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Chapter 1: Application of Artificial Intelligence in Construction Management

Introduction Humankind has given itself the scientific name homo sapiens--man the wise--because our mental capacities are so important to our everyday lives and our sense of self. The field of artificial intelligence, or AI, attempts to understand intelligent entities as well as construct them. These constructed intelligent entities are interesting and useful in their own right. AI has produced many significant and impressive products so far. Although no one can predict the future in detail, it is clear that computers with human-level intelligence (or better) would have a huge impact on our everyday lives and on the future course of civilization (Russell & Norvig, 1995). Definition of Artificial Intelligence At the very beginning, lets try to define Artificial Intelligence (AI). Definitions of AI according to some recent textbooks are shown below: 1. The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior (Luger and Stubblefield, 1993) 2. The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act' (Winston, 1992) 3. The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people (Kurzweil, 1990) 4. The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better (Rich and Knight, 1991) 5. A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behavior in terms of computational processes'' (Schalkoff, 1990) 6. The exciting new effort to make computers think machines with minds, in the full and literal sense (Haugeland, 1985) These definitions lead us to following possible conclusion Systems that think like humans. Systems that think rationally. Systems that act like humans Systems that act rationally Acting Humanly Artificial Intelligent makes computer act like a human. Alan Turing defined intelligent behavior as the ability to achieve human-level performance in all cognitive tasks. To make a computer intelligent, it would need to possess the natural language processing to enable it to communicate successfully in human language. The issue of acting like a human comes up primarily when AI programs have to interact with people, as when an expert system explains how it came to its diagnosis, or a natural language processing system has a dialogue with a user. These programs must behave according to certain
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normal conventions of human interaction in order to make them understood. The underlying representation and reasoning in such a system may or may not be based on a human model (Russell & Norvig, 1995). Thinking Humanly If we are going to say that a given program thinks like a human, we must have some way of determining how humans think. Once we have a sufficiently precise theory of the mind, it becomes possible to express the theory as a computer program. If the program's input/output and timing behavior matches human behavior, that is evidence that some of the program's mechanisms may also be operating in humans. Thinking Rationally The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the first to attempt to codify ``right thinking,'' that is, irrefutable reasoning processes. His famous syllogisms provided patterns for argument structures that always gave correct conclusions given correct premises. For example, ``Socrates is a man; all men are mortal; therefore Socrates is mortal.'' These laws of thought were supposed to govern the operation of the mind, and initiated the field of logic. The development of formal logic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries provided a precise notation for statements about all kinds of things in the world and the relations between them. By 1965, programs existed that could, given enough time and memory, take a description of a problem in logical notation and find the solution to the problem, if one exists. Acting Rationally Acting rationally means acting so as to achieve one's goals, given one's beliefs. An agent is just something that perceives and acts. In this approach, AI is viewed as the study and construction of rational agents. In this approach to AI, the whole emphasis was on correct inferences. Making correct inferences is sometimes part of being a rational agent, because one way to act rationally is to reason logically to the conclusion that a given action will achieve one's goals, and then to act on that conclusion. The study of AI as rational agent design therefore has two advantages. First, it is more general, because correct inference is only a useful mechanism for achieving rationality, and not a necessary one. Second, it is more amenable to scientific development than approaches based on human behavior or human thought, because the standard of rationality is clearly defined and completely general. Human behavior, on the other hand, is well-adapted for one specific environment and is the product, in part, of a complicated and largely unknown evolutionary process that still may be far from achieving perfection (Russell & Norvig, 1995). AI Domains Formal Tasks (mathematics, games) Mundane tasks (perception, robotics, natural language, common sense reasoning) Expert tasks (financial analysis, medical diagnostics, engineering, scientific analysis, and other areas)

Following is picture of task domain of AI (Rich and Knight, 1991). Artificial intelligence mainly deals with general problem solving, theorem proving and game playing. Three domains emerges
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viz. Formal task, mundane task and expert task. There are numerous branches emanates from these three. Formal task mainly deals with mathematics problem and game playing. Mundane task is little bit complex than formal task. Natural language processing (make English or other languages understandable to computer), common sense reasoning (logical inferencing from common sense), robotics and perception (sense the environment) are included in mundane task domain. Expert tasks are the most sophisticated domain of AI. It deals with scientific analysis, medical diagnosis, engineering, Finance analysis.

