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NEGLIGENCE BREACH OF DUTY CASES THE REASONABLE MAN The reasonable man or reasonable person s an!ar!

! "s a le#al $"% "on ha or"#"na e! "n he !e&elopmen o$ he %ommon la'( The reasonable person "s a h)po he "%al "n!"&"!*al 'hose &"e' o$ h"n#s "s %ons*l e! "n he pro%ess o$ ma+"n# !e%"s"ons o$ la'( The ,*es "on- .Ho' 'o*l! a reasonable person a% *n!er he %"r%*ms an%es. per$orms a %r" "%al role "n le#al reason"n# "n areas s*%h as ne#l"#en%e an! %on ra% la'(/ Blyth v Birmingham Waterworks Co (1856) 11 Exch 781 A 'a er %ompan) ha&"n# obser&e! he !"re% "ons o$ he A% o$ 0arl"amen "n la)"n# !o'n he"r p"pes "s no respons"ble $or an es%ape o$ 'a er $rom hem no %a*se! b) he"r o'n ne#l"#en%e( 1The $a% - ha he"r pre%a* "ons pro&e! "ns*$$"%"en a#a"ns he e$$e% s o$ a '"n er o$ e2 reme %ol!ness- s*%h as no man %o*l! ha&e $oreseen- "s no s*$$"%"en o ren!er hem l"able $or ne#l"#en%e( 1F"re1 pl*#s properl) %ons r*% e! ha&"n# been "nser e! as sa$e ) &al&es "n hese p"pes"n p*rs*an%e o$ he"r A% 31- per Bram'ell- B(- ha he %ompan) are no l"able $or no remo&"n# a%%*m*la "ons o$ "%e "n he s ree s o&er s*%h pl*#s( Th"s 'as an appeal b) he !e$en!an s a#a"ns he !e%"s"on o$ he 4*!#e o$ he Co*n ) Co*r o$ B"rm"n#ham( The %ase 'as r"e! be$ore a 4*r)- an! a &er!"% $o*n! $or he pla"n "$$ $or he amo*n %la"me! b) he par "%*lars( The par "%*lars o$ he %la"m alle#e!- ha he pla"n "$$ so*#h o re%o&er $or !ama#e s*s a"ne! b) he pla"n "$$ b) reason o$ he ne#l"#en%e o$ he !e$en!an s "n no +eep"n# he"r 'a er1p"pes an! he appara *s %onne% e! here'" h "n proper or!er( The %ase s a e! ha he !e$en!an s 'ere "n%orpora e! b) s a ( 5 Geo( 6- %( %"2( $or he p*rpose o$ s*ppl)"n# B"rm"n#ham '" h 'a er( B) he 76 h se% "on o$ he"r A% " 'as ena% e!- ha he %ompan) sho*l!- *pon he la)"n# !o'n o$ an) ma"n1p"pe or o her p"pe "n an) s ree - $"2- a he "me o$ la)"n# !o'n s*%h p"pe- a proper an! s*$$"%"en $"re1pl*# "n ea%h s*%h s ree - an! sho*l! !el"&er he +e) or +e)s o$ s*%h $"re1pl*# o he persons ha&"n# he %are o$ he en#"ne ho*se "n or near o he sa"! s ree - an! %a*se ano her +e) o be h*n# *p "n he 'a %h1ho*se "n or near o he sa"! s ree ( B) se% ( 75- p"pes 'ere o be e"#h een "n%hes benea h he s*r$a%e o$ he so"l( B) he 78 h se% "on- he ma"ns 'ere a all "mes o be +ep %har#e! '" h 'a er( The !e$en!an s !er"&e! no pro$" $rom he ma"n enan%e o$ he pl*#s !"s "n% $rom he #eneral pro$" s o$ he 'hole b*s"nessb* s*%h ma"n enan%e 'as one o$ he %on!" "ons *n!er 'h"%h he) 'ere perm" e! o e2er%"se he pr"&"le#es #"&en b) he A% (

