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IMPACT OF SURYANAMASKAR PRACTICES ON CARDIO-RESPIRATORY VARIABLES OF ADOLOSCENTS

Dr. Manoj Kumar Pandey* Introduction: Suryanamaskar application and versatility make it one of the most useful and complete methods to bring about health and vigor while at the same time preparing an adept for the deeper processes of yoga. It is based on three elements: rhythm, energy and form. Form is evident in the twelve postures which are always performed in the same sequence. Suryanamaskar- The salutation to the God Sun, is also a part of Indian traditional yogic practices. Each cycle of suryanamaskar is a sequence of certain asanas, performed along with pranayama. The sequence of asanas is such that each asana is complimentary to the next. During Suryanamaskar, muscles of the entire body experience stretch and pressure aiternately and therefore it is said to give more benefits with less expenditure of time. It is claimed that suryanamaskar practice gives benefits of both- asana and pranayama and improves general health and fitness. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study effects of suryanamaskar practice on cardio-respiratory fitness parameters in young, healthy subjects. Methods and Material: In the present study,28 B.Tech male students, participated voluntarily. Their age ranged between 18 to 20 years. They all were informed regarding the nature of the study and written consent was obtained. The baseline data was collected for all the subjects. It included following parameters1

1. 2.

Vital data included name, age, sex, height and weight of the subject. Each subject was asked to lie down comfortably in supine position for 5 minutes. Then resting pulse was taken for complete I minute and resting blood pressure was measured by using mercury sphygmomanometer. With the help of medspiror following lung functions were recorded- vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at the end of 1st second (FEV 1) and maximum ventilatory volume (MVV). Aerobic capacity was measured by 6 minute bench step test using Astrand Astrand nomogram and the results were expressed as VO 2 max in L/min/kg body weight.

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After recording of these parameters for all the subjects, Suryanamaskar training was given to them by the yoga experts for two weeks and then subjects performed suryanamaskar under the experts guidance. The session began with prayer, followed by Omkar' chanting with appropriate Bija mantra for each suryanamaskar and ended with prayer and shavasana. Subjects performed 10 Suryanamaskar on the l day and the number was gradually increased to 25 over next 15 days. This practice of 25 cycles of suryanamaskara daily was performed for 6 days a week and continued for 3 months. After 3 months of regular practice of Suryanamaskar, all the above parameters were reassessed. Data was analyzed statistically by using paired t test. Results: Table 1 Mean and Standard Deviation of cardio-respiratory variables (N=28)

Discussion: As shown in table 1, all the parameters show statistically highly significant improvement with regular practice of suryanamaskar. Statistically significant reduction in pulse rate after regular practice of suryanamaskaras is attributed to increased vagal tone and decreased sympathetic activity. Decreased sympathetic activity in turn reduces catecholamine secretion and also leads to vasodilation leading to improvement in peripheral circulation. It is also observed that regular yogic practices reduce basal metabolic rate and resting oxygen consumption. All these may be responsible for reduction in resting pulse rate. These factors also decrease work load on heart leading to decrease in cardiac output and hence systolic blood pressure. Yogic practices alter the hypothalamic discharges leading to decrease in sympathetic tone and peripheral resistance and hence the diastolic blood pressure. Regular yogic practices strengthen the respiratory muscles; increase the excursions of diaphragm and lungs as well as thoracic compliance. Also yoga practices decrease airway resistance [8]. All these factors contribute 3

to improvement in the various lung function tests after regular practice of suryanamaskar. Recent studies confirm increase in V02 max by yoga training. This is due to reduction in resting oxygen consumption at the same time its better utilization at cellular level. Both the improvement in cellular machinery as well as increased lung functions explain raised V02 max after regular practice of suryanamaskar. Thus, our study though preliminary suggests that regular suryanamaskar practice improves cardiopulmonary efficiency in healthy adolescents. Yogic practices can be advised to those interested in improving cardiovascular efficiency but cannot undergo strenuous physical exercise. Further research with larger sample size and for varied age groups is required for applying these results to the population in general. 1. 2. 3. 4. Vishwas Mandlik. Yog Shikshan Mala, Yog Parichay: 2001 6th Ed. Yogchaitanya Publication, Nashik: 36-45 KK. Gharote MS. Yoga for your heart: 1985 Jaico Publishing house. Murnbai, pg 11-15 Ranade VG. Practical physiology. Vidyarthigriha Prakashan.. 2nd ed. 2000 Pune

William D. McArdle, Frank I. Katch, Victor L. Katch. Individual differences and measurement ofenergy capacities. In Exercise Physiology Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance 5th Ed. Lippincott Williumsand Wilkins, Baltimore, USA 2001; 242-243 Wenger M.A. and Bagchi B.K. Studies of autonomic functions in practitioners of yoga in India. 1961 Behavioral science, 3 12-323. Vempati RP, Telles S. Yoga-based guided relaxation reduces sympathetic activity judged from baseline levels. 2002 Psycho.Rep. 90: 487-494 Karambelkar P.V. and Bhole M.V.. Heart control and yoga practices. 1971 Yoga Mimansa. 53-65 4

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Makwana K.. Khirwadkar N. and Gupta H.C. Effects of short term yoga practice on ventilatory function tests. 1988 Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology, vol.32, 202-207. Alisa Bauman. Is yoga enough to keep you fit? Sept/Oct. 2002Yoga journal. www.yogajournal.com/practice0739_1.cfm Ray U.S. et.al. Aerobic capacity and perceived exertion after practice of yoga techniques. 2001 Indian journal of medical research; 114:215-221.

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ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY TYPE, STRESS AND ADJUSTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS


Dr. Jaswant Singh Thakur Introduction Stress has been defined as a non specific and adaptive response of the body to any demand and an internal and external stimulus. It is altered state of mind as a result of the discrepancy between the environmental demand and individuals capability to meet th ese demands. The term stress refers to negative emotional experiences, associated with behavioural, biochemical and physiological changes that are related to perceived acute or chronic challenges. Stressors are the events that stimulate these changes. However, a stress arousing situation for one person might be a neutral event for another. Whether a certain situation is stressful for us or not depends on how we appraise life events and how we rate out ability to deal with it. People differ not only in the life events they experience but also in their vulnerability to them. A person's vulnerability to stress is influenced by his/her temperament, resilience, coping skills and available social support. Vulnerability increases the likelihood of maladaptive responses to stress. Hens Selye (1979) stated, "stress refers to non-specific response of body to any demand made upon it." Morgan and his associates (1992)

Assistant professor, Department of Physical Education, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur (C.G) INDIA

refer to stress as "stress is many faceted process that occurs in us in response to events that disrupt or threaten to disrupt our physical or psychological functioning." Symptoms of stress are expressed by apprehension, gloomy forebodings, fear of dying, feeling of insecurity and general excitement, fatigue, insomnia, gastro-intestinal disturbance and depression of spirits. Dunbar (1947) considered stress as a quality of the stimuli while Alexander (1950) defined it both as quality of the stimulus and the individual response to it. Lazarus (1966) opines that stress exists when the demands on a person are perceived as taxing or exceeding that person's adjustive capacity. There are three major types of stresses, i.e. environmental, social and psychological. It may, however, be noted that this division is for analytical purpose and all these types of stress are interrelated. 21st Century can well be described as the age of adjustment. The rapid changes in science, technology, knowledge, information sources i.e. in each and every sphere of life have overwhelmed the individual. It makes him feel helpless and lost leading to stress. Adjustment is an active process. It occurs as the individual develops in his family situation, advances educationally, pursues vocational outlets and engages in social relationship. Human adjustment is basically purposive transactional process as the individual develops into both physically and mentally healthy adult. The adjusted person is happy in all walks of life, satisfied with himself and has harmonious relations with whom he is associated. Gilmer (1978) identified behavioural adjustment as "the process of trying to bring about a balance between needs, stimuli and the opportunities offered by the environment." The dictionary meaning of the word 'adjustment' is to fit, make suitable adaptation, arrange, modify, harmonize or make correspondent. Thus when we make an adjustment 7

between two things, we adapt or modify one or both of them to correspond to each other. In some situations, one of the factors may not be changeable and so the one which is changeable has to be modified in some way to suit the other. The adaptation or changing of oneself or one's surrounding according to the demands of the external environment is part of one's personality. Those who can adapt or adjust to the needs of changing conditions can live happily and successfully while others vanish, lead miserable lives or prove a nuisance to society. James Drever (1952) reported that adjustment means the modification to compensate for or meet special conditions. According to Webster (1951) adjustment is the establishment of a satisfactory relationship as representing harmony conformance adoption or the like. According to Good C.V. (1959) adjustment is the process of finding and adopting modes of behaviour suitable to the environment or the changes in the environment. In general, we can say that the adjustment is persons own ability to face or handle the condition, which may be stressful to individual. Many researches showed that there is inverse relation between stress and adjustment. It is easy to say that if adjustment is good then stress must be low or if there is high level of stress it must be chance of maladjustment. Personality plays an important role in human life. The concept of personality is very comprehensive. It includes physical external and internal factors. Personality is the product of the innate disposition and learnt qualities which we acquired from our socio cultural environment and education. Personality is generally a collection of traits developed to different extents in different persons (Kamlesh, 1981). Personality influences directly or indirectly on the individuals behaviour and 8

adjustment. Different psychologists have given various classification of personality. The Type A/B construct was first propounded by Fridman and Rosenman (1974) to describe certain kinds of individual, who they believed, rendered to be over represented as clients in their clinical practice. The Type A person has easily aroused hostility, sense of time urgency, competitive achievement strivings, reactive in dealing with stress and control. The cognitive and affective domains of Type A behaviour have consistent set of beliefs and attitudes of self, others and life in general. The Type B personality lacks Type A personality's characteristics and is not prone to coronary problems. Type B people may work hard and have considerable drive but they feel no conflict with people or time. Type B people are more relaxed and easy going. They accept situations and work within those situations rather than fight them competitively. Such persons are especially relaxed of time pressures and so are less prone to have problems related with stress. Type B person is not concerned about time is patient, does not brag, plays for fun, not to win, has no pressing deadlines, relaxes without guilt, is mild mannered, is never in a hurry. Type A persons have different ways of dealing stress and their mechanisms differ sharply from Type B individuals. Sometimes the behaviour patterns of Type A persons itself creates stress and then invites stress thus establishing a vicious cycle. Over the ages, man has developed from the hunter to industrial worker. In 21st century the major means of earning of people is not agriculture but working in factories, offices and other organization. Employees form a major part of the population contributing to economic development of the society. There 9

are individual differences in the personality of employees. Though the work environment is same, certain individuals suffer due to their temperament, attitude, interest, etc. They experience stress problems in their work place. It leads to absenteeism, interpersonal clashes, decreased performance and loss of productivity in the organization. Taking into consideration importance of level of adjustment, level of stress, personality type and gender difference in them the investigator is interested to study the personality type and stress as predictor of adjustment among physical education teachers. Methodology Sample:A total number of 42 physical education teachers (both men and women) from Chhattisgarh participated in the present study. The average age range was from 25-45 years. Tools Used:The following standardized test was used to collect the data. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Stress scale Type A/B behavior pattern scale Adjustment inventory Personal data: - Personal data blank sheet is used to collect information about demographic variables i.e. income, education, age, family type etc.

Collection of Data:Prior rapport was established and test was administered in two sessions. In first session, Type A/B behavioral pattern scale was 10

administrated. After 10 minutes rest the second session include the administration of Stress Scale, and Adjustment Inventory. The sample of 42 physical education teacher was considered in the present study. Results and Discussion Coefficient of correlation method was used to study relationship between personality type, stress and adjustment among physical education teachers. Independent t test was applied to test the significance difference in means of stress and adjustment among physical education teacher having A type and B type personality characteristics. Table-1 Correlation between personality type, stress and adjustment physical education teachers S.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. Variables Correlated Type A Personality and stress Type B Personality and stress Type A Personality and Adjustment Type B Personality and Adjustment N 20 22 20 22 df 18 20 18 20 r -0.05 -0.11 -0.14 -0.13 Significance NS NS NS NS

NS=Not significant Table No. 1 showed that, A and B personality was not significantly correlated to stress among physical education teachers. Similarly, A and 11

B personality was not significantly correlated to adjustment among physical education teachers.

Table-2 Comparative study of means of stress of physical education teachers having A/B personality type Groups N Mean S.D. Standard Error Mean .81 Standard Error Difference .98 tvalue

A 20 18.25 3.63 Personality B 22 13.72 2.73 .58 Personality * Significant at 0.05 level, required t-value 2.02

4.59*

Table No. 2 showed that mean of stress of 'A' type personality physical education teachers (18.25) is greater than mean of stress of 'B' type personality physical education teaches (13.72). Significance difference was found between groups as obtained t value was greater than the required value at 0.05 level. Table-3 Comparative study of means of adjustment of physical education teachers having A/B personality type Groups N Mean S.D. Standard Error Mean .70 Standard Error Difference .92 t-value

A 20 12.35 3.15 Personality B 22 19.00 3.15 .60 Personality * Significant at 0.05 level, required t-value 2.02 12

6.84*

Table No. 3 showed that mean of adjustment of 'B' type personality physical education teachers (19.00) is greater than mean of stress of 'A' type personality physical education teaches (12.35). Significance difference was found between groups as obtained t value was greater than the required value at 0.05 level. Individuals belonging to the Type-A group are those more exposed to stress and present a higher chance of suffering from a physical or mental disorder on account of the pressure of stressful events. For example, Type-A people are very vulnerable with respect to cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke, hypertension etc.). Those in the Type-B category on the other hand reveal a greater capacity to cope with potentially stressful situations, consequently reducing their risk of becoming ill. The difference between the two types does not depend on the fact they present two different and well-defined personality structures but rather on the way in which they organize their responses to stressful situations. In the same working condition person having 'A' type personality accept more challenges and responsibility due to their own quality. When type 'A' is fails in a task in which they were engaged, then they show greater anger and annoyance at themselves. Due to this characteristic they are faced to stress. The type 'A' person have following characteristics, easily aroused hostility, sense of time urgency, competitive achievement strivings, control, etc. Due to these qualities they have low adjustment tendency. With contradictory to that type 'B' people accept situations and work within those situations rather than fight them competitively. Such people are more relaxed and easygoing. 13

References: Alacron,G., Echleman, K.J. and Bowling,N.A. (2009), Relationships between personality variables and burnout: A meta analysis Work & Stress, Vol.23, No.3 pp. 244-263 Bolger, N. and Zuckerman, A (1995), A framework for studying personality in stress process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.69, No.5 pp 890-902 Chusmir L.H. and Hood (1988) "Predictive Characteristics of Type A behaviour among men and women", Journalof Applied Social Psychology 18, 688 Fatima T. and Hasnain N. (1998) Adjustment, Alienation and Defeatism in Muslims and Hindu Adolescents, Social Psychological Dimensions of Muslims, The Post independence scenario, New Delhi. Friedman and Rosenman R.H. (1974) Type A Behaviour and Your Heart, Alfred A. Knopf, New York. Ghorepade M.B. (1979) "The extent of maladjustment among Bombay University Students", Bombay Psychologists 1, 60-62. Gilmer B.H.V. (1978) Applied Psychology - Adjustment in living and work, New Delhi T.M.H. Kumar S.D., Singh R. (2008) "Stressful life events and severity of depression", Indian Journal of Psychometry and Education, Vol. 39, Agra. 14

Kundu R. and Aich J. (1971), "Personality adjustment pattern of post graduate female", Students Behaviour Metric 2, pp 65-69. Lazarus R.S. (1966) Psychological Stress and Coping Process, Mc Graw Hill, New York. Lee, F.H. and Wu, W.Y. (2011), The relationship between person organization fit, psychological climate adjustment, personality traits and innovative climate: Evidence from Taiwanese high tech expatriate managers in Asian countries. African Journal of Business Management Vol. 5(15) pp 6415-6428 Nayyer Husain (2003), "A study of adjustment as a function of personality traits among college students", Journal of Human Development, 11. Shashirekha T. and Chengati S.K. (2008) "Occupational stress in employees", Indian Journal of Psychometry and Education, Vol. 39(2) July, 2008, Agra. Singh A. (2005) Advance General Psychology, Motilal Banarasidas, New Delhi. Singh R. and Shrivastav A. (2008) "Type A Behavioural Pattern (TABP) Stress Management Executives", Indian Journal of Psychometry and Education, Vol. 39(2) July, 2008, Agra.

