You are on page 1of 14

PCTR

071 PCTR 13 E Original: English

NATO Parliamentary Assembly

POLITICAL COMMITTEE

SEC RIT! IN T"E "I#" NORT": NATO$S ROLE

%RA&T REPORT'
Jadwiga ZAKRZEWSKA (Poland) Rapporteur Sub-Committee on Transatlanti Relations

((()nat*+,a)int '

-. Mar/h -013

ntil this 0*/1ment has been a,,r*2e0 by the P*liti/al C*mmittee3 it re,resents *nly the 2ie(s *4 the Ra,,*rte1r)

071 PCTR 13 E

TABLE OF CONTENTS

!"TR#$%CT!#"& T'E ARCT!C RE(!#")))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))!! T'E !*PACT #+ C,!*ATE C'A"(E #" T'E ARCT!C))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))!!! SEC%R!T- $-"A*!CS !" T'E ARCT!C . P#,!C!ES #+ ARCT!C P,A-ERS ))))))))))))))))/
A) Cana0a))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2 5) %enmar6 )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2i C) ICELAN% )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2i %) N*r(ay)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2i E) R1ssia))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2ii &) The nite0 States))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2ii #) Other Ar/ti/ C*1n/il Member States)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))2iii ") Other ,ARTICIPANTS)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))2iii Asian states))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) 2iii The E1r*,ean ni*n 7E 8)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))2iii

ARCT!C SEC%R!T- !SS%ES . T'E R#,E #+ RE(!#"A, #R(A"!SAT!#"S )))))))))))))!0


A) The N C*n2enti*n *n the La( *4 the Sea 7 NCLOS8))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))i9 5) The Ar/ti/ C*1n/il))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) i9

"AT#

!" T'E ARCT!C ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))0 PRE,!*!"AR- C#"C,%S!#"S& A (REATER R#,E +#R "AT# !" T'E ARCT!C1 )))0! 2!2,!#(RAP'-)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))34

MAP OF POSSIBLE SHIPPING ROUTES IN THE ARCTIC

071 PCTR 13 E

INTRODUCTION: THE ARCTIC REGION 1) The Ar/ti/3 1s1ally 0e4ine0 as the area n*rth *4 the Ar/ti/ Cir/le 7::;33<N83 /*m,rising ,arts *4 Cana0a3 #reenlan0 7(hi/h is ,art *4 the =ing0*m *4 %enmar683 R1ssia3 the nite0 States3 I/elan03 N*r(ay3 S(e0en an0 &inlan03 is g*ing thr*1gh a ,r*4*1n0 trans4*rmati*n) >hat (as ,re2i*1sly a rem*te3 barren regi*n is n*( e9,erien/ing in/reasing le2els *4 h1man a/ti2ity) ii

071 PCTR 13 E Para0*9i/ally3 /limate /hange (hi/h /an be *bser2e0 in the regi*n is g*ing t* ma6e the Ar/ti/ m*re a//essible in terms *4 mineral res*1r/e e9,l*itati*n as (ell as maritime tra0e is th1s trans4*rming its ge*,*liti/al stat1s) -) The Ar/ti/ (as high *n the se/1rity agen0a 01ring the C*l0 >ar3 b1t its signi4i/an/e (as greatly re01/e0 a4ter the /*lla,se *4 the S*2iet ni*n) "*(e2er3 the sl*( b1t /*ntin1*1s /hange in the regi*n$s /limate has ,1t it ba/6 high *n the ,*liti/al agen0a *4 b*th regi*nal states an0 the internati*nal /*mm1nity as a (h*le) The melting *4 the ,*lar i/e /a, (ill *,en ne( *,,*rt1nities 4*r the e9tra/ti*n *4 ra( materials an0 the *,ening *4 ne( shi,,ing r*1tes) The rising a/ti2ity (ill /hange the regi*n$s ge*strategi/ 0ynami/s an0 signi4i/an/e an0 in the l*ng term it /*1l0 ,*ssibly ,resent a great 0eal *4 ,r*mising *,,*rt1nities as (ell as /hallenges t* the Ar/ti/ litt*ral states an0 NATO member states) 3) Th1s3 as the Ar/ti/ be/*mes m*re a//essible an0 as its ,*tential e/*n*mi/ 2al1e is in/reasingly re/*gnise03 it /*1l0 *n/e again be/*me an arena 4*r strategi/ ri2alry an0 ,*ssible militarisati*n) The re,*rt l**6s at the im,a/t *4 the /*nse?1en/es *4 gl*bal (arming *n the Ar/ti/3 ,arti/1larly at the as,e/ts relate0 t* se/1rity an0 analyses i4 there is a nee0 4*r a m*re a/ti2e engagement *4 the Allian/e in the regi*n) The re,*rt n*tes that there is n* @r1sh 4*r the Ar/ti/A an0 that all Ar/ti/ ,layers em,hasise their 0esire t* /*+*,erate /l*sely t* s*l2e territ*rial 0is,1tes by 0i,l*mati/ means) "*(e2er3 as the im,a/t *4 /limate /hange als* t*1/hes 1,*n the e/*n*mi/3 en2ir*nmental an0 se/1rity interests *4 NATO Allies an0 the military ,resen/e in the regi*n is li6ely t* in/rease NATO Allies sh*1l0 /*nsi0er a greater in2*l2ement *4 the Allian/e in the Ar/ti/) B) The NATO PA has ,ai0 attenti*n t* Ar/ti/ 0e2el*,ments 4*r se2eral years) This ,*li/y ,a,er 4*ll*(s earlier a/ti2ities *4 the Assembly *n this iss1e3 ,arti/1larly the R*se R*th seminars in "elsin6i3 &inlan03 in -010 an0 in Tr*msC3 N*r(ay3 in -011 as (ell as the -010 re,*rt *4 the %e4en/e an0 Se/1rity C*mmittee D-13 %SCTC 10 EE an0 the -01- re,*rt *4 the E/*n*mi/s an0 Se/1rity C*mmittee D1B. ESCTER 1- E re2)1E) This re,*rt (ill be 1,0ate0 4*r the Assembly$s Ann1al sessi*n in %1br*2ni63 Cr*atia3 in O/t*ber -013) THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE ARCTIC F) Climate /hange has a 2isible im,a/t *n the Ar/ti/3 (here tem,erat1res ha2e been in/reasing at ab*1t t(i/e the gl*bal a2erage rate *2er the last 0e/a0es) This has res1lte0 in a 0e/line *4 the Ar/ti/ O/ean i/e /*2er 01ring the (arm time *4 the year3 (hi/h has s1r,asse0 ,re2i*1s s/ienti4i/ ,r*Ge/ti*ns) Sin/e the beginning *4 m*nit*ring the Ar/ti/ O/ean i/e e9tent in 1H7H3 the ann1al minim1m e9tent has shr1n6 by m*re than hal43 an0 e2en greater am*1nts *4 i/e ha2e been l*st in the /*rres,*n0ing thinning *4 the i/e /*2er3 a//*r0ing t* the S Nati*nal Sn*( an0 I/e %ata Centre 7NSI%C8) As re,*rte0 by the NSI%C3 Ar/ti/ O/ean i/e melte0 t* a re/*r0 l*( in Se,tember -01-3 (hen i/e /*2ere0 G1st -BI *4 the Ar/ti/ O/ean3 in /*m,aris*n t* the 0ata re/*r0e0 three 0e/a0es ag*3 (hi/h ,resente0 at least t(i/e that am*1nt) At *ne ,*int in the s1mmer *4 -01-3 H7I *4 the s1r4a/e *4 #reenlan0$s massi2e i/e sheet (as melting) M1lti+year i/e3 the 6in0 *4 i/e that is 2irt1ally im,assable 4*r shi,s3 n*( /*m,rises less than -0I *4 the Ar/ti/ i/e ,a/6 J /*m,are0 t* H0I in 1H.1) S/ientists anti/i,ate that Ar/ti/ (aters /*1l0 be i/e+ 4ree 01ring s1mmer m*nths by the en0 *4 the 0e/a0e i4 tem,erat1res /*ntin1e t* rise at the /1rrent rate) :) %1e t* the 4a/t that the Ar/ti/ regi*n itsel4 is a 2ery 4ragile en2ir*nment3 the im,a/t *4 /limate /hange (ill be m1lti,r*nge0: it (ill ma6e the Ar/ti/$s ab1n0ant energy an0 mineral res*1r/es m*re a//essibleK it (ill *,en ne( maritime r*1tes (hi/h ,r*mise t* sa2e s1bstantial transit time an0 41el /*stsK an0 it (ill /hange 4ishing ,atterns in the Ar/ti/ (aters) M*re*2er3 the in/rease0 internati*nal attenti*n an0 a/ti2ity /*1l0 lea0 t* the regi*n be/*ming the s1bGe/t *4 intensi2e neg*tiati*ns) There is als* the ris6 *4 /*n4r*ntati*n i4 the Ar/ti/ litt*ral states /ann*t agree *n h*( t* manage the im,a/t *4 /limate /hange an0 their res1lting + an0 ,artially /*n4li/ting + interests) iii

