotic


(a) (a)

(i) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore? (c) Flow (d) Non-renewable

(ii) Under which of the following type of resource can tidal energy be put?

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(b) (a) (b)

(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?

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E XERCISES

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E XERCISES

EXERCISES EXERCISES

E XERCISES

Replenishable Human-made

(c) Abiotic

(d) Non-recyclable (c) Over irrigation

Intensive cultivation Deforestation

(d) Overgrazing

(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?

Punjab (b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh


(a) (a) (b)

(c) Haryana (d) Uttarakhand

(v) In which of the following states is black soil found?

Jammu and Kashmir Gujarat

(c) Rajasthan (d) Jharkhand

CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words. (i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three

main features of this type of soil.


(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas? (iv) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.


(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not

increased much since 1960-61?


(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of

resources?

P ROJECT/A CTIVITY

1. Make a project showing consumption and conservation of resources in your locality. 2. Have a discussion in the class how to conserve various resources used in your school. 3. Imagine if oil supplies get exhausted, how will this affect our life style? 4. Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers.

S Q P S O T B L A C K

F G N N D G V A B G J

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G A S F F O B R R O S L M T S U T I A I P J F O P E A O N N F R A E T I C R S D M I L Q X U J O U R V J A O B A L A L E D I R L D S P N X B D H J M K N E I E A L M H V W R L M R D T C E R U V I F M T T E M T A Z Z O N E N Z M I F S D T L R J C N S O C P A X Y H G K D T D S L S E G E W
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(i) Natural endowments in the for m of land, water, vegetation and minerals.

(ii) A type of non-renewable resource. (iii) Soil with high water retaining capacity. (iv) Intensively leached soils of the monsoon climate. (v) Plantation of trees on a large scale to check soil erosion. (vi) The Great Plains of India are made up of these soils. DEVELOPMENT 13

Narak! My Lord, you are the creator of music in the world of Lepchas Oh Narak! My Lord, let me dedicate myself to you Let me gather your music from the springs, the rivers, the mountains, the forests, the insects and the animals Let me gather your music from the sweet breeze and offer it to you

Flora and Fauna in India If you look around, you will be able to find that there are some animals and plants which are unique in your area. In fact, India is one of the worlds richest countries in terms of its vast array of biological diversity, and has nearly 8 per cent of the total number of species in the world (estimated to be 1.6 million). This is possibly twice or thrice the number yet to be discovered. You have already studied in detail about the extent and variety of forest and wildlife resources in India. You may have realised the importance of these resources in our daily life. These diverse flora and fauna are so well integrated in our daily life that we take these for granted. But, lately, they are under great stress mainy due to insensitivity to our environment. Over 81,000 species of fauna and 47,000 species of flora are found in this country so far? Of the estimated 47,000 plant species, about 15,000 flowering species are endemic (indigenous) to India.

Source: Lepcha folk song from northern part of West Bengal

We share this planet with millions of other living beings, starting from micro-organisms and bacteria, lichens to banyan trees, elephants and blue whales. This entire habitat that we live in has immense biodiversity. We humans along with all living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our own existence. For example, the plants, animals and micro-organisms re-create the quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil that produces our food without which we cannot survive. Forests play a key role in the ecological system as these are also the primary producers on which all other living beings depend.

Biodiversity or Biological Diversity is immensely rich in wildlife and cultivated species, diverse in form and function but closely integrated in a system through multiple network of interdependencies.

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Find out stories prevalent in your region which are about the harmonious relationship between human beings and nature.

Some estimates suggest that at least 10 per cent of Indias recorded wild flora and 20 per cent of its mammals are on the threatened list. Many of these would now be categorised as critical, that is on the verge of extinction like the cheetah, pink-headed duck, mountain quail, forest spotted owlet, and plants like madhuca insignis (a wild

variety of mahua) and hubbardia heptaneuron,(a species of grass). In fact, no one can say how many species may have already been lost. Today, we only talk of the larger and more visible animals and plants that have become extinct but what about smaller animals like insects and plants?

accurate information about actual loss of natural forests. Let us now understand the different categories of existing plants and animal species. Based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), we can classify as follows Normal Species: Species whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.

Do you know that among the larger animals in India, 79 species of mammals, 44 of birds, 15 of reptiles, and 3 of amphibians are threatened? Nearly 1,500 plant species are considered endangered. Flowering plants and vertebrate animals have recently become extinct at a rate estimated to be 50 to 100 times the average expected natural rate.

Vanishing Forests The dimensions of deforestation in India are staggering. The forest cover in the country is estimated at 637,293 sq km, which is 19.39 per cent of the total geographical area. (dense forest 11.48 per cent; open forest 7.76 per cent; and mangrove 0.15 per cent). According to the State of Forest Report (1999), the dense forest cover has increased

by 10,098 sq km since 1997. However, this apparent increase in the forest cover is due to plantation by different agencies. The State of Forest Report does not differentiate between natural forests and plantations. Therefore, these reports fail to deliver

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Endangered Species: These are species which are in danger of extinction. The survival of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline in their population continue to operate. The examples of such species are black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion tailed macaque, sangai (brow anter deer in Manipur), etc. Vulnerable Species: These are species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate. The examples of such species are blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc.

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Rare Species: Species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The examples of such species are the Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill, etc. Endemic Species: These are species which are only found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. Examples of such species are the Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunchal Pradesh.

Fig. 2.1

Extinct Species: These are species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. A species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the entire earth. Examples of such species are the Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.
WILDLIFE RESOURCES 15

Asiatic Cheetah: where did they go? The worlds fastest land mammal, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubantus), is a unique and specialised member of the cat family and can move at the speed of 112 km./hr. The cheetah is often mistaken for a leopard. Its distinguishing marks are the long teardropshaped lines on each side of the nose from the corner of its eyes to its mouth. Prior to the 20th century, cheetahs were widely distributed throughout Africa and Asia. Today, the Asian cheetah is nearly extinct due to a decline of available habitat and prey. The species was declared extinct in India long back in 1952.

What are the negative factors that cause such fearful depletion of the flora and fauna?

If you look around, you will be able to find out how we have transformed nature into a resource obtaining directly and indirectly from the forests and wildlife wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, dyes, food, fuel, fodder, manure, etc. So it is we ourselves who have
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Fig. 2.2: A few extinct, rare and endangered species

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depleted our forests and wildlife. The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was during the colonial period due to the expansion of the railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities. Even after Independence, agricultural expansion continues to be one of the major causes of depletion of forest resources. Between 1951 and 1980, according to the Forest Survey of India, over 26,200 sq. km. of forest area was converted into agricultural land all over India. Substantial parts of the tribal belts, especially in the northeastern and central India, have been deforested or degraded by shifting cultivation (jhum), a type of slash and burn agriculture. Are colonial forest policies to be blamed? Some of our environmental activists say that the promotion of a few favoured species, in many parts of India, has been carried through the ironically-termed enrichment plantation, in which a single commercially valuable species was extensively planted and other species eliminated. For instance,

teak monoculture has damaged the natural forest in South India and Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) plantations in the Himalayas have replaced the Himalayan oak (Quercius spp.) and Rhododendron forests.

Large-scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests. Since 1951, over 5,000 sq km of forest was cleared for river valley projects. Clearing of forests is still continuing with projects like the Narmada Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh, which would inundate 40,000 hectares of forest. Mining is another important factor behind deforestation. The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal is seriously threatened by the ongoing dolomite mining. It has disturbed the natural habitat of many species and blocked the migration route of several others, including the great Indian elephant. Many foresters and environmentalists hold the view that the greatest degrading factors behind the depletion of forest resources are grazing and fuel-wood collection. Though, there may be some substance in their argument, yet,

the fact remains that a substantial part of the fuel-fodder demand is met by lopping rather than by felling entire trees. The forest ecosystems are repositories of some of the countrys most valuable forest products, minerals and other resources that meet the demands of the rapidly expanding industrialurban economy. These protected areas, thus mean different things to different people, and therein lies the fertile ground for conflicts. The Himalayan Yew in trouble The Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallachiana) is a medicinal plant found in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh. A chemical compound called taxol is extracted from the bark, needles, twigs and roots of this tree, and it has been successfully used to treat some cancers the drug is now the biggest selling anti-cancer drug in the world. The species is under great threat due to over-exploitation. In the last one decade, thousands of yew trees have dried up in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.

Tribal girls using bamboo saplings in a nursery at Mukhali near Silent Valley

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Fig. 2.3

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Tribal women selling minor forest produce

Leaf litter collection by women folk

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17

Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-exploitation, environmental pollution, poisoning and forest fires are factors, which have led to the decline in Indias biodiversity. Other important causes of environmental destruction are unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being. Over-population in third world countries is often cited as the cause of environmental degradation. However, an average American consumes 40 times more resources than an average Somalian. Similarly, the richest five per cent of Indian society probably cause more ecological damage because of the amount they consume than the poorest 25 per cent. The former shares minimum responsibilities for environmental well-being. The question is: who is consuming what, from where and how much?