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MUSCULAR STRENTH ABILITY OF RURAL AND URBAN COLLEGIATE STUDENTS
Shaikh Afshar** Bhupender Singh** Dr. Abdul Waheed Introduction Physical fitness is recognized as an important component of health (Lamb et al.1988; Twisk et al.2002) and it may be important for the performance of functional activities and quality of life (Noreau and Shephard1995; Stewart et al.1994). Low physical fitness may result in high physical strain during the performance of activities (Bruinings et al.2007). As a consequence, activity levels may decrease due to fatigue and discomfort, exacerbating low physical fitness. Caspersen and coworkers defined several health-related components of physical fitness, i.e. aerobic capacity, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition (Caspersen et al.1985). Keeping in view the fact that childhood physical fitness has important health consequences during adulthood (sallis et al, 1992) a large number of studies on physical fitness have been reported form different countries 16

of the world. Data on the physical fitness children from Denmark (Knuttgen, 1961), England (Campbell & Pohndof, 1961), South Africa (sloan 1966), Belgium (Hebbelinck & Borms, 1969), Israel (Ruskin, 1978), & Japan (Ishiko, 1978) are available in the literature. All these reports made the health planners realise the importance of the contribution of health education & physical fitness in the development of total fitness. The practice of physical testing in children started thereafter in various countries. Materials And Methods Subjects: Twenty rural and twenty urban students from various colleges of Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University Nanded. Who were regularly participating two years in the inter collegiate athletic tournament selected as subject for present study, exclusion criteria were the presence of chronic medical conditions such as asthma, heart disease or any other condition that would put the subjects at risk when performing the test the subjects were free of smoking, alcohol and caffeine consumption, antioxidant supplementation and drugs. The age, height and muscular strength of all subjects measured in physical education department ground. The data analysed with the help of stastical procedure in which mean, standard deviation, t test were used to compare the data. Selection Of Variable And Their Criterion Measures Muscular strength was measured by sit ups and test was conduct according to the AAPHER youth fitness test. 17

Results The statistical of the results of Muscular Strength ability between rural & urban students are shown in table 1. The mean (+ S.D.) of the age of the rural students was 21.03 (+ 3.11) years, height 171.33 (+ 5.22) cm. weight 68.48 (+ 3.91) kg. On other hand, the mean (+ S.D.) of the urban students was 21.99 (+ 3.72) years height 171.66 (+ 8.29) cm. and weight 67.92 (+ 3.76). Table 1 shows statistical comparison of Muscular Strength between rural & urban collegiate students. Students Rural Urban No. 20 20 Means 24.85 19.70 S.D. 3.40 2.81 S.Ed. 0.98 t-value 3.98*

* = Significant Table 1 indicates the existence of statistically significant difference between rural and urban students with respect to Explosive strength .Significant differences was found in explosive strength (t=6.53,p<.05).Rural students was found to have got greater explosive strength as compared to urban students Discussion This study reveals that significant defences were found in Muscular Strength ability (t=3.11, P< 0.5), between rural and urban students. Urban students were found to have got strongest than rural students. This results didnt supported sandhu (1983) compared rural and urban students of Amritsar district. He was found rural students were stronger than urban students. Tsimeas and Tsigilis (2005) conducted a study on Greek rural 18

students to find out Does living in urban or rural setting effect aspect of physical fitness in children. A similar type of result was obtained in the work of Mehtap and Nihal (2005). Who conducted a study on physical fitness in rural children compared with urban children in turkey and found that children living in the urban areas were more inactive and obese than rural children. Urban students incur significantly low speed ability as compared to rural children. This may be due to mechanization, automation and computerization have minimised the opportunities for vigorous physical activities to cause physical exertion in urban population. The result is supported Uppal and Sareen (2000) Chaudhary (1998) and Ray (1979). This may be due to the rural life style is more active in nature then the life in urban areas which produced high level physical and psychological functioning in rural areas Conclusion It is found that the rural students were comparatively better than urban students except agility ability of colleges of Swami Ramanand Teerth University. Rural students were stronger to urban students in explosive strength speed and endurance. However urban students are stronger in agility. References Bouchard C, Shephard RJ 1994. Physical activity, fitness and health: The model and key concepts In: C Bouchard, RJ Shephard, T Stephens (Eds.): Physical Activity Fitness and Health: International Proceedings and Consensus Statement, Human Kinetics, Champaign (III), pp. 77-88. Cataldo C 1999. Nutrition and Diet Therapy: Principles and Practice, St. 19

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Janet Buckworth & Claudio Nigg, physical activity exercise sedentary behavior in college students. Journal of American college health vol. 53 (1), page 28-34 Aug. 2004. JA Blumenthal et. al. Physiological & psychological variables predict comprehensive to prescribed exercise therapy in patients recovering from myocardial infarction, psychosomatic medicine, vol. 44, Issue 6 page 519 to 527. John R Hugs, Dave C. Casal & Auther S. Leon, Psychological effects of exercise: A randomized cross over trial. Journal of Psychosomatic Research: volume 30, issue 3, 1986 pages 355 to 360. Irvin ML, et. al., Effect of exercise on total & intra abdominal body fat in post menopausal women a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American medical association 2003; 289:323-330. Mehmet Goral, Ozean Journal of applied sciences 3(2), 2010 ISSN 19432429. McTiernan A. et.al. the physical activity for total health (path) study: rational & design. Medicine & science in sports & exercise. 1999; 31:1307-1312. Rcep A. et. al., Effect of acute & regular exercise on anti oxidative enzymes, tissue damage markers & membrane lipid peri oxidation of erythrocytes in sedentary students. Tr. J. of Medical Sciences 28 (1998) 411-414. Rippe JM, Price JM, Hess SA, Kline G, DeMers KA, Damitz S, Kreidieh I, Freedson P. Improved psychological well-being, quality of life, and health practices in moderately overweight women participating 25

in a 12-week structured weight loss program. Obesity Research. 1998; 6:208218. S Grant et. al., the effect of university fitness program on health related variables in previously sedentary males, Br J Sports Med 1992: 26:39-44. Singh NA, Clements KM, Singh MAF. The efficacy of exercise as a long-term antidepressant in elderly subjects: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of Gerontology; Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. 2001; 56:M497504. Tinna Ritvanen et. al., Effect of aerobic fitness on the physiological stress responses at work, international journal of occupational medicine and environmental health 2007; 20(1):1-8 USDHHS Healthy people 2010 (conference addition in two volumes) Washington DC 2010 Agre J. C., et. al., (1987) Physical activity capacity in children with myelomeningocele. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 68:372377 Bandini L.G., et. al., (1991) Body composition and energy expenditure in adolescents with cerebral palsy or myelodysplasia. Pediatr Res 29:7077 Bowman R.M., et. al., (2001) Spina bifida outcome: a 25-year prospective. Pediatric Neurosurg 34:114120 Bruinings A.L., et. al., (2007) Energy cost and physical strain of daily activities in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele. Dev Med Child Neurol 49:672677 Buffart LM, et. al., (2008) Triad of physical activity, aerobic fitness and 26

obesity in adolescents and young adults with myelomeningocele. J Rehabil Med 40:7075 Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM (1985) Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Rep 100:126131 Haisma JA, Bussmann JB, Stam HJ, Sluis TA, Bergen MP, Dallmeijer AJ, de Groot S, van der Woude LH (2006) Changes in physical capacity during and after inpatient rehabilitation in subjects with a spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 87:741748 Joanie Larose, et. al., Effect of exercise training on physical fitness in type II diabetes Mellitus, Medicine & science In Sports & exercise 2010;42(8) : 1439 to 1447. Janssen TW, van Oers CA, Hollander AP, Veeger HE, van der Woude LH (1993) Isometric strength, sprint power, and aerobic power in individuals with a spinal cord injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25:863870 Joanie Larose, et. al., Effect of exercise training on physical fitness in type II diabetes Mellitus, Medicine & science In Sports & exercise 2010;42(8) : 1439 to 1447. Janssen TW, van Oers CA, Hollander AP, Veeger HE, van der Woude LH (1993) Isometric strength, sprint power, and aerobic power in individuals with a spinal cord injury. Med Sci. Sports Exerc. 25:863870 K. Spanos et.al. the effects of tow resistance training programs in maximum strength & muscular endurance of male adults., Physical training Aug. 2007. 27

Kwok Kei Mak et. al., Health related physical fitness & Weight status in Hong Kong adolescents BMC public health 2010, 10:88. Kwok Kei Mak et. al., Health related physical fitness & Weight status in Hong Kong adolescents BMC public health 2010, 10:88. K. Spanos et.al. The effects of tow resistance training programs in maximum strength & muscular endurance of male adults., Physical training Aug. 2007. Laurin M et. al., health related physical fitness of adolescents & young adults with Myelomeningocele, Eur J Appl. Physiol. 2008 Feb. 103(2) 181-188. Lamb KL, Brodie DA, Roberts K (1988) Physical fitness and healthrelated fitness as indicators of a positive health state. Health Promot Int 3:171182. McDonald CM, Jaffe KM, Mosca VS, Shurtleff DB (1991) Ambulatory outcome of children with myelomeningocele: effect of lowerextremity muscle strength. Dev Med Child Neurol 33:482490 Mita K, Akataki K, Itoh K, Ono Y, Ishida N, Oki T (1993) Assessment of obesity of children with Spina bifida. Dev Med Child Neurol 35:305311 Noreau L, Shephard RJ (1995) Spinal cord injury, exercise and quality of life. Sports Med 20:226250 S Grant et. al., the effect of university fitness program on health related variables in previously sedentary males, Br J Sports Med 1992: 26:39-44. Sherman MS, Kaplan JM, Effgen S, Campbell D, Dold F (1997) 28

Pulmonary dysfunction and reduced exercise capacity in patients with myelomeningocele. J Pediatr 131:413418. Stewart AL, Hays RD, Wells KB, Rogers WH, Spritzer KL, Greenfield S (1994) Long-term functioning and well-being outcomes associated with physical activity and exercise in patients with chronic conditions in the Medical Outcomes Study. J Clin Epidemiol 47:719730. Skelton DA, et. al., Effects of resistance training on strength, power & selected functional abilities of women aged 75 & older, J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995 Oct; 43 (10) 1081-7. Skelton DA, et. al., Effects of resistance training on strength, power & selected functional abilities of women aged 75 & older, J Am Geriatr Soc. 1995 Oct; 43 (10) 1081-7. Sherman MS, Kaplan JM, Effgen S, Campbell D, Dold F (1997) Pulmonary dysfunction and reduced exercise capacity in patients with myelomeningocele. J Pediatr 131:413418. Stewart AL, Hays RD, Wells KB, Rogers WH, Spritzer KL, Greenfield S (1994) Long-term functioning and well-being outcomes associated with physical activity and exercise in patients with chronic conditions in the Medical Outcomes Study. J Clin Epidemiol 47:719730. van der Ploeg RJ, Oosterhuis HJ, Reuvekamp J (1984) Measuring muscle strength. J Neurol 231:200203. Verhoef M, Barf HA, Post MW, van Asbeck FW, Gooskens RH, Prevo AJ (2004) Secondary impairments in young adults with spina bifida. Dev Med Child Neurol 46:420427. 29

W L Haskell, H J Monteye, & D Orenstein, Physical activity & exercise to achieve health related physical fitness components. Public health Rep. 1985 march - April; 100 (2) 202 - 212. Zoeller RF Jr, Riechman SE, Dabayebeh IM, Goss FL, Robertson RJ, Jacobs PL (2005) Relation between muscular strength and cardio respiratory fitness in people with thoracic-level paraplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86:14411446.

30

MEANING OF BIOMECHANICS, FUNCTIONS AND IMPORTANCE IN SPORTS


Dr. Santosh Sandhu D.C.R.U.S.T., Murthal Meaning of Biomechanics It is the science deals with the mechanics of the living organism, especially of the levers and arches of the skeleton and the forces applied to them by the muscles and by gravity. Sports biomechanics is a quantitative based study and analysis of professional athletes and sports activities in general. It can simply be described as the Physics of Sports. In this subfield of biomechanics the laws of mechanics area applied in order to gain a greater understanding of athletic performance through mathematical modeling, computer simulation and measurement. Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems by means of the methods of mechanics. This is the branch of physics involving analysis of the actions of forces. Within mechanics there are two sub-fields of study, statics, which is the study of systems that are in a state of constant motion either at rest (with no motion) or moving with a constant velocity; and dynamics, which is the study of systems in motion in which acceleration is present, which may involve kinematics (the study of the motion of bodies with respect to time, displacement, velocity, and speed of movement either in a straight line or in a rotary direction) and kinetics. Functions and Importance in Sports 31

Structurally human being is able to accomplish a variety of performances that other form of life cannot perform. Human being tends to be highly versatile, but not highly specialized in motor performances. He can walk, run, hap, climb, jump, swing, throw objects and manipulate implements. This great versatility is mainly due to the complexity and functions of his movements which depends upon:(a) Muscles (b) Skeletal (c) Leverages (d) Nerves (e) Forces applied by muscles The main function and - importance of the bio-mechanics is to know and understand the structure and functions which are as under:Breathing is essential for Life and Movement is essential for Human body Movement is common in all human be it is required in every task or every work from birth till death and from morning till late at night. The absence of movement is death. A person who moves efficiently is more active. His life span increased. Faulty body mechanism of daily life leads adverse effect on youth. Thus learning of correct body movement mechanism at an early life can be much beneficial and can enrich the later decade of life. 1. .The knowledge of Bio-mechanics is essential for every individual in order to have an efficient and effective performance of daily work which may be high or heavy, fast or slow of long or short duration. 32