071 PCTR 13 E 7) The Ar/ti/ regi*n is /*nsi0ere0 t* h*l0 ri/h am*1nts *4 1nta,,e0 energy an0 mineral res*1r/es) Estimates s1ggest that the Ar/ti/ L*ne may /*ntain 1, t* -FI *4 the (*rl0$s *il an0 gas reser2es) In -00H3 a nite0 States #e*l*gi/al S1r2ey re,*rt estimate0 that the Ar/ti/ may h*l0 H0 billi*n barrels *4 *il 7*r s*me 13I *4 the (*rl0$s 6n*(n reser2es83 a,,r*9imately 13700 trilli*n /1bi/ 4eet 7t/48 *4 nat1ral gas 7an e?1i2alent *4 30I *4 the (*rl0$s reser2es83 an0 BB billi*n barrels *4 nat1ral gas li?1i0s) The area is als* ri/h in minerals3 s1/h as g*l03 Lin/3 ir*n3 /*,,er3 0iam*n0s3 r1bies an0 se2eral rare earth elements) M*st *4 the ,r*Ge/te0 reser2es a,,ear t* 4all (ithin litt*ral States$ 1n0is,1te0 E9/l1si2e E/*n*mi/ M*nes 7EEM8) The im,a/t *4 /limate /hange *n the Ar/ti/3 te/hn*l*gi/al im,r*2ements in *44sh*re e9tra/ti*n an0 rising energy /*sts /*1l0 ma6e e9tra/ti*n *4 these res*1r/es m*re attra/ti2e) .) The 4a/t that the N*rth(est Passage 7the r*1te n*rth *4 Cana0a bet(een the N*rth Atlanti/ an0 the Pa/i4i/8 an0 the N*rthern Sea R*1te 7NSR + *r N*rth East Passage: the maritime r*1te 4r*m the Atlanti/ t* the Pa/i4i/ al*ng the n*rthern /*astline *4 Siberia 4r*m N*2aya Memlya t* the 5ering Strait8 are be/*ming m*re a//essible is li6ely t* ha2e a gr*1n0 brea6ing im,a/t *n gl*bal shi,,ing by *,ening ne( sea r*1tes bet(een E1r*,e an0 Asia) &*r e9am,le3 the NSR (*1l0 re01/e the tra2el time 4r*m E1r*,e t* Asia by alm*st B0I3 (hile the N*rth >est Passage (*1l0 re01/e the tra2el 0istan/e bet(een R*tter0am t* Seattle by -FI) E9,erts estimate that the Ar/ti/ O/ean /*1l0 be i/e 4ree 4*r ab*1t a m*nth ,er year as early as s*metime bet(een -03F an0 -0B0) In a00iti*n t* sa2ing /*nsi0erable tra2el time an0 re01/ing shi,,ing /*sts3 the *,ening *4 Ar/ti/ shi,,ing r*1tes (*1l0 re01/e greenh*1se gas emissi*ns3 ease ,ress1re *n /*ngeste0 trans/*ntinental na2igati*n an0 a2*i0 the 0angers ,*se0 by ,irates3 terr*rists *r ,*liti/al instability) H) S*me *4 the (*rl0$s ri/hest 4ishing st*/6s lie in the Ar/ti/) They 4*rm a highly 2al1e0 res*1r/e that may be/*me in/reasingly a2ailable 4*r e9,l*itati*n as (ater tem,erat1res /hange an0 Ar/ti/ i/e /*2er re/e0es) Large /*mmer/ial 4isheries e9ist in the Ar/ti/3 in/l10ing in the 5arents an0 N*r(egian Seas n*rth *4 E1r*,e3 the Central N*rth Atlanti/ *44 #reenlan0 an0 I/elan03 an0 the Ne(4*1n0lan0 an0 Labra0*r Seas3 *44 n*rth+eastern Cana0a) The 0e/line *4 s1mmertime sea i/e is e9,e/te0 t* e9,an0 areas s1itable 4*r 4ishing an0 t* all*( a n*rth(ar0 migrati*n *4 s,e/ies *4 4ish n*t ,re2i*1sly 4*1n0 in the regi*n3 ,*tentially attra/ting b*th san/ti*ne0 an0 Nr*g1e$ 4ishermen) The ris6 *4 *2er+4ishing in the Ar/ti/ is real an0 a//*r0ing t* a st10y by the ni2ersity *4 5ritish C*l1mbia 1 4isheries /at/hes in the Ar/ti/ t*talle0 HF03000 t*nnes 4r*m 1HF0 t* -00:3 alm*st 7F times the am*1nt re,*rte0 t* the nite0 Nati*ns &**0 an0 Agri/1lt1re OrganiLati*n 7&AO8 01ring this ,eri*0) 10) %es,ite the *,timisti/ ,re0i/ti*ns *4 a2ailable energy an0 mineral res*1r/es in the "igh N*rth3 there remains /*nsi0erable 1n/ertainty *2er the ,a/e *4 /limati/ /hanges in the regi*n) The Ar/ti/ has th1s 4ar been the s1bGe/t *4 *nly little a/t1al e9,l*itati*nK *il an0 gas /*m,anies are still largely e9,l*ring the regi*n in *r0er t* 4*rm1late ,re/ise e9,l*itati*n strategies) &*r n*(3 the te/hni/al /hallenges an0 /*sts *4 *,erating in s1/h e9treme /*n0iti*ns ma6e e9tra/ti*n an 1n/ertain enter,rise) There4*re3 the e9,l*rati*n *4 nat1ral res*1r/es in the Ar/ti/ still remains /*m,le93 /*stly3 an0 0anger*1s) M*re*2er3 0e2el*,ing energy res*1r/es in the Ar/ti/ is 4ra1ght (ith /*nsi0erable ris6s 4*r the en2ir*nment) En2ir*nmental 0isasters3 s1/h as the -010 *il s,ill in the #1l4 *4 Me9i/*3 (*1l0 be m1/h m*re ,r*blemati/ i4 they a,,eare0 in the "igh N*rth) A se2ere s,ill in the Ar/ti/ /*1l0 ha2e /atastr*,hi/ /*nse?1en/es3 b*th 4*r the 4ragile en2ir*nment an0 4*r the li2elih**0 *4 the /*mm1nities in the "igh N*rth) 11) An im,*rtant 4a/t*r 0etermining the ,a/e *4 e9tra/ti*n is the ,ri/e *4 /*mm*0ities) Signi4i/ant /hanges in gl*bal energy mar6ets3 ,rimarily /a1se0 by the in/reasing a2ailability *4 shale gas3 may n*t ne/essarily ma6e Ar/ti/ energy res*1r/e e9tra/ti*n a ,r*4itable in2estment in the sh*rt term) &*r e9am,le3 the ambiti*1s Sht*6man gas ,r*01/ti*n s/heme in the 5arents Sea has been ,*st,*ne0 in0e4initely as the anti/i,ate0 ,r*4itability *4 res*1r/e e9,l*itati*n has been
1

@Ar/ti/ 4isheries /at/hes 7F times higher than ,re2i*1s re,*rts: 5C resear/hA3 Media Release, The ni2ersity *4 5ritish C*l1mbia3 B &ebr1ary -0013 http://www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/2011/02/04/arcticfisheries-catches-75-times-higher-tha -pre!i"us-rep"rts-ubc-research/