Do you know that over half of Indias natural forests are gone, one-third of its wetlands drained out, 70 per cent of its surface water bodies polluted, 40 per cent of its mangroves wiped out, and with continued hunting and trade of wild animals and commercially valuable plants, thousands of plant and animal species are heading towards extinction?

Have you noticed any activity which leads to the loss of biodiversity around you? Write a note on it and suggest some measures to prevent it.

The destruction of forests and wildlife is not just a biological issue. The biological loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity. Such losses have increasingly marginalised and impoverished many indigenous and other forest-dependent communities, who directly depend on various components of the forest and wildlife for food, drink, medicine, culture, spirituality, etc. Within the poor, women are affected more than
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men. In many societies, women bear the major responsibility of collection of fuel, fodder, water and other basic subsistence needs. As these resources are depleted, the drudgery of women increases and sometimes they have to walk for more than 10 km to collect these resources. This causes serious health problems for women and negligence of home and children because of the increased hours of work, which often has serious social implications. The indirect impact of degradation such as severe drought or deforestation-induced floods, etc. also hits the poor the hardest. Poverty in these cases is a direct outcome of environmental destruction. Therefore, forest and wildlife, are vital to the quality of life and environment in the subcontinent. It is imperative to adapt to sound forest and wildlife conservation strategies.

Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India

Conservation in the background of rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential. But why do we need to conserve our forests and wildlife? Conservation preserves the ecological diversity and our life support systems water, air and soil. It also preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of species and breeding. For example, in agriculture, we are still dependent on traditional crop varieties. Fisheries too are heavily dependent on the maintenance of aquatic biodiversity. In the 1960s and 1970s, conservationists demanded a national wildlife protection programme. The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act was implemented in 1972, with various provisions for protecting habitats. An all-India list of protected species was also published. The thrust of the programme was towards protecting the remaining population of certain endangered species by banning hunting, giving legal protection to their habitats, and restricting trade in wildlife. Subsequently, central and many state governments established national parks and wildlife sanctuaries about which you have already studied. The central government also announced several projects for protecting specific animals, which were gravely threatened, including the tiger, the one-

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Fig. 2.4: Rhino and deer in Kaziranga National Park

horned rhinoceros, the Kashmir stag or hangul, three types of crocodiles fresh water crocodile, saltwater crocodile and the Gharial, the Asiatic lion, and others. Most recently, the Indian elephant, black buck (chinkara), the great Indian bustard (godawan) and the snow leopard, etc. have been given full or partial legal protection against hunting and trade throughout India. Project Tiger Tiger is one of the key wildlife species in the faunal web. In 1973, the authorities realised that the tiger population had dwindled to 1,827 from an estimated 55,000 at the turn of the century. The major threats to tiger population are numerous, such as poaching for trade, shrinking habitat, depletion of prey base species, growing human population, etc. The trade of tiger skins and the use of their bones in traditional medicines, especially in the Asian countries left the tiger population on the verge of extinction. Since India and Nepal provide habitat to about two-thirds of the surviving tiger population in the world, these two nations became prime targets for poaching and illegal trading. Project Tiger , one of the wellpublicised wildlife campaigns in the world, was launched in 1973. Initially, it showed success as the tiger population went up to 4,002 in 1985 and 4,334 in 1989. But in 1993, the population of the tiger had

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FOREST
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dropped to 3,600. There are 27 tiger reserves in India covering an area of 37,761 sq km Tiger conservation has been viewed not only as an effort to save an endangered species, but with equal importance as a means of preserving biotypes of sizeable magnitude. Corbett National Park in Uttaranchal, Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal, Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh, Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan, Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam and Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala are some of the tiger reserves of India.

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The conservation projects are now focusing on biodiversity rather than on a few of its components. There is now a more intensive search for different conservation measures. Increasingly, even insects are beginning to find a place in conservation planning. In the notification under Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly have been added to the list of protected species. In 1991, for the first time plants were also added to the list, starting with six species.

Collect more information on the wildlife sanctuaries and national parks of India and cite their locations on the map of India.

WILDLIFE RESOURCES

19

Can you find out the reasons for the above mentioned problems?

Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources

Even if we want to conserve our vast forest and wildlife resources, it is rather difficult to manage, control and regulate them. In India, much of its forest and wildlife resources are either owned or managed by the government through the Forest Department or other government departments. These are classified under the following categories.
(i) Reserved Forests: More than half of the

total forest land has been declared reserved forests. Reserved forests are regarded as the most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources are concerned.
(ii) Protected Forests: Almost one-third of the

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(iii) Unclassed Forests: These are other

total forest area is protected forest, as declared by the Forest Department. This forest land are protected from any further depletion.
20 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities. Reserved and protected forests are also referred to as permanent forest estates maintained for the purpose of producing timber and other forest produce, and for protective reasons. Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under permanent forests, constituting 75 per cent of its total forest area. Jammu and Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Maharashtra have large percentages of reserved forests of its total forest area whereas Bihar, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan have a bulk of it under protected forests. All Northeastern states and parts of Gujarat have a very high percentage of their forests as unclassed forests managed by local communities.

Community and Conservation Conservation strategies are not new in our country. We often ignore that in India, forests are also home to some of the traditional communities. In some areas of India, local communities are struggling to conserve these habitats along with government officials, recognising that only this will secure their own long-term livelihood. In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers have fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act. In many areas, villagers themselves are protecting habitats and explicitly rejecting government involvement. The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan have declared 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri, declaring their own set of rules and regulations which do not allow hunting, and are protecting the wildlife against any outside encroachments. Sacred groves - a wealth of diverse and rare species Nature worship is an age old tribal belief based on the premise that all creations of nature have to be protected. Such beliefs have preserved several virgin forests in pristine form called Sacred Groves (the forests of God and Goddesses). These patches of forest or parts of large forests have been left untouched by the local people and any interference with them is banned. Certain societies revere a particular tree which they have preserved from time immemorial. The Mundas and the Santhal of Chhota Nagpur region worship mahua (Bassia latifolia) and kadamba (Anthocaphalus cadamba) trees, and the tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and mango (Mangifera indica) trees during weddings. To many of us, peepal and banyan trees are considered sacred. Indian society comprises several cultures, each with its own set of traditional methods of conserving nature and its creations. Sacred qualities are often ascribed to springs, mountain peaks, plants and animals which are closely protected. You will find troops of macaques and langurs around many temples. They are fed daily

and treated as a part of temple devotees. In and around Bishnoi villages in Rajasthan, herds of blackbuck, (chinkara), nilgai and peacocks can be seen as an integral part of the community and nobody harms them.

Write a short essay on any practices which you may have observed and practised in your everyday lives that conserve and protect the environment around you.

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FOREST
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The famous Chipko movement in the Himalayas has not only successfully resisted deforestation in several areas but has also shown that community afforestation with indigenous species can be enormously successful. Attempts to revive the traditional conservation methods or developing new methods of ecological farming are now widespread. Farmers and citizens groups like the Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya have shown that adequate levels of diversified crop production without the use of synthetic chemicals are possible and economically viable. In India joint forest management (JFM) programme furnishes a good example for involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests. The programme has been in formal existence since 1988 when the state of Orissa passed the first resolution for joint forest management. JFM depends on the formation of local (village) institutions that undertake protection activities mostly on degraded forest land managed by the forest department. In return, the members of these communities are entitled to intermediary benefits like non-timber forest produces and share in the timber harvested by successful protection. The clear lesson from the dynamics of both environmental destruction and reconstruction in India is that local communities everywhere have to be involved in some kind of natural resource management. But there is still a long way to go before local communities are at the centre-stage in decision-making. Accept only those economic or developmental activities, that are people centric, environment-friendly and economically rewarding.
WILDLIFE RESOURCES 21

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The tree is a peculiar organism of unlimited kindness and benevolence and makes no demand for its sustenance, and extends generously the products of its life activity. It affords protection to all beings, offering shade even to the axemen who destroy it. Gautama Buddha (487 B.C.)

EXERCISES

EXERCISES

EXERCISES EXERCISES

EXERCISES

1. Multiple choice questions.


(i) Which of these statements is not a valid reason for the depletion of flora

and fauna? (a) Agricultural expansion. (b) Large scale developmental projects. (c) Grazing and fuel wood collection. (d) Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation. community participation? (a) Joint forest management (b) Beej Bachao Andolan

(ii) Which of the following conservation strategies do not directly involve (c) Chipko Movement (d) Demarcation of Wildlife sanctuaries

2. Match the following animals with their category of existence. Animals/Plants Black buck Category of existence Extinct Rare

Asiatic elephant

Andaman wild pig Pink head duck

Himalayan brown bear

3. Match the following.

Reserved forests

Protected forests

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Unclassed forests

4. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t
Endangered Endemic Vulnerable

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other forests and wastelands belonging to both government and private individuals and communities forests are regarded as most valuable as far as the conservation of forest and wildlife resources forest lands are protected from any further depletion

(i) What is biodiversity? Why is biodiversity important for human lives?

