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SOCIAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

Lesson Name: White Master and the Resistance of the Enslaved, a Study in the definition of Power and Identity Length of lesson 1 day

Lesson !escription: The history of race relations in America dates ac! to our earliest colonial "eriod# $rom resistance durin% slavery to the modern &ivil Ri%hts Movement African Americans have stru%%led and won their freedom# In this introductory lesson students will research the roots of slavery and the methods of oth revolt and resistance used y African Americans to o struct and o""ose enslavement# Students will read a variety of informational te'ts includin% "rimary, secondary and tertiary sources that "ertain to the themes of (ustice and in(ustice and how African Americans stru%%led so that would )* one day live in a nation where they will not e (ud%ed y the color of their s!in ut y the content of their character##+ Endurin% ,nderstandin%s 1# "istory -nowled%e of the "ast hel"s us understand the world and ma!e etter decisions a out the future# .# Ci#ics The actions of individuals, %rou"s, and/or institutions affect society throu%h intended and unintended conse0uences# 1# Economics 2arious social and "olitical issues 3i#e#, la or, the environment, and international trade4 im"act and are im"acted y the %lo al economy# Guiding Essential Questions I4 6ow do culture and identity influence who we are7 II4 6ow do time, culture and history influence wor!s of art and/or the advancement of science and technolo%y7 III4 What can I do to "ositively im"act my community7 $eading $"%&'8%(% &ite s"ecific te'tual evidence to su""ort analysis of "rimary and secondary sources# $"%&'8%)% 8etermine the central ideas or information of a "rimary or secondary source9 "rovide an accurate summary of the source distinct from "rior !nowled%e or o"inions# *riting *"S+%&'8%,% &onduct short research "ro(ects to answer a 0uestion 3includin% a self:%enerated 0uestion4, drawin% on several sources and %eneratin% additional related, focused 0uestions that allow for multi"le avenues of e'"loration# *"S+%&'8%8% ;ather relevant information from multi"le "rint and di%ital sources, usin% search terms effectively9 assess the credi ility and accuracy of each source9 and 0uote or "ara"hrase the data and conclusions of others while avoidin% "la%iarism and followin% a standard format for citation# *"S+%&'8%-% 8raw evidence from informational te'ts to su""ort analysis reflection, and research# Spea.ing and Listening SL%8%(% En%a%e effectively in a ran%e of colla orative discussions 3one:on:one, in %rou"s, and teacher led4 with diverse "artners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, uildin% on others< ideas and e'"ressin% their own clearly# SL%8%)% Analy=e the "ur"ose of information "resented in diverse media and formats 3e#%#, visually, 0uantitatively, orally4 and evaluate the motives 3e#%#, social, commercial, "olitical4 ehind its "resentation# SL%8%/% Present claims and findin%s, em"hasi=in% salient "oints in a focused, >1

Essential 5uestions

&ommon &ore Standards

SOCIAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson
coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasonin%, and well: chosen details9 use a""ro"riate eye contact, ade0uate volume, and clear "ronunciation# SL%8%0% Inte%rate multimedia and visual dis"lays into "resentations to clarify information, stren%then claims and evidence, and add interest#

&o%nitive S!ills

Attention needed to de#elop good group 1or. ha2its Attention needed to develo" %ood %rou" wor! ha its Selective attention: 3filter out distractions, i%nore irrelevant information4 Sustained attention: 3focus for lon% "eriods of time4 8ivided attention: 3focus on more than one thin%4

E3ecuti#e functions Plan $le'i ility: chan%e direction if not wor!in%9 ado"t multi"le a""roaches Strate%y use: a ility to reflect on strate%y and select a""ro"riate strate%y +hin.ing s.ills Reasonin% a out concrete items versus a stract ideas &reativity Analy=in%/evaluatin% ar%uments 8evelo"in% a lo%ical ar%ument Inductive reasonin%: usin% s"ecific e'am"les/o servations and formin% a more %eneral "rinci"al 8eductive reasonin%: use stated %eneral "remise to reason a out s"ecific e'am"les 6y"othesis testin%: test ideas throu%h e'"erience or mani"ulation of varia les A""reciation: reco%nition of the value of somethin% Res"ondin% to novelty: a ility to react a""ro"riately in a novel situation Self:reflection: a ility to thin! a out oneself in relation to the material &ontent 4uilding 5no1ledge +hrough +e3ts Elements of cultural identity include lan%ua%e, reli%ion, clothin%, race, shared e'"eriences and socio/economic customs# Internal and e'ternal forces sha"e identity# The cultural clashes and the issue of race durin% the &olonial Period still "la%ue the ,nited States today# ?ur society still reflects the cultural tensions that e'isted etween African Americans and White Americans in the @orthern, Middle and Southern colonies of the 1Ath and 1Bth centuries# Assessments 3$4 $ormative Write a short com"osition descri in% what they see on the included illustrations and how they re"resent some form of resistance and "ower# Allow 1C:1D minutes for >.

