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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Tutorial 1 – Solution Steam Power Plant Winardi Sani

State 3 : p 3 = 3 MPa. t 3 = 350 o C. Condenser pressure of p 4 = 75 kPa.

= 350 o C. Condenser pressure of p 4 = 75 kPa. a) Sketch this cycle

a) Sketch this cycle in ph diagram and read the value of each state variable:

2 boiler q in 3 h1 h2 h4 h3
2 boiler
q in
3
h1 h2
h4
h3
pump w p turbine w out 1 q out condenser 4
pump w p turbine w out 1 q out condenser 4

pump

w p

turbine

w out

1 q out

condenser

4

pump w p turbine w out 1 q out condenser 4
pump w p turbine w out 1 q out condenser 4
pump w p turbine w out 1 q out condenser 4
pump w p turbine w out 1 q out condenser 4

h 1 = 350 kJ/kg;

h 3 = 3150 kJ/kg;

h 2 = 390 kJ/kg;

h 4 = 2400 kJ/kg

(1)

(2)

b) Determine the thermal efficiency of this cycle.

η th =

|w t | − |w p |

|q in |

η th = | w t | − | w p | | q i n
η th = | w t | − | w p | | q i n

The 1. law of T/D applied on the pump 1 to 2 :

h 2 h 1 = w p

(isentropic, no kin. and pot. energy)

− h 1 = w p ( isentropic, no kin. and pot. energy ) The 1.
− h 1 = w p ( isentropic, no kin. and pot. energy ) The 1.

The 1. law of T/D applied on the turbine 3 to 4 :

(3)

(4)

h 4 h 3

=

w t

(isentropic, no kin. and pot. energy, work released)(5)

|

w t |

=

|w t | = |h 4 h 3 | = |h 3 h 4 |

(6)

The 1. law of T/D applied on the boiler 2 to 3 :
The 1. law of T/D applied on the boiler 2 to 3 :

The 1. law of T/D applied on the boiler 2 to 3 :

 
 

h 3 h 2 = q in

(no work, no kin. and pot. energy)

(7)

The 1. law of T/D applied on the condenser 4 to 1 :
The 1. law of T/D applied on the condenser 4 to 1 :

The 1. law of T/D applied on the condenser 4 to 1 :

h 1 h 4 = q out

(no work, no kin. and pot. energy, heat is rejected)

(8)

1

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Substitute equations (4) – (7) into equation (3) yields:

η th =

|h 3 h 4 | − |h 2 h 1 |

|h 3 h 2 |

|3150 2400| − |390 350|

=

|3150 390|

750 40

710

=

= 0.257

= 25.7%

2760 = 2760

(9)

(10)

(11)

c) Compare your result with the thermal efficiency of the Carnot cycle. Carnot cycle operates between two isothermal processes, T L (condenser temperature) and T H (boiler temperature) with efficiency: .

η th =

1 T L

T H

85 + 273.15

=

1

350 + 273.15 1 358.15 623.15 = 0.425

=

= 42.5%

(12)

(13)

η th,Carnot > η th,Rankine

You may compare the results using the data taken from the steam table (see thermodynamics book by Cengel). Hereby you must calculate the dryness fac- tor x to determine the state properties (h 4 for example) at point 4 with formula:

x = s 3 s 4f

(14)

point 4 with formula: x = s 3 − s 4 f (14) s 4 fg

s 4fg

p-h diagram is a convenient tool for energy analysis in Rankine cycle.

State 3 : p 3 = 8 MPa, saturated vapor, =t 3 = 300 o C (read p-h diagram). Con- denser pressure of p 4 = 8 kPa, saturated liquid and turbine power delivered at

= 8 kPa, saturated liquid and turbine power delivered at ˙ W t = 100 MW.