(ii) How have human activities affected the depletion of flora and fauna? Explain.

5. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.


(i) Describe how communities have conserved and protected forests and wildlife

in India?
(ii) Write a note on good practices towards conserving forest and wildlife.

CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

You already know that three-fourth of the earths surface is covered with water, but only a small proportion of it accounts for freshwater that can be put to use. This freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. All water moves within the hydrological cycle ensuring that water is a renewable resource. You might wonder that if three-fourth of the world is covered with water and water is a renewable resource, then how is it that countries and regions around the globe suffer from water scarcity? Why is it predicted that by 2025, nearly two billion people will live in absolute water scarcity?

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Water: Some facts and figures 96.5 per cent of the total volume of worlds water is estimated to exist as oceans and only 2.5 per cent as freshwater. Nearly 70 per cent of this freshwater occurs as ice sheets and glaciers in Antarctica, Greenland and the mountainous regions of the world, while a little less than 30 per cent is stored as groundwater in the worlds aquifers. India receives nearly 4 per cent of the global precipitation and ranks 133 in the world in terms of water availability per person per annum. The total renewable water resources of India are estimated at 1,897 sq km per annum.

By 2025, it is predicted that large parts of India will join countries or regions having absolute water scarcity.
Source: The UN World Water Development Report, 2003

WATER SCARCITY AND THE NEED FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
Given the abundance and renewability of water, it is difficult to imagine that we may suffer from water scarcity. The moment we speak of water shortages, we immediately

associate it with regions having low rainfall or those that are drought pr one. We instantaneously visualise the deserts of Rajasthan and women balancing many matkas (earthen pots) used for collecting and storing water and travelling long distances to get water. True, the availability of water resources varies over space and time, mainly due to the variations in seasonal and annual precipitation, but water scarcity in most cases is caused by over- exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.

Water, Water Everywhere, Not a Drop to Drink: After a heavy downpour, a boy collects drinking water in Kolkata. Life in the city and its adjacent districts was paralysed as incessant overnight rain, meaning a record 180 mm, flooded vast area and disruted traffic.

A Kashmiri earthquake survivor carries water in the snow in a devastated village.

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Fig. 3.1: Water Scarcity

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

According to Falken Mark, a Swedish expert, water stress occurs when water availability is less than 1,000 cubic metre per person per day.

Where is then water scarcity likely to occur? As you have read in the hydrological cycle, freshwater can be obtained directly from precipitation, surface run off and groundwater. Is it possible that an area or region may have ample water resources but is still facing water scarcity? Many of our cities are such examples. Thus, water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water, and unequal access to it. A large population means more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food. Hence, to facilitate higher food-grain production, water resources are being over-exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry-season agriculture. You may have seen in many television advertisements that most farmers have their own wells and tube-wells in their farms for irrigation to increase their produce. But have you ever wondered what this could result in? That it may lead to falling groundwater levels, adversely affecting water availability and food security of the people. Post-independent India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation, creating vast opportunities for us. Today, large industrial houses are as commonplace as the industrial units of many MNCs (Multinational Corporations). The ever increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to run them. Much of this energy comes from hydroelectric power. Today, in India hydroeclectric power contributes approximately 22 per cent of the total electricity pr oduced. Moreover, multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban lifestyles have not only added to water and energy

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requirements but have further aggravated the problem. If you look into the housing societies or colonies in the cities, you would find that most of these have their own groundwater pumping devices to meet their water needs. Not surprisingly, we find that fragile water resources are being over exploited and have caused their depletion in several of these cities. So far we have focused on the quantitative aspects of water scarcity. Now, let us consider another situation where water is sufficiently available to meet the needs of the people, but, the area still suffers from water scarcity. This scarcity may be due to bad quality of water. Lately, there has been a growing concern that even if there is ample water to meet the needs of the people, much of it may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides and fertilisers used in agriculture, thus, making it hazardous for human use. Indias rivers, especially the smaller ones, have all turned into toxic streams. And even the big ones like the Ganga and Yamuna are far from being pure. The assault on Indias rivers from population growth, agricultural modernisation, urbanisation and industrialisation is enormous and growing by the day.. This entire life stands threatened.

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Source: The Citizens Fifth Report, CSE, 1999.

You may have already realised that the need of the hour is to conserve and manage our water resources, to safeguard ourselves from health hazards, to ensure food security, continuation of our livelihoods and productive activities and also to prevent degradation of our natural ecosystems. Over exploitation and mismanagement of water resources will impoverish this resource and cause ecological crisis that may have profound impact on our lives. From your everyday experiences, write a short proposal on how you can conserve water.
WATER RESOURCES 25

MULTI-PURPOSE RIVER PROJECTS AND INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


But, how do we conserve and manage water? Archaeological and historical records show that from ancient times we have been constructing sophisticated hydraulic structures like dams built of stone rubble, reservoirs or lakes, embankments and canals for irrigation. Not surprisingly, we have continued this tradition in modern India by building dams in most of our river basins. Hydraulic Structures in Ancient India In the first century B.C., Sringaverapura near Allahabad had sophisticated water harvesting system channelling the flood water of the river Ganga. During the time of Chandragupta Maurya, dams, lakes and irrigation systems were extensively built. Evidences of sophisticated irrigation works have also been found in Kalinga, (Orissa), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), etc. In the 11th Century, Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built. In the 14th Century, the tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to Siri Fort area.
Source: Dying Wisdom, CSE, 1997.

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What are dams and how do they help us in conserving and managing water? Dams were traditionally built to impound rivers and rainwater that could be used later to irrigate agricultural fields. Today, dams are built not just for irrigation but for electricity generation, water supply for domestic and industrial uses, flood control, recreation, inland navigation and fish breeding. Hence, dams are now referred to as multi-purpose projects where the many uses of the impounded water are integrated with one another. For example, in the Sutluj-Beas river basin, the Bhakra Nangal project water is being used both for hydel power production and irrigation. Similarly, the Hirakud project in the Mahanadi basin integrates conservation of water with flood control.

A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. Dam refers to the reservoir rather than the structure. Most dams have a section called a spillway or weir over which or through which it is intended that water will flow either intermittently or continuously. Dams are classified according to structure, intended purpose or height. Based on structure and the materials used, dams are classified as timber dams, embankment dams or masonry dams, with several subtypes. According to the height, dams can be categorised as large dams and major dams or alternatively as low dams, medium height dams and high dams.

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Fig. 3.2: Hirakud Dam

Multi-purpose projects, launched after Independence with their integrated water resources management approach, were thought of as the vehicle that would lead the nation to development and progress, overcoming the handicap of its colonial past. Jawaharlal Nehru proudly proclaimed the dams as the temples of modern India; the reason being that it would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid industrialisation and growth of the urban economy.

CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

Find out more about any one traditional method of building dams and irrigation works. We have sown the crops in Asar We will bring Bhadu in Bhadra Floods have swollen the Damodar The sailing boats cannot sail Oh! Damodar, we fall at your feet Reduce the floods a little Bhadu will come a year later Let the boats sail on your surface
(This popular Bhadu song in the Damodar valley region narrates the troubles faced by people owing to the flooding of Damodar river known as the river of sorrow.)

In recent years, multi-purpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition for a variety of reasons. Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers aquatic life. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning. The reservoirs that are created on the floodplains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition over a period of time. Multi-purpose projects and large dams have also been the cause of many new social movements like the Narmada Bachao Andolan and the Tehri Dam Andolan etc. Resistance to these projects has primarily been due to the large-scale displacement of local communities. Local people often had to give up their land, livelihood and their meagre access and control over resources for the greater good of the nation. So, if the local people are not benefiting from such projects then who is benefited? Perhaps, the landowners and large farmers, industrialists and few urban centres. Take the case of the landless in a village does he really gain from such a project?

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Narmada Bachao Andolan or Save Narmada Movement is a Non Governmental Organisation (NGO) that mobilised tribal people, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada river in Gujarat. It originally focused on the environmental issues related to trees that would be submerged under the dam water. Recently it has re-focused the aim to enable poor citizens, especially the oustees (displaced people) to get full rehabilitation facilities from the government. People felt that their suffering would not be in vain accepted the trauma of displacement believing in the promise of irrigated fields and plentiful harvests. So, often the survivors of Rihand told us that they accepted their sufferings as sacrifice for the sake of their nation. But now, after thirty bitter years of being adrift, their livelihood having even being more precarious, they keep asking: Are we the only ones chosen to make sacrifices for the nation?
Source: S. Sharma, quoted in In the Belly of the River. Tribal conflicts over development in Narmada valley, A. Baviskar, 1995.