Figure 1.1: Task Domains of Artificial Intelligence Applications of AI Application of AI is numerous and ever increasing. Followings are most common applications. Game Playing: One can buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars. There is some AI in them, but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation--looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. Speech Recognition: In the 1990s, computer speech recognition reached a practical level for limited purposes. Thus United Airlines has replaced its keyboard tree for flight information by a system using speech recognition of flight numbers and city names. Understanding Natural Language: Just getting a sequence of words into a computer is not enough. The computer has to be provided with an understanding of the domain the text is about, and this is presently possible only for very limited domains.

Computer Vision: The world is composed of three-dimensional objects, but the inputs to the human eye and computers' TV cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in two dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three-dimensional information that is not just a set of two-dimensional views. At present there are only limited ways of representing three-dimensional information directly, and they are not as good as what humans evidently use. Expert Systems (ES): A computer program that contains a knowledge base and a set of algorithms or rules that infer new facts from knowledge and from incoming data. An expert system is an artificial intelligence application that uses a knowledge base of human expertise to aid in solving problems. The degree of problem solving is based on the quality of the data and rules obtained from the human expert. Expert systems are designed to perform at a human expert level. In practice, they will perform both well below and well above that of an individual expert. The expert system derives its answers by running the knowledge base through an inference engine, a software program that interacts with the user and processes the results from the rules and data in the knowledge base. Expert systems are used in applications such as medical diagnosis, equipment repair, investment analysis, financial, estate and insurance planning, route scheduling for delivery vehicles, contract bidding, counseling for self-service customers, production control and training. Reasoning of Humans: Normally people create categories for reasoning. For example: cash is a current asset and a current asset is an asset. Thus they categorize assets. They use specific rules, a priori rules to give priority. Rules can be cascaded like:
"If A then B" . . . "If B then C" A--->B--->C

They also use heuristics, "rules of thumb". Heuristics can be captured using rules like If the meal includes red meat then choose red salad dressings". Heuristics represent conventional wisdom. They use past experience, "cases", particularly evident in precedence-based reasoning e.g. law or choice of accounting principles. Similarity of current case to previous cases provides basis for action choice. Cases are stored using key attributes. Example of attributes can be shown as: cars may be characterized by: year of car; make of car; speed of car etc. What makes good argumentation also makes good reasoning Computers Reasoning: Basically computer models are based on our models of human reasoning. It uses frames, rules, cases and expectation. Some AI Branches Fuzzy Logic A superset of Boolean logic dealing with the concept of partial truth -- truth values between "completely true" and "completely false". It was introduced by Dr. Lotfi Zadeh of UCB in the 1960's as a means to model the uncertainty of natural language. Any specific theory may be generalized from a discrete (or "crisp") form to a continuous (fuzzy) form, e.g. "fuzzy calculus", "fuzzy differential equations" etc. Fuzzy logic replaces Boolean truth values with degrees of

