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Oxidation is the process of losing electrons. Reduction is the process of gaining electrons. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------cations = positive ions.

anions = negative ions. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Molarity (M) = moles of solute (n) / liters of solution (V) i.e. one molar solution of a!l

" atom of a = ##.$%$ amu (molecular &eight/ atomic &eight) " atom of !l = '(.)(' amu ********************** " mole a!l = (%.))# amu +o, (%.))# grams a!l plus enough solution added to ma-e " liter total.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+. /01+1+ /02/ 3O 4/ +5!67 One of the easiest &ays to ma-e methamphetamine is from amphetamine. Of course, this assumes you have amphetamine in the first place, 8ut let4s 9ust pretend you have some and you &ant to spice it up a 8it. /he difference 8et&een amphetamine and methamphetamine is the addition of a single methyl group (!0') to the amino group stic-ing off the middle car8on atom in the chain. :ortunately, su8stituting amines is really simple. Vapori;e your amine (your amphetamine) &ith a 8unch of vapori;ed chloromethane (!0'!l, a solvent) and some gaseous pyridine (!(0( )... voila, the amino group ta-es the methyl from the chloromethane and lets a hydrogen go. /he hydrogen 9oins the li8erated chlorine, and the resulting 0!l is soa-ed up 8y the pyridine. /he pyridine is optional. 2dding it drives the reaction a 8it 8y pulling the excess 0!l out of the e<uation, 8ut it4s not neessary. 2ssuming you don4t have amphetamine lying around, an easy synthesis &ith a very high yield is to reduce the condensation product of phenylacetone and methylamine. /he 8enefit of this method is that different amines can 8e used to produce novel -al-yl amphetamines (ethamphetamine, tert-8utylamphetamine, etc) Ma-ing it from ephedrine or pseudoephedrine is possi8le. /he only difference 8et&een methamphetamine and (pseudo)ephedrine is that damn alpha-hydroxy group. Reacting your ephedrine &ith thionyl chloride replaes the O0 &ith !l to produce -methyl-alpha-chloroamphetamine as an intermediate. 0ydrogenating this product is easy7 use lithium aluminum hydride, sodium 8orohydride, or even hydrogen gas &ith nic-el or platinum metal as a catalyst. /he product of this step is -methylamphetamine and 0!l. 1vaporate off the &ater and you have methamphetamine hydrochloride.

2 surprisingly simple synthesis is possi8le from the amino acid phenylalanine, &hich is availa8le at health food stores for a8out =") for ">> ta8lets. ?henylalanine is #-amino-'-phenylpropanoic acid, &hich is more or less amphetamine &ith a !OO0 &here the !0' should 8e at the end of the chain. /hionyl chloride (+O!l#) &ill replace the O0 &ith a !l, &hich falls off and is replaced 8y 0 &hen you give it lithium aluminum hydride, sodium 8orohydride, or hydrogen gas and nic-el/platinum. @f you use hydrogen and metal for that step, you4ll have to reduce the car8onyl group &ith one of the hydrides, so 8est save time A effort and use them and do 8oth reductions at once. Bhen that car8onyl is reduced, you no& have amphetamine. Co 8ac- up to that first one @ mentioned for upgrading amphetamine into methamphetamine. ote that a;ll of these (and pro8a8ly anything anyone ever comes up &ith) &ill give you a mix of d- and l- isomers. /he d- is cool, the l- is shit, remem8er. @f you have time, energy, and e<uipment, you can separate the t&o and reprocess the l- into d- 8y oxidi;ing it and re-aminating it as descri8ed in the Dcriti<ueD of the ?hrac- synthesis. 3@2CR2M+7 0 / FF FF FF E /EE EE / F F F // / E E / F F !0' 0 / E !0' 0


E// /EE

/ EE / E / FF F F FF F F FF F !0' E // !G0G!0#!0( 0!0')!0' E// O0 F / E EE / F F F // 0 E / F F !0'

methamphetamine has a !0' at that amphetamine doesn4t


!0' ephedrine and pseudoephedrine the difference is &hether the O0 points up or do&n

E// /EE

0 / FF FF FF EE / F F F / E E / F F !=O 0


E // F !G0G!0#!0( 0#)!OO0 E// O0

compare to amphetamine

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(+peed Raver) &rote7 HHI HHI HHI @4m sorry to say that no method attempting to directly reduce (pseudo)ephedrine4s hydroxyl group is going to &or-.

