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The Bullshitters ProgamDesign Bible

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Aunifiedcopyofsomeoneselsestheoryofprogramdesign

Copyright
HowtoWriteaStrengthTrainingProgram Ian King 1998 (1st Edition); 2nd Edition 2000. Thisbookiscopyright. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written consent of the publisher. ProgramDesignaunifiedtheory AlwynCosgrove2005;2ndEdition2009 All rights reserved. No portion of this manual may be used, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including fax, photocopy, recording or any storage or retrieval system, by anyone but the purchaser for their own personal use. This manual may not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the author.

If I could have your attention for just a moment please, I am going to be handing out some handouts, um, that were just hot off the press, um, ah, one is a copyright and confidentiality notice. Obviously we have, you know, spent fifteen years perfecting what we do here, um, and were teachingittoyouandwejustwantyouactuallyensurethat youunderstandthatitisours,andthatitisproprietary.1
RachelCosgrove,Sep2009

RachelCosgrove,2009,ProgramDesignSeminar,ResultsFitness,Friday25Sep

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ReferencesinTimeLine
1997King,I.,WinningandLosing(book) 1998King,I.,StrengthSpecialization(DVD) 1998King,I.,HowtoWrite(book) 1999King,I.,IanKingsKillerLegExercises (DVD) 1999King,I.,GetBuffed!(book) 1999King,I.,FoundationsofPhysical Preparation(course) 1999King,I.,FoundationsofPhysical Preparation(book) 2000King,I.,HowtoTeach(book) 2000King,I.,HowtoTeach(DVD) 2002King,I.,GetBuffed!II(book) 2004King,I.,GetBuffed!III(book)

2005 Fitness Professionals Program Design BiblepublishedbyAlwynCosgrove

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Contents
1stEd(2005)BibleContentsList 1. MyJourney 2. IntroductiontoProgramDesign 3. AbsorbWhatisUseful 4. WhytheNeedforBetterProgramDesign 5. TheInfluenceofBodybuildingPrograms 6. Whoserules? 7. CommonFallaciesinProgramDesign 8. Assessment 9. DesigningthePerfectProgram 10.LoadingParameterManipulation 11.FactorsDeterminingRepSelection 12.FactorsDeterminingSetSelection 13.TempoSelectingRepetitionSpeed 14.RestPeriodSelection 15.ExerciseSelection 16.PeriodizationandProgressionofIntensity 17.TypicalFlawsinProgramming 18.PuttingitallTogether 19.SampleExercises 20.QuadDominantExercises 21.HipDominantExercises 22.VerticalPushingExercises 23.VerticalPullingExercises 24.HorizontalPushingExercises 25.HorizontalPullingExercises 26.SevenHabitsofHighlyEffectiveProgramDesign 27.ProgramDesignChecklist 28.StepstoProgramDesign 29.AbouttheAuthor 30.Testimonials 31.FinalWord

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MyJourney

I went to Uni It was at that time that I attracted a lot of other athletes and wound uptrainingmanyofthemin2

It was in college I started being approached by other athletes to help them, with their training.3 we have, you know, spent fifteen years perfectingwhatwedo. 4 RachelCosgrove,2009 For the past 17 years Alwyn Cosgrove has been committed to achieving excellence in the field of fitness training and athletic preparation..
AlwynCosgrove,2004
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2 3

King,I.,1999,inMontana,N.TheThunderFromDownUnderAnInterviewWithIanKing,Fri,Jan29,1999 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.6 4 RachelCosgrove,2009,ProgramDesignSeminar,ResultsFitness,Friday25Sep 5 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.184

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IntroductiontoProgramDesign
I have seen excellent articles published by strength and conditioning coaches, only to be stunned by their lack of understanding in reallife program design and practical teachingabilities.6 Im amazed at how many of these people completely blow me away with their knowledge when Im speaking to them, watching them present or reading their material. Yet when I see their programs .Imusuallydisappointed.7 Beingabletowritenicearticlesisgreatbut Havingknowledgeisonething.Beingableto if you are providing a practical service, the take that knowledge and use it to design competencies required are far removed effective training programs is another thing entirely.9 fromwritingyouneedtobeabletodo!8 the program was a single generic program Therearesomanylimitationswithprograms thatis,everyonedidthesameprogram.10 written for magazine etc (i.e. its usually a generic program with certain restrictions e.g. dumbbells only, that is aimed at everyone11 I decided to provide some programs, as In the fitness industry I am probably best programdesignwasreallymyforte.12 knownformyabilitytodesignprograms. I am going to be sharing with you this manual is the results of my taking the information that I have learnt from what I research, my experience and observations have done, from what I have watched other and the experiences and observations of my coachesdo,andfromwhatIhaveread.13 colleagues.14

6 7

King,I.,1999,SoYouWanttoBecomeaStrengthandConditioningCoach,Ch.15,p.131 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.11 8 King,I.,1999,SoYouWanttoBecomeaStrengthandConditioningCoach,Ch.15,p.131 9 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.11 10 King,I.,2002,GetBuffed!II(book),Ch1DesigningtheGetBuffed!IIWorkout,p.11 11 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.12 12 King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),Ch.29RetiringAgain,p.181


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King,I.,2002,EnduranceSpecializationSeries(DVD),Disc1,40secsin Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.12 5|P a g e

InthefitnessindustryIamprobablybestknownformyabilitytodesignprograms.15
Cosgrove,2005

OriginalMessage From:AlwynJC@aol.com[mailto:AlwynJC@aol.com] Sent:Saturday,25September19994:50AM To:kingsports@b022.aone.net.au Subject:Flexibilityandlesson3answers

Sir,Aquickquestion,Areyouabelieverinstaticstretchingpreandpoststrengthandpower workouts?...Doyoufeelstretchingpreandpostworkoutisdetrimentaltostrengthlevels?
Alwyn,Saturday,25September199916

OriginalMessage From:AlwynJC@aol.com[mailto:AlwynJC@aol.com] Sent:Monday,11October19993:19PM To:kingsports@b022.aone.net.au Subject:Re:LAseminar

In tmag you mention in squatting to pause at the bottom and at the top. I'm confused I havealwaysprescribedeither/or.Atthebottomtofurtherfatiguethefibersoratthetopto allow them to recover (and handle more load) or to recruit high threshold motor units. It doesn'tmakesensetomerightnowastowhyyouwouldpauseinthedisadvantageousand advantageouspositions.Don'ttheycanceleachotherout? Alwyn,Monday,11October199917
OriginalMessage From:AlwynJC@aol.com[mailto:AlwynJC@aol.com] Sent:Friday,10December19996:01AM To:kingsports@b022.aone.net.au Subject:diabetes

Dear Ian, I have a client who although not testing positive for diabetes has all the physical characteristicsveryleanlimbsandafattorso.Hisfatherwasdiabetic. What fat loss routine should I have him on as everything I try appears to lean out his limbsevenmore. Alwyn,Friday,10December199918

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Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.12 PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Saturday,25September1999 17 PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Monday,11October1999 18 PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Friday,10December1999

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OriginalMessage From:AlwynJC@aol.com[mailto:AlwynJC@aol.com] Sent:Wednesday,15December19992:31PM To:kingsports@b022.aone.net.au Subject:(nosubject)

Ian, I am currently doing your 12 week leg program with great results. However I feel that my hamstrings are both weaker and smaller than my quads. As I am a proactive individual I always like to offer three posible solutions when I am faced with a problem I do not know theanswerto:SoheregoesdoI: A)Stoptrainingquadsaltogetherforthemeantime B)Trainhamstringsonworkoutsoneandtwoandquadsonthethirdworkoutfor theduration(iea2:1ratio) C)Trainquadswithalowweightasamaintenanceworkout. Yourhelpasalwaysisappreciated. Alwyn,Wednesday15December199919
OriginalMessage From:AlwynJC@aol.com[mailto:AlwynJC@aol.com] Sent:Tuesday,13June20004:30AM To:kingsports@b022.aone.net.au Subject:Preorderforbooks!

Also, I am planning to follow your arm specialization routine for the next twelve weeks. As mykneeisstillinjuredIamnotdoingmuchforlegshowdoyouthinkthefollowinglooks: MonarmsI TueHorizontalUB ThuarmsII FriVerticalUB Would a three day split be better ? With all the other UB movements being trained on say a Wednesday?I'mabitlostwiththistotellthetruth. Alwyn,Tuesday,13June200020

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PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Wednesday,15December1999 PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Tuesday,13June2000

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From:AlwynJC@aol.com[mailto:AlwynJC@aol.com] Sent:Monday,3July200012:38PM To:kingsports@b022.aone.net.au Subject:NYseminarsandassortedtales

PScurrentlytrainingabaseballplayer...Thereisrealpressurefromhiscoachesformeto commence speed training with him. I'm not completely sure of that a) as I'm not a speed specialist yet and haven't thoroughly reviewed the tapes andmore importantly b) he's weak and fat my instincts are that general strength training and perhaps some muscle building /fat loss may be enough to improve his speed. Your thoughts and comments as to what to doprogramwiseandhowtodealwithcoachesandparentsaremuchappreciated 21 Alwyn,Monday,3July2000

OriginalMessage From:AlwynJC@aol.com[mailto:AlwynJC@aol.com] Sent:Tuesday,29August20003:01PM To:kingsports@b022.aone.net.au Subject:Re:HKRFU

HiIan,BymycalculationstheyneedthenextstagebyDec1approx(assuminganAug1start date). This is where my inexperience starts to show and hopefully you can give me some insightintothis.. 22 Alwyn,Tuesday,29August2000
OriginalMessage From:AlwynJC@aol.com[mailto:AlwynJC@aol.com] Sent:Monday,16October200011:09AM To:kingsports@b022.aone.net.au Subject:HKRFUandexercisequestion

Push Press v Push Jerk. I was under the impression that the push press had the double kneebendandthepushjerkwasonlyonekneebend.TheHowTobookhasthemtheother way around so am I mistaken? I'll check the video now, but I thought I'd go to the master directly! 23 Alwyn,Monday,16October2000

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PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Monday,3July2000 PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Tuesday,29August2000 23 PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Monday,16October2000

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Absorbwhatisuseful

anextensionofoureducationalphilosophy for life teach people how to fish, rather thansimplygivingthemthefish.24



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It is said that if you give a man a fish, you feed him for a day. But if you teachhim how tofish,youfeedhimforaday.25

King,I.,2002,GetBuffed!II(book),IntroductionTeachingyouhowtofish,p.3 Cosgrove,A.,2005&2009,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.16&18

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Whytheneedforbetterprogramdesign

inadditiontogivingyougenericprogram,I aim to teach you how to individualize that program (and any program for that matter) to better suit your individual needs. And thatspowerful! But I will introduce you to tools that are more than adequate to increase the effectiveness of your programs over and abovethegenericlevel.26

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We must now individualize program design. The fitness program must be designed with consideration towards the person, environmentandtaskstobeperformed. It is clear that individualised training yields more concentrated individualized and accelerated results than the very best genericprograms.27

King,I.,2002,GetBuffed!II(book),Ch1DesigningtheGetBuffed!IIWorkout,p.12 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.20

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TheInfluenceofBodybuildingPrograms
Historically the most commonly applied method of strength training in sport was influenced more by bodybuilding methods than any other method. I use the word primarily when I refer to the adaptations to strength training. The word primarily stresses that it is unlikely that the responsesoccurinisolation.28 As we get into it you will see some overlap with the exercises. Its really hard to isolate, totally isolateamusclegroup.29 I firmly believe that strength training program design has been historically influenced by anabolic steroids. If you accept the influence that bodybuilding, weightlifting and powerlifting have had on program design, and you understand the role drugs play in these sports, yougainafullerappreciationofthisinfluence. In brief if you take drugs you can handle higher volumes(highernumberofsets).32 If you are not using these drugs, or not using the same dosages, you will burn out unless you modifytheprogramaccordingly.33 In reality, most overtraining (from a time and volume perspective) commences at the time the programiswritten.34 Itmaybedifficult togettheextremeresultsthat certain drug programs may be able to provide, but smart application of training methods outlined in this book will give you an alternative.35
28 29

Whenwetalkaboutprogramsofthepastwhat wearereally talkingaboutisthefactthattypical fitness programs have been used on BODYBUILDING! Bodybuilding programs are largely based upon thefalseconceptthatmusclessomehowworkin isolation.

Functionallythebodyisasingleunit,designedto work as a linked system you cannot isolate a muscle.30 Now we have to consider the anabolic steroid issueIt would be shortsighted of me to ignore the influence of these drugs on the sport of bodybuilding. If you understand the influence of bodybuilding on general fitness, and you understand the influence of drugs on competitive bodybuilding, hopefully you can see whatIamgettingat.31 Drugs allow the athlete to work longer and harder. Youcannotuseadrugbasedbodybuildingbased program and hope a drug free nonbodybuilder canhandleit. Theproblem istheprogramthemselves,notthe traineesabilitytorecoverfromit. Instead of looking for solutions to handle the volumeoftheseprogramsletslookforsolutions todesignsuperiorprograms.36

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.141 King,I.,1998,StrengthSpecializationDVD,Disc4,34:55minin 30 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.21 31 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.22 32 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.141 33 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),,p.211 34 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),,Ch6HowlongshouldItrainfor?,p.32 35 King,I.,King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),,p.22 36 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.23

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Whoserules?

My challenge was to find out what I needed to know to get a result.. Big words may impress ones colleagues, but unless you are an academic or looking for a job appointment that is determined by your peers,thereisnovalueinimpressingthem theydontpayyou!37 What I teach is what American philosopher (and many other roles!) called generalized principles concepts that have the power toapplyforever.39

my philosophy is Results by Design. Not by coincidence. Get the best results in the least amount of time. The faster I get results themoreIgetpaid.38

The principles of program design never change. The method you choose to deliver themmight.40

37 38

Chapter38Toomuchinformation:,WinningandLosing(book),1997,2ndEd2002,p.219220 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.24 39 King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),2ndEd2002Ch39Dontgetsuckedinbytrends,p.223 40 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.25

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CommonFallaciesinProgramDesign

This conflicts perhaps with the scientific influence in this industry. I see a tendency towards studies have shown this so this is whatwillhappen.41 Sure there have been studies. But not with the exact variables we face in real life. No onecansaywhatisgoingtohappenuntilit hashappened.42 You could call the eighties the decade of researching aerobic training, and nineties the era of popularity in researching strength.44 Large to small: This is an entrenched guideline that suggests that the larger exercises / muscle groups should be trained before the smaller. The concern here is the possibility of prefatiguing a small muscle group (eg. triceps) which then goes on to be a limiting factor in a bigger exercise (eg. bench press). Whilst this is a reasonable concern, prefatiguing is a sequence that I recommendusingfromtimetotime. The continuing dominant paradigm is that abdominals should be done last. What if they are the weakest body part? That doesnt seem to matter! What if they are the number one training focus for performance? Again it doesnt seem to matter they are placed last. Why? The repetitive answer I get to this is because they cause fatigue of stabilizers and it would be dangerous to do things like squats after

41 42

Research has the answer: One reason that there is so much training misinformation is that research often produces conflicting results. Studies are often perfectly administered in a perfectlycontrolledenvironment.Reallifeis an imperfect environment with constantly adjusting variables, to the application of the researchisoftenlacking.43 Sports scientists have only studied aerobic training in any depth. It is only in the last few years that strength training has been studiedatall.45 Big Muscles before smaller muscles: I dont have a problem with this per se other than the reverse of the above argument.Ifmybicepsaremyweaklinkif they truly need more work why not train themwhentheyarefresh?46

Never train core first: Again this is the same relative argument as the big muscles before small muscles one. If we train the core hared in the beginning of the workout, we risk fatiguing it, and have the fatigue negatively affect the rest of our session. A fairargument.Butalways?Butasthecoreis typically the weakest area for most individuals, and is typically the most important why not give it the attention it

