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Chapter 1:

System Overview

Contents:
CHAPTER 1 SYSTEM OVERVIEW............................................................................................................ 1 1.PCS 7 SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE........................................................................................................... 1 1.1 A TYPICAL SYSTEM CONFIGURATION ....................................................................................................... 1 1.2 ES: ENGINEERING STATION ..................................................................................................................... 1 1.3 AS: AUTOMATION STATION ..................................................................................................................... 3 1.4 FIELD DEVICES ......................................................................................................................................... 4 1.4.1 PROFIBUS DP and PROFIBUS PA................................................................................................ 5 1.4.2 PCS 7 Engineering tools for field devices (PDM) ........................................................................... 6 1.5 PCS7 OS: OPERATOR STATION ................................................................................................................ 7 1.6 THE PLANT BUS AND THE TERMINAL BUS .............................................................................................. 10 1.7 FROM ENGINEERING TO PROCESS OPERATION......................................................................................... 12 2. PCS 7 SOFTWARE SYSTEM............................................................................................................. 12 2.1 BASIC DATA ........................................................................................................................................... 12 2.2 SOFTWARE LICENSING............................................................................................................................ 12 3. TOTALLY INTEGRATED AUTOMATION (TIA) ......................................................................... 13

APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................................... 15 APPENDIX 1: INSTALLATION OF PCS 7......................................................................................................... 15 1.1 Presupposed operating systems ........................................................................................................ 15 1.2 PCS 7 and Domains.......................................................................................................................... 15 1.3 PC station specification (minimal) ................................................................................................... 16 1.4 Installation of a Workstation for PCS 7............................................................................................ 16 APPENDIX 2: ESSENTIAL DOCUMENTS OF PCS 7 .......................................................................................... 16 APPENDIX 3: PCS 7 SUPPORT ....................................................................................................................... 16 APPENDIX 4: SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE FOR THE EXERCISES IN THIS MANUAL ......................................... 17

PCS 7 PoT Chapter 1 System Overview

Chapter 1 System Overview


Siemens SIMATIC PCS 7 system provides a wide range of hardware, software, engineering, configuring and diagnostic tools for industrial automation and control. This chapter provides an overview on the system architecture and functions. Abbreviations used in the system are explained.

1.PCS 7 system architecture


1.1 A typical system configuration
A principal PCS7 system is illustrated in Picture 1.1 where ES stands for Engineering Station, OS for Operator Station and AS for Automation Station.

Terminal bus

Plant bus

Picture 1.1: PCS7 system architecture

1.2 ES: Engineering Station


PCS 7 projects are designed at the engineering stations that are installed with PCS 7 engineering tools and have communication access to automation stations and operator stations.

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PCS 7 ES provides powerful engineering tools, for example: SIMATIC Manager: project creation, library creation, project management and diagnostics, etc. Multi-project: In the SIMATIC Manager, you can create projects (single projects) or multi-projects. A multi-project contains one or several projects and a master data library. Master data library: A master data library is associated with a multi-project. Different from other system or application specific libraries, a master data library is within a multi-project and collects all function types used in the multi-project. Component View: Used for adding and engineering new stations such as ES, AS and OS. Plant View: Used for design Plant Hierarchy (PH) of plants. Process Object View: During engineering, you create many objects. The Process object view contains all the engineering aspects of a project. You display these objects and edit them in the view. HW Config: Hardware Configuration Environment for an AS. Used for configuration of CPUs, communication processors, peripheries and field buses, etc. NetPro: Configuration Environment for communication between AS and AS, as well as, AS and OS. Configuration Console: With the Configuration Console, you can change the settings of PC Network adapters. Station Configurator: It displays the actual PC configuration found and set up for PCS 7 systems. SIMATIC NET: NetPro, Configuration Console, and Station Configurator are interfaces of the SIMATIC NET. SIMATIC NET is a platform to configure network and bus systems used in a SIMATIC project. CFC: Continuous Function Chart. Used for design of libraries, automation logic, interlocks, algorithms and controls, etc. SFC: Sequential Function Chart. Used for design of sequential controls, logic and interlocks, etc. SCL: Structured Control Language. Used for programming of algorithms and creation of function blocks, etc. IEA: Import Export Assistant. Used for generation of control models, process tag types and replicas. WinCC: Windows Control Centre. PCS 7 operator interfaces and visualisation. Graphics Designer: Design of plant pictures, graphic objects and animations. Web Navigator: With PCS 7 OS Web you get the facility to monitor and control the process via internet or intranet.