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Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil. At the same time, it has transformed the social landscape i.e. increasing the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor. As we can see, the dams did create conflicts between people wanting different uses and benefits from the same water resources. In Gujarat, the Sabarmati-basin farmers were agitated and almost caused a riot over the higher priority given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts. Inter-state water disputes are also becoming common with regard to sharing the costs and benefits of the multi-purpose project.
WATER RESOURCES 27

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T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t
India: Major Rivers and Dams

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Do you know that the Krishna-Godavari dispute is due to the objections raised by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh governments? It is regarding the diversion of more water at Koyna by the Maharashtra government for a multipurpose project. This would reduce downstream flow in their states with adverse consequences for agriculture and industry.

Make a list of inter-state water disputes. Most of the objections to the projects arose due to their failure to achieve the purposes for which they were built. Ironically, the dams that were constructed to control floods have

triggered floods due to sedimentation in the reservoir. Moreover, the big dams have mostly been unsuccessful in controlling floods at the time of excessive rainfall. You may have seen or read how the release of water from dams during heavy rains aggravated the flood situation in Maharashtra and Gujarat in 2006. The floods have not only devastated life and property but also caused extensive soil erosion. Sedimentation also meant that the flood plains were deprived of silt, a natural fertiliser, further adding on to the problem of land degradation. It was also observed that the multi-purpose projects induced earthquakes, caused waterborne diseases and pests and pollution resulting from excessive use of water.

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Collect information about flood prone areas of the country

RAINWATER HARVESTING

Many thought that given the disadvantages and rising resistance against the multi-

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29

purpose projects, water harvesting system was a viable alternative, both socioeconomically and environmentally. In ancient India, along with the sophisticated hydraulic structures, there existed an extraordinary tradition of water-harvesting system. People had in-depth knowledge of rainfall regimes and soil types and developed wide ranging techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, river water and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs. In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the guls or kuls of the Western Himalayas for agriculture. Rooftop rain water harvesting was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan. In the flood plains of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the khadins in Jaisalmer and Johads in other parts of Rajasthan.

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Fig. 3.3

(a) Recharge through Hand Pump

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(b) Recharge through Abandoned Dugwell Fig 3.4: Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting

Roof top rain water is collected using a PVC pipe Filtered using sand and bricks Underground pipe takes water to sump for immediate usage Excess water from the sump is taken to the well Water from the well recharges the underground Take water from the well (later)

CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

rainfall in the world, yet the state capital Shillong faces acute shortage of water. Nearly every household in the city has a roof top rain water harvesting structure. Nearly 15-25 per cent of the total water requirement of the household comes from roof top water harvesting.

A kul leads to a circular village tank, as the above in the Kaza village, from which water is released as and when required. Fig 3.5: Traditional method of rain water harvesting

Find out other rainwater harvesting systems existing in and around your locality.

In the semi-arid and arid regions of Rajasthan, particularly in Bikaner, Phalodi and Barmer, almost all the houses traditionally had underground tanks or tankas for storing drinking water. The tanks could be as large as a big room; one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 metres deep, 4.27 metres long and 2.44 metres wide. The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard. They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe. Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground tankas. The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected. The rainwater can be stored in the tankas till the next rainfall making it an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up, particularly in the summers. Rainwater, or palar pani , as commonly referred to in these parts, is considered the purest form of natural water. Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tanka to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.

Roof top rain water harvesting is the most common practice in Shillong, Meghalaya. It is interesting because Cherapunjee and Mawsynram situated at a distance of 55 km. from Shillong receive the highest

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Fig. 3.6

Today, in western Rajasthan, sadly the practice of rooftop rainwater harvesting is on the decline as plenty of water is available due to the perennial Rajasthan Canal, though some houses still maintain the tankas since they do not like the taste of tap water. Fortunately, in many parts of rural and urban India, rooftop rainwater harvesting is being successfully adapted to store and conserve water. In Gendathur, a remote backward village in Mysore, Karnataka, villagers have installed, in their households rooftop, rainwater harvesting system to meet their water needs. Nearly 200 households have installed this system and the village has earned the rare distinction of being rich in rainwater. See Fig. 3.6 for a better understanding of the rooftop

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Rooftop harvesting was common across the towns and villages of the Thar. Rainwater that falls on the sloping roofs of houses is taken through a pipe into an underground tanka (circular holes in the ground). built in the main house or in the courtyard. The picture above shows water being form a neighbours roof through a long pipe. Here the neighbours rooftop has been used for collection of rainwater. The picture shows a hole through which rainwater flows down into an underground tanka.

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BAMBOO DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM


In Meghalaya, a 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring wate by using bamboo pipes, is prevalent. About 18-20 litres of water enters the bamboo pipe system, gets transported over hundreds of metres, and finally reduces to 20-80 drops per minute ate the site of the plant.

Picture 1: Bamboo pipes are used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower reaches by gravity.

Picture 2 and 3: The channel sections, made of bamboo, divert water to the plant site where it is distributed into branches, again made and laid out with different forms of bamboo pipes. The flow of water into the pipes is controlled by manipulating the pipe positions.

rainwater harvesting system which is adapted here. Gendathur receives an annual precipitation of 1,000 mm, and with 80 per cent of collection efficiency and of about 10 fillings, every house can collect and use about 50,000 litres of water annually. From the 20 houses, the net amount of rainwater harvested annually amounts to 1,00,000 litres.
32 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

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Fig 3.7

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Picture 4: If the pipes pass a road, they are taken high above the land.

Picture 5 and 6 Reduced channel sections and diversion units are used at the last stage of water application. The last channel section enables water to be dropped near the roots of the plant.

Tamil Nadu is the first and the only state in India which has made roof top rainwater harvesting structure compulsory to all the houses across the state. There are legal provisions to punish the defaulters.

1. Collect information on how industries are polluting our water resources. 2. Enact with your classmates a scene of water dispute in your locality.

EXERCISES

EXERCISES

EXERCISES EXERCISES

EXERCISES

1.

Multiple choice questions.


(i) Based on the information given below classify each of the situations as

suffering from water scarcity or not suffering from water scarcity.


(a) Region with high annual rainfall. (b) Region having high annual rainfall and large population. (c) Region having high annual rainfall but water is highly polluted. (d) Region having low rainfall and low population.

(ii) Which one of the following statements is not an argument in favour of multi-

purpose river projects? water scarcity.

(a) Multi-purpose projects bring water to those areas which suffer from

(b) Multi-purpose projects by regulating water flow helps to control floods. (c) Multi-purpose projects lead to large scale displacements and loss of

livelihood. homes. correctly.

(d) Multi-purpose projects generate electricity for our industries and our (iii) Here are some false statements. Identify the mistakes and rewrite them (a) Multiplying urban centres with large and dense populations and urban

lifestyles have helped in proper utilisation of water resources. flow and its sediment flow.

(b) Regulating and damming of rivers does not affect the rivers natural (c) In Gujarat, the Sabarmati basin farmers were not agitated when higher

priority was given to water supply in urban areas, particularly during droughts.
(d) Today in Rajasthan, the practice of rooftop rainwater water harvesting

has gained popularity despite high water availability due to the Rajasthan Canal. 2. Answer the following questions in about 30 words.

3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.


(i) Discuss how rainwater harvesting in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan is

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(i) Explain how water becomes a renewable resource.

(ii) What is water scarcity and what are its main causes?

T i l R b E u C p e N er b o t t

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(iii) Compare the advantages and disadvantages of multi-purpose river projects.

carried out.
(ii) Describe how modern adaptations of traditional rainwater harvesting

methods are being carried out to conserve and store water.

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d e h s T i l R b E u C p e N T r R e E b C o N t ot n
Can you name some such types of farmings? Can you name some industries based on agricultural raw material?

India is an agriculturally important country. Two-thirds of its population is engaged in agricultural activities. Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food that we consume. Besides food grains, it also produces raw material for various industries.

through natural processes; land productivity in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilisers or other modern inputs. It is known by different names in different parts of the country.

Moreover, some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices, etc. are also exported.

It is jhumming in north-eastern states like Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland; Pamlou in Manipur, Dipa in Bastar district of Chhattishgarh, and in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Jhumming: The slash and burn agriculture is known as Milpa in Mexico and Central America, Conuco in Venzuela, Roca in Brazil, Masole in Central Africa, Ladang in Indonesia, Ray in Vietnam. In India, this primitive form of cultivation is called Bewar or Dahiya in Madhya Pradesh, Podu or Penda in Andhra Pradesh, Pama Dabi or Koman or Bringa in Orissa, Kumari in Western Ghats, Valre or Waltre in South-eastern Rajasthan, Khil in the Himalayan belt, Kuruwa in Jharkhand, and Jhumming in the North-eastern region.