The ma"n1p"pe oppos" e he ho*se o$ he pla"n "$$ 'as more han e"#h een "n%hes belo' he s*r$a%e( The $"re1pl*# 'as %ons r*% e! a%%or!"n# o he bes +no'n s)s em- an! he ma er"als o$ " 'ere a he "me o$ he a%%"!en so*n! an! "n #oo! or!er( On he 96 h o$ Febr*ar)- a lar#e ,*an " ) o$ 'a er- es%ap"n# $rom he ne%+ o$ he ma"n- $or%e! " s 'a) hro*#h he #ro*n! "n o he pla"n "$$:s ho*se( The appara *s ha! been la"! !o'n 9; )ears- an! ha! 'or+e! 'ell !*r"n# ha "me( The !e$en!an s< en#"neer s a e!- ha he 'a er m"#h ha&e $or%e! " s 'a) hro*#h he br"%+'or+ ro*n! he ne%+ o$ he ma"n- an! ha he a%%"!en m"#h ha&e been %a*se! b) he $ros - "nasm*%h as he e2pans"on o$ he 'a er 'o*l! $or%e *p he pl*# o* o$ he ne%+- an! he s opper be"n# en%r*s e! '" h "%e 'o*l! no s*$$er he pl*# o as%en!( One o$ he se&eres $ros s on re%or! se "n on he =; h o$ >an*ar)- =7;;- an! %on "n*e! *n "l a$ er he a%%"!en "n ,*es "on( An "n%r*s a "on o$ "%e an! sno' ha! #a here! abo* he s opper- an! "n he s ree all ro*n!- an! also $or some "n%hes be 'een he s opper an! he pl*#( The "%e ha! been obser&e! on he s*r$a%e o$ he #ro*n! $or a %ons"!erable "me be$ore he a%%"!en ( A shor "me a$ er he a%%"!en - he %ompan):s *rn%o%+ remo&e! he "%e $rom he s opper- oo+ o* he pl*#- an! repla%e! " ( The 4*!#e le$ " o he 4*r) o %ons"!er 'he her he %ompan) ha! *se! proper %are o pre&en he a%%"!en ( He ho*#h ha - "$ he !e$en!an s ha! a+en o* he "%e a!her"n# o he pl*#- he a%%"!en 'o*l! no ha&e happene!- an! le$ " o he 4*r) o sa) 'he her he) o*#h o ha&e remo&e! he "%e( The 4*r) $o*n! a &er!"% $or he pla"n "$$ $or he s*m %la"me!( THE OBJECTIVE STANDARD Glasgow Corporation v Muir [1943 ! A"" ER 44# HL ?embers o$ a %h*r%h p"%n"% par ) "n @"n#<s 0ar+- Glas#o'- ob a"ne! perm"ss"on $rom he mana#eress emplo)e! b) he appellan s o ha&e he"r ea "n he ea room o'"n# o he *n$a&o*rable 'ea her %on!" "ons( I 'as ne%essar) o %arr) he ea *rn hro*#h a narro' passa#e on one s"!e o$ 'h"%h 'as a %o*n er 'here se&eral %h"l!ren 'ere b*)"n# s'ee s or "%es( The *rn 'as be"n# %arr"e! hro*#h he passa#e b) he %h*r%h o$$"%er an! a bo)- he bo) hol!"n# he $ron han!le an! he o$$"%er he ba%+ one- 'hen $or some *ne2pla"ne! reason he la er le #o h"s han!le an! s%al!"n# ea es%ape! $rom he *rn- "n4*r"n# A %h"l!ren( I 'as %on en!e! $or he respon!en s ha he mana#eress o$ he ea room sho*l! ha&e an "%"pa e! ha here 'as a r"s+ o$ he %on en s o$ he *rn be"n# sp"l an! s%al!"n# some o$ he %h"l!ren an! ha her om"ss"on o remo&e