i2

071 PCTR 13 E 0rasti/ally re01/e0 by the N*rth Ameri/an shale gas Ore2*l1ti*nO (hi/h has le0 t* a signi4i/ant 4all in /*mm*0ity ,ri/es) There4*re3 the t*,i/ *4 e9,l*itati*n *4 Ar/ti/ energy res*1r/es3 as high *n the nati*nal ,*liti/al agen0as as it might be3 may a/t1ally res1lt in the (ill t* establish e9tra/ti*n L*nes ,r*te/te0 by internati*nal la() 1-) M*re*2er3 ne( shi,,ing *,,*rt1nities ,r*2i0e0 by the N*rth(est Passage an0 the NSR are 1nli6ely t* be /*mmer/ially 2iable in the sh*rt term *r e2en the me0i1m term) Trans,*rtati*n in the regi*n is n*t *nly 0etermine0 by the e9tent *4 the i/eK 4a/t*rs s1/h as la/6 *4 a0e?1ate in4rastr1/t1re3 reliable na2igati*nal ma,s an0 /a,able 2essels als* ,lay a r*le) Establishing /*mmer/ial3 /*st+e44i/ient l*gisti/s (ill be 0i44i/1lt an0 (ill be a l*ng term 0e2el*,ment3 ,artly be/a1se the *,en sailing seas*n (ill be sh*rt an0 1nli6ely t* rea/h hal4 a year e2en by the en0 *4 the /ent1ry3 as Paal "il0e3 Ass*/iate Pr*4ess*r3 "ea0 *4 %e,artment3 N*r(egian Instit1te 4*r %e4en/e St10ies in4*rme0 ,arti/i,ants *4 the NATO PA$s 77th R*se+R*th Seminar in Tr*msC3 N*r(ay) In a00iti*n3 many *4 the shi,,ing lanes /1rrently 1se0 in the Ar/ti/ are a /*nsi0erable 0istan/e 4r*m sear/h an0 res/1e 7SAR8 4a/ilities) C*n0iti*ns /an be/*me e2en m*re 0anger*1s 4*r shi,,ing as i/e brea6s 1, an0 starts m*2ing) Th1s3 the e9tensi*n *4 the SAR net(*r6 (*1l0 be /r1/ial in the /*nte9t *4 re01/ing the ,*tentially negati2e an0 0anger*1s im,a/t *4 the e9,e/te0 in/rease *4 maritime m*2ement in the regi*n) 13) "*(e2er3 0es,ite these 1n/ertainties3 it is /lear that the e44e/ts *4 /limate /hange in the Ar/ti/ (ill at s*me ,*int 1nl*/6 the regi*n$s h1ge e/*n*mi/ ,*tential (hi/h (ill ha2e signi4i/ant ge*,*liti/al im,li/ati*ns) There4*re3 Ar/ti/ /*1ntries3 as (ell as *ther internati*nal ,arti/i,ants3 are li6ely t* see6 t* se/1re their ,*tential l*ng+term e/*n*mi/ an0 se/1rity interests) SECURITY DYNAMICS IN THE ARCTIC POLICIES OF ARCTIC PLAYERS 2 1B) The in/reasing a//essibility *4 the "igh N*rth has le0 all the 4i2e Ar/ti/ /*astal states 7Cana0a3 %enmar63 N*r(ay3 the R1ssian &e0erati*n an0 the nite0 States8 t* re+e9amine their ,*li/ies t*(ar0s the regi*n) In this /*nte9t3 g*2ernments *4 the litt*ral states are a02*/ating a m*re 2isible an0 /a,able ,resen/e in the Ar/ti/) As a res1lt3 they are als* e9,an0ing their military /a,abilities an0 ,resen/e in the Ar/ti/ regi*n by3 am*ng *thers3 ,r*/1ring ne( na2al assets an0 in4rastr1/t1re3 an0 in/reasing the 4re?1en/y *4 ,atr*ls) 1F) All Ar/ti/ states em,hasise their 0esire t* /*+*,erate /l*sely (ith ea/h *ther) "*(e2er3 se2eral *4 them ha2e state0 that they (ill 0e4en0 their nati*nal interests in the regi*n i4 ne/essary an0 there are still s*me 1nres*l2e0 territ*rial 0is,1tes am*ng the Ar/ti/ litt*ral states:3 Cana0a , %enmar6 7#reenlan08 an0 R1ssia /laim that the L*m*n*s*2 ri0ge (hi/h r1ns 4r*m #reenlan0 t* R1ssia is an e9tensi*n *4 their /*1ntryPs /*ntinental shel4) The nite0 States an0 Cana0a ha2e a 0is,1te *2er the N*rth(est Passage3 (hi/h the 4*rmer 2ie(s as an internati*nal strait thr*1gh (hi/h any shi, has the right *4 4ree ,assage (hile the latter arg1es that it has s*2ereignty *2er it) 5*th /*1ntries als* 0isagree *n the setting *4 the b*1n0aries in the 5ea14*rt Sea) On the *ther han03 the nite0 States an0 R1ssia als* ha2e /*n4li/ting /laims *2er an area in the 5ering Sea) %enmar6 an0 Cana0a ha2e t* res*l2e s*2ereignty iss1es *2er the "ans Islan03 a small 1n,*,1late0 islan0 *4 1)3 6m- an0 (here the /*ntr*l line sh*1l0 be 0ra(n in the strait bet(een #reenlan0 an0 Ellesmere Islan0) There is als* the ?1esti*n *4 the legal stat1s *4 the NSR (hi/h the nite0 States /*nsi0ers t* be an internati*nal (ater(ay (hile R1ssia regar0s it as *ne single shi,,ing r*1te 1n0er its /*m,lete G1ris0i/ti*n) As e/*n*mi/ interests in the e9,l*itati*n *4 the regi*n$s 2ast energy an0 mineral res*1r/es gr*(s3 these territ*rial 0is,1tes /*1l0 ta6e *n greater signi4i/an/e than e2en be4*re an0 nee0 t* be ta6en 1n0er 1tm*st /*nsi0erati*n)

A.

CANADA

1:) Cana0a$s Ar/ti/ regi*n ma6es 1, a large ,art *4 its territ*ryK its Ar/ti/ ,*li/y is sha,e0 by its /*mmitments t* nati*nal s*2ereignty an0 gl*bal /*n/erns regar0ing the 41t1re ,r*s,erity an0
-

This se/ti*n ,r*2i0es sna,sh*ts *4 the ,*li/ies *4 the 4i2e Ar/ti/ litt*ral states as (ell as the E Asian /*1ntries3 ,arti/1larly China) It (ill be e9,an0e0 4*r the a1t1mn sessi*n)

an0

071 PCTR 13 E s1stainability *4 the "igh N*rth) Otta(a$s N*rthern Strategy i0enti4ies 4*1r ,ri*rities 4*r its Ar/ti/ ,*li/y: e9er/ising s*2ereigntyK ,r*m*ting e/*n*mi/ an0 s*/ial 0e2el*,mentK en2ir*nmental ,r*te/ti*nK an0 im,r*2ing an0 0e2*l2ing N*rthern g*2ernan/e) 17) Cana0a3 (hi/h has ass1me0 the /hairmanshi, *4 the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il 3 in -0133 /*ntin1es t* 1,gra0e its military /a,abilities in *r0er t* e9,an0 its ability t* *,erate in the Ar/ti/) &*r e9am,le3 Cana0a ,lans se2eral large in2estments in military bases an0 materiel in N1na21t3 in/l10ing :+. Ar/ti/ ,atr*l shi,s3 a 0*/6ing an0 re41elling 4a/ility in Nanisi2i63 an0 a Cana0ian &*r/es Ar/ti/ Training Centre in Res*l1te 5ay) Cana0a is als* re,la/ing ageing air/ra4t (ith 17 ne( SAR air/ra4t *2er the ne9t se2eral years) Cana0a 0*es n*t anti/i,ate any military /hallenges in the Ar/ti/ an0 belie2es that the regi*n is (ell manage0 thr*1gh e9isting instit1ti*ns3 ,arti/1larly the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il) There4*re3 Cana0a s1,,*rts strengthening /*+*,erati*n bet(een Ar/ti/ litt*ral states in the 4rame(*r6 *4 the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il) Cana0a 0*es n*t see the nee0 4*r a m*re ,r*minent r*le *4 the Allian/e in the "igh N*rth)

B.

DENMARK

1.) %enmar6$s main *bGe/ti2es in the Ar/ti/ /*n/ern s1stainability an0 s*/ial 0e2el*,ment) The g*2ernment als* stri2es t* ,re2ent /*n4li/ts an0 a2*i0 the militarisati*n *4 the Ar/ti/) At the same time3 C*,enhagen has ann*1n/e0 that it (ants t* strengthen military /a,abilities in the Ar/ti/) A 0e4en/e ,lan 4*r the ,eri*0 -013J-017 (as a,,r*2e0 in N*2ember -01-) Re4le/ting its in/rease0 4*/1s *n the Ar/ti/ regi*n3 %enmar6 re*rganise0 its &ar*e Islan0s an0 #reenlan0 /*mman0s int* the G*int military Ar/ti/ C*mman0 in O/t*ber -01- (hi/h in/l10es a ra,i0 rea/ti*n 4*r/e) The =ing0*m als* see6s t* strengthen the r*le *4 the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il3 es,e/ially *n s*/ial iss1es) C*,enhagen (*1l0 li6e t* in/rease the C*1n/il$s im,a/t *n Ar/ti/ ,e*,les an0 aims t* ha2e the b*0y m*2e 4r*m @0e/isi*n+sha,ingA t* @0e/isi*n+ma6ing)A O2erall3 %enmar6 has sh*(n an interest in Ar/ti/ a44airs3 b1t has3 th1s 4ar3 *nly initiate0 limite0 /*n/rete a/ti*n)

C.