TYPES OF FARMING

Agriculture is an age-old economic activity in our country. Over these years, cultivation methods have changed significantly depending upon the characteristics of physical environment, technological know-how and socio-cultural practices. Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type. At present, in different parts of India, the following farming systems are practised.

Primitive Subsistence Farming This type of farming is still practised in few pockets of India. Primitive subsistence agriculture is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao and digging sticks, and family/community labour. This type of farming depends upon monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitability of other environmental conditions to the crops grown. It is a slash and burn agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops to sustain their family. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. This type of shifting allows Nature to replenish the fertility of the soil

Fig. 4.1

Can you name the type of farming Rinjhas family is engaged in? Can you enlist some crops which are grown in such farming?

Intensive Subsistence Farming This type of farming is practised in areas of high population pressure on land. It is labourintensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher production.
Can you name some of the states of India where such farming is practised?

Though the right of inheritance leading to the division of land among successive generations has rendered land-holding size uneconomical, the farmers continue to take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative source of livelihood. Thus, there is enormous pressure on agricultural land. Commercial Farming The main characteristic of this type of farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs, e.g. high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity. The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another. For example, rice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Orissa, it is a subsistence crop.
Can you give some more examples of crops which may be commercial in one region and may provide subsistence in another region?

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Fig. 4.2: Banana plantation in Southern part of India Fig. 4.3: Bamboo plantation in North-east

Rinjha lived with her family in a small village at the outskirts of Diphu in Assam. She enjoys watching her family members clearing, slashing and burning a patch of land for cultivation. She often helps them in irrigating the fields with water running through a bamboo canal from the nearby spring. She loves the surroundings and wants to stay here as long as she can, but this little girl has no idea about the declining fertility of the soil and her familys search for fresh a patch of land in the next season.

Plantation is also a type of commercial farming. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area. The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry. Plantations cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers. All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries. In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana, etc.. are important plantation crops. Tea in Assam and North Bengal coffee in

Karnataka are some of the important plantation crops grown in these states. Since the production is mainly for market, a welldeveloped network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries and markets plays an important role in the development of plantations.
AGRICULTURE 35

CROPPING PATTERN
You have studied the physical diversities and plurality of cultures in India. These are also reflected in agricultural practices and cropping patterns in the country. Various types of food and fibre crops, vegetables and fruits, spices and condiments, etc.. constitute some of the important crops grown in the country. India has three cropping seasons rabi, kharif and zaid. Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard. Though, these crops are grown in large parts of India, states from the north and northwestern parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are important for the production of wheat and other rabi crops. Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclones helps in the success of these crops. However, the success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan has also been an important factor in the growth of the abovementioned rabi crops. Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September-October. Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean. Some of the most important rice-growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Recently, paddy has also become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In states like Assam, West Bengal and Orissa, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman and Boro. In between the rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season. Some of the crops produced during zaid are water melon, muskmelon, cucumber,
36 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes almost a year to grow. Major Crops A variety of food and non food crops are grown in different parts of the country depending upon the variations in soil, climate and cultivation practices. Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, tea, coffee, sugarcane, oil seeds, cotton and jute, etc. Rice: It is the staple food crop of a majority of the people in India. Our country is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China. It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. Rice is grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. Development of dense network

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Fig. 4.4 (a): Rice Cultivation Fig. 4.4 (b): Rice is ready to be harvested in the field

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India: Distribution of Rice

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37

of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan. Wheat: This is the second most important cereal crop. It is the main food crop, in north and north-western part of the country. This rabi crop requires a cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening. It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenlydistributed over the growing season. There are two important wheat-growing zones in the country the Ganga-Satluj plains in the northwest and black soil region of the Deccan. The major wheat-producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh.

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Fig. 4.6: Bajra Cultivation

regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils. Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi followed by Tamil Nadu. Apart from these states, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh are also important for the production of ragi.

Maize: It is a crop which is used both as food and fodder. It is a kharif crop which requires

Fig. 4.5: Wheat Cultivation

Millets: Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown in India. Though, these are known as coarse grains, they have very high nutritional value. For example, ragi is very rich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients and roughage. Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation. Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar followed by Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Rajasthan is the largest producer of bajra followed by Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana. Ragi is a crop of dry
38 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

Fig. 4.7: Maize Cultivation

temperature between 21C to 27C and grows well in old alluvial soil. In some states like Bihar maize is grown in rabi season also. Use of modern inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilisers and irrigation have contributed to the increasing production of maize. Major maize-producing states are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Pulses: India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the world. These are the major source of protein in a vegetarian

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India: Distribution of Wheat

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Food Crops other than Grains Sugarcane: It is a tropical as well as a subtropical crop. It grows well in hot and humid climate with a temperature of 21C to 27C and an annual rainfall between 75cm.
Fig. 4.8: Sugarcane Cultivation

diet. Major pulses that are grown in India are tur (arhar), urad, moong, masur, peas and gram. Can you distinguish which of these pulses are grown in the kharif season and which are grown in the rabi season? Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions. Being leguminous crops, all these crops except arhar help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air. Therefore, these are mostly grown in rotation with other crops. Major pulse producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

source of sugar, gur (jaggary), khandsari and molasses. The major sugarcane-producing states are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana. Oil Seeds: India is the largest producer of oilseeds in the world. Different oil seeds are grown covering approximately 12 per cent of the total cropped area of the country. Main oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut, sesamum (til), soyabean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and sunflower. Most of these are edible and used as cooking mediums. However, some of these are also used as raw material in the production of soap, cosmetics and ointments. Groundnut is a kharif crop and accounts for about half of the major oilseeds produced in the country. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of groundnut followed by Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra linseed and mustard are rabi crops. Sesamum is a kharif crop in north and rabi crop in south India. Castor seed is grown both as rabi and kharif crop.

and 100cm. Irrigation is required in the regions of low rainfall. It can be grown on a variety of soils and needs manual labour from sowing to harvesting. India is the second largest producer of sugarcane only after Brazil. It is the main

Tea: Tea cultivation is an example of plantation agriculture. It is also an important beverage crop introduced in India initially by the British. Today, most of the tea plantations are owned by Indians. The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates endowed with deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves. Tea is a labourintensive industry. It requires abundant,

Fig. 4.9: Groundnut, sunflower and mustard are ready to be harvested in the field

40

CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

cheap and skilled labour. Tea is processed within the tea garden to restore its freshness. Major teaproducing states are Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Apart from these, Himachal Pradesh, Fig. 4.10: Tea Cultivation Fig. 4.11: Tea-leaves Harvesting Uttarakhand, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and India is a producer of tropical as well as Tripura are also tea-producing states in the temperate fruits. Mangoes of Maharashtra, country. India is the leading producer as well Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West as exporter of tea in the world. Bengal, oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee Coffee: India produces about four per cent of (Meghalaya), bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, the worlds coffee production. Indian coffee is Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, lichi and guava known in the world for its good quality. The of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, pineapples of Arabica variety initially brought from Yemen is Meghalaya, grapes of Andhra Pradesh and produced in the country. This variety is in great Maharashtra, apples, pears, apricots and demand all over the world. Intially its cultivation walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal was introduced on the Baba Budan Hills and Pradesh are in great demand the world over.

even today its cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Horticulture Crops: India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.

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Fig. 4.12: Apricots, apple and pomegranate

India produces about 13 per cent of the worlds vegetables. It is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.

Fig. 4.13: Cultivation of vegetables peas, cauliflower, tomato and brinjal

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List the items which are made of rubber and are used by us.
Fig. 4.15: Cotton Cultivation

Non-Food Crops Rubber: It is an equatorial crop, but under special conditions, it is also grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas. It requires moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm. and temperature above 25C. Rubber is an important industrial raw material. It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicabar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya. India ranks fifth among the worlds natural rubber producers.

irrigation, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth. It is a kharif crop and requires 6 to 8 months to mature. Major cotton-producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Jute: It is known as the golden fibre. Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year. High temperature is required during the time of growth. West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya are the major jute producing states. It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts. Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon.

Fig. 4.14: Consumption of natural rubber

Fibre Crops: Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the four major fibre crops grown in India. The first three are derived from the crops grown in the soil, the latter is obtained from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves specially mulberry. Rearing of silk worms for the production of silk fibre is known as sericulture.