King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),Ch37Idontknow,p.214 King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),Ch12CreatingChange,p.74 43 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.28 44 King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),Ch22TheFuture,p.124 45 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.29 46 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.30

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doingabdominals.47

There is an incredible trend in strength training to do three sets of every exercises. More specifically, three (or more) sets at the same weight on the same exercise most commonly, 3 sets of 10! Why is this? Ive asked myself that question many times, and the only answer I come up with is the power of tradition. You see, these magic numbers were validated way back in the late 40s andearly50sbyanAmericanarmysurgeon by the name of De Lorme when he presented research evidence supporting the use of three sets of ten reps. All credit to the contribution De Lorme made to the science of training, but that was fifty years ago. Yet what do you see almost every time youlookatatrainingprogram?3x10(or15 or 12 or 8, or 6 etc.) ! What do you see every time you browse (I say browse, because invariably theres nothing that warrants reading) through a mainstream bodybuildingmagazine?3x10!49 Your training program decisions are When designing programs I look at three influenced by practical observations things: combinedwithscientificresearch.51 1. Myownexperience 2. Theexperienceofmycolleagues 3. ThenI look at the books, the journals andtheresearch. I am not suggesting to ignore what science DontgetmewrongIthinktheresearchers offers.Just keepitinperspective.Iseeitas do a great job. Their work is what really more a support actor than the leading role! helps us to understand what is truly going 52 on.53

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deserves and train it as a priority? If it is your weakest area of the body then it shouldbetrainedfirst.48 Three sets of ten: Despite the absolute limitless combinations of sets and reps that can be performed three sets of ten remainsthesinglemostcommonsetandrep scheme.Inthelate1940sThomasDeLorme and his Boston team of orthopaedic surgeons were experiencing difficulties rehabilitating World War II Veterans, so they tried a radically newmedical approach: They developed and implemented a strength training program that proved successful in rehabilitationtheirinjuredpatients. Known as the DeLormeWatkins protocol, the program consisted of one stet of ten reps at 50% of your ten rep max, one set at 75% and one set at 100%. That was it. That waswheretheindustrystandardcamefrom. And here we are over fifty years later and this is still the primary setrep scheme that mosttrainersareusing.50

King,I.,2002,GetBuffed!II(book),SequenceofAbdominalTrainingWithintheWorkout,p.130 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.31 49 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter10HowmanyrepspersetshouldIdo?,p.52 50 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.3637 51 King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),p.22 52 King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),p.216 53 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.37

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You make daily adjustments based on your observations and the feedback from the athlete.54 ...that sports scientists are more like sport historians because they take what others have been doing for some time and prove it.55

54 55

But in the real world, coaches often know what is and isnt working just by observing theirclients. Sports scientists have become sports traininghistoriansastheresearcherstendto studywhatcoachesaredoinganyway.56

King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),p.22 King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),p.214 56 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.37

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Assessments

One off tests: Are relatively useless and shouldnotbeencouraged. Oneofthemainaimsoftestingshouldbeto indicate changes needed in the training approach.57

57 58

It is also important to recognize that assessmentsarenotaoneoffevent the only reason for an assessment (which most people fail to recognize) is to evaluate andorientatethetrainingprogramitself.58

King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing(book),p.60 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.41

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DesigningthePerfectProgram

It simply comes back to the realization that thereisnosuchthingastheonlyorthebest trainingmethodtouse59 every single training method will have a negativeeffect60 Thepowerismagnifiedovertime.61 The strong message in the equal and opposite effect concept is that every single trainingmethodwillhaveanegativeeffect62 Irrespective of whether you intend to prioritize any muscle groups, prioritization will occur. This is reflected in a greater effort and a superior adaptation for those musclegroupsprioritized.63 To avoid this, I alternate or reverse the priorities64

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There is no such thing as the perfect program. Everyprogramhasaflaw. And over time this flaw will be magnified if notaddressed. Evenaperfectlybalancedmovementpattern programhastheflawthatsomemovements aretrainedbeforeothers. Therefore there is a fatigue effect the last movement pattern to be trained tends to improvetheslowest.

Thats why we need to constantly be monitoringandchangingthevariables65

King,I.,AsktheMaster(book),2003,GetBuffed!TrainingPrograms,p.84 King,I.,2000,FoundationsofPhysicalPreparation(book),2000,p.30 61 King,I.,2002,GetBuffed!II(book),Ch1DesigningtheGetBuffed!IIWorkout,p.1314 62 King,I.,2000,FoundationsofPhysicalPreparation(book),2000,p.30 63 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),PrioritizingMuscleGroups,p.85 64 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,AllocationofMuscleGroupstoTrainingDays,p.25 65 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.42

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LoadingParameterManipulation

the number of reps is the loading parameter to which an individual adapts the fastest.66 involves working two exercises together, alternatingsetsfromeachone the theory that the antagonist muscle (the opposite muscle) inhibits the contraction is negated by working (neurally arousing) the antagonist, provided it is in fact an antagonistthatyouarealternatingwith.68

The body adapts to the rep range the fastest andtheexerciseselectiontheslowest67

byusingalternatingsetsystem duetotheprincipalofreciprocalinhibition, (which states that in order for an agonist to contract, the antagonist must relax), we will actuallyseeincreasedloading69

Poliquin,C.,????,AchievingMaximalStrength,PoliquinsTop10Sets/RepsSchemesforMaximalStrength Development,TheFivePercentSolution 67 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.43 68 King,I.,King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),,p.9192 69 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.4445

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FactorsDeterminingRepSelection

A repetition in strength training is one full cycleofthecontractionmodesinvolved. Thenumberofrepetitionscanalsobeused tomeasuretrainingvolume.70 The only time I would use a 3:1 push:pull would be if they were here [showing excessive external rotation of the shoulder] and then I would give them three pushes to one pull. But if they were neutral, what would you do? One to one, two to two, threetothree.71 The inverse relationship between reps and sets73 One rep of a power clean cannot be considered an equal to one rep of a bicep curl. The power clean has a far greater neuralandmetaboliccost.74 For this reason, the use of time under tension for measurement of volume has value.75 requires first understanding training effects as they are related to total time under tension76

70 71

A repetition.can be thought of as one full cycleofthecontractionmodesinvolved Wealsouserepstotracktotalvolume If we are performing 40 reps of horizontal pushing work, we need to ensure that we are also performing 40 reps of horizontal pullingworkwithsimilarloads72

there is an inverse relationship between setsandreps I think this [number of reps] is a flawed model as it makes the assumption that all repsarecreatedequalandperformedatthe samespeed.

Howeverrepsarejustameasureofthetotal TIMEunderTENSION. Time under tension (TUT) is the factor that determinesthetrainingstimulus

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,p.99 King,I.,2000,InjuryPrevention&Rehabilitation(DVD),Disc3,7minsin 72 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.46 73 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.111 74 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.146 75 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.144 76 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.124125

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120secs Quickness/SSC Explosivepower Neuralendmaximalstrength 2040secs Metabolicendmaximalstre Neuralendhypertrophy 4070 secs Generalstrength/metabolic endhypertrophy Stability/control&general fitness >70 Stability/control&general fitness Muscleendurance77 Variation may also give unexpected adaptationsfromrepetitions. A trainee pursuing hypertrophy, after spendingconsiderabletimetraininginclassic hypertrophy brackets (e.g. 812) may experience further significant hypertrophy when changing to a higher or lower rep bracket. Whilst this appears to contradict the above table,itshowsthat .variety alone can accelerate gains. Note thisappliesinbothstrength(neural)andsize (metabolic)training. The message is clear irrespective of the specific goal, training in too narrow a rep bracket may not be as effective as alternating or mixing with different rep brackets. Thekeyisnotwhichrepstouse,ratherhow much time to spend in each different rep bracket.78

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120sTUT:StrengthDevelopment 2040sTUT:Strength/Hypertrophy(typically 4070sTUT:HypertrophyDevelopment 70120sTUT:Endurance/Control Development An interesting observation is as regards varietyinrepselection. if your goal is just hypertrophy would staying in the hypertrophy rep range be the best choice? Actually no, a trainee seems to experience the best gains when using both higher and lower reps than the goal repbracket. Theunderlyingmessageisobvious variety alone can accelerate your process andregardlessofyourgoal, themainpremisetounderstandisthatitis not merely which rep brackets to use, but also how long to stay within each rep bracket79

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.129 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.101 79 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.4748

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FactorsDeterminingSetSelection

The inverse relationship between reps and sets: As the reps decrease, you may benefit from doing more sets (to achieve adequate volume). However I believe this only holds true if the number of exercises in the workout decrease..IfIamdoing2sIamobviously chasing intensity dont fully negate it by maintainingahighvolume.80 Ihaveveryfirmbeliefsonthistopic.Volume and intensity are inversely related. When one is up, the other is forced down. You cannot do a high volume workout (i.e. a high number of sets) and have as high an intensity as you would have with a lower number of sets. Many kid themselves on this,butyoucannotavoidreality.81

Sets are influenced primarily by the number of reps selected remember the inverse relationship. A number of authors have suggested that there appears to be a minimum amount of time the muscles must be stimulated for maximum size and strength gains low reps =highsets. Howeverforthistoholdcompletelytruewe must do less exercises in the low reps, high set phases, as our goal is now intensity we dont want to nullify that effect and lose the intensitybykeepingvolumehigh ..but you cannot train hard and long. I agree with this statement. Volume and intensity are inversely related. When one is up, the other is down. Most trainers, quite honestly, seem unaware of this simple concept, or are perhaps in denial as regards this,butitisanirrefutablefact.

What other factors influence the optimal number of sets? The following factors give you a greater insight into the issue of optimalnumberofsets. Themoreexercisesyouchosetodo,theless numberofsetsperexerciseyoushoulddo,82 I believe the most important component of this equation is the bigger picture. That is, decide how many total sets per workout you deem to be optimal, before considering

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Other factors that influence set selection are:

...themoreexercisesthatareneededmeans wehavetoreducetotalsetsbecauseoftime issues. While it is important to address this issue I think its a backwards approach. I prefer to select the entire loading parameters, including sets, and then see how many

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.111 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),,Chapter7HowmanysetsshouldIdoinaworkout?,p.33 82 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),,Chapter7HowmanysetsshouldIdoinaworkout?,p.36

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howmanysetsperexercise. The influence of training age on number of sets : a beginner is not likely to need any more than one to two sets per exercise to gainatrainingeffect. It could be argued that the more advanced a traineebecomes,themoresetsrequired. Ibelievethisistrueuptoapoint. There is a point in time where further increases in volume (no. of sets) will not benefit, and the search for further training effectsislimitedtoincreasesinintensity.83 Women have been found to be able to do a greater no. of reps at a given %age of their RMthanmen85 If in doubt do less : if you are unsure how manysetsisoptimaldoless Capable versus optimal : most people in strength training perform a number of sets that they have the energy to do. This is endurancetraining,notstrengthtraining. Strength training effectiveness is not judged by what you did (i.e. how many sets you did), but rather how much change occurred asaresult(i.e.sizeorstrength). This training effect is a combination of the workout plus the rest / recovery until the nextworkout. Youwillnotknowwhatisoptimalduringthe session unless you have indicators based on prior experience. Dont work to metabolic signals such as total fatigue. And only use

83 84

exercisesIcando,nottheotherwayaround. Training Age: a beginner to strength training is unlikely to need exposure to more than 1 2setsofagivenexercise..84 And clearly the more advanced trainee needsgreatervolume, howeverthisisonlytrueuptoapoint. There is definitely a point of diminishing returns when it comes to total sets, and at this point further progress can only be made byincreasesinintensity. Gender at a given %age of 1RM a woman willalwaysperformmorerepsthanaman Whenindoubttrainharderandperformless overallsets Optimal v Capable most trainees judge how effective a workout has been by how beat up they feel. Or by how much work (interpreted usually as how many sets) they havedone. The effectiveness of training is not determined by the amount of fatigue it products but by the degree to which it improves the qualities and/or abilities you aretryingtodevelop. Youdonotimprovebytraining.Youimprove byrecoveringfromtraining. The best advice I can offer as far asthis goes is,evenifyoucandomoreunlessyouhave valid proof that in your case, more will be significantlybetteralwaysdolessuntilyou

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter7HowmanysetsshouldIdoinaworkout?,p.3437 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.49 85 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter7HowmanysetsshouldIdoinaworkout?,p.40

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past indicators for number of sets if they have been effective. The day you realize they dont work change the indicator I suggest to lower volume until further indicatorssuggestotherwise. Numberofsetsinstrengthtraininghasbeen influenced by hype : there are many interesting stories told of how bodybuilding editors have paid elite bodybuilders to allow the editor to write and publish a story about their training that in reality is far from accurate, usually exaggerated. Do not blindly accept what you read in a bodybuildingmagazine!87 Numberofsetsinstrengthtraininghasbeen influenced by anabolic steroids : I firmly believe that strength training program design has been historically influenced by anabolicsteroids. If you accept the influence that bodybuilding, weightlifting and powerlifting have had on program design, and you understand the role drugs play in these sports, you may gain a fuller appreciation of thisinfluence. In brief if you take drugs you can handle higher volumes (higher number of sets). If you see someone in the gym doing set after setaftersetandtheyaregrowingfromweek to week, it is probably more a reflection of their drug program than their training program.88

havethatproof. 86

Understand that traditional training programs that you read in magazines have been driven by hype (bomb and blitz your biceps!).

andbytheuseofanabolicsteroids. If you accept my statements earlier of the influence of bodybuilding on general fitness programs,youshouldalsorealizetheimpact ofanabolicsteroidsonbodybuilding. Someone on drugs can handle a lot more volume than someone drugfree. Yet traditionally we have looked at ways to enhance recovery of the drugfree trainee, while ignoring the very obvious fact that the training program needs to first be addressed. TounderstandwhyIamcriticalofstandards I am not a huge fan of standard sets (i.e. sets(i.e.threeormoresetsofthesamereps work, set, rest, work set of the same and load), lets take a streetlanguage look at exercise, rest, etc. I am even less of a fan of theanatomyofthemultiplesetsworkout. the3setsof10mentality.

86 87

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.50 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter7HowmanysetsshouldIdoinaworkout?,p.39 88 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter7HowmanysetsshouldIdoinaworkout?,p.38

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Thebody,subjecttothelawsofhomeostasis and innate protective mechanisms, rarely functionsoptimallyduringthefirstworkset. The second work set benefits from the first work set in what can be described as neural arousal, or greater neuromuscular innervation. Provided the rest periods between sets has been adequate (relative to your training goal), your nervous system is woken up by the exposure to load in the first.. Psychologically, you have benefited from the exposure to the load of the first set nowyouareready,anticipatingtheload How you respond to the third and subsequent work sets may be influenced by manyfactorsincluding your entry level recovery (as reflected by your resting stores of metabolic and neuralsubstrates); yourlevelofspecificconditioning (abilityto toleratethisvolume); nutritional/ergogenic effects on your rate of substrate/neural chemical replacement;and how close to maximum effort and fatigue youwentonthepriortwoworksets. Inanutshell,ifyouareliftingthesameload for say three sets of ten, it is unlikely it was yourmaximuminsetone.