2. Physical education teacher has more responsibility. Since movements are used in some ways and to some degree in every task done by an individual. Physical educational activities are mainly movement activities so physical education teacher helps the children to develop motor abilities which can be effectively use to perform all the motor tasks correctly such as walking, running, sitting and standing etc. Knowledge of Bio- mechanics increased the understanding of human movements. 3. Bio-mechanics explained the patterns of motor skills which form the basis for specialized skill required red in daily life in standing, walking, running, jumping and throwing etc. 4. The human body is a system of weight (mass) lever and devices for producing muscular force. The human body and its various movements are governed by physical laws. Whenever, an individual moves he applies the body mechanics either for using or wasting energy. Some time without proper use he suffers from injuries. It is therefore essential for an individual to understand the use of mechanics which governs human motion. 5. Bio-mechanics involve the law of gravity, buoyancy, balance, motion, leverage, force and angle of rebound of various implements. Such as Buoyancy is important for all water sports activities, the law of motion and force are vital when any movement is to be undertaken, laws of rebound is involved in vast number of ball games (Basket ball, Football, Volley ball etc.). Similarly laws of leverage are important to use the different angle of movements during sports. Knowledge of all these helps for an effective and economical use of body, implements during sports performances. Likewise, force and 33

speed are important factors to understand for performing sports activities. 6. Knowledge of Bio-mechanics explains how to produce and control force during running, jumping, climbing and diving etc. How body leverage can be used? How to absorb the force? 7. Study of Bio-mechanics help to apply the mechanical principles and to facilitate transfer of training. It is through the mechanical principles understand the relationship among various movements and basic movements, long range of hand is useful in Volley ball smash and to apply force of motion in shot put positive transfer become easy in similar types of games or activities; examples Badminton and Tennis or Table Tennis, Hitting in Hockey and hitting in cricket, wrestling and Judo etc. 8. Knowledge of Bio-mechanics and its principles helps the individual to know the ways to use the energy in an economical way with which he can delay the fatigue and prolong the work for a longer time. Individual learns the method for doing his task with best energy, less strain and acquiring better efficiency. For example in throwing a ball to a Specific point on the wall from a particular distance, the individual use the simple method, but if the distance is increased so that individual has to apply force he uses some other method to strike the ball to that point, i.e. he take more back swing of the arm, trunk rotation etc. to complete the task. When an individual is near the wall it is easy for him to hit the ball to the wall, rot as the individual is more away from the wall he discovers that back swing must increase the range. Body rotation and bending at the knee generate additional 34

strength and ball can be thrown from a longer distance. The same way importance of a wide foot stance can be demonstrated for more force. 9. The knowledge of Bio-mechanics principles clarifies the reasons of the effectiveness of certain skills techniques over the other. For example- in shot -put orthodox style, para-obrine and disco-put. The disco-put is considered to be the best. Angle of throw in shot-put, Javelin is also according to the efficiency of the individual. Similarly in long jump, hang style, hitch kick for start. Bunch start and standing start. 10. With the knowledge of Bio-mechanics individual learns to analyze the muscles used in a particular action and activity. With this he can apply the force in a better way with better action to achieve better distance, better speed. One can distinguish correct or incorrect action cause and effect of the actions etc. 11. Knowledge of Bio-mechanics provides the insight to the individuals to know the attachments of-various important muscles of the body and their placement. He can trained them for the right prospective to attain good results. With this knowledge one can rehabilitate the strained muscles with the help of exercises based upon mechanical principles. For example - When the passive exercises or active exercises are to be given? When exercises from top to bottom or bottom to top are given? Etc. So we can say that bio-mechanics is play very important role in sports field. Bio-mechanics is the sport science field that applies the laws of mechanics and physics to human performance, in order to gain a greater understanding of performance in athletic events through 35

modeling, simulation and measurement. It is also necessary to have a good understanding of the application of physics to sport, as physical principles such as motion, resistance, momentum and friction play a part in most sporting events. Biomechanics is a diverse interdisciplinary field, with branches in Zoology, Botany, Physical Anthropology, Orthopedics, Bioengineering and Human Performance. The general role of Biomechanics is to understand the mechanical cause-effect relationships that determine the motions of living organisms. In relation to sport, Biomechanics contributes to the description, explanation, and prediction of the mechanical aspects of human exercise, sport and play.

36

PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF COLLEGIATE POWERLIFTING AND BEST PHYSIQUE PLAYERS


Dr. K.G.Jadhav, Director& Head Dr.B.A.M. University Aurangabad Introduction Best Physique and Power lifting are the most popular sports in Marathwada region of Maharashtra. The study of personality characteristics and profiles of sports participants is one of the most popular areas in sports psychology research. Personality is the overall pattern of psychological characteristics that makes person a unique individual. It is well known fact that players of other games in their personality traits The game of Power lifting and Best physique are simple in nature, easy to organize, less expensive. Hence they reach to common men. Both games can he played in a small area and practically less equipment are required. Both games differ from each other in their nature, skill, techniques and strategies etc. To understand the psychology of the athlete, researchers have examined personality differences among athletes in various sports. Although no "athletic personality" has been found athletes are generally more extraverted, emotionally stable, toughminded, assertive, and self-confident than nonathletic and, within sports, team players are generally more extroverted. More anxious, more dependent but less sensitiveimaginative than players of individual sports. Inconsistent results are often due to methodological and theoretical weaknesses in the studies and, because the research is necessarily descriptive, it is difficult to distinguish whether sport 37

participation causes personality differences differences draw people into sports. Objective of the Study

whether pre-existing

The objective of the study was to find out differences in personality traits between the collegiate level Best physique and Power lifting players with regards to Extraversion psychoticim and Neuroticism. Method In This section; Selection of subjects, Administration of the tests, and Statistical Analysis have been described. Selection of Subjects 50 Best physique and 50 Power lifting players who were participating in the Inter Collegiate tournament conducted by Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada university held at Vaidyanath college Parti were selected as subject for this present study. Administration of the Test EYSENCK'S personality Inventory (E.P.I) was administered to the Best Physique and Power lifting players. Instructions were given to the subjects before filling the E.P.I. Statistical Analysis T-ratio was computed to compare. The significance of differences between the means of Extroversion, Neuroticism and liescale of interCollegiate Best Physique and Power lifting players. Results and Discussion The results of the present study are presented in Table I and II. 38

Table-I Means, Standard Deviations and t-ratio of Extroversion for Best Physique and power lifting Players.

*Significant As per table I shows that the mean scores. Standard deviation and t-ratio of Extroversion of Power lifting and Best Physique Players With regards to Extroversion of Power lifting and Best Physique Players they have obtained the mean values of 12.21 and 14.15 respectively, which are given table 1 reveals that the significance difference was found out in (t=3.40, P< 0.5) of Power lifting and Best physique players. Power lifting having less psychotic tendency as compared to Best physique, which means that Best Physique significantly more Extroversion tendency. This may be due to the differences of the game.

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Table-II Means, Standard Deviations and t-ratio of Neuroticism for Best Physique and Power lifting Players.

NS=Not Significant *Significant As per table I shows that the mean scores, standard deviation and tratio of Neuroticism of Power lifting and Best Physique Players with regards to Neuroticism of Power lifting and Best Physique Players they have obtained the mean values of 12.33 and 14.19 respectively, which are given table 1 reveals that the significance difference was found out in (t= 3.00 P< 0.5) of Power lifting and Best Physique Players. Power lifting having less Neurotic tendency as compared to Best Physique which means that Best Physique incur significantly more Neurotic tendency.

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Table-III Means, Scores, Standard Deviation and t-ratio of psychoticim for Power lifting and Best Physique players

* Significant at .05 Level. * Significant As per table I shows that the mean scores, standard deviation and t-ratio of Psychoticim of Power lifting and Best Physique Players With regards to Psychoticim of Power lifting and Best Physique Players they have obtained the mean values of 11.13 and 09.92 respectively, Which are given table 1 reveals that the no significance difference was found out in (t=0.88) of Power lifting and Best Physique Players. Power lifting having more psychotic tendency as compared to Best Physique, which means that Best Physique incurs significantly less Psychotic tendency.

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Table-IV Means, Scores, Standard Deviations and t-ratio Lie-scale for Power lifting and Best Physique players

NS= Not significant *Significant As per table I shows that the mean scores, standard deviation and tratio of Power lifting and Best Physique Players Conclusions The result of the present study suggests that:1. There was a significant difference in extraversion of Power lifting and Best Physique players. Power lilting Players having less extrovert tendency than the Best Physique players. There was a significant difference Neuroticism of Power lifting and Best Physique players having less Neurotic tendency than Power lifting players There was no significant difference in Psychoticim of Power lifting and Best Physique players. 42

2.

3.

4.

There was no significant difference in Lie-Scale of Power lifting and Best Physique players.

References: Eysenck, H.J. (1967) Dimensions of Personality, New York: Praeger. Eysenck, H.J. (1967) The Biological Basis of Personality, spring field, I L: Charter C. Thomes. Eysenck, H.J. and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1969) Personality Structure and Measurement, _ London; Hodder Stoughton. Eysenck, H.J. and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975): Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire,_ London; Hodder & Stoughton. Eysenck, H.J. and Nias. D. K. B. & Cox, (1982) Advances in behavior, Research Therapy, 4, No. 1, 1-56. Mushier, C. L. (1972) : Personality and selected women Athletes. International sports psychology. Rushall, B. S. (1967) Personality profiles and a theory of behavior modification for swimmers. Swimming techniques, 4: 66-21 Singh, A Barar, R. S. (1987) A study Extraversion, Neuroticism, and self concept of University Handball players. Sports Science, Health, Fitness and Performance, Patiala_IASSPE, PP. 251-254.

43

THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF EXERCISE


Dr. K.G.Jadhav, Director & Head, Dr.B.A.M.University Aurangabad People of modern are suffer greatly from disorders of stress (Benson, 1974, and Benson & Klipper 1975; Brown, 1975). In fact they are the major causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Even now infective disorders take a great toll of lives in developing countries. But the disorders of stress and injuries arc responsible fir a large number of human tragedies in developed countries. The excessive stresses and strains affect adversely the quality of life. Further, people undergoing too much of stress and strain are more liable to be affected by different types of infections than others because of poor immunological responses. The study of the causes and effects of stress is one of the most important subjects of investigation for a modern medical person. But very few scientists and medical men have taken much interest in this subject. (Jacobson, 1938: Levi, 1971; Pelletier, 1971; Udupa & Singe, 1972 Bhushan, 1977; Etnier et al, 1997). About five decades ago Hans Selye reported to the world that stress causes marked changes in the entire body. But not many attempts were made to apply this knowledge in solving the problems of human sufferings. Selye earlier suggested that all the non-specific responses of stress such as hypertrophy of adrenal cortex, lymphopenia and GI ulcerations occurred as a result of excessive secretions of adrenocortical hormones. He further proposed that such a response was mostly due to stimulation or anterior pituitary gland which regulated the adrenal cortex. However this was not fully accepted by the physiologists. Cannon had postulated earlier that adrenal medulla and its 44

hormone adrenaline were responsible for the appearance of various physiological changes in the body after any type of psychosomatic stimulation. Exercise enhances the mind-body connection, which can improve your mood and physical health-and even lighten various psychological disorders, improved depression, body image struggles, eating disorders, and even physical problems such as back pain and asthma are some of the health benefits of exercise. Improved body image Women who involved in physical activity report more body satisfaction, less self-objectification, and greater satisfaction with physical appearance (compared to women who dont do yoga). Fewer symptoms of eating disorders are also reported by women who involved in physical exercise perhaps because exercise encourages one to listen to the bodys feedback and learn to be sensitive to the bodily sensations. This in turn makes o0ne less preoccupied with Ones appearance, gives more positive views of the body. And helps incorporate healthy eating habits in ones life. A healthy body image is one of the health benefits of exercise. Physical activity as a preventive tool Physical activity is considered as a gift by many due to its immense benefits and ability to provide cure for a wide range of diseases without having to intake medications. But aside from providing cure, physical exercise can also be used as a preventive too. With regular physical activity, it is believed that one can improve health and well being such that body is better able to fight off diseases. The discipline of 45

exercise makes one think differently about ones mind and body by enhancing mind-body bond. People of any age or gender can benefit from the exercise, its restorative mechanism is what makes exercise unique from other medical approaches or exercise trends that are currently practiced by various individuals, It emphasizes the promotion of a healthy well-being more than it focuses on trying to cure diseases. Indeed, prevention is still several ways better than cure and anyone who has tried can attest to this. In fact, many who have adapted exercise as part of their regular fitness routine does so since it significantly improves their health maintenance system. One of its practical applications involves stress reduction techniques that enable an individual to cope with daily stresses in life that could have entailing impact on the health. Indeed, stress depletes the immune systems ability to fight off diseases so it is important to eliminate stress in the life. There are several methods involved in physical exercise that will provide with an effective stress management tool, such aerobic exercise, breathing exercises, and stretching exercise. Heart problems and cardiovascular diseases is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Finding an effective cure against these types of diseases will greatly reduce to mortality rate. But regular exercise offers an even more effective approach to put a stop to the increasing number of people suffering from heart diseases. Hence, expert physical education suggest incorporating Aerobic exercise, calisthenics and resistance exercises into the daily life so that one can embark on an important lifestyle transformation that will improve the heart condition. When an individual suffers from stress, it constricts breathing passage, creates tension in the heart muscles, and increase heart rate. 46

When this happens, one simply has to start executing aerobic exercises to release pressure exerted on the heart and its surrounding muscles. Performing aerobic exercises and positions are the subject of several health studies over the recent years. And these studies show somewhat similar results that indicate the ability regular exercise to improve the quality of life. This happens mainly due to the improved body composition and better fitness level. Moreover, these effects are equally significant as a complementary therapy for those that are undergoing conventional medical treatments. By regularly executing. Aerobic exercises, an individual is able to improve their muscular strength, produce a leaner body mass, and improve immune system. It also helps to improve ones level of self-esteem and produce a more positive body image, which greatly impacts their view of the self without suffering from any form of side effects. It is so believed that exercise improves the health such that it equips oneself with the ability to fight oil common diseases and other conditions. Whether it affects the physical health or internal organ system exercise is able to address various health issues, which is the key to improving the quality of file. So, what are these common health problems and how does exercise improve your bodys ability to prevent them? All these questions need serious explorations scenically. Chronic back pain or problem is a common complaint shared by several individuals. But Therapeutic exercise offers a great method to relieve your of any pain sensation or prevent back pain from developing. Back pain, particularly in the lower back area, is often caused by poor posture of remaining at the same position over a long period of time (which is likely with individuals sitting, in their office desks for several 47

hours each day) the aim of Therapeutic exercises is to add flexibility, provide proper toning, and increase strength in your muscles. All of these are important qualities that the body needs to eliminate pain in the back or some other parts of the body. And the best part about performing these therapeutic exercises is that they serve both as a way to prevent injuries or speed up the process of healing. The ability to add strength and flexibility to your muscles and joints are obvious benefits that can be derived from strength and flexibility to your muscles and joints are obvious benefits that can be derived from stretching exercise people are aware that exercise provides benefit to your internal health system, as well. One of that is your digestive system. When you perform advanced stretches or curling exercises, it also internally massages your organs such that it facilitates for proper functioning of those organs. And when your internal or digestive organs are healthy, so is the rest of your body. Stress-Related conditions: Anxiety and stress are normal bodily responses prompted by various external impulses. In fact, stress is considered as healthy as it enables the body to push beyond the limits and act according to what type of physical situation an individual is confronted with. But when present in an overwhelming amount exercise is not good for your health. There are several ways to equip your body to cope with the effects of stress or helter vet manage stress before it begins to create devastating effects on the body. Exercises are very effective in helping you control stress and regulating your breath patterns. The Complete Breath technique is one of the breathing exercises that one needs to learn, especially when stressed out. Simple concentration and paying close 48

attention to the sound of the breathing and this enables to cam down the nerves and avoid panic attack. Daily or regular exercises and aerobic exercise also known to effectively reduce anxiety or depression caused by stress. Health Conditions Related to Aging Process There is also a relatively new category of exercise that caters to the needs or older or aging individuals. This might appear as a bit surprising for many given that most people have this miscomputation that exercise requires a certain level of flexibility or physical skill. However, older individuals can experience several great benefits from therapeutic exercise such as improved dexterity, injury prevention, and reduced amount of pain in their joints, muscles, and ligaments as yoga exercises help to add flexibility into them. The health benefits of exercise Regular exercise 45 minutes daily was connected to weight loss in subjects between the ages of 45 and 55, according to a study funded by the National Cancer Institute. Aerobic exercise isnt about burning calories; its more about becoming more aware of your body and when its full of food, stress, or conversation. The health benefit of exercise with regard to weight loss is that its easier to stop eating when your mind-body connection is strong. Its your body awareness that is improving, not necessarily the caloric burn. Regular exercise improves mindfulness and encourages a gentle strength, which positively affects weight loss and weight management. The health benefits of exercise improved physical health