truth which are very similar to probabilities except that they need not sum to one. Instead of an assertion pred(X), meaning that X definitely has the property associated with predicate "pred", we have a truth function truth(pred(X)) which gives the degree of truth that X has that property. We can combine such values using the standard definitions of fuzzy logic: truth(not x) = 1.0 - truth(x) truth(x and y) = minimum (truth(x), truth(y)) truth(x or y) = maximum (truth(x), truth(y)) (There are other possible definitions for "and" and "or", e.g. using sum and product). If truth values are restricted to 0 and 1 then these functions behave just like their Boolean counterparts. This is known as the "extension principle". Just as a Boolean predicate asserts that its argument definitely belongs to some subset of all objects, a fuzzy predicate gives the degree of truth with which its argument belongs to a fuzzy subset. Neural Networks A network of many very simple processors ("units" or "neurons"), each possibly having a (small amount of) local memory. The units are connected by unidirectional communication channels ("connections"), which carry numeric (as opposed to symbolic) data. The units operate only on their local data and on the inputs they receive via the connections. A neural network (NN) is a processing device, either an algorithm, or actual hardware, whose design was inspired by the design and functioning of animal brains and components thereof. Most neural networks have some sort of "training" rule whereby the weights of connections are adjusted on the basis of presented patterns. In other words, neural networks "learn" from examples, just like children learn to recognize dogs from examples of dogs, and exhibit some structural capability for generalization. Neurons are often elementary non-linear signal processors (in the limit they are simple threshold discriminators). Another feature of NNs which distinguishes them from other computing devices is a high degree of interconnection which allows a high degree of parallelism. Further, there is no idle memory containing data and programs, but rather each neuron is pre-programmed and continuously active. The term "neural net" should logically, but in common usage never does, also include biological neural networks, whose elementary structures are far more complicated than the mathematical models used for artificial neural networks ( ANNs). It is based on pattern recognition - used for credit assessment and fraud detection. It looks for patterns in a set of examples and learns from those examples by adjusting the weights of the connections to produce output patterns. Input to output pattern associations are used to classify a new set of examples. It is able to recognize patterns even when the data is noisy, ambiguous, distorted, or has a lot of variation. The common architecture used for ANN is feed-forward network, shown in the next figure.

In feed forward network, an input layer with five neurons, two hidden layers with three neurons each, and an output layer with two neurons are connected. The state function used is summation function and the transfer functions used is sigmoid squashing function. Here training algorithm is back-propagation algorithm. Neurons are the processing elements of network. The vocabulary in this area is not completely consistent and different authors tend to use one of a small set of terms for a particular concept. Neuron consists of a set of weighted input connections, a bias input, a state function, a nonlinear transfer function, an output. The following figure shows the structure of a neuron.

Input connections have an input value that is either received from the previous neuron or in the case of the input layer from the outside. Bias is not connected to the other neurons in the network and is assumed to have an input value of 1 for the summation function. Weights are real numbers representing the strength or importance of an input connection to a neuron. Each neuron input, including the bias, has an associated weight. The most common form of a state function is a simple summation function. The output of the state function becomes the input for the transfer function. A transfer function is a nonlinear mathematical function used to convert data to a specific scale. Training is the process of using examples to develop a neural network that associates the input pattern with the correct answer. A set of examples (training set) with known outputs (targets) is repeatedly fed into the network to "train" the network. This training process continues until the difference between the input and output patterns for the training set reach an acceptable value. Several algorithms used for training networks. Of them the most common is back-propagation. Back-propagation is done is two passes: First the inputs are sent forward through the network to produce an output, then the difference between the actual and desired outputs produces error signals that are sent "backwards" through the network to modify the weights of the inputs. Evolutionary Algorithm Genetic Algorithm (GA) An evolutionary algorithm which generates each individual from some encoded form known as a "chromosome" or "genome". Chromosomes are combined or mutated to breed new individuals. "Crossover", the kind of recombination of chromosomes found in sexual reproduction in nature, is often also used in GAs. Here, an offspring's chromosome is created by joining segments chosen alternately from each of two parents' chromosomes which are of fixed length. GAs are useful for multidimensional optimization problems in which the chromosome can encode the values for the different variables being optimized. Some Application of AI in the Field of Construction Analogy-Based Solution to Markup Estimation Problem This paper presents a methodology for deriving analogy-based solutions to a class of unstructured problems in civil engineering. Such problems have identifiable characteristics, including: (1) Problems frequently require simultaneous assessment of a large number of quantitative as well as qualitative factors that influence the solution; (2) traditional algorithmic and reasoning-intensive techniques are not adequate to model the problem; (3) solutions are devised in practice primarily based on analogy with previous cases coupled with a mixture of intuition and experience; and (4) domain knowledge is mostly implicit and very difficult to be extracted and described. For this class of problems, artificial neural networks (ANNs) are most suited for developing decision aids with analogy-based problem-solving capabilities. A methodology is presented and used to develop a practical model for markup estimation using knowledge acquired from contractors in Canada and the U.S. The model design, training, and testing are described along with the generalization improvements made using the genetic algorithms technique. (Tarek Hegazy and Osama Moselhi, January,1994).

