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System requirements

Arch Linux should run on any i686 compatible machine with a minimum of 64 MB RAM. A basic installation with all packa es from the base roup should take about !"" MB of disk space. #f you are workin with limited space$ this can be trimmed down considerably$ but you will ha%e to know what you&re doin .

Prepare the latest installation medium

'he latest release of the installation media can be obtained from the (ownload pa e. )ote that the sin le #*+ ima e supports both ,- and 64.bit architectures. #t is hi hly recommended to always use the latest #*+ ima e. #nstall ima es are si ned and it is hi hly recommended to %erify their si nature before use. (owload the .sig file from the download pa e /or one of the mirrors listed there0 to the same directory as the .iso file. +n Arch Linux$ use pacman-key -v iso-file.sig as root1 in other en%ironments make use$ still as root$ of p - directly with gpg2 --verify isofile.sig. 'he file inte rity checksums md! and sha2 are also pro%ided. Burn the #*+ ima e on a 3( or (4( with your preferred software. +n Arch$ that&s co%ered in +ptical (isc (ri%e5Burnin . Note: 'he 6uality of optical dri%es and the discs themsel%es %aries reatly. 7enerally$ usin a slow burn speed is recommended for reliable burns. #f you are experiencin unexpected beha%iour from the disc$ try burnin at the lowest speed supported by your burner. Boot the installation medium 8irst$ you may ha%e to chan e the boot order in your computer&s B#+*. 'o do this$ press a key /usually Delete$ F1$ F2$ F11 or F120 durin the 9+*' phase. 'his will take you into the B#+* settin s screen where you can set the order in which the system searches for de%ices to boot from. *elect :*a%e ; <xit: /or your B#+*&s e6ui%alent0 and the computer should then complete its normal boot process. =hen the Arch menu appears$ select :Boot Arch Linux: and press Enter to enter the li%e en%ironment where you will run the actual installation /if bootin from a ><8# boot disk$ the option may look more like :Arch Linux archiso x86?64 ><8#:0. +nce you ha%e booted into the li%e en%ironment$ your shell is @sh1 this will pro%ide you ad%anced 'ab completion$ and other features as part of the rml confi .
Testing if you are booted into UEFI mode

#n case you ha%e a ><8# motherboard and ><8# Boot mode is enabled /and is preferred o%er B#+*ALe acy mode0$ the 3(A>*B will automatically launch Arch Linux kernel /Bernel <8#*'>B %ia 7ummiboot0. 'o test if you ha%e booted into ><8# mode runC
# mount -t efivarfs efivarfs /sys/firmware/efi/efivars already mounted # efivar -l # ignore if

#f efi%ar lists the uefi %ariables properly$ then you ha%e booted in ><8# mode. #f not check whether all

the re6uirements listed at >nified <xtensible 8irmware #nterface5Re6uirements for ><8# 4ariables support to work properly are met. Troubleshooting boot problems #f you are usin an #ntel %ideo chipset and the screen oes blank durin the boot process$ the problem is likely an issue with Bernel Mode *ettin . A possible workaround may be achie%ed by rebootin and pressin e o%er the entry that you are tryin to boot /i686 or x86?640. At the end of the strin type nomodeset and press Enter. Alternati%ely$ try video= !"DE#-1$d which$ if it works$ will not disable kernel mode settin . Dou can also try i%1&.modeset='. *ee the #ntel article for more information. #f the screen does not o blank and the boot process ets stuck while tryin to load the kernel$ press (a) while ho%erin o%er the menu entry$ type acpi=off at the end of the strin and press Enter.

Dou are now presented with a shell prompt$ automatically lo ed in as root. 8or editin text files$ the console editor nano is su ested. #f you are not familiar with it$ see nano5nano usa e.

Change the language

Tip: 'hese are optional for the maEority of users. >seful only if you plan on writin in your own lan ua e in any of the confi uration files$ if you use diacritical marks in the =i.8i password$ or if you would like to recei%e system messa es /e. . possible errors0 in your own lan ua e. 3han es here only affect the installation process. By default$ the keyboard layout is set to us. #f you ha%e a non.>* keyboard layout$ runC
# loadkeys layout

...where layout can be fr$ uk$ dvorak$ )e-latin1$ etc. *ee here for -.letter country code list. >se the command localectl list-keymaps to list all a%ailable keymaps. 'he font should also be chan ed$ because most lan ua es use more lyphs than the -6 letter <n lish alphabet. +therwise some forei n characters may show up as white s6uares or as other symbols. )ote that the name is case.sensiti%e$ so please type it exactly as you see itC
# setfont *at2-(erminus1+

By default$ the lan ua e is set to <n lish />*0. #f you would like to chan e the lan ua e for the install process (German, in this example)$ remo%e the # in front of the locale you want from /etc/locale.gen$ alon with <n lish />*0. 9lease choose the ,(F-- entry.
# nano /etc/locale.gen en., .,(F-- ,(F-de.DE.,(F-- ,(F-# locale-gen # e/port *012=de.DE.,(F--

Establish an internet onne tion

!arning: As of %2FG$ ude% no lon er assi ns network interface names accordin to the wlanH and ethH namin scheme. #f you are comin from a different distribution or are reinstallin Arch and not aware of the new interface namin style$ please do not assume that your wireless interface is named wlan"$ or that your wired interface is named eth". Dou can use the command ip link to disco%er the names of your interfaces. 'he d3cpcd network daemon starts automatically durin boot and it will attempt to start a wired connection. 'ry to pin a ser%er to see if a connection was established. 8or example$ 7oo le&s webser%ersC
# ping -c 4 5"12 678.12&.142.1'&9 &+6-89 )ytes of data. +8 )ytes from w)-in-f1'&.1e1''.net 678.12&.142.1'&9$ ttl=&' time=17.' ms +8 )ytes from w)-in-f1'&.1e1''.net 678.12&.142.1'&9$ ttl=&' time=1-.2 ms +8 )ytes from w)-in-f1'&.1e1''.net 678.12&.142.1'&9$ ttl=&' time=1+.+ ms --- ping statistics --4 packets transmitted; 4 received; '< packet loss; time 2''4ms rtt min/avg/ma//mdev = 1+.++'/17.42'/1-.2&8/'.+7- ms

#f you et a ping$ unknown 3ost error$ first check if there is an issue with your cable or wireless si nal stren th. #f not$ you will need to set up the network manually$ as explained below. +nce a connection is established mo%e on to 9repare the stora e dri%e. !ired 8ollow this procedure if you need to set up a wired connection %ia a static #9 address. 8irst$ disable the dhcpcd ser%ice which was started automatically at bootC
# systemctl stop d3cpcd.service

#dentify the name of your <thernet interface.