ICELAND

1H) C1rrently n*t /*nsi0ere0 t* be an Ar/ti/ /*astal state3 I/elan0 aims t* be re/*gnise0 as s1/h) The "igh N*rth is *ne *4 the 6ey ,ri*rity areas *4 I/elan0$s 4*reign ,*li/y) I/elan0 4a2*1rs the strengthening *4 the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il as a 4*r1m 4*r regi*nal /*+*,erati*n *n Ar/ti/ matters) #i2en the /*1ntry$s ge*gra,hi/ l*/ati*n3 I/elan0 is li6ely t* bene4it e/*n*mi/ally 4r*m the in/rease0 h1man ,resen/e in the "igh N*rth3 by be/*ming a maG*r h1b 4*r shi,,ing an0 res*1r/e m*2ement 4*r e9am,le) I/elan0i/ ,*li/y ,ri*rities 4*r the regi*n are en2ir*nmentally s1stainable res*1r/e 0e2el*,ment3 ,re,are0ness against en2ir*nmental 0isasters in Ar/ti/ (aters as (ell as im,r*2ing SAR /a,abilities) &1rtherm*re3 Rey6Ga2i6 (*1l0 li6e t* in/rease internati*nal /*ns1ltati*n an0 /*+*,erati*n *n Ar/ti/ iss1es t* se/1re in/rease0 6n*(le0ge *n the stat1s *4 the Ar/ti/)

D.

NORWAY

-0) NThe "igh N*rth$ is *ne *4 the 6ey ,ri*rities *4 N*r(ay$s se/1rity ,*li/y3 re4le/ting the /*1ntry$s ge*gra,hi/al ,*siti*n an0 2ast *il an0 nat1ral gas reser2es l*/ate0 in the area) &r*m a N*r(egian ,ers,e/ti2e3 it is /r1/ial that NATO be 1se0 as ,r*2i0er *4 stability in the Ar/ti/ regi*n) &1rtherm*re3 N*r(ay has re,eate0ly stresse0 that s,e/iQ/ /hallenges 4a/ing the Ar/ti/ sh*1l0 be 0ealt (ith thr*1gh e9tensi2e m1ltilateral /*+*,erati*n an0 /r*ss+b*r0er 0ial*g1e) -1) In -010 R1ssia an0 N*r(ay 4*1n0 a s*l1ti*n t* their 0isagreement *2er the 5arents Sea by signing the treaty *n maritime 0elimitati*n an0 /*+*,erati*n in the 5arents Sea an0 the Ar/ti/ O/ean) >ith this treaty N*r(ay an0 R1ssia set an e9am,le 4*r the Ar/ti/ an0 the (*rl0 *4 h*( 0elimitati*n 0is,1tes /an be res*l2e0 ,ea/e41lly3 in a//*r0an/e (ith internati*nal la() The treaty
3

See se/ti*n IR) 5

2i

071 PCTR 13 E is als* 1ni?1e in the sense that it /*ntains ,r*2isi*ns that ens1re that the e9tensi2e an0 4r1it41l N*r(egian+R1ssian 4isheries /*+*,erati*n is /*ntin1e03 as (ell as ,r*2isi*ns /*n/erning /*+ *,erati*n *n the e9,l*itati*n *4 any hy0r*/arb*n 0e,*sits that might e9ten0 a/r*ss the 0elimitati*n line)

E.

RUSSIA

--) R1ssia is *ne *4 the m*st engage0 Ar/ti/ ,layers re4le/ting the regi*n$s im,*rtan/e 4*r the /*1ntry$s e/*n*my) It is estimate0 that the Ar/ti/ h*l0s .0I *4 R1ssia$s nat1ral gas reser2es3 H0I *4 its ni/6el an0 /*balt reser2es an0 :0I *4 its /*,,er) M*re*2er3 a//*r0ing t* 4*rmer R1ssian Presi0ent Me02e0e23 a,,r*9imately -0I *4 R1ssia$s #%P an0 --I *4 its e9,*rts is generate0 ab*2e the Ar/ti/ Cir/le) The im,*rtan/e *4 R1ssia$s "igh N*rth is li6ely t* in/rease3 as the R1ssian energy strategy 1ntil -030 stresses that the res*1r/es l*/ate0 in the Ar/ti/ area an0 in the n*rthern regi*ns *4 R1ssia /*1l0 /*m,ensate 4*r its shrin6ing >estern Siberian 0e,*sits) R1ssia$s Ar/ti/ strategy3 ,1blishe0 *n the R1ssian Se/1rity C*1n/il$s (ebsite in late Mar/h -00H3 highlights the Ar/ti/$s rele2an/e 4*r R1ssia$s e/*n*my an0 i0enti4ies the trans4*rmati*n *4 the Ar/ti/ int* R1ssia$s t*, strategi/ base 4*r nat1ral res*1r/es by -0-0 as a main g*al) M*re*2er3 the 0e2el*,ment *4 the trans,*rt an0 /*mm1ni/ati*n in4rastr1/t1re in the regi*n3 ,arti/1larly /*nne/te0 t* the NSR as a nati*nal trans,*rtati*n r*1te an0 a /entral element in maritime /*nne/ti*ns bet(een E1r*,e an0 Asia3 is a main ,ri*rity 4*r R1ssia) Alth*1gh R1ssia 0*es n*t /*nsi0er that there is a 0ire/t threat t* R1ssia$s Ar/ti/ interests3 the #eneral Sta44 in S1ne -00H 0es/ribe0 the @str1ggle 4*r energy res*1r/es in the Ar/ti/A as *ne the m*st im,*rtant /hallenges) -3) The Ar/ti/ N*rth(est is an im,*rtant h*me base 4*r the R1ssian na2y3 in ,arti/1lar 4*r its m*st ,*(er41l ,art3 the N*rthern &leet an0 the sea+base0 /*m,*nent *4 the R1ssian n1/lear tria0) The n1/lear 0eterrent remains /entral t* R1ssia$s military strategy be/a1se its /*n2enti*nal 4*r/es /*ntin1e t* s144er 4r*m years *4 1n0erin2estment) R1ssia has been stea0ily e9,an0ing its military a/ti2ities in the Ar/ti/ regi*n) Sin/e A1g1st -0073 R1ssia rene(e0 training s*rties *4 strategi/ b*mbers *2er the Ar/ti/ 7a/r*ss the 5arents Sea int* the N*r(egian an0 N*rth Seas8 that ha0 been s1s,en0e0 a4ter the en0 *4 the C*l0 >ar) Sin/e the 0e,art1re *4 the S military 4r*m I/elan0 in Se,tember -00:3 there has been an in/rease0 in/1rsi*n *4 R1ssian military ,lanes int* the airs,a/e *4 Ar/ti/ neighb*1rs3 ,arti/1larly int* I/elan0 an0 N*r(ay3 s*metimes (ith*1t 4*ll*(ing the r1les *4 internati*nal airs,a/e s1/h as ,ri*r n*ti4i/ati*ns *4 4light ,lans) R1ssia has als* 0e2el*,e0 its /*astal 0e4en/e in4rastr1/t1re an0 enhan/e0 its te/hn*l*gi/al /a,abilities3 7in/l10ing satellites an0 ra0ars8) -B) Alth*1gh R1ssian *44i/ials ha2e s*metimes 1se0 asserti2e an0 e2en aggressi2e rhet*ri/ ab*1t its legal /laim t* the Ar/ti/3 M*s/*( has generally em,hasise0 the nee0 4*r g**0 relati*ns (ith its Ar/ti/ neighb*1rs an0 the im,*rtan/e *4 ,reser2ing the Ar/ti/ as a L*ne *4 ,ea/e an0 /*+*,erati*n) R1ssia$s in/rease0 military a/ti2ity may be a res1lt *4 the n*rmalisati*n *4 R1ssian military training a4ter a l*ng ,eri*0 *4 stagnati*n) #*2ernment *44i/ials ha2e als* 1n0erline0 that the main ,1r,*se *4 the im,r*2ement *4 R1ssia$s military /a,abilities in the Ar/ti/ is t* /*mbat terr*rism at sea3 sm1ggling3 illegal immigrati*n3 an0 1ns1stainable 1se *4 a?1ati/ an0 bi*l*gi/al res*1r/es) R1ssia 0e2*tes m1/h attenti*n t* the 0e2el*,ment *4 SAR /a,abilities3 s1r2eillan/e an0 na2igati*n systems) One m1st ne2er 4*rget th*1gh3 that the gr*(ing military ,*tential *4 *ne *4 the regi*n$s ,arti/i,ants is al(ays high *4 great ,*liti/al interest t* the *thers3 ma6ing them *bser2e this ,r*/ess an0 rea/t a//*r0ingly) -F) O2erall3 R1ssia$s ,lans 4*r the Ar/ti/ are 2ery ambiti*1s) "*(e2er3 /*ntin1ing 4inan/ial /risis3 /*1,le0 (ith relati2ely l*( energy ,ri/es3 the M*s/*($s 0e/lare0 intenti*ns t* im,r*2e Ar/ti/ in4rastr1/t1res an0 e9,an0 energy e9tra/ti*n as (ell as its military /a,abilities in the regi*n is li6ely ,lanne0) as a res1lt *4 the im,lementati*n *4 its /a,abilities 4*r t* be sl*(er than

F.