Neuro-modex -Neural Network System for Modular Construction Decision Making This paper presents an approach for decision making about construction modularization using neural networks. The model helps make a decision whether to use a conventional "stick-built" method or to use some degree of modularization when building an industrial process plant. This decision is based on several decision attributes which are divided into following five categories: plant location, environmental and organizational, labor-related, plant characteristics, and project risks. The neural network is trained using cases collected from several engineering and construction firms and owner firms of industrial process plants. In this paper, an overview of modular construction is provided and the reasons for using a neural network are also discussed. The architecture, representation, and training procedure for the selected neural network paradigms are described. The performance of the trained neural network system is compared with the recommendations provided by human experts. The results of statistical tests performed to validate the system are also resented (Murtaza and Fisher, 1994). Neuroform - Neural Network System for Vertical Formwork Selection This paper presents a neural network approach for building Neuroform, a computer system that provides the selection of vertical formwork systems for a given building site. The reasons for choosing a neural network approach instead of a traditional expert system are discussed. The selection of an appropriate neural network model, its architecture, representation of the network training examples, and the network training procedure are described. The details of the user interaction with the trained neural network system are presented. The performance of Neuroform is validated comparing its recommendations with that of Wallform, a rule-based expert system for vertical formwork selection. A statistical hypothesis test, conducted on the recommendations of Neuroform when partial inputs are given, demonstrates the system's fault-tolerant and generalization properties. (Kamarthi, Sanvido, and Kumara, 1992). Belief Networks for Construction Performance Diagnostics: Belief networks, also referred to as Bayesian networks, are a form of artificial intelligence that incorporates uncertainty through probability theory and conditional dependence. Variables are graphically represented by nodes, whereas conditional dependence relationships between the variables are represented by arrows. A belief network is developed by first defining the variables in the domain and the relationships between those variables. The conditional probabilities of the states of the variables are then determined for each combination of parent states. During evaluation of the network, evidence may be entered at any node without concern about whether the variable is an input or output variable. An automated approach for the improvement of the construction operations involving the integration of the belief networks and computer simulation is described. In this application, the belief networks provide diagnostic functionality to the performance analysis of the construction operations. Computer simulation is used to model the construction operations and to validate the changes to the operation recommended by the belief network. (McCabe, AbouRizk, and Goebel, 1998). Building KBES for Diagnosing PC Pile with Artificial Neural Network Diagnosis of damage of prestressed concrete piles during driving is an important problem in foundation engineering. An effort to build an expert system for the problem is described in this
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paper. To overcome the bottleneck of knowledge acquisition, an artificial neural network is used as the learning mechanism to transfer engineering experience into usable knowledge. The backpropagation learning algorithm is employed to train the network for extracting knowledge from training examples. The influences of various control parameters (including learning rate and momentum factor) and various network architecture factors (including the number of hidden units and the number of hidden layers) are examined. The results prove that the artificial neural network can work sufficiently as a knowledge-acquisition tool for the diagnosis problem. To apply the knowledge in the trained network, a reasoning strategy that hybridizes forward-and backward-reasoning schemes is proposed to realize the inference mechanism. (Yeh, Kuo and Hsu, 1993). Modeling Initial Design Process using Artificial Neural Networks The preliminary design model is of vital importance in the synthesis of a finally acceptable solution is a design problem. The initial design process is extremely difficult to computerize because it requires human intuition. It has often been impossible to form declarative rules to express human intuition and past experience. The suitability of an artificial neural network for modeling an initial design process has been investigated in this paper. Development of a network for initial design of reinforced-concrete rectangular single-span beams has been reported. The network predicts a good initial design (i.e., tensile reinforcement required, depth of beam, width, cost per meter, and the moment capacity) for a given set of input parameters (i.e., span, dead load, live load, concrete grade, and steel type). Various stages of development and performance evaluation with respect to rate of learning, fault tolerance, and generalization have been presented. (Mukherjee and Deshpande, 1995). Intelligent Planning of Construction Projects Knowledge representation and reasoning techniques derived from artificial intelligence (AI) research permit computers to generate plans, not merely analyze plans produced by humans. They explicitly represent knowledge about how to generate plans in the form of initial and goal states, descriptions of actions along with their preconditions and effects, and a control structure for selection new actions to insert into a project plan. From the more than two dozen AI planners developed and published since the 1960s, we have chosen the system for interactive planning and execution (SIPE) to investigate the utility of AI planners for construction project planning. This paper presents our experience modeling a multistory office building project for construction planning, implementing SIPE to plan this project, and describing SIPE's performance in planning the construction of large-scale multistory buildings. With the use of a frame hierarchy, generic operators, and a constraint-based approach, SIPE can generate logically correct activity networks for multistory building construction from a description of the components of a facility. To model such construction projects in a concise and uniform framework, we show the usefulness of some underlying principles for establishing ordering relationships among the project components involved in construction activities.m( Kartam, and Levitt, 1990) Construction Robot Fleet Management System Prototype The application of robotic equipment to the execution of construction tasks is gaining attention by researchers and practitioners around the world. A number of working prototype systems have