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Research is proving connections between good physical health and exercise for instance, epileptic stress, back pain and fatigue caused by multiple sclerosis are all health problems that have been proven to he reduced by various types of exercise and thats just barely scratching the surface of all the scientific research about exercise and health. Exercise seems to possess enormous health potential and serious scientific explorations and its inclusion in the school educational curriculum along with physical education is the need of time to enhance the quality of life of the people in general and nation as a whole. References Benson, H. 1974. Decreased intake of alcohol associated with the practice of Meditation: A retrospective investigation. Annals of New York Acad. Sciences, 223:174 Bhussan Kumar 1977. A study of numerous arrhythmias following acute MI. MD thesis. BHU Center for disease control & prevention. 2003. Physical activity and good nutrition; essential elements to prevent chronic disease and obesity. At a Glance. Corbin, C. Lindsey, R. & Welk, G. 2000. Concepts of Fitness and Wellness. (3rd Ed.) Eliot, R.S. 1974, Stress & Heart. Futura Publishing Co., NY. Etnier, J.L., Salazar, W., Landers, D.M., Petruzzello, S.J., Han, M., & Nowell, P. 1997. The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning; a meta-analysis. Journal of sports & exercise psychology, 19(3):249-277. 50

Jacobson, E. 1938. Progressive relaxation. Chicago university press, Chicago Kaufman, F.R. 2002. Type two diabetes in children and young adults; a new epidemic Clinical Diabetes, 20(4):217 -218 Keays, J., & Allison. R. 1995. The effects of regular moderate to vigorous physical activity on student out come: a review. Canadian journal Of Public health 86:62-66. Levi, L. 1971. Society, Stress and disease. Vol. I. Oxford Univ. Press Narayan K. M., et. al. 2003. Life time risks for diabetes mellitus in United States (Abstract No. 967-P). Diabetes 52 (Suppl I): A225226 National Association for sports & physical education (NASPE). 2001 Shape of the Nation Report. National Association for sports & physical education (NASPE). 2002. New study supports physical fit kids perform better academically. National Association for sports & physical education / council of physical education for children. 2001. Physical education is a critical to a complete education. Nutrition Environments. Alexzandra, VA: agriculture, Food and nutrition service. U.S. Department of

Ogden, CL., Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., & Johnson, C.L. 2002. Prevalence and trends in overweight among U.S. Children and adolescents, 1999-2000. JAMA, 288: 1728-1732. Pelletier, K.R. 1971. Mind as healer, Mind as a Slayer-A holistic approach to preventing stress disorder. Dill Publisher Co.

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Presidents Council on physical fitness and sports. 1999. Physical activity promotion and school physical education. Physical education and fitness research Digest. Sallis, J.F., McKenzie, T.L., Kolody, B., Lewis, M., Marshall, S., & Rosengeard, P. 1999. Effects of health related physical education on on academic achievement: Project SPARK, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70:127-134. Shepahard, R. J., Volle, M., Lavalee, M., Labaree, R., Jequier, J.C., & Rajic, M. 1984. Required physical activity and academic grades: a controlled longi-tudinal study. In: Limarnen and valim arki, editors. Children and sport. Berlin: Springer Verlag. 58-63, Shepherd, R.J. 1997. Curricular physical activity and academic performance. Pediatric Exercise Science. 9: 113-126. Shepherd, R.J. 1996. Habitual physical activity and academic performance. Nutrition reviews, 54(4 Supplement): S32-S36. Symons, C.W., Cinelli, B., James, T.C., & Groff, P. 1997. Bridging student health risks and academic achievements through comprehansicve school health programs, journal of school health 67(6): 220-227. Udupa, K.N. and singh, R.H. 1972. The scientific basis of yoga. J. Am. Med. Ass., 220, 1365.

52

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF CARDIO-RESPIRATORY CAPACITY OF PLAYERS OF INTERCOLLEGIATE TOURNAMENTS FROM SIX DIFFERENT GAMES IN HARYANA
Satyajeet Yadav and Hoshiyar Singh PKSD College, Kanina, Mohindergarh, Hat yana t Head, Department of Physical Education, J.S.P. G. College, Sikandrabad (Bulandshahar,), UP. Introduction Optimal physical and psychological fitness are the basic factors to live a happy, healthy and enjoyable life. Cardio-respiratory endurance, strength, muscular endurance and flexibility are the basic components of physical fitness. Over the last three decades, exercise physiologists, sports physicians, sports psychologists, biomechanics and training method experts and alike have contributed a number of vital factors which can help in analyzing the human performance (Tumilty, 1983). Physical Educators and Coaches strive to get optimum performance with minimum use of energy and time. The players and athletes are being trained on scientific guidelines. Skills in the presence of motor qualities play the main role. In addition to skill, the player has to achieve a very high level of physical, physiological, psychological and sociological fitness. The ability of an individual to perform physical activities at maximal levels (an important aspect of physical fitness), is measured by 53

determination of cardio-respiratory fitness which is capacity to perform the sports activities efficiently for a long time or the ability of the heart and respiratory system to work together to generate energy as described by Shepherd et. al. (1968) and Taylor (2004). It is essential that the coach should be aware of the extent to which each of the physical and physiological variables may contribute to skilful performance. If the relative importance of the variables is known, the coaches will be able to utilize the training time effectively and train only those factors, which directly influence performance in the particular sport. Studies have been conducted on physiological assessment of players of the above sports (Malhotra et. al., 1972; De et at 1979, 1982; Hoffmann 1996), however; no comparable studies could be found on cardio-respiratory fitness of players from different sports activities representing a region. These studies are also not adequate to allow full statistical comparison of the cardio-respiratory fitness of the players participating in different sports. The present investigation was undertaken to generate and analyze data on cardio-respiratory fitness of the players from above six games representing Haryana. to enhance the knowledge of coaches and physical education teachers about the Cardio-respiratory fitness of the players of different games in the state and devise methods for improving the Cardio-respiratory capacity of the players or the persons who are exceptionally well equipped with other qualities. Materials and Methods Subjects

54

The investigation was conducted on five subjects from each game, viz., Athletics, Football Hockey, Basketball, Volleyball and Handball from four universities of Haryana, viz., M.D. University Rohtak, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa and CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar. Thus, a total of 60 players were selected as subjects for the study. Subjects were selected randomly and included only the players who had participated in intercollegiate tournaments for the respective games. The study was confined to male players only aged between 18-25 years. Routine activities, diet and rest periods were not monitored, also, the information about the social and economic status of players was not generated. Test Administered Harvard Step Test was administered to the subjects. At the signal up the subject placed one foot on the platform; stepped up, placing the feet fully on the platform; straightened the legs and back; immediately stepped down again, one foot at a time. The pace was counted by the tester: up-up-down-down, the command up coming every 2 seconds. The subject was directed to lead off and step down with the same foot each time. The tester began keeping the time as soon as the subject started. The exercise continued for 5 minutes unless the subject stopped because of fatigue or exhaustion. The subject was made to sit down immediately upon cessation of exercise and, after noting the duration of exercise, the tester recorded the pulse from 1-1 /2, 2-2 V2 and 3-3 V2 minutes after exercise; i.e., the first pulse count was not taken until the subject had rested for 1 minute. Fitness index was calculated as; duration of exercise period (in seconds) multiplied by 100 and divided by 2 x sum of pulse counts after 55

the exercise. Fitness of players was evaluated by Harvard Step Test and grades assigned Excellent (90 and above), Good (80 to 89), Average (6579), Low average (55 to 64) and Poor (54 and below). Statistical analysis Means, standard deviations, and standard errors were computed and t-test was used to compare the mean cardio-respiratory values of the players from different games. The values presented in Tables I and 2. RESULTS Table: 1. Cardio-respiratory capacity of the subjects (*M SD)

56

Table: 2. Values oPt along with their probability.

*p<005; p>O.OI (differences in cardio-respiratory capacity of Football players and athletes not significant) The results reveal that, Footballers had the best cardio-respiratory fitness (97.04 + 3.21 SD) compared to players from athletics, hockey, basketball, volleyball and handball. Athletes had better cardio-respiratory fitness (97.01 3.65 SD) than players from hockey (90.06 + 5.90 SD) and Basketball (83.65 5.66 SD), whereas; cardio-respiratory capacities of handball (77.49 + 7.36 SD) and volleyball (72.00 5.81 SD) players were the least. Table: 57

1 and 2 above. The values often indicate that for players from athletics, hockey, handball, basketball and volleyball significant differences exist in cardio-respiratory capacities (p>O.OS; 0.01), however; for athletes and footballers when compared, no significant differences were found for cardio-respiratory capacity (p<O.O5;p>O.Ol). The lowest mean value was recorded for volleyball players (72.005.81 SD). The fitness of players from football, athletics and hockey was excellent (> 90) that of Basket ball players was Good (> 80), whereas the fitness of Handball and Volleyball players was Average (> 65) none of the players showed low average and poor grades of fitness as evaluated by Harvard Step Test. Discussion The mean values of cardio-respiratory capacity of Football players is the best (90.043.21 SD) compared to rest of the sports (athletics, hockey, basketball, handball and volleyball), similar to the reports in literature. These inter sport differences in cardio-respiratory capacity of players from different classes of sports may be due to demands of particular activity. For instance, athletes require continuous hard physical activity lasting for a very long period, thus, a high cardio-respiratory activity was recorded which can provide a high energy output for long duration, however; footballers require short burst of vigorous muscular activity followed by breaks of slow activity. Verma et al 1977 and Reilly, 1990 also revealed that footballers possess greater anaerobic muscular power as compared to other categories of sportsmen like hockey and basketball players as well as long distance runners. Hence it is understandable that the differences in cardio-respiratory capacity of players agree greatly with the demands of a particular activity. The lower cardio-respiratory capacity of basketball, handball and volleyball players 58

compared to football, athletics and hockey players may be due to high intensity intermittent play as some part of game is spent in walking and standing and hence aerobic metabolism critically restores phosphorcreatinine during short period of rest. These findings may be beneficial to coaches and other professionals in the field to develop training programs which can effectively enhance sport-specific fitness. The general fitness of the population is influenced by such factors as nutrition, environmental conditions, ethnic origin, age and habitual activity. The differences in physical fitness standards may well be ascribed to the above factors, as discussed by many authors, such as. Gillam (1985), Andersen (967), Astrand and Rodahl (970). It is therefore recommended that physical characteristics, body composition and physiological variables be monitored throughout individual training programmes. Such assessments will be beneficial in training the players for their respective competitive events. Acknowledgement Authors are indebted to CN4J University for providing facilities for the study and the College Principals and Heads of various institutions who provided the subjects for this study rendering all help and cooperation for generating the data. References 1. Andersen, K. L., 1967 Ethnic group differences in fitness for sustained and strenuous muscular exercise. Canadian Medical Association Journal 96: 832. Astrand, P. 0. And Rodahi, K. 1970 Textbook of work physiology. New York, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company: 349. 59

2.

3.

Malhotra, M. S., Ramaswamy, S. S., Joseph, N. T., SenGupta, J., 1972 Physiological assessment of Indian athletes. Indian .Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 16: 5 5-62. Malhotra, M. S., Ramaswamy, S. S., Joseph, N. T., Sen Gupta, J., 1972 Functional capacity and body composition of different classes of Indian athletes. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 16: 301-308. Reilly T, Seaton A. 1990. Physiological strain unique to field hockey. JSports Med Phys Fit. De AK, Debuath PK, Nagchaudhuri J. 1979. A comparison of physical efficiency between female volleyball and kabaddi players. Soc Nail Inst Phys Ed Sports. I; 2: 46-50. De AK, Debnath PK, Panda BK, l3hatacharya A.K. 1982. Physical efficiency and tests on Indian male kabaddi inter university players. BrJSports Mcd; 16: 33-6. Gillam G.M. 1985. Identification of anthropometric and physiological characteristics relative to participation in college basketball. Nail Strength Cond Assoc 7:3436. Hoffman JR, Tenenbaum G, Maresh CM, Kraemcr W.J. 1996. Relationship between athletic performance tests and playing time in elite college basketball players JStrength CondRes: 10: 6771. Shephard, R. J., Allen, C., Benade, A. J. S., Davies, C. I. M., diPrampero, P. E., Hedman, R., Merriman, J. E., Myhre, K. and Simmons, R., 1968. The maximum oxygen intake. An international reference standard of cardio-respiratory fitness. Bulletin World Health Organization 38: 357. 60

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5. 6.

7.

8,

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11. 12. 13.

Tumilty D. 1993. Physiological characteristics of elite soccer players. Sports Med: 16: 8096. Taylor S. 2004. A tactical metabolic training model for collegiate basketball. Strength CondJ: 26: 2229. Verma, S. K., Sayal, K. G. and Kansal, 1). K., 1977 Maximal aerobic and anaerobic muscular power of Indian national football players. Sports Medicine 60) 1-5.

