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# International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11 (2012) Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.

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Extraction of the Internal Parameters of Solar photovoltaic Module by developing Matlab / Simulink Based Model
Zameer Ahmad and S.N. Singh M.Tech Student, Senior Scientific Officer Alternate Hydro Energy Centre Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee Roorkee, Uttrakhand (India) -247667 E-Email:zameer_zhec@yahoo.co.in, nishafah@iitr.ernet.in

Abstract This paper presents a method to extract the internal parameters such as ideality factor, series and shunt resistance of any solar PV cell using block diagram modeling of photovoltaic cell/module using Matlab/simulink model. Some of these parameters are not provided by manufactures. This model is based on mathematical equations and is described through an equivalent circuit including a photocurrent source, a diode, a series resistor and a shunt resistor. The model is simulated at standard condition (Solar irradiation 1000 W/m2 and temperature 298 K) using various parameters of BP SX150S module. The characteristics curves obtained by the simulation of Matlab/simulink model is matched the characteristics curves given by manufactures by changing the value of mentioned internal parameters. The model can also be used to obtain I-V & P-V Characteristics for varying solar insolation and varying cell temperature. Also, the point indicating module Voltage Vmpp & Current Impp corresponding to maximum power Pmax is obtained. The proposed model is designed with a user friendly icon. Keywords- Model, photovoltaic module, Matlab/simulink, internal parameters, insolation

1. INTRODUCTION With increasing concerns about fossil fuel deficit, skyrocketing oil prices, global warming, and damage to environment and ecosystem, the promising incentives to develop alternative energy resources with high efficiency and low emission are of great importance. Among the renewable energy resources, the energy through the Solar photovoltaic (SPV) effect can be considered the most essential and prerequisite sustainable resource because of the ubiquity, abundance, and sustainability of solar radiant energy. Regardless of the intermittency of sunlight, solar energy is widely available and completely free of cost. Recently, photovoltaic array system is likely recognized and widely utilized to the forefront in electric power applications. It can generate direct current electricity without environmental impact and contamination when is exposed to solar radiation. Being a semiconductor device, the PV system is static, quite, and having no moving parts, and these make it have little operation and maintenance costs. Even though the SPV system is posed to its high capital fabrication cost and low conversion efficiency, the skyrocketing oil prices make solar energy

naturally viable energy supply with potentially long-term benefits. SPV module represents the fundamental power conversion unit of a SPV generator system. The output characteristics of SPV module depends on the solar insolation, the cell temperature and output voltage of SPV module [1]. Since PV module has nonlinear characteristics, it is necessary to model it for the design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for SPV system applications. The mathematical SPV models used in computer simulation have been built for over the past four decades [2-4]. Typically, a SPV cell generates a voltage around 0.5 to 0.8 volts depending on the semiconductor and the built-up technology. This voltage is low enough as it cannot be of use. Therefore, to get benefit from this technology, tens of SPV cells (involving 36 to 72 cells) are connected in series to form a PV module. These modules can be interconnected in series and/or parallel to form a SPV panel. In case these modules are connected in series, their voltages are added with the same current. Nevertheless, when they are connected in parallel, their currents are added while the voltage is the same. The focus of this paper is on solar cell Matlab simulink block diagram modelling and extraction of internal parameters which is discussed in section three. In section two we discussed the Mathematical Model of the SPV Cell/Module. While simulation results and result discussion & conclusions are presented in section four and five respectively. 2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE SPV CELL/MODULE The building block of the SPV array is the solar cell, which is basically a p-n semiconductor junction that directly converts solar radiation into dc current using the photovoltaic effect.Fig.1 depicts the well-known equivalent circuit of the solar cell composed of a light generated current source, a diode representing the nonlinear impedance of the p-n junction, and series and parallel intrinsic resistances [2] and [5-6]. SPV cells are grouped together in larger units known as SPV modules or arrays, which are combined in series and parallel to provide the desired output voltage and current. The equivalent circuit for the solar cells arranged in NP-parallel and NS-series is shown in Fig. 2. The mathematical model that predicts the power production of the SPV generator becomes an algebraically simply model; being the currentvoltage relationship is given as follows [7-10].

