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IHS Janes Capabilities Brieng

Syria in focus: ghter aircraft and land-based air-defence systems


September 2013ihs.com

IHS Janes Capabilities Brieng | Syria in focus

Syria in focus: ghter aircraft and land-based air-defence systems


Debate over the merits of international intervention in Syria in the form of air and missile strikes has ared following the Syrian governments alleged use of chemical weapons in August 2013. With strong opposition from Russia, a vote for intervention in Syria is unlikely to pass the UN Security Council. Meanwhile, the British parliaments failure to pass a measure approving military action means the US and France have been left as primary advocates of an air campaign to hobble the Assad regime. While US President Barack Obama has announced that he will let Congress vote on the matter, unilateral strikes by NATO countries cannot be ruled out. This will become even more likely in the event that UN weapons inspectors conrm Syrian government participation in the August chemical attack. IHS Janes examines the Syrian air force and air-defence assets that would combat any unilateral or multilateral strikes against the country.
Airbases under Syrian government control (as of September 2013)
Primary role Ground attack Air defence
Shayrat MiG-25PD (1 squadron) Shayrat MiG-23MF (1 squadron)

KML File Available


IHS Janes holds a wide variety of geospatially enabled data on military forces as well as terrorism and insurgency events. Accompanying this report, we have created a KML le of the map below, with an added layer detailing all known insurgent attacks and counter-terrorism operations in Syria from March-August 2013. Please contact your account manager if you are interested in receiving this KML le.

Unknown location L-39ZO (1 squadron)

MiG-21MF (1 squadron)

SYRIA
MiG-23MS (1 squadron)

Hamah MiG-21MF (2 squadrons)

Shayrat Su-22M3 (1 squadron)

Deir Zzor MiG-21MF (1 squadron)

Shayrat Su-22M4 (1 squadron) Hamah MiG-29 (1 squadron)

Tiyas Su-22M4 (1 squadron)

An Nasiriyah MiG-23BN (1 squadron) Dumayr Su-22M3 (1 squadron)

Al Qusayr MiG-21bis (2 squadrons)

Tiyas Su-24MK (1 squadron)

Tiyas MiG-25PD (2 squadrons)

Sayqal MiG-29 (2 squadrons) Mezze SA 342L (2 squadrons) Marj Ruhayyil Su-22 (1 squadron)

Dumayr MiG-23MLD (1 squadron)

Khalkhalah MiG-21bis (2 squadrons)

Marj Ruhayyil MiG-23MLD (1 squadron)

As Suweidaya West Mi-24A (2 squadrons)

Marj Ruhayyil Mi-24A (1 squadron)

Source: IHS *Squadron information based on Syrian air force order of battle circa 2012. Unit deployment and strengths may have changed due to the ongoing conict.

2013 IHS: 1459782

Cover: The Buk-M2E (SA-17 Grizzly) self-propelled surface-to-air missile system is the most potent air-defence weapon currently in service with the Syrian Armed Forces.

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IHS Janes Capabilities Brieng | Syria in focus

MiG-21 Fishbed Variants Role


Bis/MF Air defence/attack

Su-24 Fencer Variants Role


MK Attack
* max fuel high altitude

Armament AA-2 Atoll, AA-8 Aphid Range


Source: IHS

Armament AA-8 Aphid, AA-11 Archer


* internal fuel only 2013 IHS: 1459783

1,098 km*

Range
Source: IHS

2,092 km*
2013 IHS: 1459787

MiG-23 Flogger Variants Role


MS/BN/MLD/MF Air defence

MiG-25 Foxbat Variants Role


PD Air defence

Aphid, AA-7 Apex, AA-2 Atoll Armament AA-8 AA-11 Archer AA-6 Acrid

Armament AA-6 Acrid, AA-8 Aphid


* max internal use

Range
Source: IHS

1,944 km*

Range
Source: IHS

1,863 km*

* with max internal fuel 2013 IHS: 1459788

2013 IHS: 1459784

MiG-29 Fulcrum Variants Role


MiG-29 Air defence/attack

Aero L-39 Albatros Variants Role


ZO Trainer/light attack

Armament AA-8 Aphid, AA-10 Alamo, AA-8 Aphid Range


Source: IHS

Armament Cannon
* with max internal fuel

1,500 km*

Range
Source: IHS

1,352 km*

* internal fuel, 10% reserves, L-139 2013 IHS: 1459789

2013 IHS: 1459785

Su-22 Fitter Variants Role


M3/M4 Attack
* max fuel high altitude

Mi-24 Hind Variants Role


A Attack helicopter

Armament AA-2 Atoll, AA-8 Aphid, A-11 Archer Range


Source: IHS

Armament SA-7 Grail, SA-14 Gremlin Range 450 km*


* standard internal fuel, Mi-24P 2013 IHS: 1459790

2,296 km*
2013 IHS: 1459786

Source: IHS

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IHS Janes Capabilities Brieng | Syria in focus

Land-based air defence assets


Syria operates an integrated air-defence system (IADS) that provides interlaced surface-to-air missile positions backed by numerous anti-aircraft artillery emplacements. As such, the IADS potentially represents a signicant risk to low-altitude operations by co-operative targets, helicopters, and cruise missiles prior to network degradation. The IADS is highlighted by a limited number of modern, survivable surface-to-air missile assets, specically the Pantsir-S1 (SA-22 Greyhound), Buk-M2E (SA-17 Grizzly), and Pechora-2M. These have not yet been encountered in combat by Western air forces and are likely deployed to protect Syrias most sensitive military and political infrastructure. However, there is a notable overreliance on ageing Soviet-era technology that has already been encountered and exploited by Western air arms. As such, the bulk of the network does not represent a signicant threat to modern combat aircraft, although any threat system should be regarded as potentially dangerous.