# ip link 1$ lo$ =*##5>0?@;,5;*#AEB.,5C mtu +&&4+ :disc no:ueue state ,1@1#A1 mode DEF0,*( link/loop)ack ''$''$''$''$''$'' )rd ''$''$''$''$''$'' 2$ enp2s'f'$ =>B#0D?0 (;D,*("?0 (C mtu 1&'' :disc noop state D#A1 mode DEF0,*( :len 1''' link/et3er ''$11$2&$41$+%$2' )rd ff$ff$ff$ff$ff$ff 4$ wlp4s'$ =>B#0D?0 (;D,*("?0 (;,5;*#AEB.,5C mtu 1&'' :disc m: state ,5 mode D#BD01( :len 1''' link/et3er '1$'2$'4$'8$'&$'+ )rd ff$ff$ff$ff$ff$ff

#n this example$ the <thernet interface is enp2s'f'. #f you are unsure$ your <thernet interface is likely to start with the letter :e:$ and unlikely to be :lo: or start with the letter :w:. Dou also need to know these settin sC

*tatic #9 address. *ubnet mask. 7ateway&s #9 address. )ame ser%ers& /()*0 #9 addresses. (omain name /unless you are on a local LA)$ in which case you can make it up0.

Acti%ate the connected <thernet interface /e. . enp2s'f'0C

# ip link set enp2s'f' up

Add the addressC

# ip addr add ip.address/mask.)its dev

8or exampleC
# ip addr add 1%2.1+-.1.2/28 dev enp2s'f'

8or more options$ run man ip. Add your ateway like this$ substitutin your own ateway&s #9 addressC
# ip route add default via ip.address

8or exampleC
# ip route add default via 1%2.1+-.1.1

<dit resolv.conf$ substitutin your name ser%ers& #9 addresses and your local domain nameC
# nano /etc/resolv.conf nameserver +1.24.174.& nameserver +1.%&.-8%.searc3 e/

Note: 3urrently$ you may include a maximum of three nameserver lines. #n order to o%ercome this limitation$ you can use a locally cachin nameser%er like (nsmas6. Dou should now ha%e a workin network connection. #f you do not$ check the detailed )etwork 3onfi uration pa e. !ireless 8ollow this procedure if you need wireless connecti%ity /=i.8i0 durin the installation process. 8irst$ identify the name of your wireless interface.
# iw dev p3y#'

"nterface wlp4s' ifinde/ 4 wdev '/1 addr ''$11$22$44$88$&& type managed

#n this example$ wlp4s' is the a%ailable wireless interface. #f you are unsure$ your wireless interface is likely to start with the letter :w:$ and unlikely to be :lo: or start with the letter :e:. Note: #f you do not see output similar to this$ then your wireless dri%er has not been loaded. #f this is the case$ you must load the dri%er yourself. 9lease see =ireless *etup for more detailed information. Brin the interface up withC
# ip link set wlp4s' up

'o %erify that the interface is up$ inspect the output of the followin commandC
# ip link s3ow wlp4s' 4$ wlp4s'$ =>B#0D?0 (;D,*("?0 (;,5;*#AEB.,5C mtu 1&'' :disc m: state D#A1 mode D#BD01( group default :len 1''' link/et3er ''$11$22$44$88$&& )rd ff$ff$ff$ff$ff$ff

'he ,5 in =>B#0D?0 (;D,*("?0 (;,5;*#AEB.,5C is what indicates the interface is up$ not the later state D#A1. Most wireless chipsets re6uire firmware in addition to a correspondin dri%er. 'he kernel tries to identify and load both automatically. #f you et output like "#? "FF*02 $ 1o suc3 file or directory$ this means you will need to manually load the firmware. #f unsure$ in%oke dmesg to 6uery the kernel lo for a firmware re6uest from the wireless chipset. 8or example$ if you ha%e an #ntel chipset which re6uires and has re6uested firmware from the kernel at bootC
# dmesg E grep firmware firmware$ re:uesting iwlwifi-&'''-1.ucode

#f there is no output$ it may be concluded that the system&s wireless chipset does not re6uire firmware. !arning: =ireless chipset firmware packa es /for cards which re6uire them0 are pre.installed under /usr/li)/firmware in the li%e en%ironment /on 3(A>*B stick0 but must be e"pli itly installed to your a tual system to pro#ide $ireless fun tionality after you reboot into it% 9acka e installation is co%ered later in this uide. <nsure installation of both your wireless module and firmware before rebootin I *ee =ireless *etup if you are unsure about the re6uirement of correspondin firmware installation for your particular chipset. )ext$ use netctl&s wifi-menu to connect to a networkC
# wifi-menu wlp4s'

Dou should now ha%e a workin network connection. #f you do not$ check the detailed =ireless *etup pa e.
!ithout $ifi&menu

Alternati%ely$ use iw dev wlp4s' scan E grep connect to a network withC

"D to scan for a%ailable networks$ then

# wpa.supplicant -> -i wlp4s' -c =6wpa.passp3rase FssidF FpskF9

Dou need to replace ssid with the name of your network /e. . :Linksys etc...:0 and psk with your

wireless password$ lea#ing the quotes around the net$or' name and pass$ord( 8inally$ you ha%e to i%e your interface an #9 address. 'his can be set manually or usin the dhcpC
# d3cpcd wlp4s'

#f that does not work$ issue the followin commandsC

# # # # # ec3o Gctrl.interface=D"B=/run/wpa.supplicantG C /etc/wpa.supplicant.conf wpa.passp3rase =ssidC =passp3raseC CC /etc/wpa.supplicant.conf ip link set =interfaceC up # Day not )e needed; )ut does no 3arm in any case wpa.supplicant -> -D nl-'211 -c /foo)ar.conf -i =interface nameC d3cpcd -0 =interface nameC

)nalog modem* IS+N* or PPPoE +S, 8or x(*L$ dial.up$ and #*() connections$ see (irect Modem 3onnection. Behind a pro"y ser#er #f you are behind a proxy ser%er$ you will need to export the and en%ironment %ariables. *ee 9roxy settin s for more information.