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Engineering of PCS 7 projects on an ES can be divided into two phases namely AS engineering and OS engineering. AS engineering covers the design of the plant hierarchy, function blocks, CFCs, SFCs, configuration of hardware and communication components. OS engineering covers the design of plant operating interface with operating functions and plant pictures, as well as the configuration of the archive and protocol (s. Capital 1.5) A lot of system functions from AS engineering are automatically available for OS engineering with the function: Compile OS.

1.3 AS: Automation Station


A PCS 7 automation station comprises of the following modules: Module Rack (Rack) Power Supply (PS) Central Processing Unit (CPU) Communication Processor for plant bus (CP for Ethernet) (optional) Communication Processor for field bus (CP for PROFIBUS DP) (optional) Input and output modules (optional)

The CPU, comprising of hardware and firmware, processes an S7 program, which is downloaded from the ES via the plant bus and programs. PCS 7 AS contains the CPUs, which are from Siemens SIMATIC S7 400 series. They can communicate with the field level via an internal PROFIBUS DP interface or via a/several CPs . A typical example of automation systems with a link to Distributed I/Os is shown in Picture 1.2.

Picture 1.2: An automation station

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The S7 program, which is processed in the CPU, consists of a continuous processing sequence of the cascaded blocks. What are blocks? Which blocks are there in PCS 7? Block is an important concept in PCS 7. A summary of the blocks used in the system is listed in Table 1.1.
Block Organisation block (OB) System function block (SFB) System function Call (SFC) Function block (FB) Function Call (FC) Instance data block (instance DB) Data block (DB) Brief Description of Function OBs determine the structure and the processing sequence of the user program. SFBs and SFCs are integrated in the S7 CPU and allow you to access some system functions. FBs are blocks with a program and a "memory" to store variables. You can design your own FBs. FCs contain program routines for frequently used functions. FCs have no memory. Instance DBs are associated with blocks when an FB/SFB is called. They are created automatically during compilation. DBs are data areas for storing user data. Furthermore, the data that are not assigned to a function block, can also be defined as global DBs (shared data) and used globally by any blocks. SDB contains the data of HW configuration.

System data (SDB)

Table 1.1: Blocks of PCS 7 Note The abbreviation SFC is for the Sequential Function Chart (editor or charts). The System Function Call will not use the abbreviation. However, you will see objects such as SFC4, SFC265, SFB35, etc. in the PCS 7 system and they mean the system Functions (System Function Call / Block ).

1.4 Field devices


A big advantage of PCS 7 systems is the seamless integration of various field devices and instruments into their central control systems using field bus technology. Siemens itself and various device-vendors, as members of PROFIBUS User Organization (http://www.profibus.com), provide ranges of drives, transmitters, sensors, and instruments, which are compliant to the PROFIBUS DP protocols. PROFIBUS DP supports intrinsically safe instrumentation and has interfaces to other field bus systems, such as PROFIBUS PA, HART protocol and foundation field bus. Picture 1.3 shows an overview of the field level of a PCS 7 AS.

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Picture 1.3: PCS 7 field level

1.4.1 PROFIBUS DP and PROFIBUS PA


PROFIBUS DP is designed to replace the traditional parallel signal transmission with 24 volts in manufacturing automation and also for analogue signal transmission with 4 20 mA or Hart in processing automation. PROFIBUS DP overcomes the distance from a PCS 7 AS to a field zone with baud rates up to 12Mbit/s. Within a field zone, the PROFIBIS PA profile defines the parameters and behaviour of typical field devices such as measuring transducers or positioners. The PA profile is suitable for analogue signal transmission with additional status, service and diagnosis information. Benefits are obvious when comparing the PROFIBUS technology to conventional cabling technology. Separation, terminal and distribution devices are replaced by one PROFIBUS system. It is efficient to install the bus systems because of availability of the graphic interfaces and comprehensive diagnostic tools. With fibre optic wiring, long distance communication, e.g. between buildings, becomes feasible. The simplicity of PROFIBUS significantly reduces commissioning and servicing efforts. Picture 1.4 shows the simplicity of using PROFIBUS technology.