61

ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS, BODY COMPOSITION, SOMATOTYPE AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ALL INDIA INTERVARSITY LEVEL FEMALE THROWERS AND JUMPERS.
Dr. Parmdeep Kaur Tiwana Introduction The sports structure in India is fast changing because of the availability of increased facilities and sports environment. Awareness towards recent advances in sports sciences is growing rapidly and the role of sports anthropometry is of great significance. Anthropometry is a science which deals with body measurements. The knowledge equips us with technique of various body measurements like height, weight, diameters, circumferences etc. and sports persons are selected on the basis of bodily characteristics for a particular sports or events. According to Tanner (1964), the athletes are both born and made. The basic structure must be present for the possibility of an athlete to arise and lack of proper physique may not help to achieve desired results. Physique assessed through measurements reflects the visible Morphological configuration of the body. Physique, which generally refers to the shape, size and form of a person, is of course influence by the genetic components and environment. For this reason human physique differs in many ways and variation in physical outlook of human in one way, in an interesting aspect but in other way its importance in sports is a pre-requisite demand which definitely helps to attain better performance. Every game requires a particular type of the 62

body and unspecific body types in relation to the sports events may be hindrance in the improvement or achievements of an athletes performance. Various researches suggest that the suitable physique plays a predominant role for success in sports (Cureton, 1951; Correnti and Zauli, 1964; Hirata, 1966 and 1979; Mass, 1974; Eiben, 1979; de Garay et al., 1974; Wolanski, 1979 and 1986, Bormsetal, 1980; Sodhi and Sidhu, 1984; Sharma and Dixit, 1985; Kemper, 1985; Mathur et al. 1985; Watson 1985, Hebbenlinck, 1985 Corrol, 1986 Sharma et al., 1990). These studies practically, play a significant role with regard to the selection of sportsmen as well as talent hunt for a particular game of sport. The athletes are recognized and selected naturally on the basis of their bodily characteristics for a particular sport or event. Physical performance is of central importance in many competitive sports. The level of performance in top international competitions is increasing rapidly by developing the required abilities and qualities of the sportswomen. The top level performance is not ensured without the mechanical aspect of the game concerned. Physical performance and structure are important factors of all competitive sports. It has been observed that apart from other factors the performance of a sport person in any sport and game is influence by various specific characteristics of physique, body composition, psychological traits and physiological functions which help him to attain better performance. Studies have shown that champions in different sports differ in their anthropometric and physiological characteristics that correspond to some extent with particular requirements of their respective events (Tanner, 1964; de Garay et al, 1974, Hirata, 1979; Verma et al., 1979, Carter et al. 1982; Borms and Hebbelinck, 1984; Carter, 1984a, Sodhi and Sidhu 1984; Luthra and Shaw, 1990; Sidhu et al., 1990; Sharma and Shukla, 1990). 63

Therefore, it has been observed that apart from other factors the performance of a sportsman in any sport and game is influence by various specific characteristics of physique, body composition, psychological traits and physiological functions which help him to attain better performance. Tanner, 1964; Sidhu et al., 1973; Sodhi et al., 1974; Sodhi; 1975; 1976, 1980 a, b; Bhatnagar, 1980; Kansal et al., 1983; Sidhi & Sodhi, 1979; Sodhi et al., 1982; Kaur et al., 1990) The physique and body composition can be measured with the help of anthropometric measurements. According to M. Bourdinel. Et. al. (2010) suggest that the high strength and stiffness values for lower limbs and strength and velocity characteristics for limbs may be associated with athletic throwing performance. Hatzimanouil et. al. (2005) reported that the athletes somatotype and anthropometric characteristics are related to the type of each sport. In addition is a relationship between high athletic performance and physical characteristics like high height, low percentage of body fat and high muscle mass. Material and Methods: In the present study an attempt has been made to analyze the difference between throwers and jumpers in anthropometric characteristics and physical performance variables. 60 throwers and 70 jumpers were studied which included 20 discus throwers, 20 shot put throwers and 20 javelin throwers,20 long jumpers,25 high jumpers and 25 triple jumpers . The data were collected from Dec.1997 to Jan.2000. Only those subjects were studied who had participated or held some positions in All India Interuniversity competition. The measurements i.e. Height, Weight, Sitting Height, Upper arm circumference, Fore arm circumference, Thigh circumference, Calf circumference, Waist 64

circumference, Biceps skin fold, Triceps skin fold, Forearm skin fold, Sub scapular skin fold, Superiallic skin fold, Calf skin fold, Humerus bicondylar diameter, Femur diameter, wrist and ankle diameter. On each subject were taken by using the standard techniques. Harpanden skin fold caliper was used for measuring skin fold. From the anthropometric measurement so taken, body mass index, height/weight ratio, Humerus dia/femur dia, wrist dia/ankle dia. and sitting height/height ratio has been calculated. Physical performance test were taken from the already available test batteries i.e. Sargent (1921) MC Clong (1954) AAHPER (1976) Corpus (1977) Johnson and Melson (1982). 10Physical Performance test were taken i.e. standing reach ,vertical jump(cm),standing broad jump(cm),3Successive broad jump(cm),Push- ups(30sec),4x10 meter shuttle run, forward bend reach,50 meter dash,800 meter run (sec.). The mean S.D., S.E.M., and t- test were applied for evaluation. Results and Discussion The throwers like shot-put, discus and javelin throwers are included in the throwers category and similarly the jumpers like high, long and triple jumpers are included in the jumpers category and the t-test analysis has been carried out accordingly. Table no1&2 shows that the mean height of throwers is 163.19cm and the mean height of jumpers is 161.19cm, the throwers on an average are to be found taller than jumpers. In case of body weight the throwers are heavier than the jumpers with the mean difference of 12.07 kg. Similarly in all anthropometric measurement, the throwers have higher mean values as compare to jumpers. 65

In case of derived measurements on an average the throwers possess almost better physique than that of jumpers as in pond real index, body mass index, endomorphic component, mesomorphic component, OSSA, derma, percentage body fat. They only possess least in ectomorphy component. The t-test shows that all throwers are significantly better than that of all jumpers in almost all the anthropometric and derived measurements except height. Table 1&2shows more vividly Body Proportions When all the throwers including shot putters, discuss and javelin thrower are compared with all jumpers (triple, long and high jumper). The values of height/weight ratio and ankle/femur diameter of jumpers on an average are on the higher side. Thet test indicates significant difference at 0.01 level (Table 3.3). Even though both the jumpers and throwers have almost same height but they are significantly different in body weight. The jumpers are tall and light but the throwers are tall as well as heavy. On the other hand the jumpers are on the higher side in height/weight ratio than the throwers. It is evident that the Ht. /Wt. ratios, in throwers play a beneficial role in the sense that relatively heavy bodies in them enhance balance and coordination which helps them to show better performance. On the other hand, the jumpers with more height and less weight can perform better jumps, because in jumping they have to lift their own bodies and if the body weight is relatively less they can perform a better jump with more speed and explosiveness. In the case of diameters the jumpers possess narrow lower extremities which tend to help them for improving the performance in jumping because the narrowness of 66

extremities is helpful for enhancing the jumping performance due to the fact that the narrow bones are lighter in weight. However, the throwers with broader lower extremity diameters show better rotation/coordination and balance for adding to the performance in throwing events. In case of sitting height/height the value of all throwers on an average are on higher side when compared with all jumpers. Thet test shows significant difference at 0.01 level. When all throwers are compared for the ratio of sitting height/height with all jumpers, the later are found to be on higher side in sitting height/height ratio. This shows that the throwers with tall bodies and bigger upper body proportions help them in getting the better performance in throwing events. In case of jumpers, the taller bodies with longer legs are helpful in showing better performance. When throwers are compared with jumpers for wrist/humerus diameter both the groups show same values. Thet test indicates non significant values. It seems that in both the throwers and jumpers the upper extremity diameters have least differentiate in performance because the pressure of swings in both the jumpers and throwers have the same effect on wrist and Humerus diameter (Table 2). Somatotype When the somatotype of all jumpers taken together is compared with those of the all throwers, it is found that jumpers are the most ectomorphic with mean ectomorphic component being 3.60 where as the physique of the throwers is mesomorphic - endomorph the values being 4.10-3., 99 respectively. This shows that the lighter bodies with less fat as in the case of jumpers is advantageous because of the necessity of lifting the body and propelling it forward and upward for a better 67

performance, creating proportionately greater strength to body weight. Further, in case of throwers having mesomorphic-endomorph body types (heavier and strong muscular body) is required to enhance balance and coordination which is helpful for a better performance (Table 2). Body Composition The throwers are superior to the jumpers in all the body components studied. It show that the lighter weight of bones, and body fat is the case of jumpers is advantageous to them because they have to lift their bodies over the ground and push it forward for covering the more height or distance. So lighter the body weight better will be the jumps. Further, in the case of throwers the superiority in these components might help to maintain the balance, rhythm and coordination to cover the maximum distance. The more weight works as a mechanism adds to the performance of the throwers (Table 2). Physical Performance Test The physical performance of the throwers and jumpers have been studied by taking into account the performance in vertical jump, standing broad jump, 3 successive broad jump, forward bend, sit ups, pushups, 4x10 shuttle run, 50 M dash and 800 Mts. These tests have been taken to measure the strength, power, speed, flexibility agility and endurance abilities of the throwers and jumpers. The test of push-ups (shoulder strength), sit ups (abdominal strength endurance), vertical jump (power or explosive strength), standing broad jump (explosive strength of legs) 3-successive broad jumps (Co-ordination and explosive strength of legs in motions) have been taken to measure the strength and explosive strength abilities of 68

various body parts. Whereas the test 800 Mts, forward bend, 4x10 Shuttle run and 50M dash have been taken to measure endurance, flexibility, agility and speed of the throwers and jumpers respectively. When the throwers are compared with the jumpers the throwers are found to possess better values in flexibility and shoulder strength only. The jumpers are to be found superior in physical performance components in case of explosive strength of legs, abdominal muscle strength, speed and endurance. But jumpers and throwers shows almost equal physical performance in explosive strength and agility. Thet test indicates significant difference (at 0.01 level) in explosive strength of legs, shoulder strength, speed and endurance. In the magnitude of difference the jumpers are significantly better than throwers in explosive strength of legs (37.77 cm), speed (1.46 sec.) and endurance (1.75 sec.) But reverse in shoulder strength (3.38 no.). This shows that jumpers have significantly more explosiveness, speed and stamina. It seems that these components help the jumpers to show better performance than the other. But in the case of throwers, the importance of explosive strength, speed and stamina more of explosive strength of shoulder for cannot be ruled out. On the other hand, the remaining physical performance components such as flexibility, agility and abdominal strength are equally importance both for jumpers and throwers (Table 3). A result of the present study indicates that the throwers and jumpers are recognized and selected on the basis of their physical structure for a particular event. Physical structure and physical performance plays a significant role with regard to the selection of athletes as well as talent hunt for a particular event.

69

TABLE 1 SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCE OF MEANS COMPARISON: ALL THROWERS VS. ALL JUMPERS (ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS) Note : For df<=30, t for difference of means has been analyzed and For df>30, Diff. /SE has been analyzed Variable Height Group Throwers Jumpers Weight Throwers Jumpers Sitting Throwers Height Jumpers Humerus Throwers Dia. Jumpers Wrist Dia. Throwers Jumpers Femur Dia. Throwers Jumpers Ankle Dia. Throwers Jumpers Upper Arm Throwers Cir. Jumpers Fore-Arm Throwers Cir. Jumpers Thigh Cir Throwers Jumpers Calf Cir. Throwers Jumpers Mean 163.19 161.98 82.83 80.03 62.32 50.25 6.15 5.86 5.08 4.80 9.29 83.6 6.47 6.23 26.50 22.73 23.64 21.22 55.95 49.89 34.97 31.41 70 SD 6.42 6.34 3.11 3.58 12.06 6.59 0.38 0.35 0.32 0.32 0.75 0.52 0.34 0.33 3.27 2.57 1.71 1.21 7.10 3.76 4.78 1.96 SE 1.124 0.586 1.745 0.064 0.056 0.115 0.059 0.522 0.264 1.021 0.660 t-Value 1.073 4.788** 6.916** 4.533** 4.992** 5.684** 3.985** 7.213** 9.178** 5.942** 5.384**

Waist Cir Arm Span Hand span Biceps Skin fold Triceps Skin fold Fore Arm Skinfold Suprailliac Skinfold Subscapular Skin fold Calf Skin fold

Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers

78.88 67.84 167.31 164.52 20.67 19.77 8.38 5.68 16.86 11.09 9.84 7.13 11.23 7.97 12.89 9.94 17.59 14.62

9.78 5.65 8.27 7.16 1.53 1.37 4.00 1.78 5.44 3.58 3.66 2.43 4.83 2.65 5.87 3.07 7.44 5.67

1.433 1.368 0.256 0.559 0.822 o.554 0.700 0.842 1.176

7.707** 2.039* 3.486** 4.827** 7.016** 4.894** 4.694** 3.504** 2.524*

TABLE 2 SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCE OF MEANS COMPARISON: ALL THROWERS VS. ALL JUMPERS (DERIVED MEASUREMENTS) Note: For df<=30, t for difference of means has been analyzed and For df>30, Diff. /SE has been analyzed Variable Body mass index Pondreal Group Throwers Jumpers Throwers Mean 23.30 19.15 24.20 71 SD 3.66 2.28 1.21 SE 0.545 0.193 t-Value 7.618** 7.477**

index Endomorphy

Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Mesomorphic Throwers Jumpers Ectomorphy Throwers Jumpers Corrected Throwers Endo Jumpers OSSA Throwers Jumpers DERMA Throwers Jumpers Body destiny Throwers Jumpers Percent body Throwers fat Jumpers Height weigh Throwers ratio Jumpers Wrist/humerus Throwers diameter Jumpers Ankle/femur Throwers diameter Jumpers Sitting Throwers height/height Jumpers

22.75 4.10 2.92 3.99 2.38 1.91 3.66 4.26 3.08 8.96 7.95 16.22 10.59 1.04 1.05 25.55 20.91 41.42 44.02 82.70 82.11 69.92 72.44 50.79 49.41

0.95 1.15 0.83 1.51 0.93 1.27 1.21 1.14 0.86 1.23 0.89 5.34 2.51 0.00 0.00 3.83 3.23 2.06 1.75 4.66 6.27 4.74 5.23 1.77 1.46

0.179 0.224 0.219 0.180 0.191 0.752 0.000 0.545 0.338 0.960 0.875 0.287

6.581** 7.187** 7.981** 6.564** 5.316** 7.477**

7.386** 7.668** 0.615 2.874** 4.803**

72

TABLE 3 SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCE OF MEANS COMPARISON: ALL THROWERS VS. ALL JUMPERS (PERFORMANCE VARIABLES) Note: For df<=30, t for difference of means has been analyzed and For df>30, Diff./SE has been analyzed Variable Vertical jump Standing broad jump 3successive broad jump Forward bend Sit-ups Push-ups 4x10 shuttle jump 50 m dash Group Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Throwers Jumpers Mean 247.74 248.24 178.65 216.42 521.71 608.17 19.02 17.31 23.32 24.91 22.87 19.49 11.94 11.96 SD 10.38 10.13 31.23 40.25 72.53 98.33 5.40 6.32 5.79 4.38 7.50 4.50 0.73 1.45 1.23 1.13 0.78 0.68 SE 1.806 6.278 15.026 t-Value 0.278 6.017** 5.754**

1.029 0.912 1.108 0.198

1.663 1.750 3.051** 0.071

Throwers 8.56 Jumpers 7.10 800 mts Throwers 3.61 run Jumpers 2.86 * Significant at 0.05% level. ** Significant at 0.01% level. 73

0.208 0.129

6.980** 5.753**

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Luthra, A. and Shaw, D. (1990). Anthropometry of University female Athletes. In : Origin of Kinanthropometry, Sodhi, H.S. and others (Eds.), NWGK Publication, Patiala. Mass, G.D. (1974). The Physique of Athletes. An anthropometric study of 285 top sportsmen from 14 sports in a total of 774 athletes. London University Press, London. M. Bourdin et. al. 2010 throwing performance is associated with muscular power. Int. j. sports medicine: 31 (7): 505-510. Mathur, D.N., Toriola, A.L. and Igbokwe, N.U. (1985). Somatotype of Nigerian athletes of several sports. Brit. J. Sports. Med., 19 : 219. Sharma, S.S. and Dixit, N.K. (1985). Somatotype of athletes and their performance. Int. J. Sports Med., 6 : 161. Sharma, S.S. and Shukla, N.B. (1990). Kinanthropometric study of hockey and football players. In : Origins of KinanthropometryProceeding of National Symposium. Sodhi, H.S. and others (eds.). NWGK, Patiala. Sharma, S.S., Shukla, N.P.B. and Shukla, B.R.K. (1990). Physique of young top Indian hockey players in relation to their field of specialisation. Ind. J. Sports Sc. Phys. Edu., 2 : 88. Sidhu, L.S., Singh, J. and Singh, S.P. (1990). Physique and body composition of different categories of runners. In : Originas of Kinanthropometry - Proceeding of National Symposium. Sodhi, H.S. and others (eds.). NWGK, Patiala. Sodhi, H.S. and Sidhu, L.S. (1984). Physique and Selection of Sportsmen. Punjab Publishing House, Patiala. 76

Sodhi, H.S., Sidhu, L.S. and Mathur, D.N. (1974). A preliminary study of morphological differences among hockey players in relation to their field positions. Sports. Med., 3 : 12. Tanner, J.M. (1964). The Physique of the Olympic Athlete. George Allen and Unwin, London. Verma, S.K., Mahindroo, S.R. and Kansal, D.K. (1979). The maximum anaerobic power of different categories of players. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit., 19 : 55-62. Watson, A.W.S. (1985). The physique of sportsmen. Med. Sci. Sports Exer., 16 : 287. Wolanski, N. (1979). Genetic and Social features in speed and strength of movements. SaP, 2 : 9. Wolanski, N. (1986). Heredity and Psychomotor traits in Man. OSC Proceedings. Sports and Human Genetics. Melina, R.M. and Bouchard, C. (eds.). Human Kinetics. Inc. Champaign.