been developed by construction companies or system manufacturers, and implemented on construction job sites. Several Japanese construction firms have already developed their own fleet of construction robots. This paper describes a HyperCard (trademark) prototype of the construction robotic equipment management system (CREMS), developed as a response to the need to effectively manage diverse robots on future construction sites. Modules comprising the system and their initial implementation within the CREMS prototype are presented. An example consultation with the system is provided. Ongoing system developments and embellishments are also outlined. The utility of this system lies in optimizing the robot performance of work tasks on as many construction projects in a contractor's portfolio as feasible. Thus, economic benefits of robot use can be achieved more easily. Thus, robot development costs can be recovered faster, and robot use can be distributed over more applications and types of construction tasks (Skibniewski, and Russell, 1991). Bridge Planning Using GIS and Expert System Approach In the planning process of a new road network, the planner should consider possible locations of bridges and tunnels. The selection of the best alignment imposes the need to investigate the effect of the location of each bridge on the bridge type that fits this location. This task has not been done so far because of the large volume of data needed and the complicated interaction between many factors. In this paper, it is shown that considering this task in the early stage of road alignment planning can result in a more rational design. Geographic information systems and expert systems are proposed as two methodologies that can help in comparing candidate sites and candidate types simultaneously. Having this computation power, quantitative comparison can be done faster and much more precisely than in the case of conventional simplified methods. This can result in improving the design of the road network in general and in having bridges designed to meet the requirements of erection, maintenance, driving comfort, and landscape. (Hammad, Itoh, and Nishido, 1993). Comparison of Case-Based Reasoning and Artificial Neural Networks The outcome of construction litigation depends on a large number of factors. To predict the outcome of such litigation is difficult because of the complex interrelationships between these many factors. Two attempts are reported in the literature that use, respectively, case-based reasoning (CBR) and artificial neural court cases; and additional 12 cases were used for testing. Prediction rates of 83% in the CBR study and 67% in the ANN study were obtained. In this paper, CBR and ANN are compared, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed in light of these two studies. It appears that CBR is more flexible when the system is updated with new cases, has better explanation facilities, and handles missing data and a large number of features better than ANN in this domain. If the use of CBR and ANN is understood better and if, as a result, the outcome of construction litigation can be predicted with reasonable accuracy and reliability, all parties involved in the construction process could save considerable money and time. (Arditi and Tokdemir, 1999 ). Site-Level Facilities Layout Using Genetic Algorithms Construction site-level facilities layout is an important activity in site planning, the objective of this activity is to allocate appropriate locations and areas for temporary site-level facilities such