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Picture 1.4: Simplicity with PROFIBUS DP and PA

1.4.2 PCS 7 Engineering tools for field devices (PDM)


SIMATIC PDM (Process Device Manager) can be integrated into the PCS 7 engineering systems or used as a stand-alone console. SIMATIC PDM is a tool for commissioning, maintenance, diagnostics and display of field devices and automation components. Picture 1.5 shows the software environment where you can calibrate a device, set devices addresses on the bus and communicate online with a device.

Picture 1.5: Parameterization and communication with devices using PDM

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PCS 7 system also provides library functions to integrate devices into automation design. Picture 1.6 shows that the reading of a pressure transmitter is cyclic read into the CFC via the function block PA_AI and the value is displayed at OS.

Picture 1.6: Field devices integrated with the PCS 7 engineering tools

1.5 PCS7 OS: Operator Station


In the simple case, a PCS 7 OS is a computer to operate the process plant and simultaneously assume the administration/maintenance and archiving functions for the process valves and messages, named as OS Single Station. In a distributed system, OS is differentiated between OS Client and OS Server. OS Client is used to operate the plant in a control room. OS Server assumes all the administration/maintenance and archiving functions. (1) OS engineering OS engineering is conducted at an ES. An OS project, as one part of an ES project can be configured by the following functions:

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Design of graphic objects (buttons, slides, trends, faceplates etc.). SFC Visualization: Automatic graphic map of SFC operation sequence in the OS runtime system. Design of data archives (variables and messages) and long-term data storage. Design of reports: Printing-out of system and process data. User administration: Allocation and control of authorisation accesses of users for different operational roles. Redundancy: Configuration of a second equivalent OS server that is coupled with the primary server. If one of the two server computers fails, the second server assumes the administration/maintenance of the entire system. After the server which failed is brought back into service, the contents of all message and process archives are copied and synchronised. Time Synchronisation: One OS acts in run-time as a time master and controls the time synchronisation of all other OS and AS connected to the plant bus and terminal bus with the current time. Lifebeat Monitoring: Lifebeat Monitoring is used to constantly monitor the individual systems (OS and AS) and visualises the results as screen displays in the OS runtime system. Asset Management: In addition to Lifebeat Monitoring automatically generated diagnosis pictures contributes to better maintenance of the plant and makes it available to provide the data to superordinate management systems. Connection to other applications. PCS 7 OS provides open interfaces for user solutions. This makes it possible to integrate PCS 7 OS into complex, companywide automation solutions, e.g. OPC or OLEDB.

It is possible to create 3 kinds of different OS projects. (1) Single-user project A single-user project is used for a stand-alone operating station. It is for small systems where server and client functions are combined on one PC. Depend on request engineering and operation can also be combined on a single station. (2) Multi-user project A multi-user project is used in the Server/Client environment. It is a project with an own database, for an OS server station, it is possible to supply OS client stations with the project data. (3) Client project A client project is also used in the Server/Client environment. It is a project without own database, for an OS client station, it is possible to connect themselves to an OS server station. OS projects will be downloaded to the corresponding stations after OS engineering.

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(1) OS server An OS server provides the connected OS clients with the process values in process pictures and passes the instructions of operators on to the function blocks in assigned Ass. An OS server can be accessed by up to 32 clients, named as Operate Station. Normally, OS server is not used to operate the plant. Depending on the license one OS server can access up to 85,000 process objects, which can be allocated on up to 32 ASs. If plants project needs several OS servers, OS servers are arranged according to plant hierarchies. One or more areas of the hierarchy are assigned to an OS server. This is fundamentally different from SCADA systems where OS servers are arranged according to archives, for example, message (alarms) server, process - trend (process variables) server, and picture (graphic objects) server. Picture 1.7 shows the distribution of PCS 7 OS servers according to the plant areas.