Prepare the storage dri#e

!arning: 9artitionin can destroy data. Dou are strongly cautioned and ad%ised to backup any critical data before proceedin . Choose a partition table type Dou ha%e to choose between 7>#( 9artition 'able /79'0 and Master Boot Record /MBR0. 79' is more modern and recommended for new installations. #f you want to setup a system which dual boots with windows$ this must be taken into account as explained in 9artitionin 53hoosin between 79' and MBR. #t is recommended to always use 79' for ><8# boot$ as some ><8# firmwares do not allow ><8#.MBR boot. *ome B#+* systems may ha%e issues with 79'. *ee httpCAAmE !F.dreamwidth.or A8",!.html and httpCAArodsbooks.comA diskAbios.html for more info and possible workarounds. Note: #f you are installin to a >*B flash key$ see #nstallin Arch Linux on a >*B key. Partitioning tool Absolute be inners are encoura ed to use a raphical partitionin tool. 79arted is a ood example$ and is pro%ided as a :li%e: 3(. #t is also included on li%e 3(s of most Linux distributions such as >buntu and Linux Mint. A dri%e should first be partitioned and afterwards the partitions should be formatted with a file system. Tip: =hen usin 7parted$ selectin the option to create a new partition table i%es an :msdos: partition table by default. #f you are intendin to follow the ad%ice to create a 79' partition table then you need to choose :Ad%anced: and then select : pt: from the drop.down menu.

=hile parted may be easier to use$ if you Eust want to create a few partitions on a new disk you can et the Eob done 6uickly by Eust usin one of the fdisk %ariants which are included on the install medium. #n the next section short usa e instructions for both disk and fdisk follow. Partition s heme Dou can decide into how many partitions the disk should be split$ and for which directory each partition should be used in the system. 'he mappin from partitions to directories /fre6uently called &mount points&0 is the 9artition scheme. 'he simplest$ and not a bad choice$ is to make Eust one hu e / partition. Another popular choice is to ha%e a / and a /3ome partition. )dditional required partitions: #f you ha%e a ><8# motherboard$ you will need to create an extra <8# *ystem 9artition. #f you ha%e a B#+* motherboard /or plan on bootin in B#+* compatibility mode0 and you want to setup 7R>B on a 79'.partitioned dri%e$ you will need to create an extra B#+* Boot 9artition of siJe 2 or - MiB and EF'2 type code. *yslinux does not need one. #f you ha%e a re6uirement for a (isk encryption of the system itself$ this must be reflected in your partition scheme. #t is unproblematic to add encrypted folders$ containers or home directories after the system is installed. #f you are plannin to use any filesystem for root filesystem different than ext4 /.,$.-0 $ you should check first if 7R>B supports it. #f it is not supported you need to create a 7R>B compatible partition /such as ext40 and use it for /)oot. *ee *wap for details if you wish to set up a swap partition or swap file. A swap file is easier to resiJe than a partition and can be created at any point after installation$ but cannot be used with a Btrfs filesystem. Considerations for dualbooting $ith !indo$s #f you ha%e an existin +* installation$ please keep in mind that if you were to Eust write a completely new partition table to disk then all the data which was pre%iously on disk would be lost. 'he recommended way to setup a LinuxA=indows dual bootin system is to first install =indows$ only usin part of the disk for its partitions. =hen you ha%e finished the =indows setup$ boot into the Linux install en%ironment where you can create additional partitions for Linux while lea%in the existin =indows partitions untouched. *ome newer computers come pre.installed with =indows 8 which will be usin *ecure Boot. Arch Linux currently does not support *ecure Boot$ but some =indows 8 installations ha%e been seen not to boot if *ecure Boot is turned off in the B#+*. #n some cases it is necessary to turn off both *ecure Boot as well as 8astboot in the B#+* options in order to allow =indows 8 to boot without *ecure Boot. Kowe%er there are potential security risks in turnin off *ecure Boot for bootin up =indows 8. 'herefore$ it may be a better option to keep the =indows 8 install intact and ha%e an independent hard dri%e for the Linux install . which can then be partitioned from scratch usin a 79' partition table. +nce that is done$ creatin se%eral ext4A8A',-Aswap partitions on the second dri%e may be a better way forward if the computer has two dri%es a%ailable. 'his is often not easy or possible on a small laptop. 3urrently$ *ecure Boot is still not in a fully stable state for reliable operation$ e%en for Linux distributions that support it. !arning: =indows 8 includes a new feature called 8ast *tartup$ which turns shutdown operations into operations. 'he result is that filesystems shared between =indows 8 and any

other +* are almost certain to be dama ed when bootin between the two +*es. <%en if you don&t intend to share filesystems$ the <8# *ystem 9artition is likely to be dama ed on an <8# system. 'herefore$ you should disable 8ast *tartup$ as described here$ before you install Linux on any computer that uses =indows 8. #f you ha%e already created your partitions$ proceed to 53reate filesystems. +therwise$ see the followin example. E"ample 'he Arch Linux install media includes the followin partitionin toolsC fdisk$ gdisk$ cfdisk$ cgdisk$ parted. Tip: >se the ls)lk command to list the hard disks attached to your system$ alon with the siJes of their existin partitions. 'his will help you to be confident you are partitionin the ri ht disk. 'he example system will contain a 2! 7B root partition$ and a home partition for the remainin space. 3hoose either MBR or 79'. (o not choose bothI #t should be emphasiJed that partitionin is a personal choice and that this example is only for illustrati%e purposes. *ee 9artitionin .
Using gdis' to reate -PT partitions # cgdisk /dev/sda

Root 3hoose New /or press 10 L Enter for the first sector /-"480 L type in 1&2 L Enter for the default hex code /8,""0 L Enter for a blank partition name. Kome 9ress the down arrow a couple of times to mo%e to the lar er free space area. 3hoose New /or press 10 L Enter for the first sector L Enter to use the rest of the dri%e /or you could type in the desired siJe1 for example 4'20 L Enter for the default hex code /8,""0 L Enter for a blank partition name. Kere is what it should look likeC
5art. # iHe 5artition (ype 5artition 1ame ---------------------------------------------------------------1''7.' @i> free space 1 1&.' 2i> *inu/ filesystem 2 124.8& 2i> *inu/ filesystem

(ouble check and make sure that you are happy with the partition siJes as well as the partition table layout before continuin . #f you would like to start o%er$ you can simply select Quit /or press I0 to exit without sa%in chan es and then restart cgdisk. #f you are satisfied$ choose Write /or press 3iftJA0 to finaliJe and to write the partition table to the

dri%e. 'ype yes and choose Quit /or press I0 to exit without makin any more chan es.
Using fdis' to reate .B/ partitions