he %h"l!ren $rom he passa#e !*r"n# he rans" o$ he *rn %ons " * e! a brea%h o$ her !* ) o a+e reasonable %are o$ he %h"l!ren31 Hel!3 he appellan s 'ere no l"able "n ne#l"#en%e o he respon!en s( A reasonable person 'o*l! no ha&e an "%"pa e! !an#er o he %h"l!ren- he "n&" ees o$ he appellan s- $rom he *se o$ he prem"ses perm" e! b) hem( Cases !eal"n# '" h he !* ) o$ he o%%*p"er o$ prom"ses o'ar!s an "n&" ee ha&e *s*all) ar"sen o* o$ some !e$e% "n he repa"r or %on!" "on o$ he prem"ses( Here he po"n ar"ses o* o$ he *se 'h"%h he o%%*p"er has perm" e! a h"r! par ) o ma+e o$ he prem"ses( The same es has o be appl"e! "n ea%h %ase an! he es "s 'he her s*%h $ores"#h as a reasonable man 'o*l! e2er%"se has been e2er%"se! b) he o%%*p"er( The es "s an "mpersonal one an! el"m"na es he personal e,*a "on( The reasonable man "s $ree $rom bo h o&er1%on$"!en%e an! o&er1apprehens"on( The s an!ar! b) 'h"%h he s%ope o$ he !* ) m*s be !e erm"ne! "s 'ha he h)po he "%al reasonable man 'o*l! ha&e $oreseen( I "s help$*l o ha&e a %ase 'h"%h "s no %ompl"%a e! b) ,*es "ons o$ 'he her he "n4*re! par "es are "n&" ees- l"%ensees or mere respassers an! 'here he !* ) %an be !"s%*sse! an! s a e! $ree $rom an) s*%h %ompl"%a "on(B Nettleship v Weston [1971 3 A"" ER 581# CA ?rs C 'an e! o learn o !r"&e( Her h*sban! 'as ,*" e prepare! o allo' her o learn "n h"s %ar( ?rs C as+e! a $r"en! o$ he"rs- N- "$ he 'o*l! #"&e her lessons( N 'as no a pro$ess"onal "ns r*% or( He sa"! ha he 'as '"ll"n# o ea%h ?rs C b* be$ore !o"n# so 'an e! o %he%+ on he "ns*ran%e "n %ase here 'as an a%%"!en ( ?r an! ?rs C ass*re! h"m ha ha he) ha! a $*ll) %omprehens"&e "ns*ran%e 'h"%h %o&ere! h"m as a passen#er "n %ase o$ a%%"!en - an! sho'e! h"m he rele&an !o%*men s( On he h"r! lesson ?rs C 'as s" "n# "n he !r"&er<s sea %on roll"n# he s eer"n# 'heel an! $oo pe!als( N 'as ass"s "n# her b) mo&"n# he #ear le&er an! appl)"n# he han!bra+e( O%%as"onall) he ass"s e! '" h he s eer"n#( The) approa%he! a roa! 4*n% "on an! s oppe!( N "ns r*% e! ?rs C o mo&e o$$ slo'l) ro*n! he %orner o he le$ ( He oo+ o$$ he han! bra+e an! p* he #ear le&er "n o $"rs #ear( She le "n he %l* %h an! he %ar mo&e! ro*n! he %orner a 'al+"n# pa%e( N ol! her o s ra"#h en o* b* she !"! no ( She pan"%+e!- hol!"n# he s eer"n#1'heel "n a D&"%e1l"+e #r"p<( N oo+ hol! o$ he han!bra+e '" h h"s r"#h han! an! r"e! o s ra"#h en o* he s eer"n#1 'heel '" h h"s le$ b* 4*s $a"le! o pre&en he %ar mo*n "n# he +erb an! s r"+"n# a lamp s an!ar!( N %la"me! !ama#es a#a"ns ?rs C $or he "n4*r"es 'h"%h he s*$$ere! "n he a%%"!en ( H$"% 1 E"F N ha! a #oo! %a*se o$ a% "on "n ne#l"#en%e a#a"ns ?rs C $or he $ollo'"n# reasons1