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as warehouses, job offices, various workshops and batch plants. Depending on the size, location, and nature of the project, the required temporary facilities may vary. The layout of facilities has an important impact on the production time and cost-savings, especially for large projects. In this paper, a construction site-level facility layout problem is described as allocating a set of predetermined facilities into a set of predetermined places, while satisfying layout constraints and requirements. A genetic algorithm system, which is a computational model of Darwinian evolution theory, is employed to solve the facilities layout problem. A case study is presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the genetic algorithm system in solving the construction site-level facility layout problems. (Li and Love 1998 ). HPC Strength Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network An artificial neural network of the fuzzy-ARTMAP type was applied for predicting strength properties of high-performance concrete (HPC) mixes. Composition of HPC was assumed simplified, as a mixture of six components (cement, silica, super-plasticizer, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate). The 28-day compressive strength value was considered as the only aim of the prediction. Data on about 340 mixes were taken from various recent publications. The system was trained based on 200 training pairs chosen randomly from the data set, and then tested using remaining 140 examples. A significant enough correlation between the actual strength values and the values predicted by the neural network was observed. Obtained results suggest that the problem of concrete properties prediction can be effectively modeled in a neural system, in spite of data complexity, incompleteness, and incoherence. It is demonstrated that the approach can be used in multi-criteria search for optimal concrete mixes. (Kasperkiewicz, Racz, and Dubrawski, 1995). Estimating Resource Requirements at Conceptual Design Stage Using Neural Networks Construction conceptual estimating models provide frameworks for evaluating different alternatives at the conceptual design stage. Estimations are prepared in practice primarily based on analogy with previous similar cases. A back-propagation neural- network model was developed in this study to estimate the construction resource requirements at the conceptual design stage. The developed model was applied on the construction of concrete silo walls built by using the slip form system. A set of 23 input attributes that mostly pertain to the determination of the resource requirements were identified. These input attributes include the bulk density of the stored materials, the wall-to-floor area of the silo complex, the number of lifting jacks of the slip form, and the number of stages through which the silo complex is constructed. The developed model was used to calculate the requirements from nine construction resource types. Outputs of the developed neural-network model were compared with estimations obtained from using multiple regression models. The results indicated that back-propagation neural-network models can be used satisfactorily to estimate the construction resource requirements at the conceptual design stage. (Elazouni, Nosair, Mohieldin, and Mohamed, 1997) DAPS: Expert System for Structural Damage Assessment Assessment of structural damage is a complex subject imbued with uncertainty and vagueness. This complexity arises from the use of subjective opinion and imprecise numerical data. An

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analysis of the structural integrity of a buried concrete box structure is accomplished using combined nonnumeric and numeric information. Expert opinions on structural damage are used to develop the nonnumeric portion of the code. Fuzzy sets are used to quantify linguistic variables since this type of information is inherently vague and imprecise. Because of the size and the complexity of the problem, a numerical method in the form of a fuzzy weighted-average algorithm is used instead of rules to synthesize the nonnumeric information. The damage assessment paradigm is subdivided into smaller problems, which in turn are represented in antecedent-consequent pairs as rules. These rules and numerical data form the knowledge base. The processing of this information is controlled through an expert system shell, which retrieves necessary facts from the user and the knowledge base using an appropriate search strategy. Numeric data are manipulated in the expert system through calls to external subroutines and data bases. This information is then interpreted through the use of production rules. (Ross, Sorensen, 1990) Artificial Neural Network Approach for Pavement Maintenance The major objective of pavement maintenance decision support system (PMDSS) is to assist decision makers in selecting an appropriate maintenance and repair (M&R) action for a defected pavement. This is typically performed through collecting condition data, analyzing and reducing condition data (e.g., development of condition indices), and selecting appropriate M& R actions. This paper reveals the results of implementing artificial neural networks (ANN) to recommend appropriate M&R actions. For an ANN to diagnose an M&R action accurately, it must be trained with correctly diagnosed M&R actions (training sets). Each training set consists of pavement condition represented by deduct values for each distress present in the pavement and the corresponding recommended M&R action. Pavement condition data used in this study were obtained from comprehensive visual inspection data conducted on the Riyadh road network in Saudi Arabia. The associated M&R actions were obtained based on consulting human expertise and M&R actions recommended by the PMDSS software. Results of this study reveal that ANN is appropriate for implementation in identifying appropriate M&R actions. (Alsugair and Qudrah, 1998 ) There are lots of published papers in the application of AI in the construction management. List of all of them will be a big volume paper. Now we will look at details of Open Planing Architecture (O-Plan), intelligent agent application in construction industry. Before going in details, lets have a quick glance on intelligent agent Reference 1. Russell, S. and Norvig, P. (1995)Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, Prentice Hall. 2. Luger & Stubbelfield(1993) AI: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving, Benjamin Cummings. 3. Winston P. H. (1992), Artificial intelligence, Addison-Wesley, Massachusetts, third edition. 4. Kurzweil R. (1990) The Age of Intelligent Machines, MIT Press, Cambridge Massachusetts.