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11 (2012) Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm IA=NPIPh-NPIS{exp[ (VA/NS+IARS/NP)]-1} -NP/RP(VA/NS+IARS/NP), analytical solution for a set of model parameters at a specific temperature and irradiance. Since normally IPH >> IS and ignoring the small diode and ground-leakage currents under zero-terminal voltage, the short-circuit current ISC is approximately equal to the photocurrent IPh, i.e. IPh=ISC (4) On the other hand, the VOC parameter is obtained by assuming the output current is zero. Given the PV open-circuit voltage VOC at reference temperature and ignoring the shunt leakage current, the reverse saturation current at reference temperature can be approximately obtained as IRS=ISC/ [exp(qVOC/KANSTC)-1] (5) 3. MATLAB SIMULINK MODEL The characteristic equations (1), (2), (3) & (5) for the SPV module is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink block shown in Fig.3 and its subsystems are Subsystem of Model of Solar PV Module/Array, Subsystem of Model of SPV Module/Array varying internal parameters, Block Diagram Model for IPh, Block Diagram Model for IRS and Block Diagram Model for IS are shown in Fig.4, 5, 6, 7&8 respectively.

(1)

Where: IA: PV array output current VA: PV array output voltage Iph: Solar cell photocurrent IRS: Solar cell reverse saturation current (aka dark current) q: Electron charge, 1.60217733e-19 C A or N: PN junction ideality factor, between 1 and 5 k: Boltzmann's constant, 1.380658e-23 J/K TC: Solar cell absolute operating temperature, K RS: Cell intrinsic series resistance RP: Cell intrinsic shunt or parallel resistance

## Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit of a PV array.

The SPV cell photocurrent which depends on the irradiation and the temperature as given in equation (2). IPh=[ISC+KI(TC-TR)]S/1000, (2) KI = 0.0017 A/C is cells short-circuit current temperature coefficient, ISC is cells short circuit current at 25 C, T is the cells temperature and S is the solar insolation in kW/m2. From equation (2), it can be seen that at constant temperature, the photon generated current Iph is directly proportional to solar insolation. The solar cell saturation current IS varies with temperature as given in equation (3). IS=IRs(TC/TR)3exp[qEG(1/TR-1/TC)/KA], (3) Where: IRs: Solar cell reverse saturation current at STC EG: Energy band-gap of the PV cell semiconductor at absolute temperature, TC All of the model parameters can be determined by examining the manufacturers specifications of SPV products. The most important parameters widely used for describing the cell electrical performance is the open-circuit voltage VOC and the short-circuit current ISC. The aforementioned equations are implicit and nonlinear; therefore, it is difficult to arrive at an

## Fig.4.Subsystem of Model of Solar PV Module/Array

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11 (2012) Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm simulated for the parameters given in table 1 for BP SX150S module by using the Simulink environment and illustrated in Fig. 9 for STC (1000 W/m2 and Temperature 298 K) levels of solar radiation and cell temperature for varying internal parameters such as ideality factor, series and shunt resistance to match the parameters (ISC, VOC, Impp, Vmpp, Pmax) given by manufactures. To obtain the value Vmpp and Impp a plot of dP/dV is shown in Figure 9. The intersection of the dP/dV graph on voltage axis i.e. X-Axis gives the voltage corresponding to peak or maximum power of the PV module (since at voltage axis, the dP/dV=0) and corresponding point at y-axis in Fig. 9 gives Impp. Table: 1Parameters of BP SX150S Solar Module parameter Maximum power (Pmax) Voltage at Pmax (Vmax) Current at Pmax (Imax) Short circuit current (Isc) Open circuit voltage (Voc) Maximum system voltage Temp co-efficient of Isc Temp co-efficient of Voc Temp co-efficient of Power NOCT .
8 7.5 7 6.5 6 5.5 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

## Fig.6 Block Diagram Model for IPh

Value 150W 34.5V 4.35A 140A 43.5v 600 V -(0.065+-0.0015)%/c -(160+-20)mva/c -(0.5+-0.05)%/c 47+2 C
160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 50

## Power Curve ISC

I-V Characteristic

## Fig.7 Block Diagram Model for IRS

Vmpp

10

15

20

25 Voltage (V)

30

35

40

45

Fig.9 I-V, P-V and dP/dV characteristics at STC The model as shown in figure 3 is simulated The different value of series resistance, parallel resistance and ideality factor and obtained characteristics curve are shown in Fig.10, 11 and 12 respectively. The I-V & P-V characteristics curve at varying insolation level keeping temperature and internal parameter constant as shown in Fig.13&14 respectively.