Note: 'here is also cfdisk$ which is similar in ># to cgdisk$ but it currently does not automatically ali n the first partition properly. 'hat is why the classic fdisk tool is used here. Launch fdisk withC
# fdisk /dev/sda

3reate the partition tableC ?ommand 6m for 3elp9$ type o and press Enter 'hen create the first partitionC 2. -. ,. 4. !. ?ommand 6m for 3elp9$ type n and press Enter 9artition typeC elect 6default p9$ press Enter 5artition num)er 61-8; default 19$ press Enter First sector 62'8--2'%71&1%%; default 2'8-9$ press Enter *ast sector; Jsectors or JsiHeK@;D;2L 62'8--2'%71&1%%.....; default 2'%71&1%%9$ type J1&2 and press Enter ?ommand 6m for 3elp9$ type n and press Enter 9artition typeC elect 6default p9$ press Enter 5artition num)er 61-8; default 29$ press Enter First sector 6418&%42--2'%71&1%%; default 418&%42-9$ press Enter *ast sector; Jsectors or JsiHeK@;D;2L 6418&%42--2'%71&1%%.....; default 2'%71&1%%9$ press Enter

'hen create a second partitionC 2. -. ,. 4. !.

)ow pre%iew the new partition tableC ?ommand 6m for 3elp9$ type p and press Enter
Disk /dev/sda$ 1'7.8 2>; 1'74781-28'' )ytes; 2'%71&2'' sectors ,nits = sectors of 1 M &12 = &12 )ytes ector siHe 6logical/p3ysical9$ &12 )ytes / &12 )ytes "/# siHe 6minimum/optimal9$ &12 )ytes / &12 )ytes Disk identifier$ '/&+%-d%'2 Device >oot /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 tart 2'8418&%42End 418&%427 2'%71&1%% >locks 1&72-+8' -%127%4+ "d -4 -4 ystem *inu/ *inu/

'hen write the chan es to diskC ?ommand 6m for 3elp9$ type w and press Enter #f e%erythin went well fdisk will now 6uit with the followin messa eC
(3e partition ta)le 3as )een alteredN ?alling ioctl69 to re-read partition ta)le. yncing disks.

#n case this does not work because fdisk encountered an error$ you can use the : command to exit. Create filesystems *imply partitionin is not enou h1 the partitions also need a filesystem. 'o format the partitions with an ext4 filesystemC !arning: (ouble check and triple check that it is actually /dev/sda1 and /dev/sda2 that you want to format. Dou can use ls)lk to help with this.
# mkfs.e/t8 /dev/sda1 # mkfs.e/t8 /dev/sda2

#f you ha%e made a partition dedicated to swap /code 8-0$ do not for et to format and acti%ate it withC
# mkswap /dev/sdaO # swapon /dev/sdaO

8or ><8#$ you should format the <8# *ystem 9artition /for example Ade%AsdX 0 withC
# mkfs.fat -F42 /dev/sdOP

.ount the partitions

<ach partition is identified with a number suffix. 8or example$ sda1 specifies the first partition of the first dri%e$ while sda desi nates the entire dri%e. 'o display the current partition layoutC
# ls)lk /dev/sda

Note: (o not mount more than one partition to the same directory. And pay attention$ because the mountin order is important. 8irst$ mount the root partition on /mnt. 8ollowin the example abo%e /yours may be different0$ it would beC
# mount /dev/sda1 /mnt

'hen mount the home partition and any other separate partition //)oot$ /var$ etc0$ if you ha%e anyC
# mkdir /mnt/3ome # mount /dev/sda2 /mnt/3ome

#n case you ha%e a ><8# motherboard$ mount the <8# *ystem 9artition at your preferred mountpoint //)oot used for example0C
# mkdir -p /mnt/)oot # mount /dev/sdOP /mnt/)oot

Sele t a mirror
Before installin $ you may want to edit the mirrorlist file and place your preferred mirror first. A copy of this file will be installed on your new system by pacstrap as well$ so it is worth ettin it

ri ht.
# nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist ## ## 0rc3 *inu/ repository mirrorlist ## orted )y mirror score from mirror status page ## 2enerated on 2'12-DD-DD ## erver = 3ttp$//mirror.e/ample./yH/arc3linu//Qrepo/os/Qarc3 ...

#f you want$ you can make it the only mirror a%ailable by deletin all other lines$ but it is usually a ood idea to ha%e a few more$ in case the first one oes offline. Tip: >se the Mirrorlist 7enerator to et an updated list for your country. K''9 mirrors are faster than 8'9$ because of somethin called keepali%e. =ith 8'9$ pacman has to send out a si nal each time it downloads a packa e$ resultin in a brief pause. 8or other ways to enerate a mirror list$ see *ortin mirrors and Reflector. Arch Linux Mirror*tatus reports %arious aspects about the mirrors such as network problems with mirrors$ data collection problems$ the last time mirrors ha%e been synced$ etc. Note: =hene%er in the future you chan e your mirrorlist$ refresh all packa e lists with pacman - yy$ to ensure that the packa e lists are updated consistently. *ee Mirrors for more information. #f you are usin an older installation medium$ your mirrorlist mi ht be outdated$ which mi ht lead to problems when updatin Arch Linux /see 8*5--!2"0. 'herefore it is ad%ised to obtain the latest mirror information as described abo%e. *ome issues ha%e been reported in the Arch Linux forums re ardin network problems that pre%ent pacman from updatin AsynchroniJin repositories /see M2N and M-N0. =hen installin Arch Linux nati%ely$ these issues ha%e been resol%ed by replacin the default pacman file downloader with an alternati%e /see #mpro%e 9acman 9erformance for more details0. =hen installin Arch Linux as a uest +* in 4irtualBox$ this issue has also been addressed by usin :Kost interface: instead of :)A': in the machine properties.

Install the base system

'he base system is installed usin the pacstrap script. 'he -i switch can be omitted if you wish to install e%ery packa e from the base roup without promptin . Dou may also want to include basedevel$ as you will need these packa es should you want to build from the A>R.
# pacstrap -i /mnt )ase


#f pacman fails to %erify your packa es$ stop the process with ?trlJ? and check the system time with cal. #f the system date is in%alid /e. . it shows the year -"2"0$ si nin keys will be considered expired /or in%alid0$ si nature checks on packa es will fail and installation will be interrupted. Make sure to correct the system time$ usin the command ntpd -:g$ and retry runnin the pacstrap command. Refer to 'ime pa e for more information on correctin system time. #f pacman complains that error$ failed to commit transaction 6invalid or corrupted package9$ run the followin commandC
# pacman-key --init RR pacman-key --populate arc3linu/

'his will i%e you a basic Arch system. +ther packa es can be installed later usin pacman.