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A STUDY OF ATTITUDE OF UNIVERSITY PLAYERS TOWARDS DOPING IN HARYANA


Dr. Rajender Parsad Garg Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 124001. Email.id.:rpgargmdur@gmail.com, +919896091442(M) Naveen Kumar 2 Research Scholar, Department of Physical Education, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, 124001. Email id: dr.naveenladwal@gmail.com, +919896078602(M) INTRODUCTION
1

The use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport has become an increasing problem across a wide range of sports. It is defined as any material or drug that, when taken, gives a player an unfair advantage relative to a "clean" athlete. The banning of these drugs promotes a more level playing field which most if not all sporting organizations seek to achieve. Recently, the use of 'the suit' in swimming, which gives athletes an advantage in the way of hydrodynamics, has been banned from international competition due to the unfair advantage it delivered. The drugs taken by athletes differ widely based on the performance needs of the sport. In sports where physical strength is preferred, athletes have resorted to anabolic steroids, known for their ability to increase physical strength and muscle mass. The drug has been used across a wide range of sports from football and basketball to weightlifting and track and field. Many sports organizations have banned the use of performance enhancing drugs and have very strict rules and penalties for people who 78

are caught using them. The International Amateur Athletic Federation, now the International Association of Athletics Federations, was the first international governing body of sports to take the situation seriously. In 1928 they banned participants from doping, but with little in the way of testing available they had to rely on the word of the athlete that they were clean. Progression in pharmacology has always outstripped the ability of sports federations to implement difficult testing procedures but since the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency in 1999 more and more athletes are being caught. World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an Anti-Doping Convention of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg was opened for signature on 16 December 1989 as the first multilateral legal standard in this field. It has been signed by 48 states including the Council of Europe non-member states Australia, Belarus, Canada and Tunisia. The Convention is open for signature by other non-European states. It does not claim to create a universal model of anti-doping, but sets a certain number of common standards and regulations requiring Parties to adopt legislative, financial, technical, educational and other measures. In February 2011, the United States Olympic Committee and the Ad Council launched an anti-steroid campaign called Play Asterisk Free aimed at teens. The campaign first launched in 2008 under the name "Don't Be an Asterisk". OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To study the attitude of university players towards doping in Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak of Haryana. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY In the study the following research methodology is used: 79

Research design The study was descriptive-cum-exploratory in nature and based on survey questionnaire. Sample design Sample was selected from students of M.D.University Rohtak (Haryana), who were categorise are according to games. The required data were collected from 50 respondents (6 Judo players, 8 Boxing players, 9 Athlete, 8 Wrestlers, 9 Volley Ball players and 10 other players). In the present study convenient sampling technique was followed, while getting questionnaires filled from different University Players. Population Judo players, Boxing players, Athlete, Wrestlers, Volley Ball players and other players of M.D.University Rohtak constitute the population of this survey study. Sample unit The player of different games of M.D.University, Rohtak were taken as the sample unit. Data collection The study entirely based on primary data. The primary data was collected through structured questionnaires duly filled by University Players. Statistical techniques Crosstab technique of SPSS was used to analyse available data and to reach at the conclusion of the study. Data was also analysed, interpreted and evaluated with required statistical tools like tabulation, graphic presentation, and percentage. 80

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION An analysis of total 50 respondents (6 Judo players, 8 Boxing players, 9 Athlete, 8 Wrestlers, 9 Volley Ball players and 10 other players) was made with the help of crosstab technique of SPSS under study. The analytical Table 1.1 exhibited that, out of total 50 respondents, most of respondents (68 per cent) said that doping is not necessary to be competitive whereas only 10 per cent believed that doping is necessary to be competitive. Eighty eight per cent boxing players believed that doping is not necessary to be competitive. Majority of respondents (88 per cent) disagree with statement Doping is not cheating since everyone does it. Seventy five per wrestlers believed that doping is a cheating. Out of total respondents, 44 per cent players each agree and disagree with the statement that Only the quality of performance should matter, not the way to achieve it. Sixty two per cent boxing players said that only the quality of performance should not matter, but the way to achieve it is also important. So, it was clear from the analyses that majority of players believed that doping is not necessary to be competitive; doping is a cheating; and only the quality of performance should not matter, but the way to achieve it is also important (shown in figure 1.1)

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Table 1.1 Games wise responses of University Players towards Doping


Only the quality of Doping is not Doping is necessary performance should cheating since to be competitive matter, not the way everyone does it Games of players achieve it Respond Strong Stro Stro ents Agr Disag ly Agr Disag ngly Disag ngly Agree ee ree Disagr ee ree Disa ree Disa ee gree gree 2 3 1 2 3 1 4 1 1 Judo (33) (50) (17) (33) (50) (17) (67) (17) (16) 0 7 1 1 3 4 3 5 0 Boxing (0) (88) (12) (12) (38) (50) (38) (62) (0) 2 6 1 2 4 3 4 4 1 Athlete (22) (67) (11) (22) (45) (33) (45) (44) (11) 0 4 4 0 6 2 4 4 0 Wrestling (0) (50) (80) (0) (75) (25) (50) (50) (0) Volley 0 6 3 0 4 5 4 2 3 Ball (0) (67) (33) (0) (45) (55) (45) (22) (33) 1 8 1 1 4 5 3 6 1 Others (10) (80) (10) (10) (40) (50) (30) (60) (10) 5 34 11 6 24 20 22 22 6 Total (10) (68) (22) (12) (48) (40) (44) (44) (12)

Total

6 (100) 8 (100) 9 (100) 8 (100) 9 (100) 10 (100) 50 (100)

Note: (i) Source: Primary data collected. (ii) The figures in brackets show the percentages.

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Figure 1: Games wise responses of University Players towards Doping


40 35

30
25 20 15 10 Judo

Boxing athlete
wrestling volley ball others Total agree disagree strongly disagree agree disagree strongly disagree agree disagree strongly disagree

5
0

Doping is necessary to be competitive

Doping is not cheating since everyone does it.

Only the quality of performance should matter, not the way athletes achieve it.

Table 1.2 Games wise responses of University Players towards Doping


Doping help in motivating players to compete at the highest level Disag ree Stro ngly Disa gree Doping is an unavoidable part of competitive sports Stron gly Disag ree The media should talk less about doping Stro ngly Agr ee Str ong ly Dis agr Total

Games of Respond ents

Agree

Agre e

Disagr ee

Agree

No Opini on

Dis agr ee

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Judo Boxing Athlete Wrestlin g Volley Ball Others Total

1 (17) 1 (13) 2 (22) 0 (0) 2 (22) 1 (10) 7 (14)

4 (66) 6 (75) 5 (56) 8 (100) 4 (45) 8 (80) 35 (70)

1 (17) 1 (12) 2 (22) 0 (0) 3 (33) 1 (10) 8 (16)

1 (17) 1 (12) 2 (22) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (10) 5 (10)

4 (66) 6 (75) 5 (56) 4 (50) 6 (67) 8 (80) 33 (66)

1 (17) 1 (13) 2 (22) 4 (50) 3 (33) 1 (10) 12 (24)

0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (4)

1 (17) 1 (12) 1 (11) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (10) 4 (8)

0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (22) 2 (25) 4 (45) 0 (0) 8 (16)

2 (33) 5 (63) 5 (56) 2 (25) 0 (0) 8 (80) 22 (44)

ee 3 (50) 2 (25) 1 (11) 2 (25) 5 (55) 1 (10) 14 (28)

6 (100) 8 (100) 9 (100) 8 (100) 9 (100) 10 (100) 50 (100)

Note: (i) Source: Primary data collected. (ii) The figures in brackets show the percentages.

The analytical Table 1.2 exhibited that out of total 50 respondents, majority of respondents (86 per cent) believed that doping having not helped in motivating players to compete at highest level; and all the wrestlers disagree with the statements that doping help in motivating players to compete at the highest level whereas only 7 players agree this statement. Most of players disagree (66 per cent) and strongly disagree (24 per cent) with the statement that doping is an unavoidable part of competitive sports; Seventy five per cent boxer and 80 per cent others games players disagree with the statement; and there was no any wrestlers and volley ball players agree with this statement. Majority of respondents (72 per cent) believed that media should talk more about doping; but 12 per cent respondents wants that media should talk less about doping. So, it was clear from the analysis that doping having not helped in motivating players to compete at highest level; doping is an 84

avoidable part of competitive sports; and media should talk more about doping. Table 1.3 Games wise responses of University Players towards Doping
Games of Respondents Health problems related to hard training and injuries are just as doping side effects Strongly Agree 2 Judo (33) 0 Boxing (0) 3 Athlete (33) 2 Wrestling (25) 4 Volley Ball (45) 0 Others (0) 11 Total (22) (52) (14) (12) (30) (60) (4) (6) (100) (70) 26 (10) 7 (20) 6 (10) 15 (80) 30 (0) 2 (10) 3 (100) 50 (33) 7 (0) 1 (22) 2 (45) 1 (33) 8 (22) 0 (0) 1 (100) 10 (50) 3 (25) 0 (0) 2 (0) 4 (100) 3 (0) 2 (0) 0 (100) 9 (22) 4 (22) 2 (23) 0 (33) 0 (45) 8 (0) 0 (22) 0 (100) 8 (88) 2 (12) 2 (0) 2 (38) 3 (62) 4 (0) 0 (0) 2 (100) 9 (50) 7 (17) 1 (0) 0 (67) 3 (33) 5 (0) 0 (0) 0 (100) 8 Agree 3 No Opinion 1 Disagree 0 Doping is a health risk for players Total Strongl y Agree 4 Agree 2 No Opinion 0 Disagree 0 6

Note: (i) Source: Primary data collected. (ii) The figures in brackets show the percentages.

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Figure 1.2: Games wise responses of University Players towards Doping


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
strongly agree no disagree strongly agree no disagree agree opinion agree opinion Health problems related to hard training and Injuries are just as doping side effects. Doping is a health risk for athletes.

Judo Boxing athlete wrestling volley ball others Total

The analytical Table 1.3 shows that out of total respondents, majority of respondents (52 per cent) believed that health problems related to hard training and injuries are just as doping side effects. Forty five per cent volley ball players and 88 per cent boxer agreed with this statement; and only 23 per cent athlete disagree with the statement that health problems related to hard training and injuries are just as doping side effects. Most of players (60 per cent) believed that doping is a health risk. Sixty two per judo players and 100 per cent wrestlers said that doping is a health risk; and only 6 per cent players believed that doping is a not health risk. Hence, it was clear from the analyses that majority of respondents believed that health problems related to hard training and injuries are just as doping side effects; and doping is a health risk (shown in figure 1.2).

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Table 1.4 Games wise responses of University Players towards Doping


Games of Respondents Doping is a threat to fair play in sports Strongly Agree 4 Judo (67) 2 Boxing (25) 2 Athlete (22) 2 Wrestling (25) 4 Volley Ball (45) 4 Others (40) 18 Total (36) (54) (4) (6) (60) (30) (4) (6) (100) (50) 27 (0) 2 (10) 3 (70) 30 (20) 15 (0) 2 (10) 3 (100) 50 (33) 5 (22) 0 (0) 1 (78) 7 (0) 2 (22) 0 (0) 1 (100) 10 (75) 3 (0) 2 (0) 0 (50) 7 (50) 0 (0) 2 (0) 0 (100) 9 (56) 6 (0) 0 (22) 0 (56) 4 (22) 4 (0) 0 (22) 0 (100) 8 (75) 5 (0) 0 (0) 2 (38) 5 (62) 2 (0) 0 (0) 2 (100) 9 (33) 6 (0) 0 (0) 0 (67) 3 (33) 5 (0) 0 (0) 0 (100) 8 Agre e 2 No Opinion 0 Disagr ee 0 I am in favour of a complete ban on doping for players Total Strongly Agree 4 Agree 2 No Opinion 0 Disag ree 0 6

Note: (i) Source: Primary data collected. (ii) The figures in brackets show the percentages.

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Figure 1.3: Games wise responses of University Players towards Doping


35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Judo Boxing athlete wrestling strongly agree no disagree strongly agree no disagree agree opinion agree opinion Doping is a threat to fair play in sports. I am in favour of a complete ban on doping for athletes. volley ball others
Total

The analytical Table 1.4 exhibited that out of total 50; most of respondents (36 per cent and 54 per cent) believed that doping is a threat to fair play in sports. Sixty seven per cent judo players; 75 per cent each of boxer and wrestlers said that doping is a threat to fair play in sports; but only 3 players disagree with the statement. A significant number of players (90 per cent) were having in favor of a complete ban on doping for players (shown in figure 1.3). Most of players were strongly agree in the favor of a complete ban on doping in sports; only 6 per cent players disagree in the favor of a complete ban on doping in sports. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS The attitude of university players towards doping (Judo players, Boxing players, Athlete, Wrestlers, Volley Ball players and other) were studied 88

and analyzed by the researchers through the application of cross Tab technique of SPSS. On the basis of analysis and it can be realized that out of total 50 respondents, most of respondents (68 per cent) said that doping is not necessary to be competitive. Majority of respondents (88 per cent) disagree with statement Doping is not cheating since everyone does it. Sixty two per cent boxing players said that only the quality of performance should not matter, but the way to achieve it is also important. Majority of respondents (52 per cent) believed that health problems related to hard training and injuries are just as doping side effects. Most of players (60 per cent) believed that doping is a health risk. Most of respondents (36 per cent and 54 per cent) believed that doping is a threat to fair play in sports. So, it was clear from the analysis that doping having not helped in motivating players to compete at highest level; doping is an avoidable part of competitive sports; and media should talk more about doping. Most of players were strongly agree in the favor of a complete ban on doping in sports. So, on the basis of analyses; we can suggest that WADA and others Government organizations should take strictly action and complete ban on doping in sports. REFERENCES Buckley, W., Yesalis, C., Friedl, K., Anderson, W.A., Streit, A.L. and Wrigth, J.E. (1988) Estimated prevalence of anabolic steroid use among malehigh school seniors. Journal of the American, Medical Association 260, 3441-3445. Chalchat, B. (2002) Doping in high-level Pharmaceutiques Franaises 60, 303-309. athletes. Annales