OS server 1

OS server 2

OS server 3

Plant Hierarchy Branch 1

Plant Hierarchy Branch 2

Plant Hierarchy Branch 3

Raw material unit

Reaction unit

Cleaning unit

Picture 1.7: PCS 7 OS servers (2) Redundant OS server Here, the redundancy is at the OS level. PCS 7 provides redundancy at all levels, for example, at the AS level, plant bus level and peripheral level, etc. Two OS servers can form a redundant pair of servers with one of them designed as standby server. Both server of this pair are functionally identical and are running in parallel during normal operation. Each server has its own process connections and data archives. The AS sends the process data and messages to both redundant servers. If one server fails, the clients will automatically switch from the failed server to the other active server. After the failed server comes back online, the redundancy will perform archive synchronisation for the down time. The archive gap caused by the failure will be filled by transferring the missing data to the server which was failed. This action equalises the servers. (3) OS client An OS client communicates with the assigned OS server via terminal bus. Clients have no direct access to the plant bus and ASs. They access project data on OS servers only via a so-called server package.

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1.6 The Plant bus and the Terminal bus


The plant bus and the terminal bus are realised with Industrial Ethernet, an efficient area and cell net for the industrial area according to international Standard 802.3 (Ethernet). Bus structures with optical rings are particularly suitable due to their stability and high availability. For medium-sized and large plants with high requirements, SIMATIC PCS7 use modern Gigabit and FastEthernet technology. It combines the high security of the optical rings and the scalable performance by switching technology and high transmission rates up to 1 Gbit/s. Transmission media could be: Industrial Twisted Pair (ITP) Fibre-optic cable (FOC) Picture 1.8 shows a possible network structure in PCS 7:

Picture 1.8: Industrial Ethernet and OLM

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The following switches are predominantly used in SIMATIC PCS 7: SCALANCE X414-3E with two Gigabit-Ethernet ports for design of plant bus and OS-LAN (terminal bus) with redundant, optical Gigabit ring technology; permits maximum communications performance, especially with very large plants with comprehensive quantity frameworks and wide communication networks. SCALANCE X208 with 8 ports for transmission rates up to 100 Mbit/s, suitable for electrical Industrial Ethernet structures with linear, star or ring topology (ring together with SCALANCE X-400 as redundant manager). SCALANCE X204-2 with 2 optical and 4 electrical ports for transmission rates up 100 Mbit/s, suitable for optical Industrial Ethernet structures with linear or ring topology (ring together with SCALANCE X-400 as redundant manager). The plant bus and the terminal bus are best separately laid out in PCS 7. Normally, there are one or several switches per control cabinet, where the communication modules of AS, ES or OS are connected via a patch cable. CP443-1 is used as AS communication module. In the simple case, a standard network adapter is used as ES and OS communication module. For high performance CP 1613 is used in plant bus. For communication on the plant bus, the designed S7 connections of individual stations are downloaded based on MAC address or TCP/IP address. With PCS 7 you can configure the plant bus and the terminal bus as a redundant network. The following redundancy concepts can be combined with each other: Electrical or optical ring structure: One ring comprises of at least 2 switches, whereby one assumes the function of redundant manager. It tolerates an error, for example, an injury or breakup on a cable. Redundant ring: A complete backup structure of an existing ring is built. Two rings are coupled on the terminal bus. On the plant bus it is better to separate these two rings. Software SIMATIC S7 REDCONNECT (plant bus): If a fault-tolerant AS is in use, S7 REDCONNECT can switch between 2 or 4 designed connections automatically. Therefore a S7 connection fault-tolerant is created instead of a S7 connection. A further prerequisite is that a CP1613 as network adapter is necessary in each OS server or OS single station. Redundant connection of terminal bus: Every OS on the terminal bus is connected to a redundant ring structure with 2 network adapters. The two Intel Network adapters are combined into team with a TCP/IP address, so that the station can also be reached via the terminal bus in case of one Network adapter failed.