The body rarely functions well during the firstworksetofanexercise.89 The second set however tends to benefit from the first set in terms of neural innvervationthebodyisawakenow. Attheendofthesecondset,psychologically younowowntheweight. A third set at the same load as sets one and twoisbecominganexerciseinendurance.It isinfluencedby .recoverystatus, nutritional status, substrate availability and .to be honest residual fatigue from sets oneandtwo. In a nutshell if you are still able to lift the same load for three sets, it is likely that you have selected loads based on the facts you are doing three sets i.e. you didnt use yourmaximumload. Ingeneral,Irarelyusemorethantwosetsof thesameexerciseatthesameload91

Inmyopinion,itisdifficulttodomorethan twosetsatthesamerepsandloadifthe effortismaximal90

89 90

Cosgrove,A.,2005and2009,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.51 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter7HowmanysetsshouldIdoinaworkout?,p.5355 91 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.52

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TempoSelectingRepetitionSpeed

the varying training effects that arise from varyingmovementspeed There are three numbers eg. 3:1:1. All the numbers refer to seconds. The first number relates to the eccentric phase. The second or middle number to the pause or isometric contraction duration between the eccentric and concentric contraction. The third numberreferstotheconcentricphase.92

Tempo is merely a method that a good coach can use to vary rep speed to provide differenttrainingeffects. Tempo is generally written as a 34 digit formula. Eccentric : Isometric Pause at the bottom : Concentric : Isometric pause at the top

Another less common criticism is that it is Itmayappearovercomplicated toocomplex93 To communicate how fast or slow I wanted tempo is nothing more than a method of an athlete to move the load in strength communicatingrepspeed training, I developed a numbering system in the80s.94 Another less common criticism (one I used togetmoresointheearly1990s)isthatitis too complex and the movements should be justdone.95 A common argument is if I focus on maintaining a 321 speed then I cant focus onjustworkinghard96

Yes the system does need to be understood So the tempo system DOES need to be bytheprogramwriter(Isuspectthegreatest understoodbythecoachesandthetrainee challenge to these critics), and yes it does needtobeexplainedtothetrainee97

92 93

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.123 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.124 94 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.62 95 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.65 96 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.53 97 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.124

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No, it doesnt have to be executed with perfectionitisjustaguideline(sodontget outyourmetronome!).98 Australian biomechanist Greg Wilson did some great research in the 1990s in quantifying the role of the SSC. He found that if you do a conventional bench press withaneccentricorloweringphasethatwas about a second, it took a full four second pause in between the eccentric and concentric to completely eliminate the stretchshorteningcycle99 ..the system does need to be understood by the program writer (I suspect the greatest challengetothesecritics),100 Another important point to remember is that being aware of the movement speed allows you also to control this variable. Thereislittlevalueinincreasingtheloadina subsequent workout if you also change the speed who knows whether you are getting strongerorworkingharder.Youmaywellbe justusingmoreelasticenergy!101 Where I believe most get it wrong is this. For those concerned about power (rate of force development), I dont recommend usinganythinglessthanafastorattempted tobefast concentric contraction for some 8090%oftotaltrainingtime.103 programs as published in most popular media are for bodybuilders. Slower concentric times are used and this is okay forbodybuilders.

98 99

Does it need to be executed with a metronomeforabsoluteaccuracy?Noitis justausefulguideline. Australian researcher Greg Wilson showed that it took a 4 second pause before we eliminatedthestretchshorteningeffect.So anything less than a four second pause still involvestheuseofmomentum

Tempo is only getting bashed by people who dontunderstandit. If I change your program from 6 reps to 12 reps I have effectively doubled your time under tension assuming your rep speed was constant. If your rep speed changes then I wontgethetrainingeffectImlookfor.102

As an important consideration however is the use of tempo with power athletes. For anyone concerned with power or speed, anything less than an explosive (or an attempt to be explosive) is not recommended for the bulk of your training. While it is fine for a general fitness client or an aesthetic driven client to use slow concentric..

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.65 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.63 100 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.124 101 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.63 102 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.54 103 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.65

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A lack of awareness of the need for speed (attempted acceleration) in the concentric phase in the power athlete may result in an adaptation to a nonspecific rate of force development.Thisisthesamenoneffective and perhaps detrimental training effect that occurred when athletes first started using strength training and used the bodybuilding methods. Therefore the power athlete cannot afford to spend more than 1020 % (as a generalization) of their total strength trainingtimeusingnumbergreaterthan1as thethirdnumber. whenthenumberonedoesappearasthe third number, the power athlete must have itreinforcedthismeanstotryandgofast! Andwhentheasterisk(*)isuseditmust lookfast!104

it is largely detrimental for the explosive power athlete as it is nonspecific to the developmentofpower.

So for the explosive athletes a rep tempo willeitherendina1oranX.

A tempo ending in I the concentric portionmeansgoasfastaspossible. The letter X is used in place of the last number to determine that the concentric portion of rep is to be performed in an eXplosive manner. This means that not only must the athlete attempt to love the loadquickly,itmustalsolookfast. In summary, rep speed variation for athletes will come primarily through lengthening the eccentric or using pauses, rarely be slowing downtheconcentricportionoftherep. My feeling is that rep speed is a potential source of training variety that a good coach canuse. To ignore it is to short change your clients. When you consider we have sets, reps, and tempo, load and rest periods, to discard the manipulations we can make to any one of these is the equivalent of ignoring a potential20%ofourloadingparameter.106

You may note that only one out of five (or 20%) of the combinations use a deliberately slowconcentricphase.


,thevaryingtrainingeffectsthatarisefrom varyingmovementspeed


And finally, ignoring the varying training effects that arise from varying movement speed is like throwing out 25% of your potentialstrengthadaptations.105

104 105

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.124 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.6566 106 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.56

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The second most common error is for the program writer to compile a sequence of numbers which, when combined with the reps written, result in a time under tension thatisnotspecifictotheirintendedtraining outcome e.g. 421 x 10 reps (=70 sec) for maximalstrength!?107

As a basic rule, select your rep range, but understand that you are selecting only part of the total time under tension formula. Then select a tempo or rep speed that ensures that the total time under tension falls into the range you are look for the adaptations.108 For example ifyou select ten reps, you are typically looking for a hypertrophy response. Which means that you are seeking an adaptation within the 4070 second time undertension zone. This means selecting a rep tempo that takes at least 4 seconds to perform (in order to reach the minimum thresholdof40secondsTUT) Depending on whether or not you want to reduce or exploit the stretchshortening cycle will determine how long the pause is likelytobe... .in general although a 4s pause has been shown to eliminate the stretch shortening cycle... I feel that a combined eccentric and isometricportionoftheliftof4swill

As an example, say you're doing 10 reps of bench press using a 3111 speed of motion. Each rep takes about 6 seconds, and the total time under tension when multiplied by 10 equals 60 seconds, which is perfect for hypertrophy.109


The primary role of controlling the pause between lifting and lowering weights is simply to negate or exploit the effects of thestretchshorteningcycle(SSC).110

ittookafullfoursecondpauseinbetween the eccentric and concentric to completely eliminatethestretchshorteningcycle111

I call it the foursecond rule. Any combination of numbers that equals four seconds or more in the lowering phase and the pause will negate or partially negate the stretchshorteningcyclephenomenon. Unfortunately, doing a slow lift didn't transfer over to the sports they were playing. They should have been using explosiveconcentricmovements.112 To provide guidelines as to the training methods that these speed of movement combinations are most suited to, the

107 108

The concentric portion of the repetition shouldrarelytakemorethan2seconds

So in this example a good tempo for our adaptationwouldbealongthecontinuumof 40Xto221.114

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.6566 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.5657 109 Louma,T.,andKing.,I1999,FourSecondstoMoreProductiveWorkouts,1999,Fri,May21,Tmag.com 110 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.62 111 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.63 112 Louma,T.,andKing.,I1999,FourSecondstoMoreProductiveWorkouts,1999,Fri,May21,Tmag.com

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following figure is provided. This figure also providesrangesofspeedsthataresuited.113 if movements need to be done slowly or quickly, this eliminates certain exercises. Power cleans are not suitable slow lifts. Use deadlifts instead. Deadlifts are not suitable fastlifts.Usepowercleaninstead.115

Obviously certain exercises can not be performed at certain tempos, so bear in mind that you may need to adjust reps and tempo slightly after structuring the rest of the program (e.g. you cannot perform step upsata505tempo).116

114 113

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.57 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?p.66 115 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),SuitabilityofExercises,p.130 116 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.57

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RestPeriodSelection

the shortening of the rest period : the focus in this method is to reduce the rest periods between sets as a form of progression. This is from the metabolic perspective, focusing on the discomfort of working under lactic acid.117 short rest periods, as I have explained above, creates greater fatigue of the metabolic system, which is supportive of hypertrophy, and also has been shown to cause higher testosterone and growth hormone release. Higher GH (growth hormone) release has been related to loweringbodyfat.118 there is an inverse relationship between reps and rest period generally speaking the lower the reps, the longer the rest you should take. The higher the reps, the shortertherestperiodsrequired.119

I can purposefully use shorter rest periods tocreatealactatetoleranceeffect.

For the purpose of hypertrophy training and fat loss, short rest periods of 3060 seconds coupled with higher volume training have been found to cause elevated levels of GH andtestosterone.

The higher the training intensity (i.e .the load) . the longer the rest period should be.

it does appear that heavier trainees require and the larger the client the longer the longerrestperiodsthanlightertrainees. restperiodshouldbe. there is an inverse relationship between repsandrestperiodgenerallyspeakingthe lower the reps, the longer the rest you should take. The higher the reps, the shortertherestperiodsrequired.120

117 118

So there is an inverse relationship between reps and rest periods (remember the reps influence everything). Performing sets of 2 3RM will require a longer rest period than performingsetsof1520RM.121

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),1999,Chapter5HowhardshouldItrain?,p.22, King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter17Whattrainingmethodsareavailable?,p.96 119 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter13HowlongshouldIrestbetweensets?,p.71 120 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter13HowlongshouldIrestbetweensets?,p.70 121 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.58

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ExerciseSelection

The purpose of the following is to provide youwithamodelofprogressionthroughthe trainingmethodsforeachmusclegroup.This modelgoesbeyondatheoreticalmodelyou can apply this same progression in subsequent stages of a periodized strength trainingprogrambutyoudonthaveto.You could vary it, or use other exercise progressions.122 The following is a sample list, not in any order,ofthemajormusclegroupsthebody: Table 1 A sample list of muscle groups, not inanyorder. abdominals lowerback hipdominant quaddominant verticalpulling verticalpushing horizontalpulling horizontalpushing Trunk

All exercises can be progressed and regressed according to client ability. You can take a simple exercise like a squat and regress it to, for example a squat with support, or progress it, to an explosive squat, or an overhead squat. You can take a simple push pattern like a push up and regressittoaninclinepushuporprogressit toDBpressingorbenchpressing There are several ways to define a movement pattern. The simplest method ispresentedhere.: HorizontalPush HorizontalPull VerticalPush VerticalPull HipDominant:LowerBody QuadDominant:LowerBody Core

Core: i. Flexion a. Trunk TrunkFlexion/Extension, b. Hip c. Lateral (hip and HipFlexion/Extension trunk) ii. Extension TrunkandHipRotation.124 a. Trunk b. Hip iii. Rotation a. Trunk b. Hip123

122 123

King,I.,2000,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,ExerciseFamilyTrees,p.49 King,I.,2000,HowtoTeach(book),MajorMuscleGroupsandActions:p.34 124 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.59

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Mynextandfinalstepistodivideallthe aboveintounilateralandbilateral,and singleanddouble/multijointexercises125 Itendtoperiodizefromslowtofast127 I like to start with slow speed movements. Slow speed movements ensure a reduced load, but more importantly give time for you toadjust/controlthemovement128 Generally speaking I like to commence a training career, year or block, with the mastering of the control/stability subquality (see Fig 1 below),and then over time phase along the subquality continuum to my end goal. This is simply moving from left to right along the strength subqualities continuum. If the subquality I want to peak on is one from earlier along the continuum, I return to it.129

Exercisescanbeprogressedasfollows: *Singlejointtomultiplejoint *Unilateraltobilateral.126 Slowtofast Start a skill at a speed that allows success, slow down to gain control, then once it can bemastered,canbeprogressedtoexplosive speed. Rehabilitation and exercise specialist Paul Chek has suggested always following a basic continuumof: Flexibility Stability Strength Power Speed.

Fig1Thestrengthsubqualitiescontinuum.

It is however typical to spend 412 weeks at thelongestIwouldrecommendaprogram tolastforistwelve(12)weeks.Theshortest eachstage. programIwouldrecommendisfour(4) weeks.130 In brief you and I have choices. We can enhance performance, or we can prevent injury,orwecandoboth. If we are going to do both, I like to do injury preventionfirst.132

125 126

Ideally we approach goals and correct problemsatthesametime131

However it should be noted that correction of imbalance takes precedence over aesthetic, genderdriven or

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),ExerciseSelection,p.40 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.60 127 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter12WhatspeedofmovementshouldIuse?,p.63 128 King,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter17Whattrainingmethodsareavailable?,p.88 129 King,I.,2000,ThinkingMan'sGuidetoAbTraining,Fri,Sep22,2000 130 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),ProgramLength,p.92 131 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.6061 132 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter22InjuryPrevention?,p.111

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performanceexercise. Look also for the muscle groups that may Otherwise we are risking and to be honest not be specific to performance, but that promotinginjury. needtobetrainedtoinordertomaintainan injuryfreestatus133 If the time frame is shorter Im prepared to sacrifice a little bit more. When I say sacrifice, I am a little bit less dogmatic aboutIf I am taking a long term view, I will sacrifice a lot of their normal training to get it right for the long term. But if I have only got a 12 month time frame then I have to compromise the long term picture for the shorttermpicture.134 Balance: all things being equal, and independent of any specificity demands, the selection of exercises should show balance throughout thebody.136 The only exception to this rule is when training an athlete who is on a strict timeline for competition. In this case all corrective work will be phased into the base andmidtolatecompetitivephases135

BalancingaProgram All things being equal, and independent of any specificity demands, the selection of exercises should show balance throughout the body (unless of course the goal is to CAUSE a training imbalance in order to correctanexistingone). Programs can be prioritized by volume of movement (number of sets and reps), sequence of movement (in the workout, in the week and in the program), and loading of movement (amount of weight involved).
138

Designing a prioritization program is a real art that few have mastered. Or more accurately, being able to identify the priority in any given program and therefore designing a subsequent program to reverse or share around the prioritization is the true and rare art. You see, in essence all programs have an imbalance or a prioritization. This come from the sequence of exercises within the workout and week, the allocation of volume, the relative use of intensity, the comparative selection of exercisecategoriesandsoon137

133 134

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),MuscleGroupSelection,p.75 King,I.,2000,InjuryPrevention&Rehabilitation(DVD),Disc2,approx22minsin 135 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.61 136 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),ExerciseSelection,p.41 137 King,I.,AsktheMaster(book),2003,ProgramDesignStrengthTraining,p.143 138 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.62

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For the most part I support the use of big muscle group exercises. Some call them basic movements. They are the foundation of most strength sports. I believe they are notonlymoreeffectiveforsizeandstrength, theyaremoretimeeffecient.139 .the Olympic lifts (cleans, snatches and variations of these) are excellent and universally popular exercises for the developmentofexplosivepower140 i.e. they train more muscle mass in a shorterperiodoftime. If I had to pick a few basic movements that I believe you should base your training around they would include the exercises listedinFigure50141

139 140

It goes without saying, (but it doesnt) that imbalances and corrective stages aside, that there are certain exercises that are just moreeffectiveoverallthantheothers.

For the explosive athlete I am a big believer in the Olympic lifts and their variations for powerdevelopment.