˙

W t = 100 MW.

a) The thermal efficiency

η th =

|w t | − |w p |

|q in |

(15)

The same procedures in the previous solution are applied here to obtain:

η th =

|h 4 h 3 | − |h 2 h 1 |

|h 3 h 2 |

|1750 2725| − |200 180|

=

|2725 200|

975 20

=

=

= 37.8%

2525

0.378

955

= 2525

2

(16)

(17)

(18)

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043
2 boiler 3 q in w out w p 100 MW condenser 1 4 q
2
boiler
3
q in
w out
w p
100 MW
condenser
1
4
q out
h1
h2
h4
h3
turbine
pump

b) The back work ratio(bwr, pump work divided by turbine work)

bwr

=

=

=

=

|w p |

|w t |

|h 2 h 1 |

|h 4 h 3 |

|200 180|

|1750 2725|

20

975 = 2%

c) The mass flow rate of the steam in kg/hr

˙

W t

=m˙

=m˙

=

= m˙ (h 3 h 4 )

m˙ w t

˙

W t

=

h 3 h 4 100 MW

= 975 kJ/kg =

=

=

10

5 kJ/s

975 kJ/kg = 102.6 kg/s

102.6 kg/s 3600 1 hr s

3.7 10 5 kg/hr

3

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

(26)

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

˙

d) The rate of heat transfer, Q into the working fluid as it passes through the

boiler

˙

Q in =

=

=

=

=

m˙ q in

(27)

m˙ (h 3 h 2 )

(28)

3.7 10 5 kg/hr (2725 200) kJ/kg

934, 250 kJ/hr = 934, 250 kJ hr

 

1 hr

 
 

 

3600 s

259, 514 kW = 259.5 MW

(29)

e) The mass flow rate of the condenser cooling water in kg/hr if cooling water enters the condenser at 25 o C and exists at 40 o C.

˙

Q out

=

=

= 3.7 10 5 kg/hr (1750 180) kJ/kg

m˙ q out m˙ (h 4 h 1 )

1 hr = 580, 900 kJ/hr = 580, 900 kJ hr ∗ 3600 s =
1 hr
=
580, 900 kJ/hr = 580, 900 kJ hr
3600 s
= 161.4 MW
4
1
.
m
.
cooling water
.
Q cw
Q out
o
25 o C
in
40
C
out
cooling water

(30)

(31)

(32)

Energy balance (1. law of T/D) applied on the condenser system:

E

t

system

0

m˙ cw

=

m˙ cw (h cw,in h cw,out ) + m˙ (h 4 h 1 )

= m˙ cw (h cw,in h cw,out ) + m˙ (h 4 h 1 )

m˙ (h 4 h 1 )

=

h cw,out h cw,in

=

˙

Q

out

h cw,out h cw,in

(33)

(34)

(35)

(36)

The enthalpy values of saturated liquid at 25 o C and 40 o C from the satu- rated water table: h t=25 o C = 104.88 kJ/kg, and h t=40 o C = 167.57 kJ/kg.

m˙ cw

=m˙ cw

=

=

161.4 MW

(167.57

104.88)kJ/kg = 2, 575 kg/s

9.3 10 6 kg/hr

4

(37)

(38)

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Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

With η t = η p = 85%, determine for the modified cycle:

2s 2 boiler 3 q in 100 MW w t w p condenser 1 4s
2s
2
boiler
3
q in
100 MW
w t
w p
condenser
1
4s
q out
4
h2s
h2
h1
h4s
h4
h3
w t
w p
w p,s
w t,s
not scaled
isentropic
isentropic
pump

a) The thermal efficiency:

Turbine

Pump

η p

=w p

=

=

=

=

=

η th =

η t

|w t | − |w p |

=

|q in |

w t

w t,s

=w t = η t w t,s

w p,s

w p

w p,s

η p

1

η p

|h 2s h 1 |

1

0.85 ∗ |200 180| kJ/kg

23.5 kJ/kg;

greater than w p,s = 20 kJ/kg

5

(39)

(40)

(41)

(42)

(43)

(44)

(45)

(46)

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Substitute the equations (43) and (41) into the equation (39) yields:

η th =

=

|η t w t,s | − | w p,s |

η p

|q in |

η t ∗ |h 4s h 3 | −

1 p ∗ |h 2s h 1 |

η

q in

(47)

(48)

From the previous question we have calculated:

|h 4s h 3 | = |1750 2725| kJ/kg = 975 kJ/kg

|h 2s h 1 |

=

|200 180| kJ/kg = 20 kJ/kg

q in

=

h 3 h 2

and

(49)

The value of h 3 remains constant, but h 2 changes!. h 2 must be calcu- lated using the the value of w p .

h 2

=

w p + h 1

(50)