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1.7 From engineering to process operation


After the engineering phase of a project, the S7 program (AS-specific data: DBs, FCs, FBs, and OBs etc.) is downloaded from an ES to AS to be executed. The OS part of the project (OS-specific data: pictures, messages, archives and server packages) is downloaded to OS servers and clients. The OS project is then activated on the servers and clients. Now an operator can operate and monitor the process with PCS 7 OS runtime system.

2. PCS 7 software system


2.1 Basic data
PCS 7 system capability is related to handling of process objects, variables and data archives. One process object (PO) means one AS function block (FB) with an OS faceplate. The following relations are valid for a PCS 7 system and provide an approximation of project data volume. 1 Process Object (e.g. motor, valve, control loop and SFC) 1 function blocks + faceplate 25-50 OS variables
No. of notes on the plant bus No. of clients accessing one OS server No. of OS servers or pairs of server No. of PO in an AS No. of PO in a project 1024 32 12 app. 500 depending on the scan cycle 60,000

Table 1.2: PCS 7 system capability data

2.2 Software licensing


PCS 7 systems (AS + OS) are scaled according to the number of process objects while OS runtime is based on the number of variables. The tier of the software packages is listed in Table 1.3 where each of the licenses includes an archiving license for 512 variables.
AS/OS license 250 PO 2,000 PO 3,000 PO 5,000 PO 8,500 PO Max. Number of OS variables 8000 64000 100000 150000 256000

Table 1.3: PCS 7 PO licenses

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3. Totally integrated automation (TIA)


SIMATIC PCS 7 system is a platform supplying the complete spectrum of automation components in the process, hybrid and discrete (manufacturing) industrial sectors. With application and innovation of new technologies, industry specific control systems which were divided are merging and overlapping. PCS 7 is capable to supply hardware and software components across the industrial sectors.

Picture 1.9: Industrial sectors and control systems SIMATIC PCS 7 system is the core of Siemens concept for totally integrated automation (TIA). Picture 1.10 shows the coverage of SIMATIC PCS 7 and relations to other Siemens systems. Industrial networks (Plant bus and PROFIBUS) and field devices are fully integrated into and covered by SIMATIC. The SIMATIC IT is the Siemens product at the Management Execution System (MES) level. Through SIMATIC IT PCS 7 systems can be connected to the enterprise level (ERP).

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Picture 1.10: SIMATIC PCS 7 coverage This manual focuses on the PCS 7 system engineering. In terms of physical levels of the automation systems, the manual has covered the OS server, OS clients, AS, and distributed I/O. Picture 1.11 shows an example of PCS 7 system components. There are more devices can be included and configured in PCS 7 systems. Everything to list would blow up/be too much for the frame of this manual.

Picture 1.11: PCS 7 system architecture Training documents and courses are also available from Siemens on all other topics, e.g. SIMATIC BATCH and PROFIBUS technology, etc.

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Appendices
Appendix 1: Installation of PCS 7
Note Refer to the PCS 7 PCS 7 Readme file for latest information on PCS 7 installation.

1.1 Presupposed operating systems


SIMATIC PCS 7 V7.0 Microsoft Installation Windows XP Professional SP2 Engineering Station Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition SP1 (for Multi-project Engineering) 1) Operator System - Single-user Operator System - Terminal (client) Operator System - Server SIMATIC Batch - Single-user or SIMATIC Batch - Client SIMATIC Batch - Server Central Archive Server
1)

Windows XP Professional SP2 Windows XP Professional SP2 Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition SP1 Windows XP Professional SP2 Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition SP1 Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition SP1

Multi-project Engineering with central storage of the project on a server

Table 1.4: Windows installation You need at least one engineering station for the exercises in this book.

1.2 PCS 7 and Domains


A PCS 7 plant can be administrated in a Windows domain instead of a Windows work group. Hereby, a PCS 7 station (OS, ES and BATCH) must not be used as a domain controller. It must also not be used for other domain administration purposes (DHCP server and DNS server, etc.).