.our post &as interesting, 8ut this is not <uite true. 3irect hydrogenation over ?d or ?d on a carrier is &ell -no&n and facile. .ou add a little perchloric, phosphoric or sulphuric acid, &hich esterifies the-O0 group that you4re complaining a8out. /hus ma-ing the intermediate halide via +O!l#, li-e you mentioned, is unecessary. HHI HHI HHI ote that all of these (and pro8a8ly anything anyone ever comes up &ith) &ill give you a mix of d- and l- isomers.

0ydrogenation starting &ith (-) ephedrine, &hether direct or via the halide, &ill give d-meth. @f you start &ith dl-ephedrine, you get dl-meth. .ogi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------/here are t&o common &ays to ma-e meth. One is &ith d-ephedrine or pseudo ephedrine. /he other is &ith phenyl-#-propanone. /he difference is that &ith ephedrine you get the d-isomer only &hile &ith p-#-p you get a mixture of 8oth isomers. /here is some discussion as to &hich is 8etter 8ut most DexpertsD prefer the p-#-p product. O-ay. "7 ephedrine method. @n a round 8ottom flas- place ">>>gms of ephedrine, #(> gms of red phosporus,">>>ml of hydriotic acid and " o; of thiosodiumsulfate. ?lace a condenser on top of the flas- and reflux the mixture for )% hrs at "#> degrees !. !ool the mixture. 2dd a ">J solution of sodium hydroxide slo&ly since heat &ill 8e evolved until the ?h of the mixture is "). .ou should have an upper and lo&er layer. +eparate the upper(oil) layer from the lo&er (&ater) layer. 3istill the oil layer (steam distillation is the 8est-go loo- it up). Mix the distillation product &ith a ">J hydrochloric acid solution until the ?h of the mixture is %.>. 1vaporate the &ater (steam 8ath) and the final product &ill crystalli;e. #7 p-#-p method. @n a round 8ottom flas- of suita8le si;e place )>>ml of p-#-p, #>>>ml of ethyl alcohol (everclear &or-s fine), )>> gms of aluminum (reynolds &rap or 8etter yet "">> grade aluminum foil or shavings) and #>>>ml of '>J (not )>J) methylamine. 2dd "/' gram of mercuric chloride and

<uic-ly fit the flas- vertically &ith the 8iggest condenser you have. /he reaction should get &arm. @f not heat it a little until it does. /his reaction is V1R. exothermic (gives off heat). 2s soon as the mixture starts to 8u88le and get &arm get ready to put the flas- in an ice 8ath to -eep it under control. Ket the reaction run its course until it starts to cool then heat it for another hour or so. !ool the reaction, filter the mixture &ith a 8uchner funnel under vacuum to remove the solid 8y-product. ?lace the clear filtered li<uid in a flas- set up for distillation and distill off the alcohol (under vacuum prefera8ly). .ou &ill -no& &hen the alcohol is gone &hen the mixture 8ecomes cloudy. Ket the mixture sit and it &ill separate into t&o layers. /he 8ottom layer is &ater (etc) and the top layer is Methamphetamine. +eparate the top layer in a separatory funnel and (steam distill it first for the 8est results) mix it &ith ">J hydrochloric acid until the ?h of the mixture is %.>. 1vaporate the mixture on a steam 8ath ( Or a pyrex plate placed on top of a pot of 8oiling &ater) and it &ill crystalli;e into the final product. /he &hole -ey here is the purity of your starting ingredients. ?ure material e<uals a pure product. 2gain this is for information only. /o put this into practice is illegal and can result in fines and/or imprisonment. ephedrine is impractical to ma-e. p-#-p can 8e made in many &ays. @t is O/ availa8le other&ise . @t can 8e made 8y reacting phenylacetic acid and lead acetate. Or 8etter yet phenylacetic acid, acetic anhydride and sodium acetate. /here are many other &ays to ma-e p-#-p (/horium catalyst reduction of phenylacetic and acetic acids, /he Lader and ightingale aceto aceto nitrile reaction etc. Co to a college li8rary. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(2nonymous) &rote7 I". /heoretically if one can to consense the product of methylamine and Iphenylacetone into methamphetamine (rather simple really) then &hat Ihappens if you su8stitute methylamine.hcl in the reaction. 3oes the hcl Iinterfere &ith the rectionMM @f it ma-es meth2mphetamine.hcl then this I&ould ta-e 2KO/ of heat to 8oil 8efore re-condensingM @+ this in-fact I&hat happensM Or does it 9ust scre& things up.. I :rom &hat @ -no& the reaction still &or-s &ith meth 0!l. .ou can read this up in the !hemical literature - it4s 8een -no&n a8out for &ell over G> years. I#. @f you &anted to change methylamine.hcl into methylamine, you could Idisolve in &ater, ma-e it 8asic &ith aO0 then &hat do you extract I&ithMM .es. Lut Me 0# is very solu8le in &ater. " part of &ater dissolves ">>> parts of Me 0#. @t is not at all solu8le in organic solvents. I!hem references (online) are V1R. short on detail &hen it comes Ito agents that methylamine is soluta8le in. Koo- it up in a 8oo- - /he Merc- index should 8e availa8le in your local li8rary. @f you post o8viously silly <uestions li-e this people