=

(23.5 + 180) kJ/kg

=

203.5 kJ/kg

(51)

=q in

=

(2725 203.5) kJ/kg

=q in

=

2, 521.5 kJ/kg

(52)

All the data necessary has been prepared to solve the new efficiency in equation (48):

0.85 975

1

0.85 20

η th =

2, 521.5

= 0.319

= 31.9%

(53)

The new efficiency must be lower compared to the ideal, isentropic case (37.8%).

b) The back work ratio (pump work divided by turbine work)

bwr

=

=

=

=

=

|w p |

|w t |

w

p,s

1

η

p

η t w t,s

w p,s

t,s

w

1

η t η p

1

bwr s

η t η p

20

1

975

0.85 0.85

= 2.8%

It means, more investment compared to the isentropic process.

6

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Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

c) The mass flow rate of the steam in kg/hr. Energy balance applied on the steam power plant. (E= energy in energy out) per unit time.

m˙

0

w t w p

= q in q out + w p w t

=

q in q out

(w t w p ) = m˙ (q in q out )

˙

W cycle

=m˙

=

=

m˙ (h 3 h 2 ) (h 4 h 1 )

˙

W cycle

(h 3 h 2 ) (h 4 h 1 )

(54)

State property

value [kJ/kg]

h

1

180

h

2

203.5

h

3

2725

h

4

?

To obtain the value of h 4 , we can apply the 1. law of T/D on the turbine, from state 3 to 4 :

(55)

1. law of T/D on the turbine, from state 3 to 4 : (55) h 4
1. law of T/D on the turbine, from state 3 to 4 : (55) h 4

h 4

=

h 3 w t

= h

= h 3 η t (h 4,s h 3 )

= (2725 0.85 975) kJ/kg

=

3 η t w t,s

(56)

Because of irreversibilities inside the turbine, h 4 > h 4s = 1750 kJ/kg. With

h 4

1896.5 kJ/kg

˙

W cycle = 100 MW, the mass flow rate is then:

m˙

=

100

MW

 

(2725 203.5) (1896.5 180) kJ/kg

 

=

100, 000

kW

 

2521.5 1716.5 kJ/kg

 
 

=

100, 000

J/s

 

805

J/kg

 

=

124.223 kg

 
 

s

=m˙

=

4.47 10 5 kg hr

 

(57)

˙

d) The rate of heat transfer, Q into the working fluid as it passes through the

boiler

˙

Q

˙

in

=Q in

=

m˙ q in

(58)

=

m˙ (h 3

h 2 )

(59)

=

124.223 kg/s (2725 203.5) kJ/kg

=

313.2 MW

(60)

7

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More heat addition must be provided to overcome losses compared to

˙

Q in,s in the previous isentropic case.

e) The mass flow rate of the condenser cooling water in kg/hr if cooling water enters the condenser at 25 o C and exists at 40 o C.

˙

Q out

˙

=Q out

=

m˙ q out

=

m˙ (h 4

h 1 )

=

124.223 kg (1896.5 180) kJ/kg

s

=

213.2 MW

(61)

f) Discuss the effects on the steam power plant of the irreversibilities within the turbine and pump. The effects of irreversibilities within the turbine and the pump can be gauged by comparing the present values with their counterparts. The turbine work is less and the pump work greater than in the previous case. The thermal efficiency of the power plant is also less than in the ideal case. The mag- nitude of the heat transfer to the cooling water is greater than in the ideal case, consequently, so greater mass flow rate of cooling water would be required. This conclusion is still valid eventhough the net power output in the last case is not 100 MW. It is true because the difference of the back work ratio in both the cases is very small.

8

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Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Steam is the working fluid in an ideal Rankine cycle with superheat and reheat. Steam enters the first-stage turbine at 8.00 MPa, 480 o C and expands to 0.8 MPa. It is then reheated to 440 o C before entering the second-stage turbine, where it expands to the condenser pressure of 10 kPa. The net power output is 100 MW. Determine:

• The cycle illustrated in p – h diagram:

3 2 boiler superheat q in,1 w t,1 q in,2 5 4 reheat w p
3
2
boiler
superheat
q in,1
w
t,1
q in,2
5
4
reheat
w
p
w t,2
1
condenser
6
q out
h3
h1
h2
h6
h4
h5
HP turbine
LP turbine
pump

a) The thermal efficiency of the cycle

Net work output

η =

Heat input

w output w input

=

q input

η = |w 34 | + |w 56 | − |w 12 | |q 23 | + |q 45 |

(62)