-enerate an fstab
7enerate an fstab file with the followin command. >>#(s will be used because they ha%e certain ad%anta es /see fstab5#dentifyin filesystems0. #f you would prefer to use labels instead$ replace the -, option with -*.
# genfsta) -, -p /mnt CC /mnt/etc/fsta) # nano /mnt/etc/fsta)

!arning: 'he fstab file should always be checked after eneratin it. #f you encounter errors runnin enfstab or later in the install process$ do not run enfstab a ain1 Eust edit the fstab file. A few considerationsC 'he last field determines the order in which partitions are checked at start upC use 1 for the /non.)trfs0 root partition$ which should be checked first1 2 for all other partitions you want checked at start up1 and ' means &do not check& /see fstab58ield definitions0. All btrfs partitions should ha%e ' for this field. )ormally$ you will also want your swap partition to ha%e '.

Chroot and onfigure the base system

)ext$ chroot into your newly installed systemC
# arc3-c3root /mnt /)in/)as3

Note: Lea%e out /)in/)as3 to chroot into the sh shell. At this sta e of the installation$ you will confi ure the primary confi uration files of your Arch Linux base system. 'hese can either be created if they do not exist$ or edited if you wish to chan e the defaults. 3losely followin and understandin these steps is of key importance to ensure a properly confi ured system. ,o ale Locales are used by glib and other locale.aware pro rams or libraries for renderin text$ correctly

displayin re ional monetary %alues$ time and date formats$ alphabetic idiosyncrasies$ and other locale. specific standards. 'here are two files that need editin C locale.gen and locale.conf. >ncomment as many lines as needed. Remo%e the # in front of the line/s0 you want to use. >sin ,(F-- is hi hly recommended o%er " #---&%C
# nano /etc/locale.gen #en.5S.,(F-- ,(F-#en.5S " #---&%-1 #en. 2.,(F-- ,(F-#en. 2 " #---&%-1 en., .,(F-- ,(F-#en., " #---&%-1 #en.T0.,(F-- ,(F-#en.T0 " #---&%-1

Note: 'he locale.gen file has e%erythin commented out by default. 7enerate the locale/s0 specified in /etc/locale.genC
# locale-gen

Note: 'his will also run with e%ery update of glib . 3reate the /etc/locale.conf file substitutin your chosen localeC
# ec3o *012=en., .,(F-- C /etc/locale.conf

Note: 'he locale specified in the *012 %ariable must be uncommented in /etc/locale.gen. <xport substitutin your chosen localeC
# e/port *012=en., .,(F--

Tip: 'o use other locales for other *?.M %ariables$ run locale to see the a%ailable options and add them to locale.conf. #t is not recommended to set the *?.0** %ariable. *ee Locale5*ettin system.wide locale for details. Console font and 'eymap #f you set a keymap at the be innin of the install process$ load it now$ as well$ because the en%ironment has chan ed. 8or exampleC
# loadkeys de-latin1 # setfont *at2-(erminus1+

'o make them a%ailable after reboot$ edit vconsole.conf /create it if it does not exist0C

# nano /etc/vconsole.conf @EPD05=de-latin1 F#1(=*at2-(erminus1+

@EPD05 L 9lease note that this settin is only %alid for your ''Ds$ not any raphical window mana ers or Hor . F#1( L A%ailable alternate console fonts reside in /usr/s3are/k)d/consolefonts/. 'he default /blank0 is safe$ but some forei n characters may show up as white s6uares or as other symbols. #t is recommended that you chan e it to *at2-(erminus1+$ because accordin to /usr/s3are/k)d/consolefonts/BE0DDE.*at2-(erminus1+$ it claims to support :about 22" lan ua e sets:. 9ossible option F#1(.D05 L (efines the console map to load at boot. Read man setfont. Remo%in it or lea%in it blank is safe. *ee 8onts53onsole fonts and man vconsole.conf for more information. Time 0one A%ailable time Jones and subJones can be found in the /usr/s3are/Honeinfo/=ToneC/= u)ToneC directories. 'o %iew the a%ailable O@oneP$ check the directory /usr/s3are/Honeinfo/C
# ls /usr/s3are/Honeinfo/

*imilarly$ you can check the contents of directories belon in to a O*ub@onePC

# ls /usr/s3are/Honeinfo/Europe

3reate a symbolic link /etc/localtime to your Jone file /usr/s3are/Honeinfo/=ToneC/= u)ToneC usin this commandC
# ln -s /usr/s3are/Honeinfo/=ToneC/= u)ToneC /etc/localtime

# ln -s /usr/s3are/Honeinfo/Europe/Dinsk /etc/localtime

1ard$are lo ' *et the hardware clock mode uniformly between your operatin systems. +therwise$ they may o%erwrite the hardware clock and cause time shifts. Dou can enerate /etc/adUtime automatically by usin one of the followin commandsC UTC /recommended0 Note: >sin >'3 for the hardware clock does not mean that software will display time in >'3.
# 3wclock --systo3c --utc

lo altime /discoura ed1 used by default in =indows0

!arning: >sin localtime may lead to se%eral known and unfixable bu s. Kowe%er$ there are no plans to drop support for localtime.
# 3wclock --systo3c --localtime

Tip: #f you ha%e /or plan on ha%in 0 a dual boot setup with =indowsC RecommendedC *et both Arch Linux and =indows to use >'3. A 6uick re istry fix is needed. Also$ be sure to pre%ent =indows from synchroniJin the time on.line$ because the hardware clock will default back to localtime. )ot recommendedC *et Arch Linux to localtime and disable any time.related ser%ices$ like )'9d . 'his will let =indows take care of hardware clock corrections and you will need to remember to boot into =indows at least two times a year /in *prin and Autumn0 when (*' kicks in. *o please do not ask on the forums why the clock is one hour behind or ahead if you usually o for days or weeks without bootin into =indows. 2ernel modules Tip: 'his is Eust an example$ you do not need to set it. All needed modules are automatically loaded by ude%$ so you will rarely need to add somethin here. +nly add modules that you know are missin . 8or kernel modules to load durin boot$ place a M.conf file in /etc/modules-load.d/$ with a name based on the pro ram that uses them.
# nano /etc/modules-load.d/virtio-net.conf # *oad Gvirtio-net.koG at )oot. virtio-net

#f there are more modules to load per M.conf$ the module names can be separated by newlines. A ood example are the 4irtualBox 7uest Additions. <mpty lines and lines startin with # or V are i nored. 1ostname *et the hostname to your likin /e. . arch0C
# ec3o my3ostname C /etc/3ostname

Note: 'here is no need to edit /etc/3osts.