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5. Rich, E. and Knight, K. (1991) Artificial Intelligence, McGraw-Hill, New York, second edition. 6. Schalkoff, R. J. (1990), Artificial Intelligence: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill, New York. 7. Haugeland, J., (1985) , Editor Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea, MIT press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 8. Hegazy, Tarek and Moselhi, Osama, (January, 1994) "Analogy-Based Solution to Markup Estimation Problem," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 8, Number 1, Pages 72-87. 9. Murtaza, Mirza B. and Fisher Deborah J.,(1994) "Neuromodex-Neural Network System for Modular Construction Decision Making," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 8, Number 2, April 1994, Pages 221-233. 10. Kamarthi, Sagar V., Sanvido, Victor E. and Kumara, Soundar R. T., (1992), "NeuroformNeural Network System for Vertical Formwork Selection," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 6, Number 2, April 1992, Pages 178-199. 11. McCabe, Brenda, AbouRizk, Simaan M. and Goebel, Randy, (1998), "Belief Networks for Construction Performance Diagnostics," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 12, Number 2, April 1998, Pages 93-100. 12. Yeh, Yi-Cherng, Kuo, Yau-Hwaug, and Hsu, Deh-Shiu, (1993), "Building KBES for Diagnosing PC Pile with Artificial Neural Network," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 7, Number 1,January 1993, Pages 71-93. 13. Mukherjee, Abhijit and Deshpande, Jayant M., (1995), "Modeling Initial Design Process Using Artificial Neural Networks," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 9, Number 3, July 1995, Pages 194-200. 14. Kartam, Nabil A, Levitt, Raymond E. and Wilkins, David E.,(1991), "Extending Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Hierarchical Planning," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 5, Number 4, October 1991, Pages 464478. 15. Skibniewski, Miroslaw J. and Russell, Jeffrey S.,(1991), "Construction Robot Fleet Management System Prototype," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 5, Number 4, October 1991, Pages 444-463. 16. Hammad, Amin, Itoh, Yoshito and Nishido, Takayuki, (1993), "Bridge Planning Using GIS and Expert System Approach," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 7, Number 3, July 1993, Pages 278-295. 17. Arditi, David and Tokdemir, Onur Behzat,(1999), "Comparison of Case-Based Reasoning and Artificial Neural Networks," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 13, Number 3, July 1999, Pages 162-169. 18. Li, Heng and Love, Peter E. D.,( 1998), "Site-Level Facilities Layout Using Genetic Algorithms," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Volume 12, Number 4, October 1998, Pages 227-231. 19. Kasperkiewicz, Janusz Racz, Janusz and Dubrawski, Artur, (1995), "HPC Strength Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering,Volume 9, Number 4, October 1995, Pages 279-284. 20. Elazouni, Shraf M., Nosair, Ibrahim A., Mohieldin, Yousif A. and Mohamed, Ayman G.,( 1997), "Estimating Resource Requirements at Conceptual Design Stage Using Neural

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Networks," American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Volume 11, Number 4, October 1997, Pages 8-16. 21. Ross, T. J. Sorensen, H. C. Savage, S. J. and Carson, J. M.,(1990), "DAPS: Expert System for Structural Damage Assessment,", American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Volume 4, Number 4, October 1990, Pages 327-348. 22. Alsugair, Abdullah M. and Al-Qudrah, Ali A.,(1998), "Artificial Neural Network Approach for Pavement Maintenance,", American Society of Civil Engineers Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, Volume 12, Number 4, October 1998, Pages 249-255.

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