These big bang exercises are multijoint, multiplemusclegroupandsometimesmulti planar exercises and recruit considerably more muscle mass than single joint or machinevariations. So whether your goal is strength, hypertrophy of fat loss, some variations of these exercises should be in pretty much all trainingprogramatsomepoint142

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter14HowdoIknowwhichexercisetouse?,p.7576 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),1998,PrioritizingMuscleGroups,p.139 141 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Chapter14HowdoIknowwhichexercisetouse?,p.7576 142 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.62

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PeriodizationandProgressionofIntensity
A sample method we have used in our facility is as follows: Each stage represents a week WeekOne:IntroductoryWeek * Typically we are introducing new exercises in this phase, so our goal Is to focus on correcttechniqueanddevelopgoodform submaximalload definitelynomissedreps * Submaximal loads. If we know that the clientshouldbeabletohandle100lbsfor10 1 focusonandexaggerate repsinthisphasewewillunloadandonly technique use 90lbs for 10 reps focusing again on gettechniquefeedbackif excellent technique. Definitely no missed available(fromspotter, reps. instructororcoach);make sureyougetitinthisweek * A reduced number of sets. For example 143 the program may call for 23 sets of each exercise. In the introductory week we will typicallyonlyperform12setsofeach. Consider this in week 1 of a new cycle, you The exposure to the new exercises will be face in most cases an unfamiliar exercise. enough of a stimulus so the volume can be This in itself will cause adequate muscle reduced. microtraumafromwhichtorecover.144

Figure 14 Key concepts and aims of progressive application of intensity within a cycle. Weekor KeyConceptsandAims Microcycle Number

Weekor Microcycle Number 2

KeyConceptsandAims

worktopriormaximum levelsasestimatedatthe commencementofthecycle useaspotterwhere necessarybutpreferablyno missedreps maintaintechniquefrom previousweek

WeekTwo:BaseWeek * Work to previous maximal levels (i.e. in theaboveexample100lbsfor10reps) * Increase the number of sets to the prescribednumber. *Maintaintechnique. *Nomissedrepsshouldoccur145

143 144

King,1999,GetBuffed!(book),Chapter5HowHardShouldItrain?,p.25 King.I.,1999,GetBuffed!(book),Chapter4HowhardshouldItrain?,p.2324 145 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.63

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Weekor Microcycle Number 3

WeekThree:OverloadWeek worktosupramaximal * Now we start to push it looking to set levels new personal best in the lift (based on last weeksperformances) thestartcyclemaximum maynowbehigher,inwhich *Fullvolume caseyouarereallyonly workingtoyournew * Minimize technical breakdown. Although maximumlevels we are attempting what is essentially at this somemissedrepsmay point supramaximal work, we do not want occur(butdontaimfor to attempt a rep that the client is not sure thattheywillbeabletocomplete.147 them),oryoumayuse KeyConceptsandAims overloadmethodssouse spotters minimizetechnique breakdown146

Weekor KeyConceptsandAims Microcycle WeekFour:ShockWeek Number worktosupramaximal * Working from previous personal bests levels leavenothinginthetankthisweek thestartcyclemaximum maynowbehigher,inwhich * Full volume, plus advanced overload techniques if necessary, (drop sets, forces 3 caseyouarereallyonly repsetc) workingtoyournew maximumlevels * Again, minimize technical breakdown, somemissedrepsmay however, missed reps may occur at this occur(butdontaimfor stage. However they should only ever occur them),oryoumayuse at this state, and going to failure as a goal is notrecommended149 overloadmethodssouse spotters minimizetechnique breakdown148

146 147

King,1999,GetBuffed!(book),Chapter5HowHardShouldItrain?,p.25 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.64 148 King,1999,GetBuffed!(book),Chapter5HowHardShouldItrain?,p.25 149 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.64

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Irecommendatleastonefullrecoveryweek Every twelve weeks, a full week off from aftereach12weektrainingblock trainingneedstobescheduled.150 Ignoringthisconceptisaguaranteeto overtrainingandinjury.151 Using this model, we build in the recovery and the progression in volume and loading withoutriskofovertraining.

150 151

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.64 King,1999,GetBuffed!(book),Chapter25RecoveryMethods,p.134

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TypicalFlawsinProgramming

20.Averageduration(timeundertension TUT)ofrepsandsets: IftheaverageSOMis321,theTUTis6 secondsperrep,andiftheaveragenumber ofrepsis10,theaveragedurationofTUTper setis60secondsor1minute. eg. 321=6seconds 6secsx10reps=60seconds 21.Restperiodstobeused:Determinethe averagerestperiodstobeused.eg.2mins. 22.Calculatetotalsettime:Thisisdoneby addingaverageTUTpersettoaveragerest time.eg.AverageTUTperset=60sec+2 minutesaveragerestperiod=3minutes152 all things being equal, and independent of any specificity demands, the selection of exercises should show balance throughout the body. For example for every upper body exercise there would be a lower body exercise. For every upper body pushing movement, there would be an upper body pullingmovement.Foreveryverticalpushing movement there would be a vertical pulling movement.154 Now count how many exercises and sets you do for pulling and pushing in each training week or microcycle. Are the numbers equal? If not, which dominates. If you are doingmorepushingthanpullingmovements, you are heading towards trouble. Secondly,

152 153

TIME Letsdothemath: 3 sets x 25 (reps) x 8 seconds (tempo) + 90 secondsrest=3x290s=870seconds .Thats29minutesoflunges.153

As stated earlier, a training program should exhibit a balanced approach to each movementpattern, and demonstrate similar loading and volume across each joint (particularly with antagonist movement patterns).155

Lets analyse the parameters of the recently very popular German Volume Training Program..

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),1998,PrioritizingMuscleGroups,p.1516 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.6667 154 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.41 155 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.6770

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consider the sequence of these exercises does the pushing or pulling appear earlier in thetrainingweekortrainingday?Ifpushing movements receive greater prioritization than pulling movements, based on their sequence within the week and within the workout, you are again heading from trouble.156 Weve got an imbalance by volume, we've got an imbalance by sequence and then we drop the pulling movement, which is the key to countering the pushing movement at the end of the program, absolute end of the program on both days. Thats diabolical. That is just ridiculous; it's almost criminal, in my opinion. Thats suicidal to the shoulder, thats shouldersuicide. I don't mean to go all hype about it but theres no other way to describeit....157

156 157

Conclusion: The quad and hip dominant movementpatternsarenotbalanced. The vertical push and pull components of this program are not balanced in terms of totalsets,repsarpoundage. The program is likely to cause a massive imbalanceintherotatorcuff158 .perhaps a better name would be the German Orthopaedic Development program.

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Ch27Troubleshootingyourtraining,p.157158 King,I.,2000,InjuryPrevention&Rehabilitation(DVD) 158 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.6770

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PuttingitallTogether

Figure57Rateofchangeofprogram appropriateforvaryingtraininglevels Beginnersatleastevery412weeks160

First of all we need to remember that the average client adapts to the program in as littleasfourweeks159

Table 45 Periodization of rest period with Example: (using nonlinear alternating alternatingperiodizationofstrengthtraining.161 periodization)

WeekNo. 13 46 79 1012

Reps 1012 68 810 46

Rest Periods 1m 3m 2m 4m

Weeks:14589121316 Reps: 152010121215810 Temps:422 311 402201 Rest: 60 90 75120

Numberofsetsperexercisepossible: Now you will know how many sets per exercise are possible. You simply divide the number of sets per muscle group by the number of exercises desired per muscle group.Youcancompletethetablebelow. eg.4setspermusclegroup/2exercisesper musclegroup=2setsperexercise
Variable
ProposedDuration AverageSpeed AverageTUTperrep AverageTUTperset Averagerestperiod(RP) Settime=TUT+RP Total#ofSetsPermissible (TotalDuration/Settime)

Each set (according to above plan) will take 20x8(422)=160 When we add in the rest period (60s) we endupwith220stotalsettime.Wemultiply this by 2 (we want to perform two sets of each exercise) and we have 440s per each exercise. Ifwedivideourtotalexercisetime(35mins) by440sweget4.7.Thismeansweonlyhave timetoperform4.7exercisesperworkoutin thisphase....163

Example 162
60min 321 10 60sec(1min) 2min 3min 60/3=20

159 160

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.71 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed!,Chapter19HowLongShouldIStayontheSameProgramFor?p.98 161 King,I.,1998,Periodization:HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),1998,p.82 162 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),35StepstoProgramDesign,p.17 163 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.72

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NoofMuscleGroups (MGs)/Workout Noofsetsavailableper MG NoofExercises/MG NoofSets/Exercise Possible

5 (thisisjustanexample) 5 4 (thisisjustanexample) 2

Figure9164

So in this example we have decided that the movementallocationbeasfollows:165 DayOneDayTwoDayThree Monday(A) Wednesday(B) Friday(C) ___________________________________ Quaddominant Horizontalpush Hipdominant HorizPullVerticalPushQuadDominant Lowerback Horizontalpull Verticalpush HipDomVerticalPullHorizontalPush Verticalpull Triceps Biceps
Forearms

Calves

Uppertraps

164 165

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed!,Chapter4HowoftenshouldItrain?,GetBuffed!(book),1999,p.18 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.72

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SampleExercises
Biceps three categories, its a very simple approach but its very effective. In your biceps, I want you to look at your biceps this way: Category 1 elbow behind body; category2elbowbesidebody;category3 elbowinfrontofbody. Nowwitha different colour pen, write the following supination, neutral, pronation. The message here to fullyexploityourbicepsyouwouldneedto consider those 6 options. And that gives you how many? That gives you endless options. Endless options.there is 3 ways by 3 waysat least 9 if not more variations...in other words if we just took a pair of DBS we have got 9 different bicep.... exercise, without considering all the cables and bars and different sorts of shape bar and the machines...166

166 167

There are so many variations for exercises, that we are truly limitlessIf for example, I select horizontal pushing, I can use a barbell with a close, medium or wide grip, or dumbbells, with the dumbbells being pronated, semisupinated or held with an offset grip. This gives me six possible variations of the loading implement alone. I canthenuseaninclinebench,aflatbench,a decline bench or a stability ball. These simple variations have now afforded me the ability to do twenty four different variations of a simple horizontal pressadd to this the fact that push ups, flies, and dips are all in the same category and you start to appreciate the fact that an exercise encyclopediawillneverbecomplete.167

King,I.,1998,StrengthSpecializationDVD,Part4,2hr50min Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.74

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QuadDominantExercises

Lower Body Quad Dominant: The following exercises will be used within the sample progression through the dominant training methods for this muscle group. I have selectedclassicexercisesineachcategory: 2.i.aCocontractionpartiallunge 2.i.bStaticlunge 2.i.cSquat 2.i.dExplosiveSquat 2.i.eJumpsquat 2.i.fSquat168 Squat: Place the bar as high on your neck as comfortable. Grip the bar with your hands asclosetotheshouldersascomfortable,and ensurethatyourelbowsarepointingdirectly downwardstotheground. Use a foot stance that is shoulder width, and have your feet either straight or slightly externallyrotated.. Squat as deeply as you can without exceeding fortyfive degree trunk flexion relative to vertical. Keep your knees equal distanceapartduringthelift.. The concentric phase should mirror the eccentricphaseexactly.170

LowerBodyQuadDominant p.75Squat p.76BulgarianSplitSquat p.77PartialCocontractionLunge p.79StaticLunge p.80DynamicLunge p.82OverheadSquat p.83Onelegsquat p.84FrontSquat p.85ExplosiveSquat p.87JumpSquat p.89Singlelegpartialsquat p.90SingleArmDBOverheadSquat169 Squat: Place the bar as high on your neck as comfortable. Grip the bar with your hands as close to the shoulders as comfortable, and ensure that your elbows are pointing directlydownwardstotheground. Useafootstancethatisshoulderwidth,and have your feet either straight or slightly externallyrotated. Squat as deeply as you can without exceeding fortyfive degree trunk flexion relative to vertical. Keep your knees equal distanceapartduringthelift. The concentric phase should mirror the eccentricphaseexactly.

Single Leg Squat back foot on the bench : Bulgarian Split Squat: Start with a bench Face away from a normal height bench, and behind you. Facing away from the bench placeyourrearleguponthebench.Youcan place one foot on the bench and one foot

168 169

King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.99105 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.7591 170 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.25

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check your distance by having a relatively vertical shin throughout the movement. Keep your chest and trunk vertical throughout. Lower the body down by bending the knee of the lead leg until the kneeofthebacklegisalmostontheground. go all the way down until the knee is brushing but not resting on the ground pause then come back up all the way to the top but stop short of full extension. Pause. This is one rep. Have a short rest before doing the other leg and of course, do theweaksidefirst!171 Cocontractionpartiallunge: stand with one foot forward, the other back. feetshouldbeshoulderwidthapart. flat footed on front foot, rear foot on ball oftoe. lower the hips about 6 inches (15 cm) or less depending upon what range you are able to perform the following : focus on recruiting the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) of the lead leg during both the eccentricandconcentricphases. alsofocusonrecruitingtheglutealsofthe lead leg. To facilitate this, place the fingers on the hand opposite of the lead leg on the VMO of the lead leg, with the intent of facilitating contraction. Place the fingers of the same side as lead leg hand on the gluteal of the lead leg for the samereason. you may find that initially your ability to recruit through range is limited so use only that range through which you can recruittoasatisfactorylevel.173

out about two to three feet in front of the bench. You will now be in a modified lunge position. With the bulk of your bodyweight on the front leg, bend you front knee until your thigh is below parallel and the knee of yourtrailinglegisgrazingthefloor.Pausein this position and then return to a fully upright stance. Repeat for the desired numberofrepsandthenswitchsides.172

Partial Cocontraction Lunge: even the most battlescarred gym veteran. Beginning inalungepositionloweryoubackleguntil yourkneetouchesthefloor.Placeonehand on the vastus medialis of your lead leg the teardrop muscle just on the inside of your knee. Place your other hand on the glute of the same leg. Now raise your back knee one inch off the floor and youll feel the vastus medialis and the glute contract. This is the start position. Slowly raise yourself up by extending both legs all the time feeling for the tension in the two muscles. The second youlosethattension(itlikelywontbelong) pause and the slowly return to the start position (one inch off the floor). Again you only work in a range where the muscles are contracting do not perform this exercise through any range where the glutes and vastus medialis are not firing. Repeat for the prescribed number of reps or until total muscular fatigue whichever comes first. Repeatwiththeotherside. 174

Staticlunge: StaticLunge: Place the bar on your back or dumbbells in Place the bar on your back or dumbbells in your hand, and take a long step out. The your hand, and take a long step out. The

171 172

King,I.,2002,GetBuffed!IIGetMoreBuffed!,Stage1CDayExerciseDescriptions,p.186 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.76 173 King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.100 174 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.7778

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horizontal length of this step will be determinedbytheshinoftheleadlegduring thelowering.Keepitfairlyvertical. The bottom position should be one where the knee of the rear leg is almost brushing the ground. The top position should be just short of end of range. Complete all the reps on this first side (which of course you will know to be your weak side) before going with the other leg. Yes, you can take a short restbetweenlegsnomorethan30seconds though.175 Singlelegsquat: stand on 1 leg beside the squat rack or similar. Place the other leg out so that the heelstaysjustoffthegroundatalltimes. Bendthesupportkneeandgodownasfaras you can whilst keeping your foot flat on the ground. 3 seconds down, no pause, controlled explosive up. Initially I suspect your range will be limited but as you get better at it over time, aim to increase range as well (and maybe even more importantly) asreps. Using your bodyweight only, I expect somewhere between 510 reps on day one, and look to use DBs in one hand if you exceed 15 reps. . Use the squat rack to hold on to for balance if needed (and you probably will need to) but dont get sucked into the temptation of using it to pull yourselfup..177

shin of the lead leg will determine the horizontal length of this step during the lowering.Keepitfairlyvertical.Also,aimto keep the trunk vertical throughout the movement. The bottom position should be one where the knee of the rear leg is almost brushing the ground. The top position should be just short of end of range. Complete allthe reps on this first side (which of course you will know to be your weak side) before going withtheotherleg.Yes,youcantakeashort restbetweenlegsnomorethan30seconds though176 Onelegsquat: Stand on 1 leg beside the squat rack or similar. Place the other leg out so that the heelstaysjustoffthegroundatalltimes. Bentthesupportkneeandgodownasfaras you can whilst keeping your foot flat on the ground. 3 seconds down, no pause, controlled explosive up. Initially I suspect your range will be limited but as you get better at it over time, aim to increase range as well (and maybe even more importantly) asreps. Using your bodyweight only, expect somewhere between 510 reps on day one, and look to use DBs in one hand if you exceed 15 reps. Use the squat rack to hold on to for balance if needed (and you probably will need to) but dont get sucked into the temptation of using it to pull yourselfup.178