Cotton: India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plant. Cotton is one of the main raw materials for cotton textile industry. India is the third-largest producer of cotton in the world. Cotton grows well in drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau. It requires high temperature, light rainfall or
42 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

Technological and Institutional Reforms It was mentioned in the previous pages that agriculture has been practised in India for thousands of years. Sustained uses of land without compatible techno-institutional changes have hindered the pace of agricultural development. Inspite of development of sources of irrigation most of the farmers in large parts of the country still depend upon monsoon and natural fertility in order to carry on their agriculture. For a growing population, this poses a serious challenge. Agriculture which provides livelihood for more than 60 per cent of its population, needs some serious technical and institutional reforms. Thus, collectivisation,

consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after Independence. Land reform was the main focus of our First Five Year Plan. The right of inheritance had already lead to fragmentation of land holdings necessitating consolidation of holdings. The laws of land reforms were enacted but the laws of implementation was lacking or lukewarm. The Government of India embarked upon introducing agricultural reforms to improve Indian agriculture in the 1960s and 1970s. The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve the lot of Indian agriculture. But, this too led to the concentration of development in few selected areas. Therefore, in the 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms. Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease, establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction. Kissan Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are some other schemes introduced by the Government of India for the benefit of the farmers. Moreover, special weather bulletins and agricultural

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Fig. 4.16: Modern technological equipments used in agriculture

programmes for farmers were introduced on the radio and television. The government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen. Bhoodan Gramdan Mahatma Gandhi declared Vinoba Bhave as his spiritual heir. He also participated in Satyagraha as one of the foremost satyagrahis. He was one of the votaries of Gandhis concept of gram swarajya. After Gandhijis martyrdom, Vinobha Bhave undertook padyatra to spread Gandhijis message covered almost the entire country. Once, when he was delivering a lecture at Pochampalli in Andhra Pradesh, some poor landless villagers demanded some land for their economic well-being. Vinoba Bhave could not promise it to them immediately but assured them to talk to the Government of India regarding provision of land for them if they undertook cooperative farming. Suddenly, Shri Ram Chandra Reddy stood up and offered 80 acres of land to be distributed among 80 land-less villagers. This act was known as Bhoodan. Later he travelled and introduced his ideas widely all over India. Some zamindars, owners of many villages offered to distribute some villages among the landless. It was known as Gramdan. However, many land-owners chose to provide some part of their land to
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43

the poor farmers due to the fear of land ceiling act. This Bhoodan- Gramdan movement initiated by Vinobha Bhave is also known as the Blood-less Revolution. Contribution of agriculture to the national economy, employment and output Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy though its share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has registered a declining trend from 1951 onwards; yet its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population continues to be as high as 63 per cent in 2001. The declining share of agriculture in the GDP is a matter of serious concern because any decline and stagnation in agriculture will lead to a decline in other spheres of the economy having wider implications for society. Considering the importance of agriculture in India, the Government of India made concerted efforts to modernise agriculture. Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development, research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast, etc. were given priority for improving Indian agriculture. Apart from this, improving the rural infrastructure was also considered essential for the same.

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Why are farmers committing suicides in several states of the country?

From the Table 4.1, it is clear that though the GDP growth rate is increasing over the years, it is not generating sufficient employment opportunities in the country. The growth rate in agriculture is decelerating which is an alarming situation. Today, Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition and our government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in agriculture sector particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanisation. Subsidy on fertilisers is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production. Moreover, reduction in import duties on agricultural products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country. Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture causing a downfall in the employment in agriculture.

When farmers have been facing so many problems and land under agriculture is decreasing, can we think of alternative employment opportunities in the agriculture sector?

FOOD SECURITY

Find out why an Indian farmer does not want his son to become a farmer.
Table 4.1: India: Growth of GDP and major sectors (in %) 198091 3.6 19922001 3.3

Sector

2002-07 (Tenth plan projected) 4.0

Agriculture Industries Services GDP

7.1

6.5

9.5

6.7 5.6

8.2 6.4

9.1 8.0

Source: Tenth Five Year Plan, 2002-07 44 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

You know that food is a basic need and every citizen of the country should have access to food which provides minimum nutritional level. If any segment of our population does not have this access, that segment suffers from lack of food security. The number of people who do not have food security is disproportionately large in some regions of our country, particularly in economically less developed states with higher incidence of poverty. The remote areas of the country are more prone to natural disasters and uncertain food supply. In order to ensure availability of food to all sections of society our government carefully designed a national food security system. It consists of two components (a) buffer stock and (b) public distribution system (PDS).

As you know, PDS is a programme which provides food grains and other essential commodities at subsidised prices in rural and urban areas. Indias food security policy has a primary objective to ensure availability of foodgrains to the common people at an affordable price. It has enabled the poor to have access to food. The focus of the policy is on growth in agriculture production and on fixing the support price for procurement of wheat and rice, to maintain their stocks. Food Corporation of India (FCI) is responsible for procuring and stocking foodgrains, whereas distribution is ensured by public distribution system (PDS). The FCI procures foodgrains from the farmers at the government announced minimum support price (MSP). The government used to provide subsidies on agriculture inputs such as fertilizers, power and water. These subsidies have now reached unsustainable levels and have also led to large scale inefficiencies in the use of these scarce inputs. Excessive and imprudent use of fertilizers and water has led to waterlogging, salinity and depletion of essential micronutrients in the soil. The high MSP, subsidies in input and committed FCI purchases have distorted the cropping pattern. Wheat and paddy crops are being grown more for the MSP they get. Punjab and Haryana are foremost examples. This has also created a serious imbalance in inter-crop parities. You already know that the consumers are divided into two categories : below poverty line (BPL) and above poverty line (APL), with the issue price being different for each category. However, this categorisation is not perfect and a number of deserving poor have been excluded from the BPL category. Moreover, some of the so called APL slip back to BPL, because of the failure of even one crop and it is administratively difficult to accommodate such shifts. Each district and block can be made self sufficient in foodgrain production if government provides proper agricultural infrastructure, credit linkages and also encourages the use of latest techniques. Instead of concentrating only

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Do you know why foodgrains productions has remained stagnant or fallen for six consecutive years? Table 4.2: India: Foodgrains production (million tonnes)
Cereals 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 20042000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

on rice or wheat, the food crop with a better growth potential in that particular area must be encouraged. Creation of necessary infrastructure like irrigation facilities, availability of electricity etc. may also attract private investments in agriculture. The focus on increasing foodgrain production which should be on a sustainable basis and also free trade in grains will create massive employment and reduce poverty in rural areas. There has been a gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to cultivation of fruits, vegetables, oil-seeds and industrial crops. This has led to the reduction in net sown area under cereals and pulses. With the growing population of India, the declining food production puts a big question mark over the countrys future food security. The competition for land between non-agricultural uses such as housing etc. and agriculture has resulted in reduction in the net sown area. The productivity of land has started showing a declining trend. Fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides, which once showed dramatic results, are now being held responsible for degrading the soils. Periodic scarcity of water has led to reduction in area under irrigation. Inefficient water management has led to water logging and salinity.

Rice

89.7 76.4 30.3 13.4

85.0 69.7 31.1 11.1

93.3 72.8 33.4 13.4

71.8 65.8 26.1 11.1

88.3 72.1 38.1 14.9

85.3 72.0 33.9 13.4

Wheat

Coarse Pulses
Total

209.8 196.8 212.9 174.8 213.5 204.6

Source: Economic Survey, 2005-06

One important reason is land degradation. Free power to a section of farmers has encouraged them to pump groundwater to
AGRICULTURE 45

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Organise a debate on food security of India, its need and efforts
46 CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

grow water-intensive crops in low-rainfall areas (rice in Punjab, sugarcane in Maharashtra). This unsustainable pumping has reduced water storage in aquifers. Consequently, many wells and tubewells have run dry. This has pushed the marginal and small farmers out of cultivation. The big farmers with deeper tubewells still have water, but many others face a water crisis. Inadequate storage and marketing facilities also act as a disincentive to the farmer. Thus, the farmers are badly affected by the uncertainties of production and market. They suffer from a double disadvantage as they pay high prices for inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilisers etc. but lack the bargaining power to fix prices in their favour. All the production reaches the market simultaneously. The higher the supply the lower is the demand. This causes distress sale

also. Therefore, there can be no food security without the security of the small farmers. Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture Globalisation is not a new phenomenon. It was there at the time of colonisation. In the nineteenth century when European traders came to India, at that time too, Indian spices were exported to different countries of the world and farmers of south India were encouraged to grow these crops. Till today it is one of the important items of export from India. During the British period cotton belts of India attracted the British and ultimately cotton was exported to Britain as a raw material for their textile industries. Cotton textile industry in Manchester and Liverpool flourished due to the availability of good quality cotton from India. You have read about

the Champaran movement which started in 1917 in Bihar. This was started because farmers of that region were forced to grow indigo on their land because it was necessary for the textile industries which were located in Britain. They were unable to grow foodgrains to sustain their families. Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges. Despite being an important producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices our agricultural products are not able to compete with the developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries.