From the 1. law of T/D applied on a cyclic system:

energy in = energy out

q 23 + q 45 + w 12

= w 34 + w 56 q 61

w 34 + w 56 w 12 =

q 23 + q 45 q 61

replacing eq. (64) into eq. (62), yields

9

η

= 1

|

|q 61 |q 45 |

|q 23 | +

(63)

(64)

(65)

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
E=3500 3 5 4 2 1 6 sv=0.005 sv=0.01 E=2500 E=2800 E=3000 E=3400
E=3500
3
5
4
2
1
6
sv=0.005
sv=0.01
E=2500
E=2800
E=3000
E=3400
2 1 6 sv=0.005 sv=0.01 E=2500 E=2800 E=3000 E=3400 You can describe the Rankine cycle using

You can describe the Rankine cycle using p – h, T – s, or h – s diagram, or you can combine them to obtain more accuracy. Interpolation is often necessary if the location point does not lay on a constant line. To calculate the thermal efficiency of the steam power plant, you can use the previous

10

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Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

method with the data read directly on the diagrams illustrated above. An alternative solution is to use the data taken from the steam table. It will be shown following.

State

phase

given

 

steam table

3

superheated

p 3

= 8.00 MPa,

interpolation

 

t 3 = 480 0 C

 

4

p 4 = 0.8 MPa

5

superheated

t 5

=

440

0 C,

interpolation

 

p 5 = p 4

 

6

p 6 = 10 kPa

 

1

sat. liquid

p 1 = p 6

 

v f = 0.001010 m 3 /kg, h f = 191.81 kJ/kg, s f = 0.6492 kJ/kg K

2

liquid

State change

Process

Meaning

3-4

isentropic,work out

4-5

isobar,heat addition

5-6

isentropic,work out

6-1

isobar,heat rejection

1-2

isentropic, compression

2-3

isobar,heat addition

s 3 = s 4 , w t = w 34 p 4 = p 5 , q in = q 45 s 5 = s 6 , w t = w 56

p 6 = p 1 , q out = q 61 s 1 = s 2 , w out = w 12 p 2 = p 3 , q in = q 23

p 2 = p 3 , q i n = q 2 3 • Interpolation at

• Interpolation at state 3 , p 3 = 8 MPa

Number

Temperature

Enthalpy

Entropy

1

2

3

450

480

500

3273.3

h p3

3399.5

6.5579

s p3

6.7266

Linear interpolation to determine both the value of h 2 = h p3 and s 2 = s p3

h 3

h 1

t 3 t 1

=h 2

h 2

=h p3

s 2

s 2

=s p3

=

h

2

h 1

t 2 t 1

=

h 1 +

t

2

t 1

t 3 t 1

(h 3 h 1 )

3273.3 + 480 450 (3399.5 3273.3)

500 450

3349.02 kJ/kg

=

= 3273.3 + 75.72

=

=

=

=

6.5579 + 480 450

500

450 (6.7266 6.5579)

6.5579 + 0.10122

6.65912 kJ/kg K

11

(66)

(67)

(68)

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• State

4
4

, p 4 = 0.8 MPa

Since s p3 = 6.65912 kJ/kg < 6.6616 kJ/kg = s p4,v , so the state 4 is laid in the liquid+vapor region!.

x

=

=

=

s 4 s f

s fg

6.65912 2.0457

4.6160

0.9994

h 4

=

h f + x h fg

=

720.87 + 0.9994 2047.7

=

2, 767.3 kJ/kg

. 87 + 0 . 9994 ∗ 2047 . 7 = 2 , 767 . 3

• Interpolation at state 5 , p 5 = 0.8 MPa

(69)

(70)

(71)

(72)

Number

Temperature

Enthalpy

Entropy

1

2

3

400

440

500

3267.7

h p5

3481.3

7.5735

s p5

7.8692

Linear interpolation to determine both the value of h 2 = h p3 and s 2 = s p3

h 3

h 1

t 3 t 1

=h 2

h 2

=h p5

s 2

s 2

=s p5

=

h

2

h 1

t 2 t 1

=

h 1 +

t

2

t 1

t 3 t 1

(h 3 h 1 )