Squat: Frontsquat: Placethebarashighasiscomfortableonthe Place the bar as high on your neck as

175 176

King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.201202 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.79 177 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.203204 178 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.83

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neck, take a narrower than shoulder width stance, and allow only a slight external rotationofthefeet.. Squat as deeply as you can without exceeding fortyfive degree trunk flexion relative to vertical. Keep your knees equal distance apart during the lift. Immediately prior to the ascent, focus on squeezing the cheeks tight and hold them tight during the concentricphase..179 Squat: Place the bar as high on your neck as comfortable. Grip the bar with your hands asclosetotheshouldersascomfortable,and ensurethatyourelbowsarepointingdirectly downwardstotheground.Useafootstance that is shoulder width, and have your feet eitherstraightorslightlyexternallyrotated. Squat as deeply as you can without exceeding fortyfive degree trunk flexion relative to vertical. Keep your knees equal distanceapartduringthelift.181 ExplosiveSquat Perform the technique as above but aim to perform these reps with maximal acceleration in the concentric phase, ideally allowing you to finish on your toes. This exercise is more about trying to lift fast than actuallylookingfast.182 Asabove,buttrytomovetheweightasfast as possible during the lifting phase. Accelerate as fast as possible such that you
finishonyourtoes.183
179 180

comfortable. Grip the bar with your hands as close to the shoulders as comfortable, and ensure that your elbows are pointing directly forward. The bar should be pressed against the throat. Use a foot stance that is shoulder width, and have your feet either straightorslightlyexternallyrotated. Squat as deeply as you can without exceeding fortyfive degree trunk flexion relative to vertical. Keep your knees equal distanceapartduringthelift.Theconcentric phase should mirror the eccentric phase exactly.180 Explosivesquat: Begin by standing with feet shoulder width apart, bar resting on your upper traps. Grip the bar with your hands as close to the shoulders as comfortable, and ensure that your elbows are pointing directly downwards to the ground. Keep your feet eitherstraightorslightlyexternallyrotated. Squat as deeply as you can without exceeding fortyfive degree trunk flexion relative to vertical. Keep your knees equal distanceapartduringthelift. At the bottom of the squat, pause briefly and thenexplode up as fast as possible, so that momentum carries you up onto your toes, almost coming off the floor. The main difference between this technique and the regular squat Is the rapid acceleration in the concentric phase we really must strive for speedatthispoint.184

King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.182183 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.84 181 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.25. 182 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.39 183 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.36

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Singlelegpartialsquat: Stand on the edge of a low block (eg. 1/3 to the height of a normal bench height). Havetheweaklegontheboxand thestrong legofftheedgeofthebox.Bendattheknee of the weak side, lowering down (23 seconds) until the sole of your feet almost brushes the floor. Keep sole parallel to ground. Pause for 1 second and return to full extension in about 12 seconds. At the 10th rep, pause at the bottom position for 10 seconds. You must not rest the non supporting leg on the ground at any stage during the set. Hands on hips. Then continuerepsuntilyougetto20.Repeatthe 10secondpause. Can you go on? If yes, remember, what you start you must finish this exercise must be done in multiples of 10, with a 10 second pause in bottom position at the completion of every 10 reps. If you get to 50 reps, look to raise the height of the block. Preferably dontholdontoanythingduringthesetthe challenge of balance will add to the fatigue. Howeveryoumaywish todothis nearawall orsquatstandjustincase...185

Singlelegpartialsquat: Standontheedgeofalowblock(e.g.1/3to the height of a normal bench height). Havetheweaklegontheboxandthestrong leg off the edge of the box. Bend at the knee of the weak side, lowering down (23 seconds) until the sole of your feet almost brushes the floor. Keep sole parallel to ground. Pause for 1 second and return to full extension in about 12 seconds. At the 10th rep, pause at the bottom position for 10 seconds. You must not rest the non supporting leg on the ground at any stage during the set. Hands on hips. Then continue reps until you get to 20. Repeat the10secondpause. Can you go on? If yes, remember, what you start you must finish this exercise must be done in multiples of 10, with a 10 second pause in bottom position at the completion of every 10 reps. If you get to 50 reps, look to raise the height of the block. Preferably dont hold on to anything during the set the challenge of balance will add to the fatigue. However you may wish to do this nearawallorsquatstandjustincase.186

184 185

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.8586 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.180181 186 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.89

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HipDominantExercises

LowerBodyHipDominant: The following exercises will be used within the sample progression through the dominant training methods for this muscle group. I have selected classic exercises in eachcategory: 2.i.aLyingsingleleghipthighextension 2.i.bSinglelegbentkneedeadlift 2.i.cDeadlift 2.i.dPowerclean 2.i.eJumpshrug 2.i.fDeadlift187 LyingSupineSingleLegHip/ThighExtension. Lyonyourbackontheground. Bend one leg up till the knee is 90 degrees,withthatfootflat. Keep the other leg straight out on the ground. Put your weight through that foot and raisethestraightleguptillthestraightleg is in line with the thigh of the bent knee, and there is a straight line between the shouldersandtheknee. Lower back down but do not rest fully on theground. Once all reps are completed, perform set onotherleg.189 MGStiffLeggedDeadlift take a medium grip (about shoulder width) andcommenceinastandingposition. Lower the bar down by bending at the hips,

187 188

LowerBodyHipDominant p.92SHELC p.93HipThighExtension p.94RomanianDeadlift p.95StepUp p.97GoodMorning p.98SingleLegDeadlift p.99SingleLegRomanianDeadlift p.100Deadlift p.101Deadliftoffbox p.103SnatchGripDeadliftfrombox188 Hipthighextension: Lying supine on the floor, bend your left leg to 90 degrees, and straighten your right leg. Your arms should be face up at 45 degrees from your body. Now lift your entire body up one inch by pushing off your left foot. This is the start position. Continue to lift untilyourentirebodyisinastraightlineand your thighs are parallel to each other. The only parts of your body that are in contact with the floor are your arms, upper body and left foot. Lower to one inch off the floor, pause and repeat for the desired repetitions. Be sure to keep the hips in a straightline.Repeatwiththeotherside.190 RomanianDeadlift: Take a medium grip (about shoulder width) andcommenceinastandingposition. Lower the bar down by bending at the hips,

King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.106112 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.93113 189 King,I.,2002,HeavyMetalQ&A,SampleBodyweightonlyworkout,Tmag.com,20Oct2002 190 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.93

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notattheknees.191 Only flex forward as far as you can PRIOR to any rounding of the spine or posterior rotationofthehip.192 Inthestart,thekneesshouldbeslightlybent and remain exactly at joint angle during the lift 193 Stepup: Standfacingabench. Place one foot on the bench and the other onthefloor. Push through the bench foot and lift the bodyup. Do not allow the trailing leg to touch the bench. Lower under control, pause briefly at thebottomandrepeat. Complete all reps for one side before changing legs. Start on a low step look to increasetheheightofthestep.195

191 192

notattheknees. Only flex forward as far as you can PRIOR to any rounding of the spine or posterior rotationofthehip. In the start, the knees should be slightly bent and remain exactly at that joint angle duringthelift.194 StepUp: Stand facing a box or bench, ideally with the height of the box being slightly above knee height. Placeyournondominantfootonthestep. Pushing through the heel of the raised foot and NOT through the training leg (a very common way to cheat the exercise) step upontothebox,however, .donotallowyourtraininglegtotouchthe top of the box. This is a single leg exercise all the way. Once you can perform the desired number of repetitions, at the prescribed tempo, increase the resistance, either with dumbbells in your hand or a barbellonyourback. Repeatwiththeoppositeleg.196

King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,MGStiffLeggedDeadlift,p.215216 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,MGStiffLeggedDeadlift,p.206 193 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,MGStiffLeggedDeadlift,p.215216 194 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.94 195 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.19 196 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.9596

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RussianDeadlift: Withthebaronyourback,takeashoulder width stance and slightly bend the knees. The knee angle is now not to change during the lift. Flex or lower forward from the waist, keeping your chest up and hip/spine flat i.e. aligned. Only flex forward as far as you can PRIOR to any rounding of the spine or posterior rotation of the hip. For most, thiswillnotbeveryfar! You can also accentuate the hamstring involvement by pushing the bum back and allowing your weight to drift to your heels during the lowering. During the lift, squeeze the gluts. This increases the hamstringinvolvement,whichistheaim.197 KingDeadlift: Thisisasinglelegbentkneedeadliftoneof my very own creations! Stand on one leg (starting with the weak side) and bend the other leg up until the lower leg is parallel to the ground. Hands on hips or by side. The aimistobendthekneeofthesupportingleg until the knee of the nonsupporting leg is brushing the ground. In reality, you may have to settle for a shorter range (youll understand why I say this as soon as you do this workout). If this is the case and I expect it will be look to increase the range fromworkouttoworkout. Youareallowedtoflex(bend)forwardatthe waist as much as you want, and doing so will increase the gluteal involvement. Keep the working knee aligned neutrally throughout the movement. . No warm up set needed. Whenyoucandomorethan1520repsFULL RANGElooktoholdDBsinthehands..199

197 198

GoodMorning: With the bar on your back, take a shoulder width stance and slightly bend the knees. The knee angle is now not to change during the lift. Flex or lower forward from the waist, keeping your chest up and hip/spine flat i.e. aligned. Only flex forward as far as you can PRIOR to any rounding of the spine or posterior rotation of the hip. For most, thiswillnotbeveryfar! You can also accentuate the hamstring involvement by pushing the bum back and allowing your weight to drift to your heels duringthelowering.Duringthelift,squeeze the glutes. This increases the hamstring involvement,whichistheaim.198 SingleLegDeadlift: This is a single leg bent knee deadlift. Stand on one leg (starting with the weak side) and bend the other leg up until the lower leg is parallel to the ground. If doing this exercise withnoexternalloadingputyourhandson yourhipsorbyyourside.Theaimistobend thekneeofthesupportingleguntiltheknee of the nonsupporting leg is brushing the ground. In reality, you may have to settle for a shorter range (youll understand why I say this as soon as you do this workout). If this is the case and I expect it will be look to increase the range from workout to workout. You are allowed to flex (bend) forward at thewaistasmuchasyouwant,anddoingso will increase the gluteal involvement. Keep the working knee aligned neutrally throughout themovement.Nowarmupset needed. When you can do more than 1520 reps FULL RANGE look to hold DBs in the hands.200

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.206207 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.97 199 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,KingDeadlift:p.192 200 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.98

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SingleLegstandingStiffLeggedDeadlift: Stand on one leg have the other foot off the ground, but kept roughly parallel with the leg doing the supporting. Bend the knee slightly, but that knee angle should not change during the exercise (get a partner to watch for this, as it will be tempting to do so!). Now bend at the waist, allowing the back to round and reach slowly towards the floor. If your range allows, touch the floor with the fingertips and return to the starting position.201

SingleLegRomanianDeadlift: Stand on one leg have the other foot off the ground, but kept roughly parallel with thelegdoingthesupporting.Bendtheknee slightly, but that knee angle should not change during the exercise (get a partner to watch for this, as it will be tempting to do so!). Now bend at the waist, allowing the back to round and reach slowly towards the floor. If your range allows, touch the floor withthefingertipsandreturntothestarting position.202

201 202

King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.191192 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.99

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VerticalPushingExercises

UpperBodyVerticalPushing: The following exercises will be used within the sample progression through the dominant training methods for this muscle group. I have selected classic exercises in eachcategory: 3.ii.aSinglearmcontrolledlateralarmraises 3.ii.bDBshoulderpress 3.ii.cBarshoulderpress 3.ii.dPushpress 3.ii.ePushjerk 3.ii.fShoulderpress203 Military Press Behind the neck/Bar/seated: Grip the bar at six inches outside shoulder width.Takethebaroffasquatrackontothe back of the shoulders as you would for squats. Sit down on a bench and move feet out to 45 degrees. Press the bar overhead to full extension. Lower under control to the baseoftheneck.Ensurefullrange.204 ShoulderpressMG/Bar/seated: Grip the bar at shoulder width. Take the bar off a squat rack on to the front of the shoulders as you would for front squats. Sit down on a bench and move feet out to 45 degrees. Press the bar overhead to full extension. Lower under control to the collarbone.Ensurefullrange.206

203 204

UpperBodyVerticalPushing p.105Militarypress p.106Shoulderpress p.107Shoulderpress p.108DBPushPress p.109SeatedDBMilitaryPress p.110DBLateralRaise p.111DBSplitJerk p.113Jerk Military press Behind the neck/Bar/seated: Grip the bar at six inches outside shoulder width. Take the bar off a squat rack on to the back of the shoulders as you would for squats. Sit down on a bench and move feet outto45degrees.Pressthebaroverheadto full extension. Lower under control to the baseoftheneck.Ensurefullrange.205 ShoulderpressMG/Bar/seated: Grip the bar at shoulder width. Take the bar off a squat rack on to the front of the shoulders as you would for front squats. Sit down on a bench and move feet out to 45 degrees. Press the bar overhead to full extension. Lower under control to the base oftheneck.Ensurefullrange.207

King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.122128 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.18. 205 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.105 206 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,p.35wks116. 207 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.106

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ShoulderpressWG/Bar/seated: Gripthebaraswideaspossible.Takethebar off a squat rack on to the back of the shoulders as you would for squats. Sit down onabenchandmovefeetoutto45degrees. Press the bar overhead to full extension. Lower under control to the base of the neck. Ensurefullrange.208 SeatedDBShoulderpress: Seated with a DB in each hand, at shoulder height, palm facing forward. Extend arms straight overhead. Pause and lower under controltothestartingposition.210 LateralDBlimitedraise: Stand with a DB in each hand. Raise the DBs to the side until they are just above parallel to the ground, or just above shoulder height, pause, lower the DBs back down ., pause,andreturntothetopposition.Thisis therange..212

208 209

ShoulderpressWG/Bar/seated: Grip the bar as wide as possible. Take the bar off a squat rack on to the back of the shoulders as you would for squats. Sit down onabenchandmovefeetoutto45degrees. Press the bar overhead to full extension. Lowerundercontroltothebaseoftheneck. Ensurefullrange.209 SeatedDBMilitarypress: Seated with a DB in each hand, at shoulder height, palm facing forward. Extend arms straight overhead. Pause and lower under controltothestartingposition211 DBLateralRaise: StandwithaDBineachhand.RaisetheDBs to the side until they are just above parallel totheground,orjustaboveshoulderheight, pause, lower the DBs back down, pause, and return to the top position. This is the range.213

King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,p.35wk116 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.107 210 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'ssSquad,June2000,p.41 211 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.109 212 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,LateralDBlimitedraise,p.186 213 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.110

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VerticalPullingExercises

UpperBodyVerticalPulling: The following exercises will be used within the sample progression through the dominant training methods for this muscle group. I have selected classic exercises in eachcategory: 3.i.aScarecrow 3.i.bLatpulldown 3.i.cChinup 3.i.dChinup 3.i.eOverheadmedicineballthrow 3.i.fLatpulldownorchinup214 CloseGripChins: .using a close supinated (palms facing you) grip215 DBPullover(1DBineachhand): Lay on a bench with your head at one end. Have the arms go over the end of the bench . In this case, lower the DBs down as far as youcanstretch,pause,.,andthenliftthem back up to the starting position, which shouldbeshortofvertical.Thisisonerep. Aim to keep the DBs even during the exercise, but not touching. If this movement has a habit of aggravating the joint, start off with less range and ease into the range with eachset.217 Lat pulldown WG: this is a lat pulldown to thecollarbonetrytokeeptheelbowsunder the wrists. Be sure to fully retract and depressthescapuladuringtheexercise219

214 215

UpperBodyVerticalPulling p.115CloseGripChins p.116DBPullover p.117LatPulldownWG p.117MixedGripChins