>an%ua%e has meanin% and can e used to unite and to divide "eo"le and cultures#

SOCIAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson
the students< com"letion of this tas!#

3S4 Summative

!ay (: The students will e instructed to rainstorm each other<s written ideas and to write conclusive re"orts a out their findin%s# Each %rou" leader will %ive a five minute "resentation a out their findin%s# The teacher will collect all written conclusive re"orts and %rade them for class credit# The teacher will do constant monitorin% to ma!e sure that each student is actively involved in their assi%ned %rou" tas!# !ay ): Each student will read the ac!%round information individually and write a short summary a out White Master and the Resistance of the Enslaved, a Study in the definition of Power and Identity materials# The teacher will collect all individual assi%nments and %rade them for class credit# Allow at least one class "eriod for the students to com"lete this tas!#

Te't/Resources

Resistance and Revolt within Enslaved African American Societies. Slave resistance: A Caribbean Study: htt"://scholar#li rary#miami#edu/slaves/inde'#html Slave Resistance: htt"://nationalhumanitiescenter#or%/tserve/freedom/1ECF: 1BED/essays/slaveresist#htm The Gabriel Prosser Slave Revolt: htt"://msuwe #montclair#edu/Gfurr%/s"l/%a rielrevolt#html Did African American Slaves Rebel : htt"://www#theroot#com/views/did:african: american:slaves:re el American !e"ro Slave Revolts: http://www.americanheritage.com/content/american-negro-slave-revolts Resistance: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/pds/maai/enslavement/text7/text7read.htm Strate"ies and #orms of Resistance #ocus on Slave $omen in the %nited States http://www.sc.edu/uscpress/books/20 /!"" x.pd# Enslavement and Resistance& '())*'+(, http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bhp/blackhistor$/enslavement-and-resistance- %&&-to8%'.pd# -istory is a $ea.on& A Peo.le/s -istory of the %nited States by -oward 0inn& Cha.ter 1: Enslavement $ithout Submission& Emanci.ation without #reedom htt"://www#historyisawea"on#com/defcon1/=innslaem1C#html

>earnin% Activities 8ay 1

(hite )aster and the *esistance o# the +nslaved, a ,tud$ in the de#inition o# -ower and .dentit$ 2esson Procedures
Differentiated Strate"ies for

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SOCIAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson
1# *arm 6p Acti#ity :The teacher e%ins this lesson with a review of the "revious study on The 6istory and 8evelo"ment of Enslavement and The Slave Trade, and an introduction to the study of White Master and the Resistance of the Enslaved, a Study in the definition of Power and Identity# The teacher will use his/her discretion when wor!in% with this activity# It is su%%ested to ma!e use of the materials "reviously studied ut if there is a %eneral lac! of ac!%round !nowled%e "lease refer to the narratives in the a""endi'# .# Small Group Acti#ity# The teacher will divide the class into four small %rou"s# Each %rou" will select a %rou" leader# ?nce the %rou"s are ready, the teacher will distri ute co"ies of illustrations ta!en from the unit A""endi'# The students are instructed to carefully study the illustrations and to write a short com"osition descri in% what they see on the illustration and how they re"resent some form of resistance and "ower# Allow 1C: 1D minutes for the students< com"letion of this tas!# ,"on com"letion of this assi%nment the students will e instructed to rainstorm each other<s written ideas and to write conclusive re"orts a out their findin%s# Each %rou" leader will %ive a five minute "resentation a out their findin%s# The teacher will collect all written conclusive re"orts and %rade them for class credit# The teacher will do constant monitorin% to ma!e sure that each student is actively involved in their assi%ned %rou" tas!# 1# *riting Acti#ity# Prior to this activity the students should have read materials a out issues dealin% with White Master and the Resistance of the Enslaved, a Study in the definition of Power and Identity# 3See A""endi'4 To reinforce their learnin% on the issue, the teacher should distri ute co"ies of the ac!%round information# Each student will read the ac!%round information individually and write a short summary a out White Master and the Resistance of the Enslaved, a Study in the definition of Power and Identity materials# The teacher will collect all individual assi%nments and %rade them for class credit# Allow at least one class "eriod for the students to com"lete this tas!# H# After the students have com"leted the follow:u" assi%nment, the teacher will collect all class wor!, and %rade it for class credit#
3aried 2earnin" Profiles ;rou"s should e mi'ed to reflect different learnin% "rofiles with care to ensure that each %rou" has a wide ran%e of learnin% "rofiles and a ility levels# Te'ts should either e modified for varyin% readin% levels or availa le in di%ital audio form to either au%ment the readin% or e used in lieu of the selected te't# Students who are develo"mentally challen%ed in writin% will e allowed to au%ment their written assi%nment with drawin%s, self: ori%inated video, PowerPoint, oral demonstration or any other a""roved method of transmittin% the !nowled%e they have o tained and synthesi=ed throu%h this "ro(ect# Students will e encoura%ed to