3267.7 + 440 400 (3481.3 3267.7)

500 400

3, 353.14 kJ/kg

=

= 3267.7 + 85.44

=

=

=

=

7.5735 + 440 400

7.5735 + 0.11828

7.6918 kJ/kg K

450 (7.8692 7.5735)

500

(73)

(74)

(75)

∗ (7 . 8692 − 7 . 5735) 500 − (73) (74) (75) • At state

• At state 6 , p 6 = 10 kPa, s 6 = s 5 = 7.6918 kJ/kg K. At pressure of 10 kPa, the entropy of the fluid at saturated state is of s = 8.1488 kJ/kg K. So the state 6 must be must be in the liquid vapor region!.

the state 6 must be must be in the liquid vapor region!. At p = 10

At p = 10 kPa.

s f [kJ/kg K]

s fg [kJ/kg K]

s g [kJ/kg K]

0.6492

7.4996

8.1488

12

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

x

=

s 6 s f

s fg

7.6918 0.6492

 

=

 

7.4996

 

= 0.9391

 

At p = 10 kPa.

 

h f [kJ/kg K]

h fg [kJ/kg K]

h g [kJ/kg K]

191.81

2392.1

2583.9

h

6

=

h f + x h fg

 
 

=

191.81 + 0.9391 2392.1

=h 6

= 2, 438.2 kJ/kg

 
2392 . 1 = ⇒ h 6 = 2 , 438 . 2 kJ/kg   •

• At state 2 : s 2 = s 1 = 0.6492 kJ/kg K

w 12

=

= 0.001010 m 3 /kg (8000 10) kPa

w p = v f (p 2 p 1 )

8.0699 m 3 kPa N/m 2

kg

Pa

=

= 8.0699 kJ/kg

h 2 = h 1 + w 12

=h 2

= 191.81 kJ/kg + 8.0699 kJ/kg

= 199.88 kJ/kg

(76)

(77)

(78)

(79)

(80)

(81)

(82)

(83)

We have prepared all the values needed for efficiency:

q

q

61

23

=

=

=

=

=

=

η = 1

|q 61 |

|q 23 | + |q 45 |

h 1 h 6

(191.81 2, 438.2) kJ/kg

2, 246.39 kJ/kg

h 3 h 2

(3, 349.02 199.88) kJ/kg

3, 149.14 kJ/kg

(minus sign means heat rejection)

q 45 =

=

=

h 5 h 4

(3, 353.14 2, 767.3) kJ/kg

585.84 kJ/kg

13

(84)

(85)

(86)

(87)

(88)

(89)

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043 Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

η = 1

2, 246.39

3, 149.14 + 585.84

η = 0.4 = 40%

b) The mass flow rate of the steam in kg/hr

˙

(90)

c) The rate of heat transfer, Q out from the condensing steam as is passes through

the condenser, in MW.

d) Discuss the effects of reheat on the steam power plant

e) Repeat the analysis with including that the turbine and pump each have the isentropic efficiency of 85%.

14

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Consider a regenerative steam power plant with one open feedwater heater. Steam enters the turbine at 8.0 MPa, 480 o C and expands to 0.8 MPa, where some of the steam is extracted and diverted to the open feedwater heater op- erating at 0.8 MPa. The remaining steam expands through the second-stage turbine to the con- denser pressure of 10 kPa. This portion of the total flow is condensed to saturated liquid, then pumped to the extraction pressure and introduced into the feedwa- ter heater at 0.8 MPa. The isentropic efficiency of each turbine is 85% and each pump operates isen- tropically. If the net power output of the cycle is 100 MW, determine:

a) The thermal efficiency

Steam generator 3 HP LP 4 y (1 − y) 5 (1 − y) 2
Steam generator
3
HP
LP
4
y
(1 − y)
5
(1 − y)
2
1
Open
7
6
feedwater
heater
Pump 2
Pump 1
Turbines
Condenser
E=3500 3 2 4 1 4s 7 5s 6 5 sv=0.005 sv=0.01 E=2500 E=2800 E=3000
E=3500
3
2
4
1
4s
7
5s
6
5
sv=0.005
sv=0.01
E=2500
E=2800
E=3000
E=3400