&ill thin- that you are la;y or incompentant or 8oth. /hey &ill not &ant to encourage your dependency on them 8y giving you ans&ers that you can find out for yourself. evertheless @4ll tell you - 9ust this once. Me 0# is not very solu8le in orgainic solvents. eg. /he solu8ility is only ">J in 8en;ene. @t is solu8le in &ater and ethanol. @t is not solu8le in !0!l', acetone, ether or ethyl acetate. .ou &ould not try to extract into an organic solvent as it &ouldn4t &or-. .ou could add 8ase, increase the temperature and 8oil the Me 0# off, collecting the gas produced. I I'. (O- @ lied there are ' <uestions, so sue me) I@ have seen # synthetic routes for ?#? ho&ever 8oth involve shall &e say Idifficult to o8tain precursors. 2re there any other synthetic routesMM I .es. /here are loads of possi8le routes. 2 good place to start is D2dvanced Organic !hemistryD 8y Nerry March. /his inexpensive 8oo&ill -eep you 8usy in the li8rary for years - loo-ing up the references. /he simplest route to -etones is via the corresponding alcohol and the corresponding alcohol is often easy to ma-e and, unli-e ?#? it is pro8a8ly legal to possessO /here appear to 8e another ">> routes to -etones mentioned. ?#? is an easy -etone to ma-e 8ecause it has only one functional group. Of course, @ couldn4t thin- of any reason &hy you &ould &ant to ma-e ?#?. Bhy not go straight to the chemical you really &ant 8y condensing the imine Pproduced from Me 0# and acetaldehydeQ &ith Len;yl Magnesium 0alide in a Crignard reactionM o, @ &on4t give you the literature reference to this reaction. @t is o8sure and you &ill need to search hard to find it. !lue. /he time &as 8et&een "$)( and "$((. I). (O- @ lied again there are ) <uestions.. really this is the last one) @ never trust people &ho lie to meO Cive up this 8ad ha8it unless you4re realy desperate and you can4t avoid it. @4m not moralising here - @4m 9ust telling you that people don4t do favours for people they don4t trust. I0as anyone any thoughts on the reduction of (pseudo)ephedrine via either Iiodine/phosphorous (red) or 0@/phosphorous. @ assume it racemi;es the Iproduct. @s this a correct assumptionMM 2lso dies 0@ &arrant the effort Ior can @odine/phosphorous 8e used instead, 3oes the additon of 0@ Isignificantly inprove the yieldMM .es, @t4s very messy. @ suspect that it might 8e easier to reduce the -etone than it is the alcohol.

/he !lemmensen reduction of aliphatic -etones to hydrocar8ons uses amalgamated ;inc and concentrated 0!l. /he 'rd edition of Vogel4s ?ractical Organic !hemistry gives details of this. P8ut not for the compound you &ant. 2lthough there4s no reason &hy it shouldn4t &or-Q @t too is a messy reaction Pand that4s &hy it is no longer usedQ 8ut the reagents are much more easily availa8le. I Ielusius and steve <uest your comments &ould 8e grately appreciated.. I My comments are7 if you4re going to mess a8out &ith 0@ or red ? then you should 8e studying at a university.

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