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SOCIAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson
use %ra"hic or%ani=ers and visual aids to su""ort the understandin% of !ey conce"ts# Allow for am"le formative assessments and revisions to ensure that all students have an e'cellent o""ortunity to e'"erience real academic success#

Appendi3 @arrative Resistance and Revolt within Enslaved African American Societies. Enslaved African Americans resisted enslavement in a variety of active and "assive ways# I8ay:to:day resistanceI was the most common form of o""osition to enslavement# Jrea!in% tools, fei%nin% illness, sta%in% slowdowns, and committin% acts of arson and sa ota%e::all were forms of resistance and e'"ression of slavesK alienation from their masters# Runnin% away was another form of resistance# Most slaves ran away relatively short distances and were not tryin% to "ermanently esca"e from enslavement# Instead, they were tem"orarily withholdin% their la or as a form of economic ar%ainin% and ne%otiation# Enslavement involved a constant "rocess of ne%otiation as slaves ar%ained over the "ace of wor!, the amount of free time they would en(oy, monetary rewards, access to %arden "lots, and the freedom to "ractice urials, marria%es, and reli%ious ceremonies free from white oversi%ht# Some fu%itives did try to "ermanently esca"e enslavement# While the idea of esca"in% enslavement 0uic!ly rin%s to mind the ,nder%round Railroad to the free states, in fact more than half of these runaways headed southward or to cities or to natural refu%es li!e swam"s# ?ften, runaways were relatively "rivile%ed slaves who had served as river oatmen or coachmen and were familiar with the outside world# Es"ecially in the colonial "eriod, fu%itive slaves tried to form runaway communities !nown as Imaroon colonies#I >ocated in swam"s, mountains, or frontier re%ions, some of these communities resisted ca"ture for several decades# 8urin% the early 1Bth century there were slave u"risin%s in >on% Island in 1ACB and in @ew Lor! &ity in 1A1.# Slaves in South &arolina sta%ed >D

SOCIAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson
several insurrections, culminatin% in the Stono Re ellion in 1A1F, when they sei=ed arms, !illed whites, and urned houses# In 1AHC and 1AH1, cons"iracies were uncovered in &harleston and @ew Lor!# 8urin% the late 1Bth century, slave revolts eru"ted in ;uadelou"e, ;renada, Mamaica, Surinam, San 8omin%ue 36aiti4, 2ene=uela, and the Windward Island and many fu%itive slaves, !nown as maroons, fled to remote re%ions and carried on %uerrilla warfare 3durin% the 1B.Cs, a fu%itive slave named Jo $ere ee led a and in fu%itive slaves in %uerrilla warfare in 2ir%inia4# 8urin% the early 1Fth century, ma(or cons"iracies or revolts a%ainst enslavement too! "lace in Richmond, 2ir%inia, in 1BCC9 in >ouisiana in 1B119 in Jar ados in 1B1E9 in &harleston, South &arolina, in 1B..9 in 8emerara in 1B.19 and in Mamaica and in Southam"ton &ounty, 2ir%inia in 1B11# Slave revolts were most li!ely when slaves outnum ered whites, when masters were a sent, durin% "eriods of economic distress, and when there was a s"lit within the rulin% elite# They were also most common when lar%e num ers of native: orn Africans had een rou%ht into an area at one time# The main result of slave insurrections was the mass e'ecutions of lac!s# After a slave cons"iracy was uncovered in @ew Lor! &ity in 1AHC, 1B slaves were han%ed and 11 were urned alive# After 8enmar! 2eseyKs cons"iracy was uncovered, the authorities in &harleston han%ed 1A lac!s# $ollowin% @at TurnerKs insurrection, the local militia !illed a out 1CC lac!s and .C more slaves, includin% Turner, were later e'ecuted# In the South, the "reconditions for successful re ellion did not e'ist, and tended to rin% increased sufferin% and re"ression to the slave community# 2iolent re ellion was rarer and smaller in scale in the American South than in Jra=il or the &ari ean, reflectin% the relatively small "ro"ortion of lac!s in the southern "o"ulation, the low "ro"ortion of recent mi%rants from Africa, and the relatively small si=e of southern "lantations# &om"ared to the &ari ean, "ros"ects for successful sustained re ellions in the American South were lea!# In Mamaica, slaves outnum ered whites y ten or eleven to one9 in the South, a much lar%er white "o"ulation was committed to su""ressin% re ellion# In %eneral, Africans were more li!ely than slaves orn in the @ew World to "artici"ate in outri%ht revolts# @ot only did many Africans have com at e'"erience "rior to enslavement, ut they also had fewer family and community ties that mi%ht inhi it violent insurrection