Key Syrian land-based air-defence assets


Equipment name Role Effective against Simultaneous target engagement capability Weaponry Missile warhead weight Missile effective range (general) Missile effective altitude (maximum) Gun effective range (general)
Miroslav Gyurosi 1331948

Buk-M2E (SA-17 Grizzly) Self-propelled surface-to-air missile system Fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, cruise, ballistic and air-launched missiles 4 4 x 9M317 missiles 50-70 kg 45 km 25 km n/a n/a Mid-2000s
2013 IHS

Gun effective altitude (maximum) First developed


Source: IHS

Equipment name Role Effective against Simultaneous target engagement capability Weaponry Missile warhead weight Missile effective range (general) Missile effective altitude (maximum) Gun effective range (general) Gun effective altitude (maximum)
IHS/Peter Felstead

Pechora-2M Surface-to-air missile system Fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, cruise and ballistic missiles 1 2 x 5V27DE missiles Unknown 32 km 20 km + n/a n/a Late 1990s
2013 IHS

First developed
Source: IHS

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IHS Janes Capabilities Brieng | Syria in focus

Equipment Name Role Effective against: Simultaneous target engagement capability: Weaponry: Missile Warhead Weight: Missile Effective Range (general): Missile Effective Altitude (maximum): Gun Effective Range (general)
Miroslav Gyurosi 1124487

Pantsir-S1 (SA-22 Greyhound) Self-propelled gun/surface-to-air missile system Fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, air-launched missiles 3 12 x 9M335 missiles 2 x 30 mm 2A38 guns 16 kg 12 km 5 km 4 km 3 km Early 1990s
2013 IHS

Gun Effective Altitude (maximum): First Developed:


Source: IHS

Additional Syrian land-based air defence assets


Army and air force equipment in service
System Variant 9K38 Igla (SA-18 'Grouse') 9K35 Strela-10 (SA-13 'Gopher') 9K37 Buk (SA-11 'Gady') 9K31 Strela-1 (SA-9 'Gaskin') 2K12 Kub (SA-6 'Gainful') 9K33 Osa (SA-8 'Gecko') S-125 (SA-3 'Goa') S-75 Dvina (SA-2 'Guideline') S-200 (SA-5 'Gammon') 9K32/9K32M Strela-2/2M (SA-7a/b 'Grail') 9K36 Strela-3 (SA-14 'Gremlin') 9K310 Igla-1 (SA-16 'Gimlet') 23 mm ZSU-23-4 (Quad) 57 mm ZSU-57-2 (Twin) 12.7 mm M53 (Quad) 14.5 mm ZPU-2 (Twin) 14.5 mm ZPU-4 (Quad) 20 mm 20 mm (Twin) 23 mm ZU-23-2 (Twin) 30 mm HS-661 37 mm M1939 57 mm S-60 85 mm KS-12 100 mm KS-19
Source: IHS Janes

Manufacturer Konstruktorskoe Bjuro Mashinostroenia Soviet state factories Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant Soviet state factories Soviet state factories Almaz / Antei Almaz / Antei Almaz / Antei Almaz / Antei Konstruktorskoe Bjuro Mashinostroenia Konstruktorskoe Bjuro Mashinostroenia Konstruktorskoe Bjuro Mashinostroenia Soviet state factories Muromskiy Mashinostroitelnyy Soviet state factories Soviet state factories Soviet state factories Hispano-Suiza Hispano-Suiza Soviet state factories Hispano-Suiza Soviet state factories Aleksinskiy Khimicheskiy Kombinat Soviet state factories Soviet state factories

Primary Role (General) Surface-to-air missile system (self-propelled) Surface-to-air missile system (self-propelled) Surface-to-air missile system (self-propelled) Surface-to-air missile system (self-propelled) Surface-to-air missile system (self-propelled) Surface-to-air missile system (self-propelled) Surface-to-air missile system (static and towed) Surface-to-air missile system (static) Surface-to-air missile system (static) Surface-to-air missile system (man-portable) Surface-to-air missile system (man-portable) Surface-to-air missile system (man-portable) Anti-aircraft gun (self-propelled) Anti-aircraft gun (self-propelled) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed) Anti-aircraft gun (towed)

First Developed 1970s 1970s 1970s 1960s 1960s 1960s 1950s 1950s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1970s 1950s 1950s 1950s 1940s 1940s 1970s 1970s 1950s n/a 1930s 1950s 1930s 1940s
2013 IHS

Contributors: Alexander von Rosenbach, IHS Janes Armed Forces Editor Sebastian Boe, IHS Janes Analyst Neil Gibson, IHS Janes Defence Researcher This Capability Brieng draws on analysis and data from: IHS Janes Military & Security Assessments (JMSA) Intelligence Centre. To learn more visit www.ihs.com/jmsa IHS Janes Defence, Equipment & Technology (JDET) Intelligence Centre. To learn more, visit www.ihs.com/jdet

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September 2013