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Charles-Yesalis, E. and Ichael-Bahrke, S. (2000) Doping among adolescent athletes. Baillire's BestPractice and Research in Clinical Endocrinologyand Metabolism 14, 25-35. Cireli, E., Tanci, O., Ugur, D., Dndar, U. and Hasirci, S. (1992) Doping kullanimi uzerine bir anket calismasi. Ege Tip Dergisi 31, 217-219. (In Turkish). Dah, C., Bogui, P., Yavo, J.C., Gourouza, I., Ouattara, S. and Keita, M. (2002) Doping practices and behaviours among Ivorian soccer players. Sante 12, 297-300. Delbeke, F.T., Desmet, N. and Debackere, M. (1995) The abuse of doping agents in competing body builders in Flanders (19881993). International Journal ofSports Medicine 16, 66-70. Gallien, C.L. (2002) High-performance society and doping. Annales Pharmaceutiques Franaises 60, 296-302. Franke WW, Berendonk B (July 1997). "Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German Democratic Republic government". Clinical chemistry 43 (7): 126279.PMID 9216474. Mottram, David (2005); Drugs in Sport, Routledge. ISBN 978-0-41537564-1. Keld, D.B. and Bendsen, A.K. (1998) Doping: a medical problem in Denmark. Ugeskrift for Laeger 160, 49-53. Kindlundh, A.M., Isacson, D.G., Berglund, L. and Nyberg, F. (1998) Doping among high school students in Uppsala, Sweden: A

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presentation of the attitudes, distribution, side effects and extent of use. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 26, 71-74. Laure, P.(1997) Epidemiologic approach of doping in sport. Journal of Sports Medicine andPhysical Fitness 37, 218-224. Scarpino, V., Arrigo, A., Benzi, G., Garattini, S., La Vecchia, C., Bernardi, L.R., Silvestrini, G. and Tuccimei, G. (1990), Evaluation of prevalence of doping among Italian athletes. Lancet 8722, 10481050. Striegel, H., Vollkommer, G. and Dickhuth, H.H. (2002), Combating drug use in competitive sports. An analysis from the athletes' perspective. Journal ofSports Medicine and Physical Fitness 42, 354-359. Waddington and Smith (2008); An Introduction to Drugs in Sport, Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-43125-5 http://www.wada-ama.org http://www.Sports.espn.go.com http://www.Wikimedia Foundation.org

91

NEED OF SPORTS ENVIRONMENT IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION


Dr. Bal Roop Yadav Department of Physical Education M.G.K.V.P.. Varanasi, U.P. INTRODUCTION Douglas and Holland define the term, Environment as a word which describes, in the aggregate, all of the external forces, influences and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior, and the growth, development and maturation of living organism. Environment consists of various forms such as physical environment, biological environment, social environment and supra-social environment. The physical environment consists of the geographical, the climatic and the controlled geographical environments. The biological environment consists of the plants and animals found around man. The social environment consists of economic, cultural and psycho-social environments. The supra-social environment consists of various notions about God and supernatural power. Here, our main concern is about the environments which are related to physical education and sports i.e., Physical environment and social environment. Physical environment is composed of our surroundings such as rocks, hills soil, mountains, rivers, plains, nutrition, water, minerals, plants, animals, Climate, weather, and other allied facilities which affect all living organisms externally. 92

Social environment consists of economic, cultural and psychosocial environments. The economic environment consists of economic goods, houses, streets, roads, etc. The cultural environment consists of traditions, customs, laws, and conventions, moral etc. The social environment affects psychological make-up and sociological development. Importance of sports environment Sports environment provides full opportunity for proper growth and development of every individual. It should be safe, clean, and hygienic to perform various activities of physical education programmers. It motivates everyone to participate and perform physical activities in healthy environment with full enthusiasm. it is good place to practiced and develop fitness thus, efficiency is easily improved. This environment is safe as well as convenient place for participation in games and sports. It provides easy organization and better administration for games and sports. Implementation of a physical education programme can be harmful in extreme heat. Normally our body temperature remains at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. If it rises extremely its results can be serious, even fatal. Extreme heat with high humidity leads to additional problem because sweat does not get rapidly. Heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke may occur in such conditions. Exercise in cold produces fewer problems because vigorous exercises also produce heat. But it does not mean that extreme cold does not present problems. It may create the problem of frost bite, destruction of cells and injury to local capillaries. Along these factors if the condition of playground and the quality of sports equipments are not appropriate, different types of injuries may occur. Consequently, it can be said that the above mentioned problems usually crop up in unsuitable environment and such environment can be 93

harmful to sportspersons. So, there is dire need for good or proper environment for physical education programmes so that the individuals, who take part in physical education programmes, may not face such problems. Essential elements of positive environment Health is the basis of human life. Only a healthy individual can reach at the apex of success. Bacon also says that a healthy body is the guesthouse for the soul and the den for the weak and diseased. To imagine the life without water is impossible. It is indispensable requirement of all the living beings. There is a critical relationship of water and the human body. Water is the most important nutrient and is involved in almost every body process and function since it has no calories. Polluted waste water drains are connected with rivers, lakes, or streams and make water unsafe. Polluted water is the root cause of numerous water borne diseases and the individuals are exposed to different communicable diseases. So, from the point of view of health of individuals, safe drinking water is must. Hence, the safe drinking water is really an essential element of positive environment. As is water essential for human life, clean and fresh air is also essential to survive. Air pollution is considerably increased due to rapid population growth and industrialization. Human activities have introduced new and more toxic pollutants into our atmosphere. Polluted air leads to serious and fatal diseases like asthma, bronchitis, choking, and difficulty in breathing, slow heart beat rate. Other severe lungs problems and heart diseases. TB, cancer and fatigue. For making the air clean, the stress should be laid down on affrication. It means more plantations of trees such as carota vulgaris, ficus, pines. Junipers and rhamanus should he encouraged. Trees produce ore oxygen 94

and absorb inure carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gases in comparison to other trees. Sanitation is one of the most essential elements for our healthful environment. Human being generates lot of soil waste and its disposal problem is much more important. What we throw away mounts up there being insufficient dustbins and landfills. Waste which includes trash, plastic goods, metal products, paper waste, hospital waste etc. pollutes the surrounding localities and climate. We should use dustbin or the waste product should be dumped wopc!lv. Disinfectants should be properly used. The dustbins should be placed at suitable corner rubbish; pieces of waste paper, fruit-skin and some other useless things should be thrown into them. Improvement of sports environment Many of us believe that. They alone cannot make the sports environment clean, safe and healthy. Though many efforts are done by government but all went in vain due to many reasons. This is a collective effort moreover an urgent need of society to improve sports environment. Healthy and safe sports environment prevents us from various health problems moreover acts as motivating factor in society. It is well known that Prevention is better than cure. While participating in sports activities all kind of preventive measures should be taken. Prevention of sports related accidents and injuries must be the priority of every individual involved in these activities. Not only the sportsperson should take care of this, but coaches, sports administrators, sports officials and physiotherapists should take such step to avoid such injuries and accidents. The following points help to improve the sports environment: 95

Educating every individual towards health education or physical education and its importance in life. Strictly and practically following the health principles or rules and regulations for health promotion. Encouraging people for developing safe and healthy sports environment so that every member of society should be benefited. We should help and encourage the sports staff to perform better for this task. We should try to understand their need for its improvement. The public should he informed about its importance in life and they should be guided properly to develop safe and healthy sports environment.

People should be motivated to develop the passion of sports and participate in its activities. People should be guided to use the sports environment; they should also be checked to use them properly. Proper knowledge should be given regarding handling of sports equipment moreover proper instructions should be followed while using them.

We should help or assist for checking and cleaning of sports equipments, whereas damaged equipment should be replaced or repaired at the earliest. We should also try to keep the sports environment clean moreover growing and maintaining maximum plants in the surrounding area.

96

We should associate ourselves as well as others with sonic sports environment programmers and helping them dedicatedly and deliberately. The people should he encouraged to behave properly as good spectator and lover of Sports. The people should be well informed about the developments and progress of sports through media and other channels so that positive attitude should develop among people.

Conclusion Environment is surrounding around us. Healthy environment is the foundation of good health as it is sate, clean and hygienic. Sports environment is considered as healthy and positive environment. It plays an important role in child development. Though the word environment itself is self-explanatory, yet the term environment cannot he defined easily. Environment is the phenomenon of the physical world in general. Environment refers to everything that surrounds a person and its influence on them. Some of these are biological and social and others are non-living. Sports environment provides full opportunity for proper growth and development of every individual; it should be safe, clean, and hygienic to perform various activities of physical education programmers. It motivates everyone to participate and perform physical activities in healthy environment with full enthusiasm. It is good place to practiced and develop fitness thus, efficiency is easily improved. Health is the basis of human life. Only a healthy individual can reach at the apex of success. Bacon also says that a healthy body is the guest-house for the soul wid the den tbi the weak and diseased. It is well known that Prevention is better than cure. 97

Reference: 1. Buskirk, E. and D. Bas, Climate and Exercise in Science and Medicine on Exercise and sports; W.R. Johnson (ed), New York: Harper and Brothers, 1960. Sharma, V.P., Sharma, V.K., (2009), Health and Physical Education,Saraswati Publication, New Delhi. Goddard. R.F.(ed). The Eftcts of Altitude on Physical Performance. Chicago:11 Athieie Instiatte, 1966. Kundra. Saiijay (2010), Publication. New Delhi. Physical Education. Evergreen

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Deivert R,G. (1966). Adverse Environmental Conditions and Athletes. Athletic Therapy Today Drink water. B.L.. P.B. Raven, S.M. Horvath, J.A. Gliner. R.O. Ruhling. N.W. Bolduan and S. Taguchi. Air Pollution, Exercise and Heat stress Arch. Environ. Health, 1974. Uppal, A.K., Gautam, G.P., (2008), Physical Education and health Education, Friends Publication. New Delhi.

7.

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STUDY OF TOTAL PLAYING AREA AND AVAILABILITY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS IN THE SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF JHANSI DISTRICT IN UTTER PRADESH
Dr. Shahnawaz Khan Dr. R. Chinnayan and Dr. George Abraham Ph. D. Scholar, Department of Physical Education &Sports Science, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu Assistant Professors, Department of Physical Education &Sports Science, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu INTRODUCTION Nowadays no educational facility can be considered modern, unless it provides for a wide and varied programme of physical education. For this reason, all who are responsible for authorizing, designing or using the facilities should have an accurate knowledge of the scope and contents of present and if possible future programme of physical education also (Remle, 1977). It is only in this manner the facilities can be constructed that will enhance, rather than restricting the achievement of the educational goals of the programme (James, 1962). The subsequent growth of the profession of physical education in the developed countries in the world where it is considered indispensible in the proper development of youth is ample evidence of the need for continued thought, study and research by those in the profession in India also. But the extent of facilities like playgrounds, tracks, gymnasium, and swimming pools etc determine the level up to which physical education 99

percolate to the masses in the country (Will goose, 1979 and Alston.1967). In the opinion of the Education Commission, The physical welfare of the youth of the country should be one of the main concern of the state and any departure from the normal standards of physical well being at this period of life may have serious consequences (Indian press, 1966). Participation by the students in physical education programmes under the guidance of well qualified teachers contributes significantly to total health through the development of physical, mental, social and emotional well being aspect (Kennoson, 1960). Physical education also provides experience in imbibing the spirit of democratic citizenship (Jacques, 1973). As per constitutional responsibilities of Central Government and the State Governments in compliance with the directive principles of State Policy has laid down the aims to achieve the goals of educated With respect to the context, many State Governments have attempted to make physical education and compulsory subject in the school and college education. Various suggestions have been made for the much needed sports rejuvenations in India (UGC, 1967). Most of the items have been incorporated in a draft for a national policy on sports prepared by the All India Sports Council and Ministry of Sports and Youth Welfare, Govt. of India. One of the main problems confronting physical education in India is that of educating of educationists and public about the educational significance and contribution of physical education. Progress has been achieved, but still in many regards physical education is a fringe area of education. There has been a lack of outstanding leaders who could mobilize professional personnel in physical education (Jeon, 1999 & Norman, 1972). Imparting education and preparing individual as a 100

socially, emotionally, physically, psychologically fit citizen in true manner is real contribution to the nation (Donley, 1960). Physical education is an integral part of total education process in the field of endeavor, which has as its aim the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizen through the medium of physical activities which have been related with a view to realizing there outcomes (India press, 1956). The Kothari Commission did not go into the details of implementing physical education as a curriculum subject, though the statement has been made that it is wrong to ignore the educational values giving too much emphasis to only the physical well being. Perhaps physical education is one of the latest subjects to enter the field of organized education in our country (India press, 1966). Physical education is one phase of total education process and that it utilizes activity drives that are inherent in each individual to develop a person organically, neuro-muscularly, intellectually and emotionally. These outcomes are realized whenever physical education activities are conducted in such places as the playgrounds, gymnasium and swimming pool (Clarke, 1957). Methods and Procedure The study was on Government Senior Secondary Schools of Jhansi District and the data was collected on seventy schools and Principals of each school were personally contacted by the researcher. For construction of the questionnaire, the research scholar studied related literature in the area of physical education and sports. A sufficient numbers of questions were prepared in consultation with the guide and experts of physical education and sports from the area of playing area and availability of physical education teachers in senior secondary school. The construction 101

and arrangement of the questions were made in such a way that the sequence in the response statements was readily available in an orderly manner. Attempts were made to make the questions simple, clear and relevant leaving no space for ambiguity. The copies of the questionnaire with a covering letter were personally given to the Principals of 70 Senior Secondary Schools of Jhansi District. The Principals of different school filled the questionnaire and responses were received. The filled questionnaires were tabulated by the scholar on the basis of responses of respondents, a tally was prepared to find out percentage and mean. Statistical Procedure The information obtained from the responses to the questionnaire were carefully recorded and systematically computed for data analysis. The descriptive percentage technique with the frequency and average were employed for meaningful presentation of the surveyed information. Results and Discussion Table-I Percentage analysis of Senior Secondary Schools of Jhansi District on the basis of Number of physical education & sports teacher in the school

Total School 70, Total Number of students= 40311 102

The analysis of data in Table -I had revealed that 58.57% schools have one PET, 18.57 % schools have two PET, 5.71% schools have three PET and 17.14% schools have no PET. The graphical representation on the basis of percentage analysis is presented in Fig 1.