EaF Eper Lor! Denn"n# ?R an! ?e#a' L>F he !r"&er o$ a mo or %ar o'e! a !* ) o$ %are o persons on or near he h"#h'a) o !r"&e '" h he !e#ree o$ s+"ll an! %are o be e2pe% e! o$ a %ompe en an! e2per"en%e! !r"&er Esee p ;7A b an! % an! p ;86 $- pos FG l"+e'"se- *nless he !e$en%e o$ &olen " non $" "n4*r"a 'as a&a"lable- he !r"&er- ho'e&er "ne2per"en%e! an! 'ha e&er h"s !"sab"l" "es- o'e! he same s an!ar! o$ %are o an) passen#er "n he %ar- "n%l*!"n# an "ns r*% or$or o hol! o her'"se 'o*l! lea! o &ar)"n# s an!ar!s appl"%able o !"$$eren !r"&ers an! hen%e o en!less %on$*s"on an! "n4*s "%eG a%%or!"n#l) ?rs C 'as pr"ma $a%"e "n brea%h o$ her !* ) o$ %are o N !"sappro&e!G $*r hermore a !r"&er 'as no en " le! o %la"m he !e$en%e o$ &olen " merel) on he #ro*n! ha h"s passen#er +ne' o$ he r"s+ o$ "n4*r) or 'as '"ll"n# o a+e ha r"s+G " m*s be sho'n ha he passen#er a%%ep e! $or h"msel$ he r"s+ o$ "n4*r) ar"s"n# $rom he !r"&er<s la%+ o$ s+"ll an! e2per"en%eG "n he presen %ase here 'as no e&"!en%e ha N a%%ep e! he r"s+ o$ "n4*r)G on he %on rar)- h"s en,*"r) %on%ern"n# he %omprehens"&eness o$ ?r C<s "ns*ran%e pol"%) 'as a pos" "&e "n!"%a "on ha he ha! no !one soG EbF Eper Salmon L>F al ho*#h "n #eneral a !r"&er o'e! o a passen#er "n h"s %ar he same !* ) as he !"! o he #eneral p*bl"%- "e o !r"&e '" h reasonable %are an! s+"ll- meas*re! b) he s an!ar! o$ %ompe en%e *s*all) a%h"e&e! b) he or!"nar) !r"&er- here m"#h be spe%"al $a% s %rea "n# a spe%"al rela "onsh"p 'h"%h !"spla%e! h"s s an!ar! or e&en ne#a "&e! an) !* )- al ho*#h he on*s 'o*l! be on he !r"&er o es abl"sh s*%h $a% s appro&e!G "n mos %ases- s*%h as he presen - "n&ol&"n# a learner1!r"&er an! "ns r*% or- he "ns r*% or +ne' ha he !r"&er ha! pra% "%all) no !r"&"n# e2per"en%e or s+"ll an! ha he 'o*l! here$ore almos %er a"nl) ma+e m"s a+es 'h"%h %o*l! 'ell %a*se he "ns r*% or "n4*r)G a%%or!"n#l) he rela "onsh"p 'as *s*all) s*%h ha he be#"nner !"! no o'e he "ns r*% or a !* ) o !r"&e '" h he s+"ll an! %ompe en%e o be e2pe% e! o$ an e2per"en%e! !r"&er $or he +ne' ha he !r"&er !"! no possess s*%h s+"ll an! %ompe en%eG al erna "&el) " %o*l! be sa"! ha he "ns r*% or &ol*n ar"l) a#ree! o r*n he r"s+ o$ "n4*r) "n s*%h %"r%*ms an%es Esee p ;8H e o #- pos FG a%%or!"n#l)- on he $a% s o$ he presen %ase- ?rs C 'o*l! no ha&e been l"able o N b* $or he $a% ha be$ore N *n!er oo+ o #"&e her !r"&"n# "ns r*% "on he so*#h he ass*ran%e abo* C:s "ns*ran%e pol"%)G h"s $a% %omple el) !"spose! o$ an) poss"ble !e$en%e o$ &olen "G an! moreo&er he ass*ran%e be%ame an "n e#ral par o$ he rela "onsh"p be 'een he par "es an! al ere! " s na *re "n s*%h a 'a) ha " be%ame one *n!er 'h"%h ?rs C !"! "n $a% a%%ep respons"b"l" ) $or an) "n4*r) 'h"%h N m"#h s*$$er as a res*l o$ an) $a"l*re on her par o e2er%"se he or!"nar) !r"&er:s s an!ar!s o$ reasonable %are an! s+"ll E""F E?e#a' L> !"ssen "n#F Ho'e&er N 'as onl) en " le! o re%o&er hal$ he a#ree! !ama#es "n &"e' o$ h"s o'n %on r"b* or) ne#l"#en%e $or a he "me he 'as par l) "n %on rol o$ he %ar an! "$ he ha! a% e! more ,*"%+l) o appl) he