15

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043 Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

The thermal efficiency of the cycle Net work output

η th =

Heat input

w output w input

=

q input

η th = |w t | − |w p | |q 23 |

(91)

th = | w t | − | w p | | q 2 3 |

Fraction of the total flow at state 4 by y. y = m˙ 4 /m˙ with the total mass m˙ = m˙ 4 + m˙ 5 . Total turbine work per unit of total mass is:

w t =

˙

W t

m˙

= (h 4 h 3 ) + (1 y)(h 5 h 4 )

(92)

The pump work per unit of total mass is:

w p =

˙

W p

m˙

= (h 2 h 1 ) + (1 y)(h 7 h 6 )

(93)

h 1 h 7

y =

h 4 h 7

(94)

6 ) (93) h 1 − h 7 y = h 4 − h 7 (94)

• Calculation of the properties at state 3 The specific enthalpy at state 3 is evaluated in the solution to the previ- ous question.

=h 3

=

3349.02 kJ/kg

(95)

=s 3

=

6.65912 kJ/kg K

(96)

• Calculation of the properties at state 4

• Calculation of the properties at state 4

h 4

=

h 3 w t

|w t |

=

η t ∗ |w t,s |

=

η t ∗ |h 4,s h 3 |

(97)

= η t ∗ | h 4 , s − h 3 | (97) At state

At state 4s , p 4s = p 4 = 0.8 MPa s 3 = s 4s = 6.65912 kJ/kg < 6.6616 kJ/kg = s 4s,v , so the state 4s is laid in the liquid+vapor region!.

x

=

=

=

s 4s s f s

6.65912 2.0457

fg

4.6160

0.9994

(98)

(99)

h 4s

→ |w t,s |

=

h f + x h fg

=

720.87 + 0.9994 2047.7

=

2, 767.3 kJ/kg

=

|2, 767.3 3349.02| kJ/kg

=

581.72 kJ/kg

(100)

(101)

16

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

The value of h 4 can be now calculated:

h 4

=

3, 349.02 0.85 581.72

=

2854.56 kJ/kg

With this enthalpy value at at the pressure of 0.8 MPa, the state 4 is su- perheated (h 4 > 2768.3 kJ/kg), see steam table. p 4 = 0.8 MPa

Number

Temp.

Enthalpy

Entropy

1

200

2839.8

6.8177

-

?

3 250

h 4

2950.4

s 4

7.0402

Linear interpolation is applied to determine s 4 :

h 3 h 1 s 3 s 1

=s 4

=s 4

=

=

=

=

h 4 h 1

s 4 s 1

s 1 +

h 4 h 1

h 3

h 1

(s 3

s 1 )

6.8177 + 2854.56 2839.8

2950.4 2839.8

6.8474 kJ/kg K

(7.0402 6.8177)

(102)

(103)

6 . 8474 kJ/kg K ∗ (7 . 0402 − 6 . 8177) (102) (103) •

• Determination of the property at state 6 At this stage the fluid is at saturated with the condenser pressure of p 6 = 10 kPa. The state properties are read at steam table:

v f [m] 3 /kg

h f [kJ/kg]

s f [kJ/kg K]

0.001010

191.81

0.6492

] s f [ kJ/kg K ] 0.001010 191.81 0.6492 • Calculation of the properties at

• Calculation of the properties at state 7 , p 7 = 0.8 MPa.

h 7

w p1

=

=h 7

h

7

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

h 6 + w p1

v f (p 7 p 6 )

3

0.001010 m kg (800 10) kPa

0.7979 m 3 kPa N/m 2

kg

Pa

0.7979 kNm kg

0.7979 kJ kg

191.81 + 0.7979 kJ

192.61

kg

17

(104)

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043

Solution Tutorial 1/ ws BDA 3043 Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia • Determination of the property at state 1

• Determination of the property at state 1 At this stage the fluid is at saturated with the open heater pressure of p 1 = 0.8 MPa. The state properties are read at steam table:

v f [m] 3 /kg

h f [kJ/kg]

s f [kJ/kg K]

0.001115

720.87

2.0457

 

h 1 h 7

y

=

h 4 h 7 720.87 192.61

 

=

2854.56 192.61

=y

=

0.20

• The fraction of the total flow, y:

(105)