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Rajasekar. J Assistant Professor, Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Mount Zion College of Engineering and Technology, Pudukkottai
ABSTRACT The investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of missile with different shapes is carried out using computational techniques. The objective of this project is to optimize the geometry of the missile cross-section for transportation and also to obtain higher aerodynamic efficiencies and range. In this work I have compared aerodynamic characteristics of three missiles having the same cross-sectional areas but different shapes(circular, square and hexagonal with round corners) and conical fore body. In order to differentiate between the shapes and the fin effects, I have considered the bodies with no fins. A three dimensional, compressible, ideal, viscous flow has been simulated using the FLUENT CFD code and the model has been generated in ICEM CFD. The models are analyzed in the supersonic regime for mach number 4. Keywords: Missiles, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Fighter Aircrafts

INTRODUCTION With increasing concern over security and

launched from the air or ground, such as adding boosters to the ground launched version. The various types of missiles are Ballistic missile Cruise missile Anti-ship missile Anti-tank guided missile Anti-aircraft Surface-to-air missile Anti-ballistic missile Air-to-air missile

exploitation of space plays a major role in the advancement of new technologies that are

challenging each and every country in the field of rockets and missiles. Various studies about the missiles are carried out in area to increase its efficiency and range of operation. In this content aerodynamic analysis of missile with different crosssectional shapes in one such important task that helps to increase the ways for obtaining greater range and better aerodynamic efficiency. Missiles are generally categorized by their launch platform and intended target. In broadest terms, these will either be surface (ground or water) or air, and then sub-categorized by range and the exact target type (such as anti-tank or anti-ship). Many weapons are designed to be launched from both surface and the air, and a few are designed to attack either surface or air targets (such as the ADATS missile). Most weapons require some modification in order to be

STATE OF ART A survey of literature in CFD based optimization of ducts revealed that very few studies of this nature have been attempted Since most of research in missiles was carried out by defense organizations, in spite of remarkable progress in missiles research, the publication and access limited Sobester reviewed the historical survey of developments in aerodynamics of jet engines and its influence of inlet design decisions.

The transformation of free stream flow condition into the required condition is measuring scale for the efficiency of intake. Better inlet comprises of better total pressure recovery along with minimum drag, fan face pressure distribution, weight, complexity and cost. Understanding of aerodynamics over inlet is necessary for the design an inlet with good balance between good pressure recovery and low inlet drag. The Scoop type inlet offered good pressure recovery with a less drag penalty, whereas flushmounted submerged missiles, though potentially compromising pressure recovery, did not add to the cross-sectional area of fuselage and were therefore seen as a low-drag solution. The rectangular intakes present lower risk of surge in axi symmetric flow condition. During subsonic cruise, the main source of loss is due to skin friction along the duct walls, mixing loss at the merger of ducts and loss arising out of local pockets of flow separation inside the duct. An S-shaped duct typically also generates flow distortion and swirl. Numerical approach for prediction of

Uniformity of distribution of static fluid properties, Distortion tolerance were measured at engine face with the closed, semi closed full open door condition. Test with cross wind found that the auxiliary air take effect on it was found as negligible. The variation of static pressure on the length of the inner duct is compared with the model without auxiliary duct and found to have a better raise. Computational analysis for the flow field within S-duct is conducted with the extended k turbulence model by yong choetaln Additional computational study is needed for correctly

predicting the turbulent flow inside the duct.

MISSILES GEOMETRY First, a 3d missile model without fin was created in CATIA with the dimensions as shown in the figure .the non dimensional length of the missile is 36.44 including the conical region. The diameter is kept as 4.8.The non-dimensional scale considered is 1mm as the length scale and free stream velocity as the velocity scale.

spillage drag on subsonic missiles has been validated using computational tools drag was done by Williams et al Fattah works on auxiliary air intake in Jindivik aircraft is detailed with wind tunnel values at velocity ranges from 0 85 m/s and angle of attack from 00to 100. The effect of geometry, shape and location of different auxiliary air intake were tested and found that rectangular with the curvature similar to the cowl is found to have best. The sharp lip profile auxiliary air intake was found have a better pressure recovery capability at all speed tests. Also pressure recovery ability is in decreasing fron fully closed door configuration to half closed door configuration and then to fully open configuration.

Design of circular missile

ease of handling. The computational domain is made 6-7 times larger than the model configurations

Design of square missile

ANALYSIS Three dimensional numerical computational were performed using commercial CFD software Fluent. In present investigation, steady state axisymmetric computations have been made adopting k- turbulent model. The use of the turbulent model has been arrived after making necessary grid sensitivity tests, convergence history. Unstructured Design of hexagonal missile GRID GENERATION For analysis domain considered is as follows, circumferential outer boundary is at a distance of 15D from the missile and in the axial direction domain boundaries are considered at 5D from the leading edge of the missile to 10D from the end of the missile. The grid generation generated here is using Ansys ICEM CFD commercial software to obtain a surface and volume mesh consist of tetra and triangular cells the quality of the mesh is around 0.23 and the nodes and cells around 200000 with the scale factor of 0.3. The unstructured (tetra) grid generation technique is preferred for complex geometries. The parts of the aircraft configuration are named appropriately for uniformly distribution grids were made cells with having


minimum spacing near the wall of the order of _-. The first cell distance was of order of 5*103mm and y+ of 0.4. The pressure far-field boundary condition at the inlet was specified. No slip wall boundary condition with suitable near wall treatment for turbulent flows were enforced in fuselage air intake, auxiliary air intake, doors. Due to symmetry, only half domain with symmetrical boundary condition was applied about mid of fuselage. The overall grid, computational domain and boundary condition adopted is shown in fig. 2. The residuals of continuity, energy, and turbulent kinetic energy with mass flux between the inflow and outflow and y+ values were monitored. The convergence history of mass weighted average was monitored during the entire solution period. Results were analyzed only

when it was ascertained that the residuals has converged to the order of 10- .