CloseGripChins: Hang from the chin up bar with a close supinatedgripbothpalmsfacingyou.216 DBPullover(1DBineachhand): Lyingonabenchwithyourheadatoneend. Havethearmsgoovertheendofthebench. In this case, lower the DBs down as far as you can stretch, pause, and then lift them back up to the starting position, which shouldbeshortofvertical. Aim to keep the DBs even during the exercise,butnottouching.Ifthismovement has a habit of aggravating the joint, start off with less range and ease into the range with eachset.218 Lat pulldownWG: This is a lat pulldown to the collarbone try to keep the elbows under the wrists. Be sure to fully retract and depressthescapuladuringtheexercise220

King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.122128 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad 216 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.115 217 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.185186 218 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.116 219 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.23 220 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.117

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HorizontalPushingExercises

UpperBodyHorizontalPushing: The following exercises will be used within the sample progression through the dominant training methods for this muscle group. I have selected classic exercises in eachcategory: 3.iv.aExternalDBrotation 3.iv.bDBbenchpress 3.iv.cBenchpress 3.iv.dAcceleratedbenchpress 3.iv.eMedicineballchestcatchandpass 3.iv.fBenchPress221 InclineBenchpress: Lie on the incline bench press (30 45 degrees). Feet should remain flat on the floor. Take a medium grip on the bar, and lower the bar to the sternum. Always go down to the same point on the base of the sternumeachtime,andpausethere222

BenchpressWG/Bar/HB/FA: Lay on the bench press. Raise your feet up, bend the knees and cross the ankles. Take a wide grip on the bar, and lower the bar to the bottom of the neck/top of the sternum. The same speed as above 6 seconds to lower, 2 seconds to lift. Always go down to the same point on the base of the neck each time,andpausethere.224

221 222

UpperBodyHorizontalPushing p.119PushUps p.120TpushUps p.122MedicineballPushUps p.123InclineBenchPress p.123BenchPressWG p.124ExplosivePushUps p.125PushUpsonSwissBall p.127InclineDBPress p.128BenchPress p.128DBBenchPress p.129SupineDBFly p.129Dips InclineBenchpress Lie on the incline bench press (30 45 degrees). Feet should remain flat on the floor. Take a medium grip on the bar, and lower the bar to the sternum. Always go down to the same point on the base of the sternumeachtime,andpausethere.223 BenchpressWG Lie on the bench press. Raise your feet up, bendthekneesandcrosstheankles.Takea wide grip on the bar, and lower the bar to the bottom of the neck/top of the sternum. Always go down to the same point on the base of the neck each time, and pause there.225

King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.136142 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.40 223 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.123 224 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.198 225 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.123

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DBBenchPress layonyourback(supine)onabench dumbbellsineachhand have the dumbbells facing palm down towardsthefeet now push the dumbbells straight up until thearmsarefullyextended havethedumbbellsnearlytouchinginthis topposition lower down fully to the starting position226 Benchpress: Lie on the bench press. Feet should remain flat on the floor. Take a medium grip on the bar, and lower the bar to the sternum. Always go down to the same point on the base of the sternum each time, and pause there.228 DBBenchPress layonyourback(supine)onabench dumbbellsineachhand have the dumbbells facing palm down towardsthefeet now push the dumbbells straight up until thearmsarefullyextended havethedumbbellsnearlytouchinginthis topposition lower down fully to the starting position230

226 227

InclineDBPress Lie on your back on an Incline bench, with a DB in each hand, palms facing forward towards the feet. Push the dumbbells straight up until the arms are fully extended have the DBs nearly touching in this top position. Lower down fully to the start position.227

BenchPress: Lie on the bench press. Feet flat on the floor. Take a medium grip on the bar, and lower the bar to the midline of the chest. Always go down to the same point on the chesteachtime,andpausethere.229 DBBenchPress: Lie on your back on a bench, with a DB in each hand, palms facing forward towards the feet. Push the dumbbells straight up until the arms are fully extended have the DBs nearly touching in this top position. Lowerdownfullytothestartposition.231

King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.144 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.127 228 King,I.,200/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.37 229 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.128 230 King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.144 231 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.128

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SupineDBFlye: lyingonyourback(supine).Startwithyour hands above you and then lower them at right angles to the body. Keep the elbows slightlybentanddontallowthiselbowangle to change during the movement. Pause at thebottom,thenliftallthewayup.Thisis onerep.232 Dips: Start with arms fully extended. Bend arms and lean torso forward as necessary. Pause in the bottom position and then return to the top by straightening the arms. Add weightasnecessarywithaweightedbelt.234

232 233

SupineDBFly: Lying on your back (supine). Start with your hands above you and then lower them at right angles to the body. Keep the elbows slightly bent and dont allow this elbow angle to change during the movement. Pause at the bottom, and lift all the way up. Thisisonerep233 Dips: Start with arms fully extended. Bend arms and lean torso forward as necessary. Pause in the bottom position and then return to the top by straightening the arms. Add weightasnecessarywithaweightedbelt.235

King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.196 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.129 234 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,p.36,Wks116 235 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.129

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HorizontalPullingExercises

UpperBodyHorizontalPulling: The following exercises will be used within the sample progression through the dominant training methods for this muscle group. I have selected classic exercises in eachcategory: 3.ii.aFlutters 3.ii.bProneDBrow 3.ii.cSeatedrow 3.ii.dSeatedrow 3.ii.eHorizontallateralthrow 3.ii.fSeatedRow236 ProneDBFlye: Lay face down on a bench with a DB in each hand. Keeping the elbow slightly bent extend the arms out at right angles to the body.Dontallowtheelbowangletochange during the movement.Minimize the movementoftheheadortheinvolvementof theuppertraps.237 Seatedrowtotheneck: Take a pronated close grip. Maintain a slightly less than vertical trunk leaning back. Pull the bar to the neck, fully retracting the scapula. Pause there and returntothestartposition.239 ProneDBRow: Lay face down on a normal height bench, with a DB in each hand, palms facing inwards. Pull the dumbbells up as far as possible and retract the scapula fully. Slowly

236 237

UpperBodyHorizontalPulling p.130Flutters p.133YTWL p.135ProneDBFly p.136SeatedRow p.137ProneDBRow p.137SeatedRow p.138SeatedRow p.139InvertedRow p.141TwopointDBRow p.143AlternatingBentoverDBRow p.144BarbellBentOverRows ProneDBFly: Lay face down on a bench with a DB in each hand. Keeping the elbow slightly bent extend the arms out at right angles to the body. Dont allow the elbow angle to change during the movement. Minimise the movement of the head or the involvement oftheuppertraps238 Seatedrowtotheneck: Take a pronated close grip. Maintain a slightly less than vertical trunk leaning back. Pull the bar to the neck, fully retracting the scapula. Pause there and returntothestartposition.240 ProneDBRow: Lay face down on a normal height bench, with a DB in each hand, palms facing inwards. Pull the dumbbells up as far as possible and retract the scapula fully. Slowly

King,I.,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.129135 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.196 238 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.135 239 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.21 240 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.136

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returntothestartposition.241 Seatedrowpronewidegrip: Take an overhand (prone), outside shoulder width grip. Maintain a slightly less than verticaltrunkleaningback.243 SeatedRowsupinemediumgrip: Sit on the seated row and take a shoulder width underhand (supine) grip. Remember to pause each time you change direction. I like to keep the trunk, hips and head in a straight line, slightly behind a vertical position (i.e. very slightly leaning back), and stillthroughoutthemovement.245 BarbellBentoverRow: Standing with a bar in a supinated, palms up grip. Bend at the waist keeping the chest up and a flat back. Pull the barbell up as far as possible making contact with the upper abdomen is possible and retract the scapula fully.Slowlyreturntothestartposition.247 SupinatedgripBentoverrow: Grabbarwithanunderhandgripjustoutside shoulder width. Bend forward to 90 degrees of trunk flexion. Pull the bar to the abdominals, pause and return to the stretchedposition248

241 242

returntothestartposition.242 SeatedRowpronewidegrip: Takeanoverhand(prone),outsideshoulder widthgrip.Maintainaslightlylessthan verticaltrunkleaningback.244 SeatedRowmediumgrip: Sit on the seated row and take a shoulder width grip. Remember to pause each time you change direction. Keep the trunk, hips and head in a straight line, slightly behind a vertical position (i.e. very slightly leaning back),andstillthroughoutthemovement.246

BarbellBentoverRow: Standing with a bar in asupinated, palms up grip. Bend at the waist keeping the chest up and a flat back. Pull the barbell up as far as possible making contact with the upper abdomen is possible and retract the scapula fully.Slowlyreturntothestartposition. SupinatedgripBentoverrow: Grab bar with an underhand grip just outside shoulder width. Bend forward to 90 degrees of trunk flexion. Pull the bar to the abdominals, pause and return to the stretchedposition249

King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.21 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.137 243 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.29 244 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.137 245 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.197 246 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.138 247 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,p.33Wks1732 248 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,p.33Wks116 249 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.144

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CoreExercises

Push Up Position on knees: This is a core drill for the category I call integration. I dont get carried away with advanced options in this category until I have raised theabilitiesintheabovecategories.250 Thin Tummy Variations: These are my core exercise for developing hip flexion...the lower abdominals (obliques and transverse abdominus)arecontracted,pullingthelower tummy thinner ..I focus more on how the muscles are set than on the pressure of lumbar to ground or position of pelvis, although both are symptomatic of a good setposition..251 Mynextdivisionisasfollows: Flexion. a. Trunk b. Hip c. Lateral(hipandtrunk). Extension. a. Trunk b. Hip Rotation. a. Trunk b. Hip252

250 251

Our entry level core workouts usually includepronevacuumswhichareessentially just holding a push up position of your elbowsfortime. We also use simple abdominal activation exercises such as lower abdominal drills where we merely have the client press their lower back into the floor while activating abdominals.

All core training should include stability work some hip and trunk flexionand somerotation.253

King,I.,2002,GetBuffed!II,p.168 King,I.,2000,HowtoTeachStrengthTrainingExercises,p.55 252 King,I.,2000,HowtoTeach(book),MajorMuscleGroupsandActions,p.3335 253 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.145

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Kneeupvariations: Description lay on your back; if using an incline or chin bar, you will need your arms to hold onto the grips available; if you are doing knee ups on the ground, arms at 90 degrees to the trunk, out on the ground; prior to starting each rep set the pelvis where you want it to be, then lift, aiming to holdthatpelvispositionthroughout.254 Toestoskyvariations: Description lay on your back, arms out on the ground at 90 degrees to the trunk, have yourlegstogether,90degreeshipflexion,so thatlegsarevertical Level 1 lift the pelvis as far off the ground whilst maintaining totally vertical leg position (initially this may not be very far at all, at even at best the movement is limited initsrange)andholdfor510seconds Level 2 as above, but bend one knee to 90 degrees at knee; alternate each rep which legisbent,whichisstraight Level 3 as above, but bent both knees so thatthekneesarebentto90degrees256 LateralLegLower: Lyonyourback,armsoutflatonfloorat90 degrees. Legstogetherintheairlowerthem togetherat90degreestothebodyuntilthey arenearlytouchingtheground. Thenreturntothetopandlowertothe othersideetc.258

254 255

ReverseCrunch: Lay on your back; if using an incline or chin bar, you will need your arms to hold on to thegripsavailable;ifyouaredoingkneeups ontheground,armsoutonthegroundat90 degreestothetrunk.Startinginasetpelvis position (hold the pelvis position throughout) lift the knees to the chest by rotatingthroughtheabdominalregion.255 Toestoskyvariations: Layonyour back,armsoutonthegroundat 90 degrees to the trunk, have your legs together, 90 degrees hip flexion so that legs arevertical. Level One lift the pelvis as far off the ground whilst maintaining totally vertical leg position (initially this may not be very far at all, at even at best the movement is limited initsrange)andholdfor510seconds. Level Two as above, but bend one knee to 90 degrees at knee, alternate each rep whichlegisbent,whichisstraight LevelThreeasabove,butbendbothknees sothatthekneesarebentto90degrees257 LowerBodyRussianTwist:Liesupineonthe floor with the arms extended to 90 degrees and your legs extended straight up. I suggest holding dumbbells in each hand, or holdingontoapowerrackforstability. Keeping your shoulders and arms flat on the floor, lower your legs to the left, keeping them straight until they are one inch from the floor. From this position raise your legs and return to the start position. Repeat for theotherside259

King,I.,2000,HowtoTeachStrengthTrainingExercises(book),Kneeupvariations:,Mar2000,p.62 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.155 256 King,I.,2000,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.61 257 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.155156 258 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Ch29:QuestionsandAnswers,p.182

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RussianTwists: .kneesbentto90degrees,partnershould hold the feet in a fixed position. Slowly curl the body up to about 45 degrees from the floor. This is the set position. Now slowly turntotheleftasfaraspossible,maintaining the 45degree angle from the floor. Return tothesetpositionandrepeattotheright260 Slowcurlups: lying on the back, knees bent to about 90 degrees,andfeetflatonthefloor. Thenyou sit up or curl up the trunk, to a full sitting position. 1. Cheatups/slowdown. 2. Cheat ups / slow down + isometric stops duringlower. 3. Reversecurldowns. 4. Slowup/slowdown. 5. Slow up / slow downs with isometric pausesduringtheupphase.261 WristtokneeCurlups: Techniquethesameasslowcurlups, howeverbeginwitharmsextendedand fingertipstouchingtheknee.Slowlycurlup, keepingarmsextendeduntilthewrist touchestheknee.Thisistheendofthe rangeforthisexercise.Holdinthisposition andlowerundercontrol.263 Slowcurlups: lying on the back, knees bent to about 90 degrees,andfeetflatonthefloor. Thenyou sit up or curl up the trunk, in most part to a fullsittingposition.264
259

UpperBodyRussianTwists: Legs bent to 90 degrees (partner holding your legs is an option). Keeping your arms extended,rotatefromsidetoside. To increase the intensity if this becomes too easy, perform unanchored, increase the range,thespeedortheexternalloading. Slowcurlups: Layonyourback,kneesbenttoabout90 degreesandfeetflatonthefloor.Curlup thetrunktoafullsittingposition LevelOneCheatupsslowdown Level Two Cheat ups slow down plus isometricstopsonthelower LevelThreeReverseCurlDowns LevelFourSlowup/Slowdown Level Five Slow up / slow down plus isometricstopsonthelower262 Wristtokneecurlups: Techniquethesameasslowcurlups, howeverbeginwitharmsextendedand fingertipstouchingtheknee.Slowlycurlup, keepingarmsextendeduntilthewrist touchestheknee.Thisistheendofthe rangeforthisexercise.Holdinthisposition andlowerundercontrol. MedBallcurlups: Lie on your back, knees bent to about 90 degrees and feet flat on the floor. Curl up thetrunktoafullsittingposition265

King, I., 2000/01 Strength Training Program for the Hong Kong Rugby Union 7's Squad, June 2000, p. 22 Wks116 260 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,p.22Wks116 261 King,I.,2000,HowtoTeach(book),Slowcurlups,Mar2000,p.48 262 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.159 263 King,I.,2000/01StrengthTrainingProgramfortheHongKongRugbyUnion7'sSquad,June2000,p.36 264 King,I.,2000,HowtoTeach(book),Mar2000,p.48 265 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.160

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SlowSideRaiseontheGround: Description Lay on your back, knee bent to about 90 degrees, and knees together. Roll the knees over together so that they are on the ground, with the shoulders and upper back still parallel to the ground. Now flex the trunk, basically up towards the roof or sky.Iliketohavethefingerslightlytouching the front of the head, elbow out at 45 degreesfromthebody,andarm/elbowangle not changing during the lift. The placement of the hands will alter the level of difficulty. The further the hands are above the head, theharderthemovement.266

266 267

SideraisesonGround: Lie on your back, knees bent to about 90 degrees and knees together. Roll the knees overtogethersothattheyareontheground with the shoulders and upper back still parallel. Now flex the trunk, basically up towards the roof or sky. I like to have the fingerslightlytouchingthefrontofthehead, elbow out at 45 degrees from the body, and arm/elbow angle not changing during the lift. The placement of the hands will alter the level of difficulty. The further the hands are above the head, the harder the movement.267

King,I.,2000,HowtoTeachStrengthTrainingPrograms,p.62 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.161162

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SevenHabitsofHighlyEffectiveProgramDesign

Iapplythefollowingguidelinetoanyathlete, not just young athlete why use external loading before developing the ability to managetheloadofbodyweight?268 if your bodyweight for whatever reason is too much for your leg strength, you can always do a onelegged leg press or hack squat269 Balance: all things being equal, and independent of any specificity demands, the selection of exercises should show balance throughout the body. For example for every upper body exercise there would be a lower body exercise. For every upper body pushing movement, there would be an upper body pullingmovement.Foreveryverticalpushing movement there would be a vertical pulling movement. For every hip dominant exercise therewouldbeaquaddominantexercise.271 Physical preparation is generally considered to include speed, strength, endurance and flexibility. A concern I have when young athletes (or any athlete!) includes strength training in their program is whether they do so in balance with their needs in the other areas.272

268 269

1.Bodyweightbeforeexternalresistance A client has no business using load if he/she cannotstabilize,controlandmoveefficiently withonlytheirbodyweight Unless your bodyweight is way too much, or way too little, then there is very little room in my opinion for external loading.. 270 5Balance Train with balance between motor balance qualities and balance between movement patterns (e.g. horizontal push pull). A training program in general should bebalancedintermsofsets,reps,totaltime under tension, and volume throughout the entire body, but particularly in opposing movementpatterns.