THE UNITED STATES

2ii

071 PCTR 13 E -:) The nite0 States has sh*(n s*me interest in Ar/ti/ a44airs3 b1t has ta6en little /*n/rete a/ti*n) The nite0 States Ar/ti/ Regi*n P*li/y3 ,1blishe0 in San1ary -00H3 4*/1ses ,rimarily *n se/1rity an0 /alls 4*r in/rease0 in4rastr1/t1re an0 se/1rity assets in the regi*n) A//*r0ingly3 se/1rity /*n/erns3 s1/h as missile 0e4en/e an0 early (arning an0 regi*nal 0e,l*yments *4 sea an0 air systems 4*r strategi/ seali4t3 strategi/ 0eterren/e an0 maritime se/1rity *,erati*ns are >ashingt*n$s main /*n/erns 4*r the Ar/ti/) The S N*rthern C*mman0 has gaine0 res,*nsibility 4*r l**6ing int* /a,ability nee0s in general 4*r the S military) "*(e2er3 the S Ar/ti/ Regi*n P*li/y als* re4ers t* b*1n0ary iss1es3 s/ienti4i/ resear/h3 trans,*rtati*n3 energy an0 en2ir*nmental ,r*te/ti*n an0 the nite0 States has ,1t /*nsi0erable e44*rt int* st10ying the e44e/ts *4 /limate /hange in the Ar/ti/3 res1lting in the S Na2y Ar/ti/ R*a0 Ma,) The nite0 States em,hasises the 4ree0*m *4 the seas3 in/l10ing transit thr*1gh the N*rth(est Passage) The nite0 States has n*t rati4ie0 the nite0 Nati*ns C*n2enti*n *n the La( *4 the Sea 7 NCLOS83 b1t the ,ast 4*1r S a0ministrati*ns ha2e s1,,*rte0 the C*n2enti*n an0 the nite0 States abi0es by all *4 its ,r*2isi*ns3 (ith the e9/e,ti*n *4 0ee,+sea mining ,r*2isi*ns) The Obama A0ministrati*n is /am,aigning t* 1rge rati4i/ati*n *4 the treaty by the S Senate)

G.

OTHER ARCTIC COUNCIL MEMBER STATES

-7) Their Ar/ti/ C*1n/il membershi, ma6es &inlan0 an0 S(e0en im,*rtant regi*nal ,arti/i,ants (h* ta6e s1bstantial ,art in the ge*,*liti/al transiti*n *4 the (h*le regi*n) Neither *4 them has a territ*rial 0is,1te (ith any *4 the Ar/ti/ litt*ral states) The la/6 *4 0ire/t res*1r/e+4*/1se0 interest enables them t* 4*/1s *n the threat+,re0i/ti*n in terms *4 gr*(ing h1man a/ti2ity in the Ar/ti/ an0 *n establishing s144i/ient an0 e44e/ti2e /risis+management s*l1ti*ns) Their *bGe/ti2ity an0 reliable ris6 a(areness are s1bstantial in the /*nte9t *4 ,re,aring the regi*n 4*r 0i44erent sit1ati*ns that its /1rrent ge*,*liti/al trans4*rmati*n might bring in the 4*reseeable 41t1re) -.) All Ar/ti/ states em,hasise the nee0 4*r /l*se /*+*,erati*n t* ta/6le the /hallenges /a1se0 by the im,a/t *4 /limate /hange *n the regi*n) At the same time3 the Ar/ti/ states ha2e beg1n t* reb1il0 an0 m*0ernise their military /a,abilities in the "igh N*rth in re/ent years in res,*nse t* gr*(ing a//essibly t* the regi*n *(e0 largely t* /limate /hange) O2erall3 h*(e2er3 the b1il0+1, *4 Ar/ti/ military /a,abilities is limite0 an0 ,re0*minantly 4*/1se0 *n the im,r*2ement *4 s1r2eillan/e an0 /risis management /a,abilities *4 th*se states)

H.

OTHER PARTICIPANTS Asian stat s

-H) The e44e/ts *4 /limate /hange as (ell as the ,*tential 4*r ne( shi,,ing lanes an0 4*r res*1r/e e9,l*itati*n ha2e ,1t the Ar/ti/ *n the agen0a *4 @Ar/ti/ sta6eh*l0ersA3 ,arti/1larly in Asia) Am*ngst all Asian ,arti/i,ants *4 Ar/ti/ ge*,*liti/al trans4*rmati*n3 China is /*nsi0ere0 t* be the m*st im,*rtant an0 sim1ltane*1sly the m*st 0e0i/ate0 t* ,lay a r*le in this ,r*/ess) E2en i4 the Ar/ti/ regi*n may n*t seem t* be a ,ri*rity 4*r China$s 4*reign ,*li/y3 5eiGing might still be in the ,r*/ess *4 0e2el*,ing its regi*nal strategy) "*(e2er3 the Chinese #*2ernment has a /lear 2ie( *4 the m1lti+/*nte9t1al /hanges (hi/h ha2e arisen in the regi*n) O2er the ,ast 4i2e years3 China has ta6en ste,s t* ,r*te/t its interests in the "igh N*rth (hi/h in/l10e3 b*th se/1ring a//ess t* Ar/ti/ shi,,ing r*1tes as (ell as strengthening China$s ability as a n*n+Ar/ti/ state t* a//ess Ar/ti/ mineral res*1r/es an0 4ishing (aters) 30) Similarly3 *ther Asian states3 s1/h as In0ia3 Sa,an3 S*1th =*rea3 an0 Singa,*re are als* a(are *4 the gr*(ing im,*rtan/e *4 the Ar/ti/ regi*n) Re4le/ting their interests3 they ha2e a,,lie0 4*r ,ermanent *bser2er stat1s in the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il in the h*,e that their 2ie(s (ill be re/*gnise0) "*(e2er3 m*st *4 the /*1ntries ha2e n*t 4*rm1late0 an Ar/ti/ ,*li/y an0 it remains t* be seen h*( their interests e2*l2e as the Ar/ti/ /hanges) T! E"#$% an Uni$n &EU'

2iii

071 PCTR 13 E 31) The E has als* sh*(n an interest in the Ar/ti/ an0 has a,,lie0 4*r ,ermanent *bser2er stat1s in the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il) In S1ly -01-3 the E1r*,ean C*mmissi*n an0 the "igh Re,resentati2e *4 the E1r*,ean ni*n 4*r &*reign A44airs an0 Se/1rity P*li/y iss1e0 a S*int C*mm1ni/ati*n J the m*st re/ent Ar/ti/ ,*li/y 0*/1ment J t* the E1r*,ean Parliament an0 the E1r*,ean C*1n/il *n the 0e2el*,ment *4 a /*herent an0 /*m,rehensi2e E1r*,ean ni*n ,*li/y t*(ar0s the Ar/ti/ regi*n) A//*r0ingly3 the E ,1rs1es an a,,r*a/h (hi/h s1,,*rts resear/h an0 6n*(le0ge t* a00ress en2ir*nmental an0 /limate /hallenges in the regi*n3 an0 em,hasises the nee0 4*r res,*nsible a/ti*n t* e9,l*it a2ailable res*1r/es in a s1stainable manner) The E als* (ants t* in/rease its /*nstr1/ti2e engagement an0 0ial*g1e (ith Ar/ti/ states) ARCTIC SECURITY ISSUES THE ROLE OF REGIONAL ORGANISATIONS

A.