Configure the net$or'

Dou need to confi ure the network a ain$ but this time for your newly installed en%ironment. 'he procedure and prere6uisites are %ery similar to the one described abo%e$ except we are oin to make it persistent and automatically run at boot. Note:

8or more in.depth information on network confi ration$ %isit )etwork 3onfi uration and =ireless *etup. #f you would like to use the old interface namin scheme /ie. ethQ and wlanQ0 you can accomplish this by creatin an empty file at /etc/udev/rules.d/-'-net-nameslot.rules which will mask the file of the same name located under /usr/li)/udev/rules.d. !ired
+ynami IP

>sin dhcpcd #f you only use a sin le fixed wired network connection$ you do not need a network mana ement ser%ice and can simply enable the d3cpcd ser%iceC
# systemctl ena)le d3cpcd.service

Note: #f it does not work$ useC # systemctl ena)le >sin netctl 3opy a sample profile from /etc/netctl/e/amples to /etc/netctlC
# cd /etc/netctl # cp e/amples/et3ernet-d3cp

<dit the profile as needed /update "nterface from et3' to match network adapter #( as shown by runnin ip link0C
# nano

<nable the profileC

# netctl ena)le

Note: Dou will et the messa e :Runnin in chroot$ i norin re6uest.:. 'his can be i nored for now. >sin netctl.ifplu d !arning: Dou cannot use this method in conEunction with explicitly enablin profiles$ such as netctl ena)le =profileC. Alternati%ely$ you can use netctl-ifplugd$ which racefully handles dynamic connections to new networksC #nstall ifplugd$ which is re6uired for netctl-ifplugdC
# pacman ifplugd

'hen enable for interface that you wantC

# systemctl ena)le netctl-ifplugdW=interfaceC.service

Tip: )etctl also pro%ides netctl-auto$ which can be used to handle wired profiles in conEunction with netctl-ifplugd.
Stati IP

Manual connection at boot usin netctl 3opy a sample profile from /etc/netctl/e/amples to /etc/netctlC
# cd /etc/netctl # cp e/amples/et3ernet-static

<dit the profile as needed /modify "nterface$ 0ddress$ 2ateway and D1 0C

# nano

)otice the /28 in 0ddress which is the 3#(R notation of a 2&&.2&&.2&&.' netmask <nable abo%e created profile to start it at e%ery bootC
# netctl ena)le

Manual connection at boot usin systemd *ee )etwork 3onfi uration5Manual connection at boot usin systemd. !ireless Note: #f your wireless adapter re6uires a firmware /as described in the abo%e <stablish an internet connection section and also here0$ install the packa e containin your firmware. Most of the time$ the linux-firmware packa e will contain the needed firmware. 'hou h for some de%ices$ the re6uired firmware mi ht be in its own packa e. 8or exampleC
# pacman Hd1211-firmware

*ee =ireless *etup5#nstallin dri%erAfirmware for more info. #nstall iw and wpa_supplicant which you will need to connect to a networkC
# pacman iw wpa.supplicant

)dding $ireless net$or's

>sin #nstall dialog$ which is re6uired for wifi-menuC

# pacman dialog

After finishin the rest of this installation and rebootin $ you can connect to the network with wifimenu /where is the interface of your wireless chipset0.

# wifi-menu

!arning: 'his must be done QafterQ your reboot when you are no lon er chrooted. 'he process spawned by this command will conflict with the one you ha%e runnin outside of the chroot. Alternati%ely$ you could Eust confi ure a network profile manually usin the followin templates so that you do not ha%e to worry about usin wifi-menu at all. >sin manual netctl profiles 3opy a network profile from /etc/netctl/e/amples to /etc/netctlC
# cd /etc/netctl # cp e/amples/wireless-wpa my-network

<dit the profile as needed /modify "nterface$ E

# nano my-network

"D and @ey0C

<nable abo%e created profile to start it at e%ery bootC

# netctl ena)le my-network

Conne t automati ally to 'no$n net$or's

!arning: Dou cannot use this method in conEunction with explicitly enablin profiles$ such as netctl ena)le =profileC. #nstall wpa_actiond$ which is re6uired for netctl-autoC
# pacman wpa.actiond

<nable the netctl-auto ser%ice$ which will connect to known networks and racefully handle roamin and disconnectsC
# systemctl ena)le

Tip: )etctl also pro%ides netctl-ifplugd$ which can be used to handle wired profiles in conEunction with netctl-auto. )nalog modem* IS+N or PPPoE +S, 8or x(*L$ dial.up and #*() connections$ see (irect Modem 3onnection.

Create an initial ramdis' en#ironment

Tip: Most users can skip this step and use the defaults pro%ided in mkinitcpio.conf. 'he initramfs ima e /from the /)oot folder0 has already been enerated based on this file when the linux packa e /the Linux kernel0 was installed earlier with pacstrap. Kere you need to set the ri ht hooks if the root is on a >*B dri%e$ if you use RA#($ L4M$ or if /usr is on a separate partition.

<dit /etc/mkinitcpio.conf as needed and re. enerate the initramfs ima e withC
# mkinitcpio -p linu/

Note: Arch 49* installations on R<M> /e. . when usin virt-manager0 may need virtio modules in mkinitcpio.conf to be able to boot.
# nano /etc/mkinitcpio.conf D#D,*E =Fvirtio virtio.)lk virtio.pci virtio.netF

Set the root pass$ord

*et the root password withC
# passwd

Install and onfigure a bootloader

For BI3S motherboards 8or B#+* systems$ se%eral boot loaders are a%ailable$ see Boot Loaders for a complete list. 3hoose one as per your con%enience. Kere$ two of the possibilities are i%en as examplesC *yslinux is /currently0 limited to loadin only files from the partition where it was installed. #ts confi uration file is considered to be easier to understand. An example confi uration can be found here. 7R>B is more and supports more complex scenarios. #ts confi uration file/s0 is more similar to &sh& scriptin lan ua e$ which may be difficult for be inners to manually write. #t is recommended that they automatically enerate one.