It's also important, although beyond the scope of this article, to understand that other motor qualities, including flexibility and cardio respiratory endurance, also need to be considered in the total scheme of programming.273

King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),p.284 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),p.221 270 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.166 271 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.41 272 King,I.,2003,AsktheMaster(book),AgeGroups,p.1 273 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.168

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Periodization periodization.Thatmeansplanning. The disadvantages includes that the early stages may cause a detraining in neural adaptation, and the later stages may cause a detraininginmetabolicadaptations. The advantages includes that it avoids the detraining issues involved in linear progression.274 18.Proposeddurationofprogram Variable Example ProposedDuration 60min AverageSpeed 321 AverageTUTperrep 10 AverageTUTperset 60sec(1min) Averagerestperiod(RP)2min Settime=TUT+RP 3min Total#ofSetsPermissible (TotalDuration/Settime)60/3=20 NoofMuscleGroups(MGs)/Workout5 NoofsetsavailableperMG 5 NoofExercises/MG 4 NoofSets/ExercisePossible 2 23.Totalnumberofsetspermissiblefor eachtrainingsession: e.g.60minutes/3minutes=20sets276 Your final trouble shoot should include adding up the TUTs for each exercise make sure they are not excessive. Check again total duration of workout to make sure they arenottoolong.277

6.Useamethodofperiodization Periodizationjustmeansplanning When using linear models we tend to lose thequalitiesweinitiallysoughttoimprove.

A better system would be to alternate the phases Therefore we avoid most of the problemsoflinearperiodization.275 7.UseaTIMEOUTCOMEBasedApproach Knowhowlongaworkouttakes.Brieflyif we have one hour total to train: (Warning thefollowingportioncontainsmaths! Sowebeginwith60minutes Minus warm up time (e.g. 10 mins) = 50 minsleftover Allow an additional 10 minutes for form roller work, rehabilitation concerns etc. = 40 minsleft Average length of a set in this phase is e.g. 60s,restperiodIe.g.120s Thats three minutes per set total (work set plus rest period). If we want to do two sets of each exercise, we are looking at six minutes per exercise. That allows us to performonlysixexercisesinthisworkout. When you have finished designing your program, take the time to do the math and seeifyourworkoutsareevenpossible.278

274 King,I.,1998,HowToWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,Periodization,p.7982
275 276

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.168169 King,1997,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),PartA35Steps,p.1516 277 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,PartA35Steps 278 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.170

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ProgramDesignChecklist

PartAtakesyou,pointbypoint,through thestepsyoushouldconsiderwhenwritinga strengthtrainingprogram.279 1.Determinegoals 3.Determinelengthofprogram280 4. Select appropriate method of periodization The three main generalized types of periodization of reps and sets that I will talk aboutinthisbook282 Linear periodization : involves a linear progression in lowering reps and increasing load (representing the inverse relationship betweenvolumeandintensity).

Thefollowingisasummaryofeverythingin thisbooklistedasastepbystepmethodin whichwedetermineexactlywhatisneeded ateachstage. 1.DetermineGoal(s) 2.Determinethetimeframetoachieve goalsorthelengthofthetrainingcycle281 3.Chooseasuitableperiodizationmodel There are three primary models of periodization that are available to the trainer. LinearPeriodization:involvesalinear progressioninloweringrepsandincreasing load(representingtheinverserelationship betweenvolumeandintensity).

Figure 12 An example of linear periodization 14 e.g. 12 Weeks:13:12reps 10 Weeks:46:10reps 8 Weeks:79:8reps 6 Weeks:1012:6reps 4 Etc 2
0 1-3 4-6 7-9 10 - 12

279 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.1
280 281

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Stepsp.57 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.171172 282 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed!,p.12

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The benefits of this method include that it allows the trainee to develop load selection asaprogressionofreducedreps. The disadvantages includes that the early stages may cause a detraining in neural adaptation, and the later stages may cause a detraininginmetabolicadaptations.283 Alternating periodization : involves alternating between volume (another term used is accumulation) and intensity (again, anothertermseenisintensification).

Advantages:allowsthetraineetoincrease loadingregularlyanddeveloploadselection asaprogressionofreducedreps Disadvantages:maycauseadetraining effectinneuraladaptationintheearly stages,andadetrainingeffectinmetabolic adaptationinthelaterstages.284 Alternating Periodization: involves alternating between volume and intensity (accumulation/intensification)

Figure 13 An example of alternating periodization. e.g. 14 Weeks:13:12reps 12 Weeks:46:8reps 10 Weeks:79:10reps 8 Weeks:1012:6reps 6 Etc 4
2 0 1-3 4-6 7-9 10 - 12

The advantages includes that it avoids the detraining issues involved in linear progression (ie. reduces the concern of detraining metabolic or neural adaptations becauseofmorefrequentexposuretoeach). The disadvantages include that it requires to traineetobeexperiencedinloadselectionas therepsdropsuddenlyandsignificantly. Alternating periodization : involves alternating between volume and intensity.

Advantages: avoids the detraining issues involved in linear progression (due to more frequent exposure of neural and metabolic effects).. Disadvantages: requires experience in load selection as the reps change quickly and significantly. Undulating Periodization: involves experience alternating between volume and intensity on a workoutbyworkout basis withinthesametrainingweek

The advantages includes that it avoids the Advantages:avoidsthedetrainingissues detraining issues involved in linear involvedinlinearprogression.
283 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.81
284

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progression The advantages includes that it avoids the detraining issues involved in linear progression285 5.Determineappropriaterateofchangeof program287 Figure57Rateofchangeofprogram288 TrainingAge*RateofChange(weeks) Beginners atleastevery412weeks Intermediate atleastever24weeks Advanced atleastevery13weeks only a real beginner will benefit from 2x 6 wkblocks.289 6.Selectappropriatetrainingmethods 31.Determinesets,repetitionsandrest periodsforeachexercise 32.Selectspeedofmovement/technique foreachexercise290 1. Training method:Which specific training effect are you chasing stability/control, general fitness, general strength, hypertrophy, maximal strength, explosive power,quickness/SSC?291 The training variables that combine to produce a specific outcomeinclude the intensity, volume, duration, load, repetitions, sets, rest period, speed of movementetc....292

285 286

Disadvantages:requiresaLOTofexperience in load selection as the reps change quickly andsignificantly286 4.DetermineRateofChangeofProgram

As a general rule look to change the parameters within the program every four weeksorso.

Weneedtochangethetrainingprogramon aminimumeverysixweeks. 5.Selectappropriateset,rep,tempoand restperiodsforeachprogramwithinthe trainingcycle.

We arent selecting exercises yet. Merely selecting the type of effect we are looking for at each stage. Are we looing for control, stability, hypertrophy, max strength or speed?... . How many sets, reps? What is the speed ofmovementgoingtoaverage?293

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.81 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.173174 287 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Stepsp.57 288 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed!,Chapter19HowLongShouldIStayontheSameProgramFor?p.98 289 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed,p.131 290 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Stepsp.57 291 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),ExerciseSelection,p.37
292
293

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),TrainingMethods,p.132 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.175 68|P a g e

Forthoseconcernedaboutpower,rateof force development, I do not recommend using anything less than a fast or attempted to be fast concentric contraction for some 8090% of total training time.Therefore the power athlete cannot afford to spend more than 1020 % (as a generalization) of their total strength training time using number greaterthan1asthethirdnumber.294 9.Determinefrequencyie.numberof trainingdaysperweek/microcycle 10.Selectwhichtrainingdays296 Considertheimplicationsofresidualfatigue with the training session and within the week : now review also the implications of residual fatigue. This applies more within the one workout from exercise to exercise. For example if you placed triceps before bench press, you need to understand that the bench press ability will be affected. Makeanychangesnecessary297

Note here, that the majority of explosive athletes will benefit more from a one second or less concentric portion for the repetition tempo them from a slower concentric portion most of the time (there may be periods in the training year where slower concentric portions are warranted but in general, respect the need for rate of forcedevelopment. 6.Determinethefrequencyofthe workoutsperweek(howmanytraining sessions295 7.Determinethedaysoftheweekfor trainingsessions. While it is possible to do back to back workouts, the fatigue of workout A may influence the training effect of workout B etc. Determining exactly where each workout is scheduled to occur in the week can minimize this.Lets say you plan on doing squats on day one, and deadlifts on day three of the week thats a good plan. But day three this week endus up falling on a Sudnay and day one is the following Monday. Do you think your squat based workout might be negatively affected somewhat by a deadlift workout 24 hours before?298

13.Determineprioritiesinmusclegroups299 9.Determinemovementpatternstobe trainingthatwilladdressthebiggest weaknessesandprioritize.300

294 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),Speedofmovement,p.124
295 296

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.175 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Stepsp.57

297
298 299

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,Allocationofmusclegroupstotrainingdays,p.28

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.176 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Stepsp.57 300 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.177

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Strengthtraintheweakorinjuredsidefirst andstretchthetightersidefirst;301 The prime movers for example being the internal rotators of the upper arm, whilst the injury prevention approach may initially prioritize the external rotators of the upper arm.302 Key issues in prioritization of muscle groups include: 1. Prioritizationofmusclegroup i. Bysequence: a. Withintheworkout. b. Withinthetrainingweek. ii. Byvolume.303 1. Injury prevention versus performance enhancement in athletes : if you accept that injurypreventionshouldbeplacedaheadof performanceenhancement

For example, if the client has internally rotated shoulders, we will want to stretch the tight area and strengthen the antagonist.

Wecanprioritizethroughsequencinginthe trainingweekandtheactualworkout,by exerciseselectionandvolume

Also, bear in mind that while ensuring clients gaols is very important, injury prevention must take priority over performance enhancement or any aesthetic goals304

14. Allocate muscle groups to training 11. Allocate corrective stretching exercises days:305 and movement patterns to each training day. if you were doing a total body workout that is the same for each of the 3 or so weekly workouts, you would only use column A. If you were working with a 3 day split routine where each day was different, youwouldusecolumnA,BandCIfyouwere workingwithafourdaysplitwhereeachday wasdifferent,youwouldusecolumnsA,B,C andD. .We have a few options here. A total body workout performed multiple times per week, two total body workouts alternated, or simply a split, where we train a half/a thirdofthebodyateachworkout

18. Determine proposed duration of 12. Determine total training time per program workout.306
301 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed!,Chapter23InjuryManagementandRehabilitation,p.124 302 King,I.,1997/2002,WinningandLosing,Chapter7TrainingTheory,p.3738 303 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),PrioritizingMuscleGroups,p.8586
304 305

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.177 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Steps,p.13 306 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.178

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23. Determine total number of sets permissibleforeachtrainingsession307 Thisiscalculatedbydividingtheproposed durationoftheworkoutbythetotaltime perset(whichisTUTperset+restperiodas calculatedinStep22above).308 Table 69 Variances in total workout time due to differences in time under tension for twodifferenttrainingprotocols.309 TrainingVariables WorkoutA Timeperrep(ecc+pause+conc)201=3secs NoofReps 8 Subtotaltimeperset24sec RestPeriod2minutes Subtotaltimeperset+RP2minutes3s NoofSets/exercise3 Subtotal6minutes9sec NoofExercises6 TotalTimeUnderTension(24sx3)x6 =7min:12s TotalTime 36min54sec 29. Select suitable exercises for each musclegroup.311 ...Which specific training effect are you chasing stability/control, general fitness, general strength, hypertrophy, maximal strength, explosive power, quickness/SSC? Select an exercise allows these specific adaptations.312

307 308

14. Divide available work time by total timeundertension + rest period for all prescribed sets (determined from periodization model). This will give you a numberofallowableexercises.

For example, tempos (or speed of the repetition) is 402 for 15 reps, 2 sets with 90 secondsrestperiod. Theentiresettimeinthisexampleis(6sx15 reps) + 90s = 180 seconds, multiplied by 2 sets=360seconds. In40mins(2400seconds)wehaveroomfor (2400/360)onlyeightexercises.310

15. Select the exercises for each movement patternthatthatismostappropriateforthe client and most likely to assist you in accomplishingyourobjective.313

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Stepsp.57 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Steps,p.16

309
310 311

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.147

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.178179 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Stepsp.57

312
313

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),ExerciseSelection,p.37 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.180 71|P a g e

Balance: all things being equal, and independent of any specificity demands, the selection of exercises should show balance throughout thebody.314 33.Checktimeundertensionandensureit isappropriatefortrainingmethodsand desiredadaptations 35.Finalanalysisofprogram,including checkingtotalvolumeandduration315

16. Check the balance of movement patterns All things being equal, and independent of any specificity demands, the selection of exercises should show balance throughout thebody 17.Checkreps,timeundertension,tempo, rest periods etc. after exercise selection for anymodifications.

If movements need to be done slowly or For example is impossible to do a step up quickly, this eliminates certain exercises. at505tempo Power cleans are not suitable slow lifts. Use deadliftsinstead..316 9.Planalternatingmusclegroupallocation insubsequentphasestoreceivevaried benefits.317 its usually 46 stages laid that I lay out in front of them. Its all clearly laid out. The programisntwritteninadvance,Ionlywrite the first stage program usually, because thingschangetoomuch.318 Timemagnifieserrorsintraining.319 18. Plan movement pattern allocation in subsequent phases to achieve varied emphasisandbenefits That means at least planning, if not actually designing each successive stage of a program

Its important to recognize that time will magnifyanyandallerrorsintraining320

314 315

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),ExerciseSelection,p.41 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,35Stepsp.57 316 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,SuitabilityofExercises,p.127 317 King,I.,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms,Allocationofmusclegroupstotrainingdays,p.23


318 319
320

King,I.,2000,InjuryPrevention&Rehabilitation(DVD),Disc3,60minsin King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.75 72|P a g e

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.180181

Therereallyisnoperfectcombination.321 The best program in the World has a flaw You see, in essence all programs have an because even with a perfectly balanced imbalance322 program The priority principle is that the training activity or exercise that gets conducted first will get the best response. This is for two reasons:1)thebodyisfresh323 There is really one simple rule here. The exercisesyoudofirstintheworkoutandfirst in the training week are the exercises that get the best effort, and therefore the best result.324 But what I will teach you now is never use the same muscle group sequence endlessly. Doing so will do two things : reinforce inevitable muscle imbalances that result from any given sequence; and secondly, contribute to the neglected muscle groups stagnating.325 somethinghastobedonefirstwhen youarefresh,andsomethinghastobedone lastwhenyouarethemosttired. Simplyput,youtendtogetthegreatest trainingeffectfromwhateverisperformed earliestintheworkout.