Can you name any gene modified seed used vastly in India?

Today, Indian agriculture finds itself at the crossroads. To make agriculture successful and profitable, proper thrust should be given to the improvement of the condition of marginal and small farmers. The green revolution promised much. But today its under controversies. It is being alleged that it has caused land degradation due to overuse of chemicals, drying aquifers and vanishing biodiversity. The keyword today is gene revolution. Which includes genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is recognised as a powerful supplement in inventing new hybrid varieties of seeds.

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Fig. 4.18: Problems associated with heavy pesticide use are widely recognised in developed and developing countries Fig. 4.17: Tissue culture of teak clones

Infact organic farming is much in vogue today because it is practised without factory made chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides. Hence, it does not affect environment in a negative manner. A few economists think that Indian farmers have a bleak future if they continue growing foodgrains on the holdings that grow smaller and smaller as the population rises. Indias rural population is about 600 million which depends upon 250 million (approximate) hectares of agricultural land, an average of less than half a hectare per person. Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops. This will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously. Because fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables, bio-diesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation than rice or sugarcane. Indias diverse climate can be harnessed to grow a wide range of high-value crops.

Change in cropping pattern for example from cereals to high-value crops will mean that India will have to import food. During 1960s this would have been seen as a disaster. But if India imports cereals while exporting high-value commodities, it will be following successful economies like Italy, Israel and Chile. These countries exports farm products (fruits, olives, speciality seeds and wine) and import cereals. Are we ready to take this risk? Debate the issue.

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EXERCISES

EXERCISES

EXERCISES EXERCISES

EXERCISES

1. Multiple choice questions.


(i) Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single

crop is grown on a large area?


(a) Shifting Agriculture (b) Plantation Agriculture (c) Horticulture (d) Intensive Agriculture

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(ii) Which one of the following is a rabi crop? (a) Rice (b) Gram (c) Millets (d) Cotton (iii) Which one of the following is a leguminous crop? (a) Pulses (b) Jawar (c) Millets (d) Sesamum (iv) Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of

a crop?

(a) Maximum support price (b) Minimum support price (c) Moderate support price

(d) Influential support price

2. Answer the following questions in 30 words. required for its growth.

(i) Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions

(ii) Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.

(iii) Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the

government in the interest of farmers. its consequences?

(iv) The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine

3.

Answer the following questions in about 120 words. agricultural production.

(i) Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in

(ii) Describe the impact of globalisation on Indian agriculture.

(iii) Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.

PROJECT WORK

1. Group discussion on the necessity of literacy among farmers. 2. On an outline map of India show wheat producing areas.

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CONTEMPORARY INDIA II

ACTIVITY
Solve the puzzle by following your search horizontally and vertically to find the hidden answers. A S D F G H J Z D K N B M E H L C T X W A R W K N S R G H A J C R I C E S B J F H A S V D G H T N Q W R Y X J F S A A Z M B C H V R S H A D R F V B Q E W T R

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R I E A P H J X Z F N W T E L S O G W A T R H E D E K L C T A E Y C A O T F Y I E F J M U S S J S R F G A P D E O Y V E I G S U P O U Y T U M A L H C F Q U T D T W H T S O O L T O R Y N E A F O I O U R S Q K Q T D R W B M A U K Z A H G A I F E D G X D V Q B H S U K O J W S H L W Q C N M A 1. The two staple food crops of India. 2. This is the summer cropping season of India. 4. It is a coarse grain. 3. Pulses like arhar, moong, gram, urad contain 5. The two important beverages in India are 6. One of the four major fibers grown on black soils. AGRICULTURE 49

Haban comes to Guwahati with his father from a remote village. He sees people getting into strange house like objects which move along the road. He also sees a kitchen dragging a number of house along with it. He is amazed and asked his father Why dont our houses move like the one we saw in Guwahati, Ba? Ba replies, These are not houses, they are buses and trains. Unlike our houses these are not made of bricks and stones, metal like iron and alluminium are used in making these. They do not move on their own. They are driven by an engine which needs energy to work. We use different things in our daily life made from metal. Can you list a number of items used in your house made of metals. Where do these metals come from? You have studied that the earths crust is made up of different minerals embedded in the rocks. Various metals are extracted from these minerals after proper refinement. Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. The railway lines and the tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements and machinery too are made from minerals. Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth. Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.

A bright smile from toothpaste and minerals Toothpaste cleans your teeth. Abrasive minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium oxide and various phosphate minerals do the cleaning. Fluoride which is used to reduce cavities, comes from a mineral fluorite. Most toothpaste are made white with titanium oxide, which comes from minerals called rutile, ilmenite and anatase. The sparkle in some toothpastes comes from mica. The toothbrush and tube containing the paste are made of plastics from petroleum. Find out where these minerals are found? Dig a little deeper and find out how many minerals are used to make a light bulb? All living things need minerals Life processes cannot occur without minerals. Although our mineral intake represents only about 0.3 per cent of our total intake of nutrients, they are so potent and so important that without them we would not be able to utilise the other 99.7 per cent of foodstuffs. Dig a little deeper and collect Nutritional Facts printed on food labels.
What is a mineral?

Geologists define mineral as a homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure. Minerals are found in varied forms in nature, ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc. Why are they so varied?

You have already learnt about rocks. Rocks are combinations of homogenous substances called minerals. Some rocks, for instance limestone, consist of a single mineral only, but majority of the rock consist of several minerals in varying proportions. Although, over 2000 minerals have been identified, only a few are abundantly found in most of the rocks. A particular mineral that will be formed from a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms. This, in turn, results in a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that a particular mineral possesses. Geologists use these properties to classify the minerals. Study of Minerals by Geographers and Geologists Geographers study minerals as part of the earths crust for a better understanding of landforms. The distribution of mineral resources and associated economic activities are of interest to geographers. A geologist, however, is interested in the formation of minerals, their age and physical and chemical composition. However, for general and commercial purposes minerals can be classified as under.

commercially viable. The type of formation or structure in which they are found determines the relative ease with which mineral ores may be mined. This also determines the cost of extraction. It is, therefore, important for us to understand the main types of formations in which minerals occur. Minerals generally occur in these forms: (i) In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid/ molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earths surface. They cool and solidify as they rise. Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained from veins and lodes. (ii) In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure. Another group of sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash salt and

Fig. 5.1

MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS


Where are these minerals found?

sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the

Minerals are usually found in ores. The term ore is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements. The mineral content of the ore must be in sufficient concentration to make its extraction

decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way.
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(iv) Certain minerals may occur as alluvial

deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. These deposits are called placer deposits and generally contain minerals, which are not corroded by water. Gold, silver, tin and platinum are most important among such minerals. (v) The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals, but most of these are too widely diffused to be of economic significance. However, common salt, magnesium and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean beds, too, are rich in manganese nodules.

Let us now study the distribution of a few major minerals in India. Always remember that the concentration of mineral in the ore, the ease of extraction and closeness to the market play an important role in affecting the economic viability of a reserve. Thus, to meet the demand, a choice has to be made between a number of possible options. When this is done a mineral deposit or reserve turns into a mine. Ferrous Minerals Ferrous minerals account for about threefourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries. India exports substantial quantities of ferrous minerals after meeting her internal demands. Iron Ore Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. India is endowed with fairly abundant resources of iron ore. India is rich in good quality iron ores. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent. It has excellent magnetic qualities, especially valuable in the electrical industry. Hematite ore is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of the quantity used, but has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite. (50-60 per cent).

Rat-Hole Mining. Do you know that most of the minerals in India are nationalised and their extraction is possible only after obtaining due permission from the government? But in most of the tribal areas of the north-east India, minerals are owned by individuals or communities. In Meghalaya, there are large deposits of coal, iron ore, limestone and dolomite etc. Coal mining in Jowai and Cherapunjee is done by family member in the form of a long narrow tunnel, known as Rat hole mining.

Dig a little deeper: What is the difference between an open pit mine, a quarry and an underground mine with shafts? India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources. However, these are unevenly distributed. Broadly speaking, peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals. Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula, in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits. Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals. The vast alluvial plains of north India are almost devoid of economic minerals. These variations exist largely because of the differences in the geological structure, processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.
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Fig. 5.2: Production of iron ore showing statewise share in per cent, 2003-04

Kudre in Kannada means horse. The highest peak in the western ghats of Karnataka resembles the face of a horse. The Bailadila hills look like the hump of an ox, and hence its name.

Maharashtra-Goa belt includes the state of Goa and Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Though, the ores are not of very high quality, yet they are efficiently exploited. Iron ore is exported through Marmagao port.

Manganese Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture one tonne of steel. It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.