THE UN CON(ENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA &UNCLOS'

3-) The N C*n2enti*n *n the La( *4 the Sea 7 NCLOS83 (hi/h entere0 int* 4*r/e in 1HHB3 an0 its t(* im,lementati*n agreements *n 0ee,+sea mining an0 4ish st*/6s3 are the /*rnerst*ne *4 the legal 4rame(*r6 *4 the Ar/ti/ O/ean an0 *4 /1rrent internati*nal la( *4 the sea in general) NCLOS g*2erns all as,e/ts *4 */ean s,a/e3 s1/h as 0elimitati*n3 en2ir*nmental ,r*te/ti*n3 marine s/ienti4i/ resear/h3 e/*n*mi/ an0 /*mmer/ial a/ti2ities3 trans4er *4 te/hn*l*gy an0 the settlement *4 0is,1tes relating t* */ean matters) 33) NCLOS *1tlines /*1ntries$ E9/l1si2e E/*n*mi/ M*nes 7EEMs8 (hi/h gi2e /*astal states s*2ereign G1ris0i/ti*n *2er the res*1r/es (ithin an area *4 -00 na1ti/al miles 7nm8 e9ten0ing 4r*m their /*astline) n0er the terms *4 NCLOS3 /*astal states /an s1bmit /laims t* e9ten0 their /*ntinental shel4 by 1, t* 3F0 nm) &*ll*(ing a state$s rati4i/ati*n *4 NCLOS3 a state has 10 years t* s1bmit any e9tensi*n /laim t* the N C*mmissi*n *n the Limits *4 the C*ntinental Shel4 7CLCS83 (hi/h is tas6e0 (ith re2ie(ing s1/h /laims an0 re/*mmen0ing *1ter limits t* ea/h /*astal state$s /*ntinental shel4) 3B) The 1se *4 internati*nal la( in the /*nte9t *4 Ar/ti/ territ*rial 0is,1tes has s* 4ar been the m*st ,re0*minant s*l1ti*n *n the basis *4 (hi/h many states ha2e 0e/i0e0 t* res*l2e their /1rrent regi*nal /*n4li/ts) It is 1, t* NCLOS t* hel, ,arti/1lar Ar/ti/ states ,reser2e their nati*nal interests in terms *4 41t1re res*1r/e e9,l*itati*n an0 the 1se an0 /*ntr*l *4 regi*nal maritime (ater(ays) Ne2ertheless3 0es,ite the gr*(ing ,*,1larity *4 N+base0 ,*ssible /*n4li/t res*l1ti*n3 n*t all ,arties are able t* ma6e ,*liti/al 1se *4 it) O4 the 4i2e Ar/ti/ litt*ral states3 the nite0 States has n*t yet rati4ie0 NCLOS3 e2en th*1gh the S a0ministrati*n has been abi0ing by it) "*(e2er3 the gr*(ing r*le *4 internati*nal la( in the regi*nal ge*,*liti/al trans4*rmati*n may /*n2in/e >ashingt*n t* 4inally rati4y NCLOS)

B.

THE ARCTIC COUNCIL

3F) The Ar/ti/ C*1n/il3 establishe0 in Se,tember 1HH:3 is a high+le2el interg*2ernmental 4*r1m 4*r /*+*,erati*n3 /*+*r0inati*n3 an0 intera/ti*n that in/l10es Cana0a3 %enmar6 7#reenlan03 &ar*e Islan0s83 &inlan03 I/elan03 N*r(ay3 R1ssia3 S(e0en an0 the nite0 StatesK m*re*2er3 si9 in0igen*1s ,e*,le$s *rganisati*ns ha2e the stat1s *4 ,ermanent ,arti/i,ants) Si9 n*n+ar/ti/ /*1ntries ha2e been a0mitte0 as *bser2ers t* the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il: &ran/e3 #ermany3 The Netherlan0s3 P*lan03 S,ain3 an0 the nite0 =ing0*m) Si9teen /*1ntries an0 *rganisati*ns are /1rrently a,,lying 4*r ,ermanent *bser2er stat1s an0 (ill be /*nsi0ere0 at the C*1n/il$s -013 ministerial meeting) The eight member states *4 the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il /*ntr*l .0I *4 the 6n*(n Ar/ti/ res*1r/es (ithin their EEMs) >hile the C*1n/il has (*r6ing gr*1,s it is n*t a g*2ernan/e b*0y that s1,erse0es nati*nal s*2ereignty) >ith 4e( e9/e,ti*ns3 it 0*es n*t ,r*01/e any bin0ing 0e/larati*ns) The Ar/ti/ Sear/h an0 Res/1e Agreement *4 -011 (hi/h /*+*r0inates internati*nal SAR /*2erage an0 res,*nse in the regi*n is the 4irst an0 th1s 4ar *nly bin0ing agreement neg*tiate0 1n0er the a1s,i/es *4 the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il)

i9

071 PCTR 13 E 3:) In their -00. Il1lissat %e/larati*n3 the 4i2e Ar/ti/ litt*ral states a44irm their /*mmitment t* res*l2e any /*n4li/ting territ*rial /laims 1n0er the e9isting 4rame(*r6 *4 internati*nal la(3 in/l10ing NCLOS) In the 0e/larati*n3 the @Ar/ti/ FA reGe/t the nee0 4*r @a ne( /*m,rehensi2e legal regime t* g*2ern the Ar/ti/ O/eanA an0 /*mmit t* ta6e ste,s3 b*th nati*nally an0 in /*+ *,erati*n am*ng the 4i2e @an0 *ther intereste0 ,artiesA t* ens1re the ,r*te/ti*n *4 the Ar/ti/ marine en2ir*nment3 an0 s,e/i4i/ally t* strengthen meas1res 4*r the sa4ety *4 shi,,ing an0 the re01/ti*n *4 2essel+base0 ,*ll1ti*n) The Ar/ti/ C*1n/il has limite0 its 4*/1s *n se/1rity /hallenges *4 a n*n+military nat1re an0 1ntil n*(3 0*es n*t in/l10e military se/1rity in its ,*li/y 0eliberati*ns) Only *n/e3 in A,ril -01-3 ha2e Chie4s *4 %e4en/e an0 seni*r military *44i/ials 4r*m the member states *4 the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il 0is/1sse0 /*mm*n sa4ety an0 se/1rity iss1es ,ertaining t* the N*rth) NATO IN THE ARCTIC 37) %1ring the C*l0 >ar3 the Ar/ti/ (as a ,rimary /*n/ern 4*r NATO3 relate0 t* a ,*ssible n1/lear e9/hange a/r*ss the Ar/ti/ an0 the na2al balan/e *4 ,*(er in the N*rth Atlanti/) >ith the 0iss*l1ti*n *4 the S*2iet ni*n an0 the >est$s trans4*rmati*n *4 its relati*ns (ith R1ssia3 NATO$s 4*/1s 0ramati/ally shi4te0 a(ay 4r*m the Ar/ti/) S1bse?1ently3 a,art 4r*m NATO$s air ,*li/ing a/ti2ities in I/elan03 NATO has 0rasti/ally re01/e0 its military 4**t,rint by (ith0ra(ing in+ theatre 4*r/es3 /l*sing bases an0 /1tting 0*(n *n e9er/ises) The NI/elan0i/ Air P*li/ing an0 S1r2eillan/e$ 7ISLAPS8 (here NATO /*1ntries ,eri*0i/ally 0e,l*y a limite0 air 0e4en/e /a,ability t* I/elan0 remain in =e4la2i6 as a NATO a/ti2ity) 3.) Instea03 NATO has ass1me0 a l*(+6ey r*le by (hi/h it ,rimarily m*nit*rs military a/ti2ity in the Ar/ti/ an0 /*+*r0inates G*int training e9er/ises (hi/h hel, b1il0ing /*n4i0en/e3 enhan/e /*+*,erati*n3 an0 im,r*2e /a,abilities an0 inter*,erability) At the same time3 NATO has trie0 t* 6ee, ,a/e (ith the gr*(ing se/1rity /*m,le9ity *4 the Ar/ti/) &*r e9am,le3 NATO an0 the g*2ernment *4 I/elan0 *rganise0 a /*n4eren/e in San1ary -00H *n se/1rity ,r*s,e/ts in the "igh N*rth t* initiate a 0ial*g1e *n the 2ast array *4 se/1rity /hallenges that (ill in2ariably arise in the Ar/ti/) Large+s/ale military e9er/ises ha2e been /*n01/te0 in n*rthern N*r(ay in ,artnershi, (ith *ther NATO member states) 3H) The in/rease0 h1man a/ti2ity in the Ar/ti/3 the ,*tential *,ening *4 ne( internati*nal shi,,ing r*1tes a/r*ss the Ar/ti/3 in/rease0 *44sh*re a/ti2ity3 an0 mass t*1rism has le0 t* a rene(e0 4*/1s *4 NATO member /*1ntries *n the Ar/ti/) In O/t*ber -00H NATO S1,reme Allie0 C*mman0er E1r*,e A0miral Sames Sta2ri0is 0es/ribe0 the "igh N*rth as an area *4 gr*(ing strategi/ /*n/ern3 an0 in the same year the then+NATO Se/retary #eneral Saa, 0e "**, S/ha44er /alle0 4*r a greater r*le *4 the Allian/e in the Ar/ti/) B0) "*(e2er3 there is n* /*nsens1s am*ng Ar/ti/ NATO Member states *2er (hether the Allian/e sh*1l0 be/*me m*re engage0 in the "igh N*rth) Cana0a str*ngly *,,*ses any signi4i/ant NATO in2*l2ement in the regi*n (hile *ther NATO members are /*n/erne0 (ith negati2e R1ssian rea/ti*ns) N*r(ay3 *n the *ther han03 has a/ti2ely ta6en the lea0 in /alling 4*r the in/rease0 engagement *4 NATO in the "igh N*rth by arg1ing 4*r m*re em,hasis *n the Allian/e$s /*re 41n/ti*ns) The la/6 *4 /*nsens1s *n a larger r*le 4*r the Allian/e in the Ar/ti/ als* e9,lains (hy NATO$s -010 Strategi/ C*n/e,t3 (hi/h a/6n*(le0ges ne( se/1rity /hallenges s1/h as /yber an0 energy se/1rity3 0*es n*t re4er t* Ar/ti/ se/1rity3 an0 neither 0i0 the -01Chi/ag* NATO s1mmit 0e/larati*n) B1) The gr*(ing h1man ,resen/e an0 a/ti2ity is li6ely t* in/rease the ris6 *4 man+ma0e 0isasters li6e *il s,ills an0 shi, a//i0ents an0 the /*nse?1ent nee0 4*r a,,r*,riate res,*nse an0 res/1e /a,abilities) The harsh /limati/ /*n0iti*ns in the Ar/ti/3 the la/6 *4 in4rastr1/t1re an0 l*ng ge*gra,hi/ 0istan/es re?1ire s1r2eillan/e an0 re/*nnaissan/e by air an0 sea J an0 it is *4ten military 4*r/es (hi/h 41l4il these tas6s3 as (ell as /*n01/ting SAR *,erati*ns) M*re*2er3 ab*1t F0I *4 the territ*ry s1rr*1n0ing the Ar/ti/ Sea is the territ*ry *4 a NATO member state3 an0 4*1r *1t *4 4i2e Ar/ti/ /*astal states are NATO Members) The Ar/ti/ als* ,lays an im,*rtant r*le in the nati*nal se/1rity ,ri*rities *4 Cana0a3 N*r(ay3 %enmar63 an03 albeit t* a lesser e9tent3 the 9