Figure 1: The percentage of available physical education and sports teachers of senior secondary schools in Jhansi District Table-II Percentage analysis of Senior Secondary Schools of Jhansi District on the basis of available total playing area

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Total area: 181 acre, Total students: 40311 Table -II of percentage distribution of total playing area of senior secondary schools in Jhansi district indicates that 40% of schools had area between 1-2 acre, 18.57% of schools has 2- 3 acre, 14.29% of schools had 3-4 acre, 10% of schools had 4-5 acre, 5.71% of schools had less than 1 acre and only 5.71% of school had more than 5 acre area. Also, there are 5.71% Schools having no area available for games and sports. The graphical representation on the basis of percentage analysis is presented in Fig

2. Figure 2: The percentage of available total playing area of senior secondary schools in Jhansi District 104

The present study surveyed about the play ground area and availability of physical education and sports teachers in the schools of Jhansi District in Uttar Pradesh. Results indicates the inadequacies in the different aspects of physical education and sports in the school of Jhansi District. In the study, seventy schools (58 co-educational, 3 for Boys only & 9 for Girls only) were surveyed, 58.57% school have only one P.E.T. The ratio of the PET in the schools was unsatisfactory for good programme of physical education & sports. The survey reveals inadequate area for physical education and Sports in most of the schools of Jhansi District. The study indicates that only 40% of schools have 1-2acres, 18.57% of schools has 2-3 acre, 14.29% of schools had 3-4 acre, 10% of schools had 4-5 acre, 5.71% of schools had less than 1 acre and only 5.7 1% of school had more than 5 acre area. Also, there are 5.7 1% Schools having no area available for games and sports. Conclusion The survey of Physical Education and Sports facilities in terms of playgrounds and staff availabilities were measured. The scholar took utmost care in collecting the relevant information pertaining to the present study. Playing area available for games and sports is 40% of schools had area between 1-2 acre, 18.57% of schools has 2-3 acre, 14.29% of schools had 3-4 acre, 10% of schools had 4-5 acre, 5.71% of schools had less than 1 acre and only 5.71% of school had more than 5 acre area. Also, there are 5.71% Schools having no area available for games and sports. The availability of physical education teachers are 58.57% schools have one PET, 18.57% schools have two PET, 5.71% schools have three PET and 17.14% schools have no PET in senior secondary schools of Jhansi District in Uttar Pradesh. 105

References 1. A report of the Education Commission, Ministry of Education, Government of India (New Delhi: Government of India Press, 1966), p.6. Brosname James P., A survey of Physical Education in the Secondary Boarding Schools for Boys in the United States Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 4 (1962):64 Clarke H. Harrison Historical Orientation, Physical Fitness Newsletter 111- 8 (April, 1957):7 Clifford Edward Donley, A survey of Physical Education Programmes and Facilities in Secondary Schools of the First Judicial Division of South Alska, Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 2(1960): 72 Coop De Remle, A survey of the Physical Education Programme for boys in selected private High School the state of Hawaii, Dissertation Abstracts International 37 (May 1977): 7021-A Granneir Jacques, To determine the current status of Physical Education in French Regionals Secondary Schools of Quebee Canada Dissertation Abstracts Imitational 43 (December 1973): 3118- 3119 A James Kennison, A survey of Physical Education in Rural Public Elementary Schools in the Island Empire Area of Washington for School \Year 195859 Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation 2(1960):72. 106

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Jeon, Jinn-Ho, An evaluation of the sports education programmes in selected boys high schools in Republic of Korea Dissertation Abstract International, 59 : (12 June 1999), p. 4391-A Joseph L. Alston, The attitude of teachers towards physical education in selected schools in Virginia, Completed Research in Health Physical Education and Recreation, 9(1967):86. Mizuguchi Norman K., Survey of Boys Physical Education Programme in the Junior and Senior Schools in Honolulu, Hawai, Dissertation Abstracts International 32 (January 1972):.34793480A. Report of Committee on Physical Education (New Delhi: University Grants Commission, 1 967):4-2 1. Willgoose Carl E., The curriculum in Physical Education (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Prentice Hall Inc., 1979), p.6.

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ALMONDS AS A NUTRITIONAL AID TO SPORTS PERFORMANCE -- AN ANALYSIS


Dr. Sarojini Associate Prof. & Head Deptt of Phy. Edu. ML& JNK Girls PG College Saharanpur, UP, India. Introduction: Almonds are an ancient food, having its written history including the WiJ. Aaieuie fact indicate that almonds were thought to have originated in region of Western Asia and North Africa. The Romans referred it as Greek Nut in reference to the civilization suggested to have first cultivated them. Almonds are now grown in many of the countries that border the Mediterranean Sea including Spain, Italy, Portugal, Morocco and California. Historical evidence also indicates that the earliest varieties of almond were found in China carried by traders down the ancient Silk Road to Greece, Turkey and the Middle East. Throughout history almonds have maintained religious, ethnic and social significance. The Bibles Book of Numbers tells the story of Aarons rod that blossomed and bore almonds, giving the almonds the symbolism of divine approval. The Romans showered newlyweds with almonds as a fertility charm. Today, Americans give guests at wedding a bag of sugared almonds representing children, happiness, romance, good health and fortunes. In Sweden, cinnamon- flavored rice pudding with an almond inside is a Christmas custom. Find it and good fortune is yours for a year. 108

in present situation California is the only state where almonds are grown commercially, has an interesting history. Almonds were originally brought to California centuries ago when missions were created by Spanish, but cultivation of tree was abandoned when the missions were closed. Almond trees found their way back to California in the 19th century via Eastern United States. In 1840, almond trees were brought over Europe and were first planted in New England. The climate did not support their cultivation; then trees were brought to California where they thrived and continue to do so. If we consider the present situation approximately 6000 almond growers produce 100 % of the commercial doinesti supply and more than 70% of worldwide production. Over 90 nations imports California almonds. Overseas, Germany is the largest market for almonds consuming about 25% of the export corp. followed by Japan at about 12%. Other major importers include the Netherland, France, UK, Canada India and Spain. Etymologically, the word almond comes from old French Almande or Alemande, Late Latin Amandola. It is a small deciduous tree growing 410 meter (13-33 feet) in height, with a trunk of up to 30 cm.(12 inches) in diameter. The young twig are green at first, becoming purplish where expose to sunlight they turns gray Ii their second year The leaves are 3-5 inches long with a serrated margin and a 2.5 cm.( 1 inch) petiole. The flowers are white or pale pink, 3-5 cm. (1-2 inches) diameter with five petals produced singly or in pairs before the leaves in early spring. Almonds become an economic corps in the third year. Tree reach full bearing five to six year after planting. The fruit is mature in the autumn, 7-8 month after flowering. Fruit is near about 3.5-6 cm. (1-2 inches) long.

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The almond that we think of as nut is technically a seed of the fruit of almond tree, a glorious medium size tree that bears fragrant pink and white flowers. Like its cousins the peach, cherry and apricot trees, the almond tree bears fruits with stone like seeds within. The seed of the fruit is what we refer to as the almond nut. Almonds are off-white in color, covered by thin brownish skin and encased in a hard shell. They are classified into two categories sweet and bitter. Sweet almonds are the type that is eaten. They are oval in shape, usually malleable in texture and wonderfully buttery in taste. Bitter almonds are used to make oil that is used as a flavoring agent for foods liqueurs such as Amaretto. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF ALMOND (per 100 gm) Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Dietary fiber Fat Saturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Protein 22gm Thiamine (vitamin B1) Riboflavin (vitamin B2) Niacin (vitamin B3) 0.24mg 0.8mg 4.0mg 110 2418kj (578 kcal) 20gm. 5gm 12gm 51gm 4gm 32gm 12gm

Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) 0.3mg

Vitamin B6 Folate (vitamin B9) Vitamin C Vitamin E Calcium Iron Magnesium Phosphorus Potassium Zink

0.13mg 29microgram .00gm 26.22gm 248mg 4mg 275mg 474mg 728mg 3mg

AMINO ACID IN ALMOND 1rn/100gm NUT.: Arginine Leucine Phenylalanine Valine Isoleucine Threonine Lysine Tyrosine Cysteine Tryptophan 2.47gm 1.47gm 1.15gm 0.80gm 0.69gm 0.68gm 0.60gm 0.53gm 0.28gm 0.19gm 111

Methionine

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Given nutritional value indicate that almonds are dense in vitamin and minerals, it keeps body healthy. In addition to providing protein and fiber, almonds also contain the essential fatty acid Omega3 and Omega6. They also contain Vitamin E, Zinc, Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium and Magnesium. Fat available in almond is mono saturated fat which is great for heart. 26 per cent Carbohydrates (12% dietary fiber, 6.3% sugar, 0:7% starch and rest miscellaneous carbohydrates), Vitamin E 26mg iii per 100gm, high quality protein dietary fibers, vitamin B, essential minerals, monounsaturated fats, LDL cholesterol, phytosterols, poly-phenol indicate its super nutritional value for an athlete. Organic Facts Related To Almond 01. Almonds are most nutritious from all nuts. The following wonderful facts are associated with it:01-Almonds are low in saturated fat and contain many other protective nutrients Like calcium and magnesium for strong bones, vitamin F and compound called phyto-chemicals, may help and protect against cardiovascular disease and even cancer. Dr Gary Beecher of the USDA- ARS, has analyzed the phytochemical content of almond and states-l have never seen this diversity of phyto-chemicals in a single food source. A Loma Linda School of Public Health Study showed those who consumed nut five times in a week had a 50 percent reduction in risk of heart attack. In clinical study Dr Gene Spiller, Director of the Health Research and Studies Centre, Inc. showed that almonds added to the diet had 112

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a favorable effect on blood cholesterol levels. None of the study groups experienced weight gain in the study. 05If one think that almonds are just satisfying his mid afternoon munchies that not sufficient, facts surprisingly indicate that these tasty tidbits pack is a nutritional punch, combining tons of essential nutrients in one very delicious package. Studies also suggests that one tiny ounce of almonds contain 12% of our daily allowance of protein without cholesterol. Of course one will also get 35% of his daily allowance of vitamin E, so that its a valuable anti-oxident with so many common fighting qualities. Most of the fat in almond is mono saturated, which is also known as good fat. Researches on almonds also suggest that one ounce (app. 20-25 pieces) almond contain as much calcium as 1/4 cup of milk, so its a valuable tool in preventing osteoporosis. Almonds are also contains more magnesium than oatmeal or even spinach. Build strong bone and teeth with the phosphorus in almonds. Almonds Boards of California says just one ounce of almond of daily value for vitamin E. Almonds are also a great source of folic acid which body needs during pregnancy Contain 35%

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Almonds and Oxalate Almonds are among a small number of foods that contain measurable amount of oxalates. Oxalates are naturally occurring substances found in 113

plants, animals and human being. When oxalate becomes too concentrated in body fluids, they can crystallize and cause health problems. Laboratory studies have shown that oxalate may also interfere with absorption of calcium from the body. Almonds are also included in eight food types that classified as major allergens which may results as oral allergy syndrome, contact urticaria, anaphylaxis, and gastro intestinal and respiratory symptoms. Intake of Almond Intake of almond can be done in any under given form :0102030405Almonds could be taken as raw form. By soaking in water. In oil form. As milk. As almond butter.

Health Benefits Of Almond:Almonds have a wide variety of benefits for health. It can help in treating constipation, heart disorder, respiratory disorder, impotency, anemia, cough, diabetes and also beneficial for skin, hair and dental care. Intake of almonds results in the form of following health benefit:0102. 0304Good for brain activity. Regulates cholesterol. Good for heart. Best for skin care. 114

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Regulates blood pressure. Prevents from cancer. Protects against diabetes. Good in pregnancy. Best for weight loss and weight management. Prevents constipation. Boosts energy. Improves appearance. Reduces blood sugar. Best stress reliever. Prevents birth defects. Good for prevention of jaundice. Treats dry cough. Good treatment for stammering.

Almonds is a better substitute for athletes requirement: Personal. Unservatic and experiences On the basis of personal observation and experiences following facts are found in support of uses of almonds in an athletes diet: 01 -Almonds are useful to the athletes who are recovering from different workout. 01. A single ounce of almond contains 6gm of muscle feeding protein and 6gm of replenishing carbohydrates as well as 15 gm per ounce of mono unsaturated fat, This type of fat decreases inflammation, which is a common by product of hard training session. 115

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Incredible variety of vitamins, minerals, phyto nutrients and other important compounds extends the health benefits of almonds in sports. The anti oxidant action of vitamin E is of particular note for athletes, as this can help, clean up the free radical damage of training stress. Twenty identified flavinoid in almonds skin are also powerful antioxidant capable of repairing cellular damage. Important minerals in almond are manganese and copper, both needed to keep metabolic process in the mitochondria running smoothly. Almond also contain a generous dose of magnesium Which is an essential mineral and electrolyte, important to athletes as it helps carry the electric impulses needed for muscle contraction. Prime importance to nerve signaling is choline, a nutrient found in especially in high level in almond. Choline is a precursor to acetylcholine which is the main neurotransmitter associated with voluntary control of body movements. Almonds also provide some of the nutrients needed to replenish the nervous system after commanding workouts. Even with their high fat content they are known to improve heart health, reduce inflammation and aid in weight loss. Almond milk is an alternative to cows milk. It boosts an impressive dose of bone building calcium. Plain original almond milk provides 60 to 70 calories per cup, which is about 15 calories less than the same amount of skim milk. It is low in protein, providing only 1-2 per cup, 2.5gm fat and 8gm carbohydrate. Due to its low calorie content almond milk may be beneficial addition to a diet geared towards weight loss or weight management. 116

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Almond milk also lower in potassium and phosphorus then regular soy milk. In acute or chronic kidney disease this could be a better choice. Almond milk is a good source of several important fat soluble vitamins. One cup of plain almond milk meet 10% of recommended daily value of vitamin A, 25% of vitamin D and 50% of vitamin E, making it high in many nutrients compared to the amount of calories it provide in per servings. Vitamin A and D acts as antioxidants in body. Almond milk is also rich in calcium. One cup offers approximately 300mg, meeting 30% of daily value. Almond helps to skin to retain its moisture balance, enhances complexion and add a youthful glow to the skin. It cures dryness irritation, itching, inflammation, dark circle, line lines, chapped lips and body rashes. Almond also provide nourishment, smooth hair, strengthen them allow to grow thick and long reduces hair loss and gives a natural shine. Almond oil is best carrier oil in aromatherapy. Its also excellent massage oil. Almonds butter having LDL cholesterol is very good for heart. It controls not only blood pressure but also maintain the level of blood sugar. It is always helpful in weight control management.

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On the basis of available facts, personal observation and experiences following conclusion has been drawn in context to sports performance: 01Eating of almond in any form is the best option for those who belongs to combative sports. Without losing energy level almond not only provide them energy but its also capable to maintain their body weight constantly. Satisfying their appetite almond also prevent them from over eating. The presence of manganese, copper and riboflavin in almond helps in energy production. 10 power sports as well as endurance sports it acts as boosting element and can be given to the athletes just before, during and after their competition according to the suitability, to maintain their energy level throughout the competition. Daily dose of one ounce soaking almonds in the morning is a source of many nutrients which helps in the development of brain and mind activity so are to be recommended strongly for the athletes related to mind game, like chess. Almonds are to be considered as best nutrient than any other food sources for them. Due to presence of vitamin B, E, magnesium and zinc almonds are also considered as best stress reliever. These elements are involved in the production of serotonin which helps and regulates mood and relieve stress. As a stress reliever almonds are useful for the athletes related to all sports and games. Almonds are best suitable element to female athletes not only as food supplements it also recommended as a treatment to their skin. Almonds can treat any damage caused by continuous exposure to 118

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sun rays and can retain, regain the moisture balance of their skin. By treating the dark circle, line lines, chapped lips and body rashes almond gives a healthy youthful grow to their skin. 06Almonds as oil is best suited and recommended thing for the almost all the sports and games. It provides not only relaxation but also acts as excellent massage oil for the production of heat in athletes body.

In conclusion it can be said that almonds are the best and more nutritious nut recommended for sports person. It enhances not only the performance level it also prevents them from minor diseases of day to day life. It is the best source of vitamin, minerals, carbohydrates, fat and protein within a single food element, so are to be considered and accepted as a nutritional aid for the athletes related to almost all the sports and games. REFERENCES 010203Dr O P Goyal Bhojan Dwara Chikitsa. Rojgar Prakashan, Halanganj, Mathura 1992, pp166-167. Chaudhary Manav Aahaar hi Aushadhi hai. Navneet Publication (India) Ltd. Daaali, Gujarat, 2000, p255-25]. C. V. Chen et.al Flavinoid from Almond skin are Bio available and act synergistically with vitamin C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation. Journal of Nutrition, 135. No. 6 2005. Banka Payal Benefits of Soaking Almonds. Lifestyle, July31 2010.

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Michele Turcotte : Nutritional benefits of Almonds Milk. Food & Drink, June 14, 2011. Vats Alok Health benefits of Almond. News India Empowering Ideas. June 23, 2011. Life Mojo team Cosmetic uses of Almond Oil. Lifestyle, September 26, 2011. Khera P. Health Benefits of Almond Butter. Diet Fitness and Nutrition Lifestyle, September 26, 2011.

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