Fig.8 Block Diagram Model for IS 4. SIMULATION RESULTS It is clearly derived from (1) through (5), the SPV array exhibits a highly nonlinear radiation and temperature dependent IV and PV characteristic curve, being both curves

Power

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11 (2012) Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm
PV characteristics with varying Rs 6 5.5 5 4.5 4
Cu rrent(A )

P-V Characteristics
180 160 0.01 ohm 140 0.001 ohm 120

V-I Characteristics

P o w e r (W )

0.1 ohm

100

P ow e r(W )

3.5

1000 W/sqm

800 W/sqm

600 W/sqm

400 W/sqm

10

15

## Fig.10.I-Vand P-V characteristics with varying Rs

PV characteristics with varying Rsh 6 5.5 5 4.5 4
C u rre n t (A )

20 25 Voltage (V)

30

35

40

45

## Fig.14: power curve for different insolation

180 1000 ohm 10ohm 140 120 V-I curve 100 ohm 1ohm 100 80 60 P-V curve 40 20 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Voltage(V) 35 40 45 0 50
p o w e r(W )

160

## Fig.11. V-I characteristics & power-curves with varying RP

Effect of variation of N on open circuit voltage of PV 6 5.5 5 4.5 4
Current(A)

N=1 N=1.5

## Fig.12.V-I characteristics of a PV cell for three different values of A

I-V Characteristics 6 5.5 5 4.5 4
C u rre n t (A )

5. RESULT DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION The model is simulated at STC (solar insolation 1000 W/m2 and temperature 298 k) with varying internal parameters and obtained characteristics curve is shown in Fig.9 .the open circuit voltage VOC, short circuit current ISC, maximum power point voltage Vmpp, maximum power point voltage Impp and maximum power Pmax are obtained from simulation of model as shown in Fig.9 are fairly same as given by manufacture for BP SX150S Solar Module. These matching characteristics curve are obtained at ideality factor A=1.6, series resistance=0.0025Ohm shunt resistance=2k Ohm as indicated in model Fig.3. If the value of series, shunt resistance and ideal factor are different then the characteristics curve are deviated from the standard characteristics curve given by manufacture as shown in Fig. 10, 11 and 12 respectively. Now the same model can be used for I-V & P-V characteristics curve at varying insolation level keeping temperature and internal parameter constant as shown in Fig.13&14 respectively. It can be considered a smart tool to extract the internal parameters the ideal factor, series and shunt resistance. This Matlab/SIMULINK model also helps to predict the behaviour of any SPV cell under different physical and environmental conditions, The I-V and P-V simulation results and parameters given by manufactures show a good agreement in terms of short circuit current, open circuit voltage and maximum power.

## 1000 W/sqm 800 W/sqm

REFERENCES [1] Huan-Liang Tsai, Ci-Siang Tu, and Yi-Jie Su, Development of Generalized Photovoltaic Model Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2008 WCECS 2008, October 22 - 24, 2008, San Francisco, USA [2] S. W. Angrist, , Direct Energy Conversion, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 4th edition, 1982, pp. 177-227. [3] O. Wasynczuk, Dynamic behaviour of a class of photovoltaic power systems, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-102, no. 9,

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Voltage (V) 30 35 40 45 400 W/sqm 600 W/sqm

## Fig.13: V-I characteristics for different insolation

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol.7 No.11 (2012) Research India Publications; http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm 1983, pp. 3031-3037. J. C. H. Phang, D. S. H. Chan, and J. R. Philips, Accurate analytical method for the extraction of solar cell model parameters, Electronics Letters, vol. 20, no. 10, 1984, pp.406-408. J. A. Duffie, W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, second ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1991. J. Nelson, The Physics of Solar Cells. London: Imperial College Press, 2003. M. Veerachary and K.S. Shinoy, V2-based power tracking for non linear PV sources, IEE ProceedingsElectric Power Applications, vol. 152, no. 5, 2005,pp. 1263-1270. I.S. Kim and M.J. Youn, Variable-structure observer for solar array current estimation in photovoltaic power generation system, , IEE Proceedings-Electric Power Applications, vol. 152, no. 4, 2005,pp. 953-959. I.S. Kim and M.J. Youn, New maximum power point tracker using sliding-mode observer for estimation of solar array current in grid-connected photovoltaic system, IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, no. 4, 2006, pp. 1027-1035 K. H. Hussein, I. Muta, T. Hoshino, and M. Osakada, "Maximum Photovoltaic Power Tracking - An algorithm for rapidly changing atmospheric conditions," IEE Proceedings-Generation Transmission and Distribution, vol. 142, pp. 59-64, Jan 1995.

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