?"tional Jac!%round @arrative 4ac.ground Information +he "istory and !e#elopment of

The develo"ment of enslavement in the Americas e%an in 1HFD when the Indian natives on the island of 6is"aniola, or 6aiti, rose a%ainst their S"anish o""ressors# Accordin% to the early historian Antonio de 6errera, hundreds of thousands of native Indians marched on the small settlement of Isa ella, where &hristo"her &olum us had arrived a few months efore with three shi"s 3caravels4 after an e'tended voya%e of discovery to the >E

SOCIAL SCIENCE
Ensla#ement

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson
West Indies#1 &olum us was the man in char%e of those re%ions# $erdinand and Isa ella were conscientious monarchs who had instructed him to )honor much+ the Indians and to )treat them well and lovin%ly#+ Jut the discoverers des"erately needed %old# The Indians were unused to manual la or of any sort, and after ein% forced to wor! fourteen lon% hours a day, day after day, many e%an to %et sic!, others tried to run away, and many others (ust %ave u" wor!in%# As a result of the mistreatment, the Indians revolted violently a%ainst those who held them ca"tive# &olum us marched out a%ainst them, leadin% a force of two hundred infantry and twenty horsemen# Many natives were !illed, and the survivors once a%ain were "ut to wor! even lon%er hours thereafter# Many of them died within a few days, totally una le to withstand ca"tivity#. Moved y the destruction of the @ative Indians, $ather Jartolome de >as &asas, later Jisho" of &hia"a in Me'ico and !nown as the A"ostle to the Indians, returned to S"ain, determined to save the few survivors# In 1D1A he met with &harles 2, who had succeeded $erdinand and Isa ella# At this meetin% $ather >as &asas im"lored the -in% to s"are the last of the Indians# Reali=in% that there must e la or to wor! the "lantations and the mines, >as &asas "resented the new !in% what he thou%ht was an e'cellent solution# &onsiderin% that already a considera le num er of Jlac! slaves had een rou%ht to 6aiti, they seemed ha""y and were hard wor!ers, >as &asas, as an act of mercy toward the Indians, e%%ed 6is Ma(esty to im"ort other Jlac!s, at least twelve for each colonist#1 ?thers made the same "lea to &harles 2, thou%h not always with the same humanitarian motives# The -in% was moved to "ity, and there was also the hi%hly "ractical consideration that the Indians were worthless as slaves and the Jlac!s e'tremely useful#H &harles %ranted one of his favorite courtesans a "atent which entitled him to shi" four thousand Jlac!s to the West Indian colonies# This event was the e%innin% of the famous Asiento, an im"ort license which carried with it the "rivile%e of controllin% the slave traffic to the S"anish settlements in the @ew World#D With the !in%<s consent to set free the Indian natives and to re"lace their la or duties 3o li%ations4 with Jlac! slaves, the develo"ment of a new "ower stru%%le etween the @ew World and the ?ld World ori%inated almost immediately# And with it enslavement +the American way+ develo"ed# As indicated y 6er ert S# -lein in his oo! +nslavement in the /mericas, Althou%h En%land and S"ain may have had different motives for underta!in% im"erial e'"ansion, may have een o"eratin% in different historical e"ochs and dealin% with uni0ue national characters, they >A

SOCIAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson
nevertheless faced the identical "ro lem of esta lishin% their control over frontier colonies thousands of miles from the metro"olitan authority# In this attem"t at im"ressin% their wills %reatest difficulties, not "rimarily from "hysical distance ut from the o""osition of their own colonial su (ects, who sou%ht as much inde"endence from im"erial direction as they could achieve# These colonists, indeed, wanted freedom from the so called metro"olitan "ower in all ut name# Enslavement: The American Way, was the result of the stru%%le inherent in oth En%land<s and S"ain<s coloni=in% efforts, a contest which develo"ed to determine where the true "ower was to e located in the @ew World or in the ?ld, in the im"erial monarchy ant its institutions, or in colonial leadershi" and its own or%ans of "ower#E As the "ower stru%%le and stron% desire for inde"endence continued to increase at a ra"id rate, the Americans colonies were ent on achievin% an initiative that they had never "ossessed in Euro"e that they had come to America to achieve# $or e'am"le, throu%h the outcome of the stru%%le, %iven an e0ual drive of oth the &ari ean and @orth America, )Southerners,+ colonies for autonomy, would e determined y "olicies underta!en, whether active or "assive, y the Metro"olitan Authority in the early years of con0uest and coloni=ation#A $or the institution of Jlac! enslavement, the im"ortance of this conflict was "aramount, since it would determine whether the local or metro"olitan institutions would create and administer the le%al codes concernin% the Jlac!s in the Americas# This, in turn, would lar%ely determine what forces would e'ercise a si%nificant influence in the develo"ment of the colonial slave re%imes for each of these authorities would e affected differently y various e'ternal factors# As the colonial<s leadershi" %rew stron%er, local economic needs tended to e the dominant force in definin% the le%al structure of Jlac! enslavement and social attitudes toward the new American ways in the treatment of slaves#B +he Sla#e +rade With the li eration of the native Indians came the need for a etter wor! force in the colonial Americas# ?nce the "atent was %ranted y &harles 2, the new !in% of the S"anish em"ire, the slave trade usiness develo"ed e'tremely fast# Euro"ean slave masters e%an to "rofit either y the uyin% or sellin% of thousands u"on thousands of slaves# In s"ite of wars etween Euro"ean states, the slave trade flourished from the e%innin% and very soon it sur"assed &harles 2<s ori%inal estimate of four thousand a year# Jisho" de >as &asas "roved to e ri%ht:Jlac!s could survive under conditions im"ossi le for the Indians and would wor! hard under the overseer<s lash#F >B

SOCIAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson
Antonio de 6errera wrote in 1EC1, These @e%roes "ros"ered so much in the colony that it was the o"inion that unless a @e%ro should ha""en to e hun% he would never die, for as yet none have een !nown to "erish from infirmity# 6errera also noted that the wor! of one Afro:American Jlac! was e0ual to that of four Indians# As early as 1DHC, ten thousand Jlac!s a year were ein% im"orted to the &ari ean colonies# Jy the end of the century some nine hundred thousand slaves, y one estimate, had een shi""ed to the West Indies alone, not countin% those sent to Me'ico and South America# ?liver Ransford, in his oo! 0he ,lave 0rade discussed the "henomenon of enslavement the American way# 6e indicated that the num er of Africans torn from their homes and forci ly trans"orted to America durin% the course of the Atlantic slave trade will never e !nown# &onservative estimates su%%est that the fi%ure lies somewhere etween fourteen and twenty million# Jut even this was y no means the entire toll of the trade#1C The Atlantic slave trade s"onsored the four and a half centuries which followed the first real contact of white men with Afro:American Jlac!s in their own environment# It closed only a lon% lifetime a%o, for the last Jlac! car%o shi" landed in &u a as recently as 1BBC and the slaves of Jra=il were not emanci"ated until 1BBB# The Atlantic slave trade introduced vast num ers of African Jlac!s in the Americas, and most of them came from Africa, es"ecially ;uinea which lay conveniently close# In the new world the Jlac!s wor!ed very hard# They cut down forests, tilled the land, cultivated cro"s of su%ar, cotton and to acco, and hel"ed to create a continent<s wealth# Than!s to their la ors, %reat fortunes were founded in Euro"e as well as in the Americas, fortunes which "layed an im"ortant "art in financin% the Industrial Revolution in En%land and nevertheless, S"ain, and so molded the form of the world in which we live today#11 The "hysical conditions under which the Afro:American Jlac! slaves wor!ed and suffered varied accordin% to their destinations and/or rules and re%ulations im"osed u"on them y their white masters# The ruthless way the white masters treated their Jlac! slaves can e a %ood e'am"le of enslavement, the American way#1.

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8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

Revolt on a Slave Shi"

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8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

@ews"a"er ad for reward for the ca"ture of a runaway slave

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8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

@ews"a"er ad for reward for the ca"ture of a runaway slave

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8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

Runaway $amily

A wa%on with a hidden s"ace

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8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

White rendition of an enslaved "erson who has "artici"ated in a loody revolt#

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8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

A weddin% on a "lantation in the South

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8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

The cover of the oo! 0he 1oston *iot and 0rial o# /nthon$ 1urns >1E

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8th Grade Interdisciplinary African And African American Studies Quarter 3 Launch Lesson

Runaway family of enslaved African Americans

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