Figure shows the contours of static pressure when the circular missile at the free stream mach number .The static pressure maximum at the nosecone of the missile. Figures also represent the pressure


coefficient increases as the distance from the leading edge increases. The above diagram shows the contours of velocity magnitude of the circular missile. The velocity is maximum at the rear edge of the missile. It shows the mach number increases suddenly at the position 0.35. RESULTS

Contours of static pressure (mach no 4) PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION VS POSITION SQUARE MISSILE 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 -0.002 -0.004 Contours of static pressure (mach no 4) -0.006 HEXAGONAL MISSILE -0.008 -0.01 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 circular hexagonal square

Pressure Distribution vs Position From the above graph we observe the pressure distribution for the circular, hexagonal and squre missile at zero angle-of-attack. These Contours of static pressure (mach no 4) pressure distribution

indidicated are for mach numbers of 1 to4. For the circular missile the maximum Cp at the nose section is 0.3m and is -0.0011 at 0.4m. In the case of








of squre missile it is at M=0.0024 which is high enough compared to circular and hexagonal missiles. Further more the point of inflexion for

0.15m(0.0043) and shows a negative Cp of -0.00812 at a distance of 0.4m from the nosecone section. As in the case of square missile the maximum Cp of 0.006 is exbhited at two point at 0.20m and 0.25m and negative Cp -0.0012 at 0.4m length. It shows that the static pressure at this location is below the freestream pressure for all the missiles. It is clearly explained in the equation. Cp = (P / P-1) / (1/2** M2) This type of characteristics is

the circular and hexagonal missiles increases slightly while that of the square missile increases drastically to a maximum mach number M=0.00768 at a distance of 0.4m and the mach number for the

circular and hexagonal missiles are M=0.004 and M=0.0054 respectively. This is due to the expansion waves at the tail portion of the missiles CONCLUSION Three missiles circular, square and hexagonal of diameter 4.8cm and length 36.44cm (nose section 4.44cm and body 32cm length) with tapper of 5 degree for hexagonal and square section has been tested for supersonic mach number 1 to 4.This study will motivate the need of aerospace industry to quickly and inexpensively determine characteristics of missile without the need of wind tunnel experiments, which are difficult and exhibited due to the formation of shoch wave ahead of the nose section and expansion fans at the tail section ofthe missiles. MACH NUMBER VS POSITIONM Vs x/d at AOA=0 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.005 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 3. The above graph shows the varition of mach number for circular,hexagonal and square missiles at zero angle-of-attack for the circular and hexagonal missile the point of inflexion is at M=0.0012 and 0.0013 respectively. While in the case 4. circular hexagonal square 2. 1. For the entire missile the shock is seen attached as the Mach number increases a detached shock wave is obtained. In the case of circular missile have good lift characteristics but the over all drag is high compared to square missile. As in the case of square missile the nose cone drag is high while the overall drag is low compared to that of the circular missile. The Cp value for the hexagonal missile is low for all mach numbers compared to circular and square missiles. degree

expensive. An analysis of the above results, has led to the following conclusions.


When comparing all the missiles the hexagonal exhibit better aerodynamic

characteristics for all the mach numbers. 6. With the attachments of fin a better aerodynamic characteristics and a good result can be obtained



Dupuis, Berner C, Bernier A, Aerodynamic characteristic of the A3 DRDC-ISL

reference projectile: Missile with lattice fins, Commando de publications, 2005. 2. Anderson J.D. Modern Compressible flow (Book) 3. Nielson A.C. Missile Aerodynamics (Book) 4. AERODYNAMIC DESIGN OPTIMIZATION STUDIES AT CASDE , P.M. Mujumdar, K. Sudhakar, A.G. Marathe, A. Isaacs, D. Ghate& N. Nigam , Proceedings of the Symposium on Applied Aerodynamics and Design of Aerospace Vehicles 15-16 December 2003, Bangalore, India Inlet Drag Prediction for Aircraft Conceptual Design Paul Malan and Eugene F. Brownt ,JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT Vol. 31, No. 3, May-June 1994 Tradeoffs in Jet Inlet Design: A Historical Perspective, AndrsSbester , JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFTVol. 44, No. 3, MayJune 2007 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SUPERSONIC FLOW AROUND WINGBODY CONFIGURATION WITH INTEGRATED ENGINE NACELLE ,Masahiro Kanazaki*, Shigeru Obayashi and Kazuhiro Nakahashi, AIAA-2002-0836