han! bra+e he a%%"!en 'o*l! ha&e been a&o"!e!G Eper Lor! Denn"n# ?RF a learner1!r"&er an! "ns r*% or 'ere bo h %on%erne! "n he !r"&"n# an! 'ere bo h "n %on rol o$ he %arG "n he absen%e o$ an) e&"!en%e enabl"n# he %o*r o !ra' a !"s "n% "on be 'een hem- he) sho*l! be re#ar!e! as e,*all) o blame $or an a%%"!en ha 'o*l! no ha&e o%%*rre! '" h a %are$*l !r"&erG he res*l 'as ha he one 'ho 'as "n4*re! %o*l! ob a"n !ama#es $rom he o her b* h"s !ama#es 'ere re!*%e! b) one1hal$ o'"n# o he %on r"b* or) ne#l"#en%e on h"s par ( &N'ORESEEABLE HARM Hall v Brooklands Auto Racing Club [1933 1 (B !)5# CA Cer a"n persons 'ere he o'ners o$ a ra%"n# ra%+ $or mo or %ars( The ra%+ 'as o&al "n shape an! meas*re! 'o m"les or more "n %"r%*m$eren%e( I %on a"ne! a lon# s ra"#h s re %h +no'n as he $"n"sh"n# s ra"#h - 'h"%h 'as o&er =HH $ee '"!e an! 'as bo*n!e! on " s o* er s"!e b) a %emen +erb A "n%hes "n he"#h be)on! 'h"%h 'as a s r"p o$ #rass 6 $ee ; "n%hes "n '"! h en%lose! '" h"n an "ron ra"l"n# 6 $ee A "n%hes h"#h( Spe% a ors 'ere a!m" e! on pa)men o &"e' he ra%es- an! s an!s 'ere pro&"!e! "n 'h"%h he) %o*l! !o h"s "n sa$e )- b* man) persons pre$erre! o s an! alon# an! o* s"!e he ra"l"n#( Amon# he %ompe "n# %ars "n a lon# !"s an%e ra%e on h"s ra%+ 'o %ars 'ere r*nn"n# alon# he $"n"sh"n# s ra"#h a a pa%e o$ o&er =HH m"les an ho*r an! 'ere approa%h"n# a sharp ben! o he le$ G he %ar "n $ron an! more o he le$ *rne! o he r"#h G he o her %ar !"! he same- b* "n so !o"n# o*%he! he o$$ s"!e o$ he $"rs men "one! %ar- '" h he s ran#e res*l ha he $"rs men "one! %ar sho "n o he a"r o&er he +erb an! he #rass mar#"n an! "n o he ra"l"n#- +"ll"n# 'o spe% a ors an! "n4*r"n# o hers( The %o*rse 'as opene! "n =8H5( No a%%"!en l"+e h"s ha! e&er happene! be$ore( In an a% "on b) one o$ he "n4*re! spe% a ors a#a"ns he o'ners o$ he ra%"n# ra%+ he 4*r) $o*n! ha he !e$en!an s 'ere ne#l"#en "n ha ha&"n# "n&" e! he p*bl"% o '" ness a h"#hl) !an#ero*s spor he) ha! $a"le! b) no "%es or o her'"se o #"&e 'arn"n# o$- or pro e% "on $rom- he !an#ers "n%"!en here oan! o +eep spe% a ors a a sa$e !"s an%e $rom he ra%+( >*!#men ha&"n# been #"&en $or he pla"n "$$ on hese $"n!"n#s3 1 Held- ha " 'as he !* ) o$ he appellan s o see ha he %o*rse 'as as $ree $rom !an#er as reasonable %are an! s+"ll %o*l! ma+e " - b* ha he) 'ere no "ns*rers a#a"ns a%%"!en s 'h"%h no reasonable !"l"#en%e %o*l! $oresee or a#a"ns !an#ers "nheren "n a spor 'h"%h an) reasonable spe% a or %an $oresee an! o$ 'h"%h he a+es he r"s+- an! %onse,*en l) ha here 'as no- e&"!en%e o s*ppor he &er!"% o$ he 4*r)( 'ACTORS TO BE *EI+HED IN ESTABLISHIN+ BREACH,