If you continue to follow the exact same movement pattern split for long periods of time, you will very likely develop muscle imbalancesandriskinjury.

.To avoid this, I alternate or reverse the Toavoidthis,alternate(i.e.dotheexact priorities.326 oppositemovementpattern)orreversethe priorities So here is what I suggest : start every 12 week cycle with an workout order which is the reverse of what you want in the final stagesoftheprogram327 (i.e.thelastmovementpatternonthelast daybecomesthefirstmovementpatternon thefirstdayinthenextphase328

His first program would be HD QD on both It is typical for beginners to do up to two days. His next program, his next stage, I trainingprogramswiththesamesequencing might allow a reversal for variety, and down without rotation, as it is often unlikely that
321 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed!,p.96
King,I.,AsktheMaster(book),2003,ProgramDesignStrengthTraining,p.14 King,I.,2000,FoundationsofPhysicalPreparation,4.2.iiiSequencingintrainingtheroleofpriorityand residualfatigue,p.9396
323 324 325
322

King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.25 King,I.,GetBuffed(book),1999,p.161 326 King,I.,1998,HowtoWriteStrengthTrainingPrograms(book),p.25 327 King,I.,1999,GetBuffed(book),Ch15WhatordershouldIdomyexercisesin?,p.79


328

Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.181

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the track he might even come back to QD you will completely correct the imbalance HD, HDQd. thats 3 distinct alternatives that withonefourweekprogram. he's got. But believe me: he'd spend a lot of timeinthefirstonetocounterthat.Ifhedid this (old) program for 6 month, guess what? Hed have to do the other program for 6 month to counter it. Now you understand howIdesignprogramsalittlebitbetter?You reverse the imbalances that they've been exposedto.329 So whatever program you are doing at any given time, it will give you a muscle imbalance. Some programs more so than others. The challenge we all face isbalancing this imbalance overtime. I prefer to be in control of this, rather than reacting or not even being aware of the imbalances I am creating in my program design. In fact, my preference is to predict or anticipate in advance the imbalances that may result from any given protocol and therefore be planning the damage control for subsequent programs.330 Once imbalances are addressed and corrected, movement pattern priority MUST change every program otherwise we are creatingfurtherimbalances.

The simple example is the person who does We all know that 90% of all training their favorite body part first in the week and programsintheUSAstartonaMondaywith first in the workout every time! The more thebenchpress.332 this goes on for, the more the imbalance becomes!331
329 King,I.,2000,InjuryPrevention&Rehabilitation(DVD) 330 King,I.,AsktheMaster(book),2003,ProgramDesignStrengthTraining,p.143
331 332

King,I.,2002,GetBuffed!II(book),Ch1DesigningtheGetBuffed!IIWorkout,p.1314 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.182

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StepstoProgramDesign
35StepstoWritinga ProgramDesignChecklist StrengthTraining EighteenStepsto Program333 ProgrammingSuccess334 1.Determinegoals 1.DetermineGoal(s) 1. Determine dominant training type neural or metabolic 2. Determine dominant qualities of strength to betrained 3. Determine length of 2. Determine the time frame program to achieve goals or the lengthofthetrainingcycle 4. Select appropriate 3. Choose a suitable methodofperiodization periodizationmodel 5. 6StepstoWriteaProgram SixStepstoProgramming Success335336 1.Whatistheclientsgoal?

2 How long is the overall program?

6.

7. 8.

9.

2.a What periodization model/template is going to beused? Determine appropriate 4.Determinerateofchange 2.b How many different sub rate of change of ofprogram phasesarethere? program Determineratioofwork: recoveryweeksandwhat typeofrecoveryweeks Select type of program totalbodyorsplitroutine Determine frequency ie. 6. Determine the frequency number of training days of the workouts per week perweek/microcycle (how many training sessions?) Select which training 7.Determinethedaysofthe days weekfortrainingsessions

333 334

King,I.,HowToWrite(book),1998,p.57 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.171182 335 Cosgrove,A.,andCosgrove,R.,2009,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible(2ndEd),p.124135 336 Cosgrove,A.,Cosgrove,R.,Rasmussen,C.,andWunch,M.,2009.Aug2009ProgramDesignSeminar

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/cont

35StepstoWritinga ProgramDesignChecklist StrengthTraining EighteenStepsto Program337 ProgrammingSuccess338 10.Determine which time of thedaytotrain 8. Establish through interview/evaluation any weaknesses and / or imbalances (i.e. lifts/movement patterns that are lacking behind the other movements, which areas are elongated and weak, which areasareshortandtight). 10. Determine any other movement patterns to be trained. 11.Selectmusclegroups 12.Determine priorities in 9. Determine movement musclegroups patterns to be training that will address the biggest weaknessesandprioritize. 13.Allocate muscle groups 11.Allocatecorrective totrainingdays stretchingexercisesand p. 13 under this step in HTW movementpatternstoeach If you were doing a total trainingday(canuseasplit body workout that is the routineORasingle same for each of the 3 or so workout). weekly workouts, you would only use column A. If you were working with a 3 day split routine where each day was different, you would use columnA,BandC.

337 338

6StepstoWriteaProgram SixStepstoProgramming Success339340

4. Determine priorities go through the evaluation/assessment screennotes

King,I.,HowToWrite(book),1998,p.57 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.171182 339 Cosgrove,A.,andCosgrove,R.,2009,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible(2ndEd),p.124135 340 Cosgrove,A.,Cosgrove,R.,Rasmussen,C.,andWunch,M.,2009.Aug2009ProgramDesignSeminar

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/cont

35StepstoWritinga StrengthTraining Program341 14.Plan alternation of musclegroupsequencing p.23HowtoWrite 9. Plan alternating muscle group allocation in subsequent phases to receivevariedbenefits. 15.Select appropriate trainingmethods

ProgramDesignChecklist 6StepstoWriteaProgram EighteenStepsto SixStepstoProgramming ProgrammingSuccess342 Success343344 18. Plan movement pattern 6.Planthenextphase. allocation in subsequent phases to achieve varied emphasisandbenefits.

5.Selectappropriateset, rep,tempoandrestperiods foreachprogramwithinthe cycle

16.Determinedominant trainingintensities/ repetitions 17.Determineproposed durationofprogram

12. Determine total training timeperworkout. 13.Calculateavailablework time(totaltrainingtime warmuptimestretching etc)

18.Determinedominant speedofmovement/ techniquetosuittraining method 19.Determineaverage durationofrepandsets 20.Determinerestperiods tobeused 21.Calculatetotalsettime 22.Determinetotalnumber ofsetspermissiblefor eachtrainingsession

14.Divideavailablework timebytotaltimeunder tension+restperiodforall prescribedsets(determined fromperiodizationmodel). Thiswillgiveyouanumber ofallowableexercises.


341 342

King,I.,HowToWrite(book),1998,p.57 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.171182 343 Cosgrove,A.,andCosgrove,R.,2009,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible(2ndEd),p.124135 344 Cosgrove,A.,Cosgrove,R.,Rasmussen,C.,andWunch,M.,2009.Aug2009ProgramDesignSeminar

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/cont

35StepstoWritinga ProgramDesignChecklist StrengthTraining EighteenStepsto Program345 ProgrammingSuccess346 23.Determinehowmany musclegroupsper workout 24.Determinehowmany exercisespermuscle groupdesired 25.Determinehowmany setsperexercisepossible 26.Considerissuesof specificityversus generalityandtransfer 27.Determineequipmentto beused 28.Selectsuitableexercises 15.Selecttheexercisesfor foreachmusclegroup. eachmovementpatternthat ismostappropriateforthe clientandmostlikelyto assistyouinaccomplishing yourobjective. 16. Check the balance of movementpatterns. 29.Determine sequence of exercises 31.Determinesets, 5.Selectappropriateset, repetitionsandrestperiods rep,tempoandrestperiods foreachexercise foreachprogramwithinthe cycle 32.Selectspeedof 5.Selectappropriateset, movement/techniquefor rep,tempoandrestperiods eachexercise foreachprogramwithinthe cycle 33.Checktimeunder tensionandensureitis appropriatefortraining methodsanddesired adaptations

345 346

6StepstoWriteaProgram SixStepstoProgramming Success347348

5. Select the most appropriate exercises for eachmovementpattern.

King,I.,HowToWrite(book),1998,p.57 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.171182 347 Cosgrove,A.,andCosgrove,R.,2009,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible(2ndEd),p.124135 348 Cosgrove,A.,Cosgrove,R.,Rasmussen,C.,andWunch,M.,2009.Aug2009ProgramDesignSeminar

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/cont

35StepstoWritinga StrengthTraining Program349 34.Adviseonuseofany personaltrainingequipment 35.Finalanalysisof program,includingchecking totalvolumeandduration

ProgramDesignChecklist EighteenStepsto ProgrammingSuccess350 17.Checkreps,timeunder tension,tempo,restperiods etc.afterexerciseselection foranymodifications.

6StepstoWriteaProgram SixStepstoProgramming Success351352

3 Checks and balances (check that the workout can be done in the propsed duration)

349 350

King,I.,HowToWrite(book),1998,p.57 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.171182 351 Cosgrove,A.,andCosgrove,R.,2009,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible(2ndEd),p.124135 352 Cosgrove,A.,Cosgrove,R.,Rasmussen,C.,andWunch,M.,2009.Aug2009ProgramDesignSeminar

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AbouttheAuthor
[1999] Thanks Ian I have read "so you want..." thoroughly. While I agree with your statements it is easier for you with an establishedrecordtoattractnewclientsthan it is for an "outsider" like me to break in. The reason I'm asking is to see where my weaknesses are what is holding me back in other words as I'm failing to identify it somehow.) there must be something else I can do. Your other comments as regards not allowingadministratorstoevaluateyouis a good one but until I am "in" as it were I don'tseewhatIcandotoavoidit. There must be a reason why a guy like Dave Clarke becomes the national strength coach for Scotland over me that I'm not seeing youknow? I've pasted my CV below ..it will be messy buthopefullyyoucanseeit.Alwyn353 Education:ChesterCollege,Chester, England19921995BAHons (affiliateofLiverpoolUniversity.) [2000] Ian, I'd like to move out of the personal training field and train athletes exclusivelybutbillsneedtobepaid.I'vebeen at this gym since late Sep and was this week offered the head personal trainer position unsureastowhetherornottoacceptit.... I'm just concerned as to whether or not the move to an administrative position would "hurt" my career in the longer term (ie the goal being to train athletes similar to yourself)..Alwyn354

353 354

[2005]For the past 17 years Alwyn Cosgrove has been committed to achieving excellence in the field of fitness training and athleticpreparation..355

PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Wednesday,13October1999 PersonalCommunication,CosgrovetoKing,Tuesday,29February2000 355 Cosgrove,A.,2005,FitnessProfessionalsProgramDesignBible,ResultsFitness,p.184

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Testimonials
"RachelCosgroveisoneofmytopsourcesforfitnessadvice.Sheis,withoutadoubt,thebest intheworldathelpingwomenlosefatandgetinthebestshapeoftheirlives.Infact,there's nooneinthefitnessindustryItrustmore." AdamCampbell,MS,CSCS,FitnessDirector,Men'sHealth AlwynCosgrovenotonlygetsitbuthecanteachit.Thisistherealkey.Aguywithbrains, asenseofhumorandanaturalabilitytorelatetoanaudience.Youlllovehim. MikeBoyle,EliteStrengthcoach AlwynCosgroveisoneofthepremierauthoritiesinsportsperformanceandfitnesstoday. Hiscuttingedgeapproachtotrainingandconditioninghasmadehimoneofthemost soughtafterpresenterandtrainerintheindustry ChrisPoirierGeneralManagerPerformBetter Asatrainingprofessionalmyself,IcangiveyoutheguaranteethatAlwynCosgroveisone ofthebestintheindustry.Alwynsapproachtobuildingmuscleandlosingfatisoneofthe easiesttounderstand,andmosteffectivethatIhaveEVERseen.Takeitfromme,Alwyns adviceisrealitybased,sciencebacked,provenagainandagainanditWILLgetyouthe resultsthatyouhavebeenlookingfor CJMurphy,TotalPerformanceSports Intermsofgettingfitnessresults,forlackofwords,AlwynCosgroveisTheMan.Alwyns realworldtraininghasresultedinhundredsofpeoplereachingfitnesslevelstheynever thoughtwerepossible.Thisguyistherealdeal.inanagewhereinternettrainersandfly bynightfitnessexpertsabound,CosgroveisaREALtrainerwhogetREALresultsevery singleday. RobertdosRemedios,MA,CSCS,DirectorofSpeedStrength&ConditioningCollegeofthe Canyons,CA,2006NSCACollegeStrength&ConditioningCoachoftheYear AlwynCosgroveistheexpertsexpertwhenitcomestomusclebuildingandfatloss.IfIm everstumpedorhavequestions,AlwynisthefirstpersonthatIgoto.Quitesimply,ifyour goalsaretogetleanerorputonsomeseriousmuscle,AlwynCosgroveisyourman. MikeRobertson,RobertsonTrainingSystems AlwynCosgrovewasntbornevil.Hemadehimselfevilinadisciplined,systematicway.His yearsofeducation,experience,andobservationhavehelpedtensofthousandsofreaders gettheresultstheywantfromtheirtrainingprograms.TheymaycurseAlwynsmethods, buttheynevercomplainabouttheoutcome. LouSchuler
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AlwynisoneofthefewpeopleIalwaysgotoformyowntrainingneeds.Nootherfitness expertcancoalescescience,experienceandpracticalapplicationaswellashecan. ChadWaterburyTnation.comAuthorMuscleRevolution EverytimeItalktoAlwynhegivesmeafresh,newideaformytrainingprograms.Justwhen IthoughtIhadhearditall,heimproveshismusclebuilding,fatburningmethods.Butthats whathappenswhensomeonehasthousandsofhoursofexperienceinthegym. CraigBallantyne,MensHealthTrainingAdviser Thereareveryfewpeopleinthefitnessprofessionthathavetherealworld,inthetrenches experienceandresultsthatAlwynCosgrovedoes DaveTateEliteFitnessSystemswww.EliteFTS.com TheresareasonfitnessprofessionalsallaroundtheworldknowAlwynCosgrovesname, takehisrecommendationstoheart,andtrytoreplicateResultsFitnessbusinessmodelin theirownpractices:hesgottenresultstimeandtimeagain.Alwynsknowledgeand versatilityhavekepthimatthetopofaverydynamicindustryformanyyears,andIconsider myselffortunatetohavehimasbothagreatindustryresourceandfriend. EricCressey,StrengthandConditioningCoachBoston,MA IcancountononehandthenumberofpeoplethatIregularlycallforadvicewhenitcomes tobuildingmuscleandlosingfatrapidly.AlwynCosgroveisdefinitelyoneofthem.His countlesshoursofrealworld,inthetrenchesexperiencecombinedwithhisunsurpassed knowledgeofthehumanbodymakeshimoneofthetopfitnesscoachesintheworldtoday. HetrulyisaleaderinourindustryandIcantsayenoughgoodthingsabouthim. JasonFerruggia,ProfessionalFitnessCoach,HeadTrainingAdviser,MensFitnessMagazine

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FinalWord USA company Perform Better continue to sell this book, knowing that it contains extensive copyright breaches breaching copyright being a criminal act and receiving the financial benefits from the commission of the act of copying. Apparentlytheyfindthistobeacceptablebusinesspractice.

http://www.kingsports.net/industryintegritytest.htm

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