071 PCTR 13 E nite0 States) The Allian/e alrea0y ,lays an inherent r*le in the "igh N*rth as Arti/le F *4 the >ashingt*n treaty ass1res the Ar/ti/ member states *4 the Allian/e s1,,*rt in /ase *4 an atta/6) In a00iti*n3 as ne( shi,,ing *,,*rt1nities gra01ally e2*l2e3 NATO Allies /an ill a44*r0 t* negle/t the Ar/ti/$s in/reasing strategi/ im,*rtan/e) There4*re3 sit1ati*nal a(areness ab*2e the Ar/ti/ Cir/le is *4 2ital im,*rtan/e t* the Allies an03 as the Ra,,*rte1r (ants t* 1n0erline3 als* t* NATO ,artner /*1ntries in the regi*n) B-) C*nse?1ently3 NATO an0 NATO member states nee0 t* ,1t a higher ,ri*rity *n the e2*l2ing se/1rity lan0s/a,e *4 the "igh N*rth) As the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il is limite0 t* 0eal (ith n*n+ military se/1rity /hallenges3 NATO /*1l0 ser2e as a 4*r1m 4*r 0ial*g1e *n military iss1es as (ell as *thers3 s1/h as SAR *,erati*ns3 maritime 0isaster res,*nse an0 /*nse?1en/e management) As NATO Se/retary #eneral An0ers &*gh Rasm1ssen ,*inte0 *1t at the N Climate Change C*n4eren/e in C*,enhagen3 in -00H the 0eman0 1,*n the military t* be @4irst res,*n0er t* nat1ral 0isastersA is li6ely t* gr*( as a res1lt *4 the in/reasing im,a/t *4 /limate /hange) An enlarge0 r*le in the Ar/ti/ (*1l0 there4*re ha2e NATO ,r*2i0e res*1r/es an0 e9,ertise (hi/h it has a/?1ire0) NATO /*1l0 ,r*2i0e /a,abilities in s1r2eillan/e an0 m*nit*ring3 /*+*r0inate SAR ,re,arati*ns an0 r1n 0isaster relie4 e9er/ises) &*r e9am,le3 the E1r*+Atlanti/ %isaster Res,*nse C*+*r0inati*n Centre 7EA%RCC8 has the ne/essary e9tensi2e e9,erien/e t* /*+*r0inate any relie4 e44*rt3 an0 s1,,*rt SAR *,erati*ns) B3) In a00iti*n3 NATO /*1l0 ser2e as a 4*r1m 4*r 0ial*g1e an0 in4*rmati*n sharing t* /*n01/t /*ntingen/y ,lanning 4*r 0isaster relie4 an0 air an0 sea res/1e) An in/rease0 NATO engagement (*1l0 be limite0 t* b1il0ing sit1ati*nal a(areness an0 6n*(le0ge am*ng Allies an0 ,artner /*1ntries ,arti/1larly R1ssia3 S(e0en an0 &inlan0) >hat is m*re3 a str*nger NATO engagement in the "igh N*rth /*1l0 als* ,r*2i0e an *,,*rt1nity t* im,r*2e NATO+R1ssia relati*ns) C*+*,erati*n bet(een the Allian/e an0 R1ssia is 4ra1ght (ith a n1mber *4 0i44i/1lt iss1es3 in/l10ing 4irst an0 4*rem*st missile 0e4en/e) NATO in2*l2ement in the Ar/ti/ ,resents an *,,*rt1nity 4*r /*+*,erati2e a/ti*n (ith R1ssia an0 4*r b1il0ing n*n+military /a,abilities thr*1gh G*int training) In 1HH:3 (ithin the 4rame(*r6 *4 NATO$s Partnershi, 4*r Pea/e 7P4P8 ,r*gramme3 e9er/ise Ar/ti/+Sare9 H:3 *rganise0 by the R1ssian Ministry *4 %e4en/e an0 s,*ns*re0 by NATOPs Ci2il Emergen/y Planning %ire/t*rate3 (as hel0 t* im,r*2e emergen/y ,re,are0ness an0 res,*nse) BB) The Ra,,*rte1r (ants t* em,hasise that NATO$s /*ntrib1ti*n t* the sa4ety an0 se/1rity *4 the Ar/ti/ regi*n (*1l0 /*m,lement3 an0 /ertainly n*t re,la/e *r 01,li/ate e9isting regi*nal /*+*,erati*n) PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS: A GREATER ROLE FOR NATO IN THE ARCTIC) BF) Climate /hange (ill ha2e im,*rtant se/1rity im,li/ati*ns 4*r the Ar/ti/) Regar0less *4 the ,a/e *4 the /hanges the regi*n$s ge*strategi/ im,*rtan/e (ill ine2itably gr*() The Ar/ti/ litt*ral states (ill be the m*st 0ire/tly a44e/te03 b1t the im,a/t *4 /limate /hange als* t*1/hes 1,*n the e/*n*mi/3 en2ir*nmental an0 se/1rity interests *4 NATO Allies as (ell as *4 the internati*nal /*mm1nity as a (h*le) B:) There is n* Nr1sh 4*r the Ar/ti/$ an0 l*ngstan0ing territ*rial 0is,1tes are li6ely t* be settle0 by 0i,l*mati/ means) At ,resent3 the threat *4 arme0 /*n4li/t in the Ar/ti/ is 2ery l*( an0 the main /hallenges in the regi*n are relate0 t* h1man se/1rity an0 the en2ir*nment) "*(e2er3 harsh /limate /*n0iti*ns an0 the in/reasing nee0 4*r se/1rity (ill lea0 t* an in/rease in military in2*l2ement in the Ar/ti/ as it is *4ten military /a,ability that is re?1ire0 t* ,r*2i0e SAR an0 nat1ral 0isaster res,*nse) Sear/h an0 Res/1e3 0isaster res,*nse an0 marine sa4ety are als* areas in (hi/h R1ssia (el/*mes internati*nal /*+*,erati*n) The Ar/ti/ C*1n/il3 (hi/h (ill remain the main 2en1e 4*r ,*li/y /*+*r0inati*n am*ng its member states3 4*/1ses ,rimarily *n n*n+ military /*+*,erati*n) There is n*3 *r 2ery little3 e9/hange *n military se/1rity am*ng the Ar/ti/ &i2e an0 the members *4 the Ar/ti/ C*1n/il) This is (hy3 in the 2ie( *4 y*1r Ra,,*rte1r3 NATO Allies sh*1l0 /*nsi0er a greater in2*l2ement *4 the Allian/e in the Ar/ti/) As *1tline0 ab*2e3 9i