Fig. 5.3: Iron ore mine

The major iron ore belts in India are: Orissa-Jharkhand belt: In Orissa high grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts. In the adjoining Singbhum district of Jharkhand haematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi. Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra. Very high grade hematites are found in the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chattisgarh. The range of hills comprise of 14 deposits of super high grade hematite iron ore. It has the best physical properties needed for steel making. Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakapatnam port. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt in Karnataka has large reserves of iron ore. The Kudermukh mines located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka are a 100 per cent export unit. Kudremukh deposits are known to be one of the largest in the world. The ore is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangalore.

Fig. 5.4: Production of Manganese showing statewise share in per cent, 2003-2004

Orissa is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. It accounted for one-third of the countrys total production in 2000-01. Dig a little deeper: Superimpose the maps showing distribution of iron ore, manganese, coal and iron and steel industry. Do you see any correlation. Why? Non-Ferrous Minerals Indias reserves and production of non- ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory. However, these minerals, which include copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold play a vital role in a number of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries. Let us study the distribution of copper and bauxite.
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India: Distribution of Iron Ore, Manganese, Bauxite and Mica

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Copper India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of copper. Being malleable, ductile and a good conductor, copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical

Fig. 5.5: Copper mines at Malanjkhand

Fig. 5.7: Production of Bauxite showing state-wise share in per cent, 2003-04

industries. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh produce 52 per cent of Indias copper. The Singbhum district of Jharkhand is also a leading producer of copper. The Khetri mines in Rajasthan are also famous.

Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.

Fig.5.8: Bauxite Mine Fig. 5.6: Production of Copper showing state-wise share in per cent, 2003-04

Bauxite Though, several ores contain aluminium, it is from bauxite, a clay-like substance that alumina and later aluminium is obtained. Bauxite deposits are formed by the decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminium silicates.

Indias bauxite deposits are mainly found in the Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur- Katni. Orissa is the largest bauxite producing state in India with 45 per cent of the countrys total production in 2000-01. Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits in the state. Dig a little deeper: Locate the mines of Bauxite on the physical map of India.
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Rock Minerals After the discovery of aluminium Emperor Napoleon III wore buttons and hooks on his clothes made of aluminium and served food to his more illustrious guests in aluminium utensils and the less honourable ones were served in gold and silver utensils. Thirty years after this incident aluminium bowls were most common with the beggars in Paris. Non-Metallic Minerals Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It splits easily into thin sheets. These sheets can be so thin that a thousand can be layered into a mica sheet of a few centimeters high. Mica can be clear, black, green, red yellow or brown. Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries. Mica deposits are found in the northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau. Koderma Gaya Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer. In Rajasthan, the major mica producing area is around Ajmer. Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh is also an important producer in the country. Limestone is found in association with rocks composed of calcium carbonates or calcium and magnesium carbonates. It is found in sedimentary rocks of most geological formations. Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace. Dig a little deeper: Study the maps to explain why Chota Nagpur is a storehouse of minerals.

Fig. 5.9: Production of Limestone showing statewise share in per cent, 2003-04

Hazards of Mining Have you ever wondered about the efforts the miners make in making life comfortable for you? What are the impacts of mining on the health of the miners and the environment? The dust and noxious fumes inhaled by miners make them vulnerable to pulmonary diseases. The risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coalmines are a constant threat to miners. The water sources in the region get contaminated due to mining. Dumping of waste and slurry leads to degradation of land, soil, Fig. 5.10: Air pollution due to generation of dust in mining areas and increase in stream and river pollution.

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Stricter safety regulations and implementation of environmental laws are essential to prevent mining from becoming a killer industry.

CONSERVATION OF MINERALS
We all appreciate the strong dependence of industry and agriculture upon mineral deposits and the substances manufactured from them. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is an insignificant fraction i.e. one per cent of the earths crust. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that

required millions of years to be created and concentrated. The geological processes of mineral formation are so slow that the rates of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption. Mineral resources are, therefore, finite and non-renewable. Rich mineral deposits are our countrys extremely valuable but short-lived possessions. Continued extraction of ores leads to increasing costs as mineral extraction comes from greater depths along with decrease in quality.
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A concerted effort has to be made in order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner. Improved technologies need to be constantly evolved to allow use of low grade ores at low costs. Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps in conserving our mineral resources for the future. Dig a little deeper: Make a list of items where substitutes are being used instead of minerals. Where are these substitutes obtained from? Energy Resources Energy is required for all activities. It is needed to cook, to provide light and heat, to propel vehicles and to drive machinery in industries. Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity. Energy resources can be classified as conventional and nonconventional sources. Conventional sources include: firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity (both hydel and thermal). Non-conventional sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas and atomic energy. Firewood and cattle dung cake are most common in rural India. According to one estimate more than 70 per cent energy requirement in rural households is met by these two ; continuation of these is increasingly becoming difficult due to decreasing forest area. Moreover, using dung cake too is being discouraged because it consumes most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture. Conventional Sources of Energy Coal: In India, coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. It provides a substantial part of the nations energy needs. It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs. India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements. As you are already aware that coal is formed due the compression of plant material over millions of years. Coal, therefore, is found in a variety of forms depending on the degrees of compression
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Fig. 5.11 (a): A view from inside of a coal mine

Fig. 5.11 (b): A view from outside of a coal mine

and the depth and time of burial. Decaying plants in swamps produce peat. Which has a low carbon and high moisture contents and low heating capacity. Lignite is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content. The principal lignite reserves are in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu and are used for generation of electricity. Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal. It is the most popular coal in commercial use. Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal which has a special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces. Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal. In India coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana, a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old. The major resources of Gondwana coal, which are metallurgical coal, are located in

India: Distribution of Coal, Oil and Natural Gas

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Damodar valley (West Bengal-Jharkhand). Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits. Tertiary coals occur in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. Remember coal is a bulky material, which loses weight on use as it is reduced to ash. Hence, heavy industries and thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields. Petroleum Petroleum or mineral oil is the next major energy source in India after coal. It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries. Petroleum refineries act as a nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries. Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age. In regions of folding, anticlines or domes, it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold. The oil bearing layer is a porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow. The oil is prevented from rising or sinking by intervening non-porous layers. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks. Gas, being lighter usually occurs above the oil. About 63 per cent of Indias petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam. From the map locate the 3 major off shore fields of western India. Ankeleshwar is the most important field of Gujarat. Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India. Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields in the state. Natural Gas Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or without petroleum. It is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry.

Natural gas is considered an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions and is, therefore, the fuel for the present century. Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna- Godavari basin. Along the west coast the reserves of the Mumbai High and allied fields are supplemented by finds in the Gulf of Cambay. Andaman and Nicobar islands are also important areas having large reserves of natural gas. The 1700 km long Hazira-Vijaipur Jagdishpur cross country gas pipeline links Mumbai High and Bassien with the fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India. This artery has provided an impetus to Indias gas production. The power and fertilizer industries are the key users of natural gas. Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG ) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels is gaining wide popularity in the country. Electricity Electricity has such a wide range of applications in todays world that, its percapita consumption is considered as an index of development. Electricity is generated mainly in two ways: by running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity; and by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power. Once generated the electricity is exactly the same. Name some river valley projects and write the names of the dams built on these rivers. Hydro electricity is generated by fast flowing water, which is a renewable resource. India has a number of multi-purpose projects like the Bhakra Nangal, Damodar Valley corporation, the Kopili Hydel Project etc. producing hydroelectric power. Thermal electricity is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas. The thermal power stations use non-renewable fossil fuels for generating electricity. There are over 310 thermal power plants in India.

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Rawat Bhata

India: Distribution of Nuclear and Thermal Power Plants

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From the map identify a ther mal power station in your state and also name the fuel that is used there.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy The growing consumption of energy has resulted in the country becoming increasingly dependent on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. Rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about the security of energy supply in future, which in turn has serious repercussions on the growth of the national economy. Moreover, increasing use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems. Hence, there is a pressing need to use renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material. These are called nonconventional energy sources. India is blessed with an abundance of sunlight, water, wind and biomass. It has the largest programmes for the development of these renewable energy resources. Nuclear or Atomic Energy It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. When such an alteration is made, much energy is released in the form of heat and this is used to generate electric power. Uranium and Thorium, which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan are used for generating atomic or nuclear power. The Monazite sands of Kerala is also rich in Thorium.
Locate the 6 nuclear power stations and find out the state in which they are located.

Fig. 5.12: Solar operated electronic milk testing equipment

Wind power India now ranks as a wind super power in the world. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Apart from these, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep have important wind farms. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of wind energy in the country.

Solar Energy India is a tropical country. It has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. Solar energy is fast becoming popular in rural and remote areas. The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Bhuj, where solar energy is used to sterlise milk cans. It is expected that use of solar energy will be able to minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture.
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Fig. 5.13: Wind mills Nagarcoil

Biogas Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas. Decomposition of organic matter y