#f you opted for a 7>#( partition table /79'0 for your hard dri%e earlier$ you need to install the gptfdisk packa e now for the installation of syslinux to work.
# pacman gptfdisk

#nstall the syslinux packa e and then use the syslinu/-install.update script to automatically install the bootloader /-i0$ mark the partition acti!e by settin the boot fla /-a0$ and install the "#$ boot code /-m0C
# pacman - syslinu/ # syslinu/-install.update -i -a -m

3onfi ure syslinu/.cfg to point to the ri ht root partition. 'his step is %ital. #f it points to the wron partition$ Arch Linux will not boot. 3han e /dev/sda4 to reflect your root partition (if you partitioned your dri!e as in the example, your root partition is /dev/sda1). (o the same for the fallback entry.
# nano /)oot/syslinu//syslinu/.cfg

... *0>E* arc3 ... 055E1D root=/dev/sda3 rw ...

8or more information on confi urin and usin *yslinux$ see *yslinux.

#nstall the grub packa e and then run gru)-install to install the bootloaderC
# pacman - gru) # gru)-install --target=i4-+-pc --rec3eck /dev/sda

Note: 3han e /dev/sda to reflect the dri%e you installed Arch on. (o not append a partition number /do not use sdaO0. 8or 79'.partitioned dri%es on B#+* motherboards$ you also need a :B#+* Boot 9artition:. *ee 79'.specific instructions in the 7R>B pa e. A sample /)oot/gru)/gru).cfg ets installed as part of the rub packa e$ and subse6uent gru)-M commands may not o%er.write it. <nsure that your intended chan es are in gru).cfg$ rather than in gru) or some such file. =hile usin a manually created gru).cfg is absolutely fine$ it is recommended that be inners automatically enerate oneC Tip: 'o automatically search for other operatin systems on your computer$ install os-prober /pacman - os-pro)er0 before runnin the next command.
# gru)-mkconfig -o /)oot/gru)/gru).cfg

8or more information on confi urin and usin 7R>B$ see 7R>B. For UEFI motherboards 8or ><8# systems$ se%eral boot loaders are a%ailable$ see Boot Loaders for a complete list. 3hoose one as per your con%enience. Kere$ two of the possibilities are i%en as examplesC ummiboot is a minimal ><8# Boot Mana er which basically pro%ides a menu for <8#*'>B kernels and other ><8# applications. 'his is recommended ><8# boot method. 7R>B is a more complete bootloader$ useful if you run into problems with 7ummiboot. Note: 8or ><8# boot$ the dri%e needs to be 79'.partitioned and an <8# *ystem 9artition /!2- MiB or lar er$ disk type EF''$ formatted with 8A',-0 must be present. #n the followin examples$ this partition is assumed to be mounted at /)oot. #f you ha%e followed this uide from the be innin $ you ha%e already done all of these.

8irst install the gummiboot packa e and then run gummi)oot install to install the bootloader

to the <8# *ystem 9artitionC

# mount -t efivarfs efivarfs /sys/firmware/efi/efivars already mounted # pacman - gummi)oot # gummi)oot install # ignore if

Dou will need to manually create a confi uration file to add an entry for Arch Linux to the ummiboot mana er. 3reate /)oot/loader/entries/arc3.conf and add the followin contents$ replacin /dev/sdaO with your root partition$ usually /dev/sda2C
# nano /)oot/loader/entries/arc3.conf title linu/ initrd options 0rc3 *inu/ /vmlinuH-linu/ /initramfs-linu/.img root=/dev/sdaX rw

8or more information on confi urin and usin


ummiboot$ see ummiboot.

#nstall the grub and efibootmgr packa es and then run gru)-install to install the bootloaderC
# mount -t efivarfs efivarfs /sys/firmware/efi/efivars # ignore if already mounted # pacman - gru) efi)ootmgr # gru)-install --target=/-+.+8-efi --efi-directory=/)oot --)ootloader-id=arc3.gru) --rec3eck

)ext$ while usin a manually created gru).cfg is absolutely fine$ it is recommended that be inners automatically enerate oneC Tip: 'o automatically search for other operatin systems on your computer$ install os-prober before runnin the next command. Kowe%er os.prober is not known to properly detect ><8# +*es.
# gru)-mkconfig -o /)oot/gru)/gru).cfg

8or more information on confi urin and usin 7R>B$ see 7R>B.

Unmount the partitions and reboot

<xit from the chroot en%ironmentC
# e/it

*ince the partitions are mounted under /mnt$ use the followin command to unmount themC
# umount -B /mnt

Reboot the computerC

# re)oot

Tip: Be sure to remo%e the installation media$ otherwise you will boot back into it.

Dour new Arch Linux base system is now a functional 7)>ALinux en%ironment ready to be built into whate%er you wish or re6uire for your purposes. #f you are new to Linux$ it mi ht be useful to take a look at the 3ore >tilities included with your new system.

User management
Add any user accounts you re6uire besides root$ as described in >ser mana ement. #t is not ood practice to use the root account for re ular use$ or expose it %ia **K on a ser%er. 'he root account should only be used for administrati%e tasks.

Pa 'age management
9acman is the Arch Linux pa ka e mana er. *ee pacman and 8AR59acka e Mana ement for answers re ardin installin $ updatin $ and mana in packa es. Because of 'he Arch =ay53ode.correctness o%er con%enience it is imperati%e to keep up to date with chan es in Arch Linux that re6uire manual inter%ention before up radin your system. *ubscribe to the arch.announce mailin list or check the front pa e Arch news e%ery time before you update. Alternati%ely$ you may find it useful to subscribe to this R** feed or follow Sarchlinux on 'witter. #f you installed Arch Linux x86?64$ you may want to enable the MmultilibN repository if you plan on usin ,-.bit applications. *ee +fficial Repositories for details about the purpose of each repository.

Ser#i e management
Arch Linux uses systemd as init$ which is a system and ser%ice mana er for Linux. 8or maintainin your Arch Linux installation$ it is a ood idea to learn the basics about it. #nteraction with systemd is done throu h the systemctl command. Read systemd5Basic systemctl usa e for more information.

AL*A usually works #t Eust needs to be unmuted. #nstall alsa-utils /which contains alsami/er0 and follow these instructions. AL*A is included with the kernel and it is recommended. #f it does not work$ +** is a %iable alternati%e. #f you ha%e ad%anced audio re6uirements$ take a look at *ound system for an o%er%iew of %arious articles.

-raphi al User Interfa e

Install 4 'he H =indow *ystem /commonly 455$ or 40 is a networkin and display protocol which pro%ides windowin on bitmap displays. #t pro%ides the standard toolkit and protocol to build raphical user interfaces /7>#s0.