071 PCTR 13 E NATO$s r*le in the regi*n (*1l0 be limite0 an0 (*1l0 /*m,lement alrea0y e9isting str1/t1res3 n*t s1bstit1te them) A greater r*le 4*r NATO (*1l0 ,r*2i0e greater trans,aren/y *2er in/reasing military in2estments in the "igh N*rth3 thereby /*ntrib1ting t* b1il0ing /*n4i0en/e am*ng Ar/ti/ sta6eh*l0ers) B7) Ta6ing int* a//*1nt ,re2i*1s /*n/l1si*ns3 it is in NATO$s 0ee,est interest that its in2*l2ement in the Ar/ti/ iss1es be 0e0i/ate0 t* the realisati*n *4 three se,arate a/ti2ities: 1n0erta6ing G*int an0 m1ltilateral e9er/ises 4*/1se0 *n b**sting the emergen/y sit1ati*nal a(arenessTSAR rea0inessK /*lle/ting an0 e9/hanging /r1/ial in4*rmati*n /*n/erning 0ata gathere0 by satellite3 aerial *r maritime s1r2eillan/e te/hni?1esK establishing a regi*nal /risis rea/ti*n /entre that all*(s /l*se /*+*,erati*n am*ng Allies an0 ,artners) B.) Th1s 4ar3 NATO member states ha2e n*t agree0 *n NATO$s r*le in the regi*n) This may n*t ,*se a ,r*blem as l*ng as the Ar/ti/$s ge*strategi/ r*le remains limite0) At the 2ery least3 NATO Allies sh*1l0 ,1t the Ar/ti/ *n the ,*liti/al agen0a *4 the N*rth Atlanti/ C*1n/il) The Ar/ti/ sh*1l0 be/*me an area *4 enhan/e0 /*+*,erati*n bet(een the states *4 N*rthern E1r*,e an0 N*rth Ameri/a an0 J in a (i0er /*nte9t J bet(een NATO an0 R1ssia 7N"igh N*rth3 l*( tensi*n$ + as ,hrase0 by 4*rmer N*r(egian Minister *4 %e4en/e Th*r2al0 St*ltenberg8) It sh*1l0 neither be a ,la/e *4 /*m,etiti*n n*r *4 ,*tential military /*n4r*ntati*n) This sh*rt re,*rt is meant t* initiate a 0ebate am*ng the members *4 the NATO Parliamentary Assembly *n NATO$s 41t1re r*le in the Ar/ti/ 01ring the Assembly$s 1,/*ming -013 s,ring sessi*n) It (ill be 1,0ate0 4*r the a1t1mn sessi*n *4 the Assembly) The 1,0ate (ill elab*rate *n h*( NATO$s a/ti2ities in the Ar/ti/ /*1l0 ,*siti2ely in4l1en/e the relati*nshi, bet(een the Allian/e an0 R1ssia as (ell as (ith the N*r0i/ ,artners *4 the Allian/e)

9ii

071 PCTR 13 E

BIBLIOGRAPHY Arna0*ttir3 Ragnhei01r3 @Se/1rity at the t*, *4 the (*rl0: Is there a NATO R*le in the "igh N*rthUA3 #efe ce a d $ecurit% &"mmittee, '()* +arliame tar% (ssembl% Re,*rt -0103 htt,:TT((()nat*+a)intT%e4a1lt)as,US"ORTC TV-0 5ergman R*sam*n03 Anni6a3 @Pers,e/ti2es *n Se/1rity in the Ar/ti/ AreaA3 %anish Instit1te 4*r Internati*nal St10ies3 %IIS Re,*rt -0113 htt,:TT((()0iis)06Ts(111FB7)as, C*44ey3 L16e3 @NATO in the Ar/ti/: Challenges an0 O,,*rt1nitiesA3 )he ,eritage -"u dati" , -- S1ne -01-3 htt,:TT((()heritage)*rgTresear/hTre,*rtsT-01-T0:Tnat*+in+the+ar/ti/+ /hallenges+an0+*,,*rt1nitiesW C*nley3 "eather A) an0 =ra1t3 Samie3 @ )S) Strategi/ Interests in the Ar/ti/: An Assessment *4 C1rrent Challenges an0 Ne( O,,*rt1nities 4*r C**,erati*nA3 &e ter f"r $trategic a d . ter ati" al $tudies 3 >ashingt*n %)C) A,ril -0103 htt,:TT/sis)*rgT4ilesT,1bli/ati*nT100B-:XC*nleyX SStrategi/InterestsX>eb),04 C*nley3 "eather A)3 T*lan03 Terry3 an0 =ra1t3 Samie3 @A Ne( Se/1rity Strategy 4*r the Ar/ti/) An Ameri/an Pers,e/ti2eA3 &e ter f"r $trategic a d . ter ati" al $tudies 3 >ashingt*n %)C) San1ary -01-3 htt,:TT/sis)*rgT,1bli/ati*nTne(+se/1rity+ar/hite/t1re+ar/ti/ E0(ar0s3 >illiam3 @O1r Ar/ti/ Strategy %e4i/itA3 )he (tla tic &"u cil "f the / ited $tates 3 Ne( Atlanti/ist P*li/y an0 Analysis 5l*g3 . Mar/h -013: htt,:TT((()a/1s)*rgTne(Xatlanti/istT*1r+ar/ti/+strategy+0e4i/it "1ebert3 R*b3 E9ner+Pir*t3 "eather3 LaGe1nesse3 A0am3 an0 #1lle0ge3 Say3 @Climate Change Y Internati*nal Se/1rity: The Ar/ti/ as a 5ell(etherA3 &20$ 1 the &e ter f"r &limate a d 0 erg% $"luti" s 3 May -01-3 htt,:TT((()/-es)*rgT,1bli/ati*nsT/limate+/hange+internati*nal+ ar/ti/+se/1rity "*ltsmar63 S2en #)3 @T*(ar0s /**,erati*n *r /*n4r*ntati*nU Se/1rity in the "igh N*rthA3 Research +aper '". 45, NATO %e4ense C*llege Resear/h %i2isi*n3 1. N*2ember3 -01-: htt,:TT((()n0/)nat*)intT0*(nl*a0T0*(nl*a0s),h,Ui/*0eV3) =*4*03 Se,,e3 @Ar/ti/ E/*n*mi/ O,,*rt1nities: En2ir*nmental Obligati*ns an0 Se/1rity sta6esA3 0c" "mics a d $ecurit% &"mmittee, '()* +arliame tar% (ssembl% re,*rt -01-3 htt,:TT((()nat*+,a)intT%e4a1lt)as,US"ORTC TV-H-1 L*renL3 >*G/ie/h3 *C*1l0 the Ar/ti/ >arm , NATOJR1ssia Relati*nsUA The P*lish Instit1te *4 Internati*nal A44airs , +.$M +"lic% +aper N*) B 7F-8 &ebr1ary -0133 htt,:TT(((),ism),lTP1bli/ati*nsTPISM+P*li/y+Pa,er+n*+FNATO Parliamentary Assembly3 @N*rthern E1r*,ean Pers,e/ti2es *n Se/1rity3 E/*n*mi/ an0 En2ir*nmental ChallengesA3 $emi ar Rep"rt, 7Bth R*se+R*th Seminar3 "elsin6i3 &inlan03 S1ne -0103 htt,:TT((()nat*+,a)intT%e4a1lt)as,US"ORTC TV-1.B NATO Parliamentary Assembly3 @Changes in the "igh N*rth: Im,li/ati*ns 4*r NATO an0 5ey*n0A3 $emi ar Rep"rt3 77th R*se+R*th Seminar3 Tr*msC3 N*r(ay S1ne -0113 htt,:TT((()nat*+,a)intT%e4a1lt)as,US"ORTC TV-:H1 Perry3 Charles M) an0 An0ersen3 5*bby3 @Ne( Strategi/ %ynami/s in the Ar/ti/ Regi*nA3 . stitute f"r -"reig +"lic% ( al%sis3 N*2ember -01-3 htt,:TT((()i4,a)*rgTresear/hTresear/hPagesTStrat%ynAr/ti/),h, Siem*n T) >eLeman3 @Military /a,abilities in the Ar/ti/A3 $.+R. 2ac3gr"u d +aper, Mar/h -01-3 http://b""3s.sipri."rg/pr"duct4i f"5c4pr"duct4id6442 Mys63 =atarLyna3 @R1ssia$s Ar/ti/ StrategyA3 7"i t -"rce 8uarterl% F73 -0103 htt,:TT((()n01)e01T,ressTlibTimagesTG4?+F7TLys6),04 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

13