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1.3 PC station specification (minimal)


Station ES or OS Server CPU Physical memory Capacity of the hard drive OS Client CPU Physical memory Capacity of the hard drive Requirement Pentium IV; 2GHZ 1 Gbyte RAM 120 Gbyte Pentium IV; 2GHZ 1 Gbyte RAM 120 Gbyte

Table 1.5: PC station specification (minimal)

1.4 Installation of a Workstation for PCS 7


For the installation of the operating system and PCS 7 on the engineering station please refer to the documentation which you find on the actual PCS 7 installation DVD in folder _Manuals>English> PCS 7-PC Configuration and Authorization. PDF, Chapter 3: Installing the PC Stations.

Appendix 2: Essential documents of PCS 7


PCS 7 documentation is provided in the second DVD inside the PCS 7 Toolbox. It contains all the manuals about PCS 7. PCS 7 Installation copies documents into Start Menu > SIMATIC > Documentation. The important information of PCS 7 and the individual components can be found in Start Menu > SIMATIC > Information.

Appendix 3: PCS 7 support


PCS 7 on the Internet: www.PCS7.com. Technical information and discussion: www.PCS7.com > Support > FAQs. Technical Support:
Tel: Fax: Support Request: Internet: FAQ: AVC: +49 (0) 180 5050 222 +49 (0) 180 5050 223 http://www.siemens.com/automation/support-request http://www.siemens.com/automation/service&support http://www.siemens.com/automation/csi_en/product http://www.siemens.com/av-card

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Appendix 4: Software and hardware for the exercises in this manual


This manual is for hands-on training. If you want to follow the examples, exercises and projects included in the manual, you need software and hardware components listed in the following table. Note that the Industrial Ethernet cards with basic communication (BCE) are included in the ES, OS and AS PCs.
Component Software PCS 7 V7.0
SIMATIC PCS 7 Engineering Software AS/OS V7.0 incl. AS/OS Runtime license SFC-Visualisation (*2) Version Cross Manager (*2) Import Export Assistant (*2) SIMATIC PCS 7 Server Redundancy V7.0 6ES7 658-5AA07-0YA5 (PO250) 6ES7 652-0XD07-2YB5 6ES7 658-1CX107-2YA5 6ES7 658-1DX07-2YB5 6ES7 652-3BA07-2YA0 (PO250) Optional for chapter Optional for chapter For exercise on server and client communication in Chapter 13. 2x 1,4 MB physical memory module rack with 9 slots. 10A/230V CP443-1 for plant bus 2x 2,8 MB physical memory module rack with 9 slots, 10A/230V CP443-1 for plant bus 2x 5,6 MB physical memory module rack with 9 slots, 10A/230V CP443-1 for plant bus 2x 15 MB physical memory module rack with 9 slots, 10A/230V CP443-1 for plant bus Distributed I/O station ET200M (without signal modules) 6ES7 650-0LF07-0YX0 connect on plant bus with FastEthernet RJ45 net adapters (PCI adapters) Beginner Engineering Packet

Part No/ Version / Firmware

Note

Hardware
Automation system AS 414-3 with runtime license for 100 PO 6ES7 654-1QD58-0XX0 Automation system AS 416-2 with runtime license for 100 PO 6ES7 654-1JE58-0XX0 Automation system AS 416-3 with runtime license for 100 PO 6ES7 654-1KF58-0XX0 Automation system AS 417-4 with runtime license for 100 PO 6ES7 654-1LE58-0XX0 ET200M: I/O subsystem pull & plug With an IM 153-2 high feature ES (*1) 6ES7 654-0XX07-1XA0 SIMATIC PCS 7 ES/OS IL 43 BCE WXP With Basic communication Ethernet (BCE)

AS: Standard automation system with Industrial Ethernet connection via CP (selection)

Table 1.6: Software and hardware components required for the exercises (*1) Attention, that the license for plant bus communication (BCE, Basic Communication Ethernet) is only contained in SIMATIC PCS 7 ES/OS. (*2) Generally, for purpose of exercises and demonstration, there is a trial license for 14 days in every PCS 7 DVD.

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