'o install the base Hor packa esC

# pacman /org-server /org-server-utils /org-/init

#nstall mesa for ,( supportC

# pacman mesa

Install a #ideo dri#er Note: #f you installed Arch as a 4irtualBox uest$ you do not need to install a %ideo dri%er. *ee Arch Linux uests for installin and settin up 7uest Additions$ and Eump to the confi uration part below. 'he Linux kernel includes open.source %ideo dri%ers and support for hardware accelerated framebuffers. Kowe%er$ userland support is re6uired for +pen7L and -( acceleration in H22. #f you do not know which %ideo chipset is a%ailable on your machine$ runC
Q lspci E grep !20

8or a complete list of open.source %ideo dri%ers$ search the packa e databaseC
Q pacman - s /f-+-video E less

'he vesa dri%er is a eneric mode.settin dri%er that will work with almost e%ery 79>$ but will not pro%ide any -( or ,( acceleration. #f a better dri%er cannot be found or fails to load$ Hor will fall back to %esa. 'o install itC
# pacman /f-+-video-vesa

#n order for %ideo acceleration to work$ and often to expose all the modes that the 79> can set$ a proper %ideo dri%er is re6uired. *ee Hor 5(ri%er installation for a table of most fre6uently used %ideo dri%ers. Install input dri#ers >de% should be capable of detectin your hardware without problems. 'he evdev dri%er /xf86input-evdev0 is the modern hot.plu in input dri%er for almost all de%ices$ so in most cases$ installin input dri%ers is not needed. At this point$ evdev has already been installed as a dependency of the xorg-server packa e. Laptop users /or users with a tactile screen0 will need the xf86-input-synaptics packa e for the touchpadAtouchscreen to workC
# pacman /f-+-input-synaptics

8or instructions on fine tunin or troubleshootin touchpad issues$ see the 'ouchpad *ynaptics article. Configure 4 !arning: 9roprietary dri%ers usually re6uire a reboot after installation. *ee )4#(#A or AM( 3atalyst for details. Hor features auto.detection and therefore can function without an /org.conf. #f you still wish to

manually confi ure H *er%er$ please see the Hor wiki pa e. Dou may need to confi ure keyboard layout if you do not use a standard >* keyboard. Note: 'he Ok)*ayout key may differ from the keymap code you used with the loadkeys command. A list of many keyboard layouts and %ariants can be found in /usr/s3are/O11//k)/rules/)ase.lst /after the line be innin with N layout0. 8or instance$ the layout g) corresponds to :<n lish />B0:$ whereas for the console it was loadkeys uk. Test 4 Tip: 'hese steps are optional. 'est if you are installin Arch Linux for the first time$ or if you are installin on new and unfamiliar hardware. Note: #f your input de%ices are not workin durin this test$ install the needed dri%er from the xorgdrivers roup$ and try a ain. 8or a complete list of a%ailable input dri%ers$ in%oke a pacman search /press I to exit0C
Q pacman - s /f-+-input E less

Dou only need xf86-input-keyboard or xf86-input-mouse if you plan on disablin hot. plu in $ otherwise$ evdev will act as the input dri%er /recommended0. #nstall the default en%ironmentC
# pacman /org-twm /org-/clock /term

#f Hor was installed before creatin the non.root user$ there will be a template ./initrc file in your home directory that needs to be either deleted or commented out. *imply deletin it will cause 4 to run with the default en%ironment installed abo%e.
Q rm X/./initrc

Note: H must always be run on the same tty where the lo in occurred$ to preser%e the lo ind session. 'his is handled by the default /etc/O11//init//serverrc. 'o start the /test0 Hor session$ runC
Q start/

A few mo%able windows should show up$ and your mouse should work. +nce you are satisfied that 4 installation was a success$ you may exit out of 4 by issuin the e/it command into the prompts until you return to the console.
Q e/it

#f the screen oes black$ you may still attempt to switch to a different %irtual console /e. . ?trlJ0ltJF20$ and blindly lo in as root. Dou can do this by typin :root: /press Enter after typin it0 and enterin the root password /a ain$ press Enter after typin it0. Dou may also attempt to kill the 4 ser%er withC
# pkill O

#f this does not work$ reboot blindly withC

# re)oot


#f a problem occurs$ look for errors in Oorg.'.log. Be on the lookout for any lines be innin with 6EE9 which represent errors$ and also 6AA9 which are warnin s that could indicate other issues.
Q grep EE /var/log/Oorg.'.log

#f you are still ha%in trouble after consultin the Hor article and need assistance %ia the Arch Linux forums or the #R3 channel$ be sure to install and use wgetpaste by pro%idin the links fromC
# Q Q Q pacman wgetpaste wgetpaste wgetpaste wgetpaste X/./initrc /etc/O11//org.conf /var/log/Oorg.'.log

Note: 9lease pro%ide all pertinent information /hardware$ dri%er information$ etc0 when askin for assistance. Fonts Dou may wish to install a set of 'rue'ype fonts$ as only unscalable bitmap fonts are included by default. Kowe%er$ if you use a full featured (esktop <n%ironment like B(< $ this step may not be necessary. (eEa4u is a set of hi h 6uality$ eneral.purpose fonts with ood >nicode co%era eC
# pacman ttf-deUavu

Refer to 8ont 3onfi uration for how to confi ure font renderin and 8onts for font su installation instructions. Choose and install a graphi al interfa e

estions and

'he H =indow *ystem pro%ides the basic framework for buildin a raphical user interface /7>#0. Note: 3hoosin your (< or =M is a %ery subEecti%e and personal decision. 3hoose the best en%ironment for your needs. Dou can also build your own (< with Eust a =M and the applications of your choice. =indow Mana ers /=M0 control the placement and appearance of application windows in conEunction with the H =indow *ystem. (esktop <n%ironments /(<0 work atop and in conEunction with H$ to pro%ide a completely functional and dynamic 7>#. A (< typically pro%ides a window mana er$ icons$ applets$ windows$ toolbars$ folders$ wallpapers$ a suite of applications and abilities like dra and drop. #nstead of startin H manually with start/ from xorg-xinit$ see (isplay Mana er for instructions on usin a display mana er$ or see *tart H at Lo in for usin an existin %irtual terminal as an e6ui%alent to a display mana er.

8or a list of applications that may be of interest$ see List of Applications. *ee 7eneral Recommendations for post.installation tutorials like settin up a touchpad or font renderin .