You are on page 1of 7

Chau Vu, Diem Le

16 April 2014

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE


Ozone Depletion
Sections
SECTION 1 Ozone Depletion
Montreal Protocol

Ground-level Ozone vs. Stratospheric Ozone Solutions to ground level ozone Solutions to the hole in the ozone

SECTION 2 - Causes of Global Climate Change

Ground-level Ozone vs. Stratospheric Greenhouse Gasses Ozone

EPAs regulated air pollutants El Nino & La Nina Major Types of Fuel Types

SECTION 3 - Effects of Global Climate Change


Climate Change (example of Positive Feedback Loops) Industrial vs. Photochemical Smog Temperature Changes Changes in Precipitation Sea Level Changes Changes in Global Ice Changes in Biota Proxy Indicators

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted in 1987 as an international treaty to eliminate the production and consumption of ozonedepleting chemicals. A subsequent amendment created the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, becoming the first of the multilateral environmental agreements to establish a financial mechanism for implementation. The Montreal Protocol's ultimate success will be based on having created an enduring global commitment to stop producing and consuming substances that deplete the ozone layer. This commitment must be maintained across boundaries and by all peoples of the world. The sustainability of our efforts requires empowered partners for technical innovation, policy implementation and project management.
1

SECTION 4 - Solutions to Climate Change

Kyoto Protocol Carbon Offsets Major Types of Renewable Fuel Types

Chau Vu, Diem Le

16 April 2014

Ground-level Ozone vs. Stratospheric Ozone


Stratospheric In the stratosphere the protective natural layer of ozone is formed by oxygen (O2) in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Most of the ozone in the upper atmosphere is in a 20-kilometre-thick layer lying between 15 km to 35 km above the earth's surface. Even at this height, industrial pollutants are reaching and depleting the ozone. The major ozone-depleting substances are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons,
methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Chlorofluorocarbons are used in refrigeration, foam blowing, solvents and specialized aerosol propellants. Halons are similar to chlorofluorocarbons and are used in fire extinguishers. Methane is a product of ozone shield thins, more ultraviolet rays will penetrate causing a variety of concerns. Many crops, including most of the world's major food sources - wheat, rice, corn and soya beans - are particularly sensitive to ultraviolet radiation and will be damaged. In the oceans, aquatic life near the surface, including fish, will be damaged. Even industrial materials such as plastics and paints are susceptible, becoming yellow and brittle. Increased ultraviolet radiation affects humans too, causing sunburn, skin cancer, eye aging and suppression of the immune system. If stratospheric ozone is depleted, more ultraviolet radiation will reach ground level to add to and increase undesirable ground-level ozone and photochemical smog. Ground Level At ground level, ozone is formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight. Burning of fossil fuels is a major man-made cause of nitrogen oxides, while use of motor vehicles, solvents, and industrial processes in the petrochemical industry are sources of volatile organic compounds. These man-made emissions are more concentrated in urban and industrialized areas. Some ground-level ozone is actually transported down from the stratosphere; some comes from reactions of naturally occurring volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides in sunlight. Smog has wideranging effects. This brown haze has the greatest impact on the air quality in urban areas. It can affect human health and corrode buildings and machinery. Smog produces eye, nose and throat irritations and in the short term can cause coughing, chest pain and other respiratory discomforts. Over the long term, continuous exposure to groundlevel ozone can damage lung tissue and contribute to chronic lung disease and reduce life expectancy. Agricultural crops such as wheat, alfalfa, corn and beans are also prone to damage from smog when concentrations are consistently above the Canadian objective level. Leaves are damaged and growth reduced; susceptibility to insects and disease increases. Smog also accelerates the deterioration of rubber products. Groundlevel ozone is a greenhouse gas and part of the complex inter-relationship affecting air quality. Higher concentrations will contribute to global warming and, in time, a warmer climate might lead to even greater ozone production.

agricultural, industrial and mining activities while nitrous oxide is from combustion and fertilizer use. In the
stratosphere the ozone layer absorbs and filters the sun's ultraviolet rays, protecting the earth from harmful radiation. Scientists report a thinning of this shield. In some areas, such as in the Antarctic, "holes" have appeared. As the

SOLUTIONS
You have a role to play to avoid any catastrophic outcomes. Each one of us is expected to follow the following guidelines. Electronic appliances emit CFC even when they are not in use. So always unplug the electronic instruments when they are not in use. Prefer to walk and as far as possible, avoid using vehicles. Simple measures like using public transportation instead of your own private vehicle or carpooling will help in the long run. Prefer buying energy-efficient appliances like fluorescent bulbs. Plant trees, as they absorb UV rays greatly and thus protect the environment. Replace your old refrigerators and air conditioners as they are the major contributors of CFC in the atmosphere. Avoid or restrict the use of insecticides and pesticides.

Chau Vu, Diem Le

16 April 2014

Effects of Global Climate Change


Climate Change as an example of Positive Feedback dsfdsgfadsfafafadfaadfLoops

Climate Change is the change in global climate patterns apparent from the mid to late 20th century onwards, attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels. Scientists are aware of a number of positive feedbacks loops in the climate system. One example is melting ice. Because ice is light-colored and reflective, a large proportion of the sunlight that hits it is bounced back to space, which limits the amount of warming it causes. But as the world gets hotter, ice melts, revealing the darkercolored land or water below. The result is that more of the sun's energy is absorbed, leading to more warming, which in turn leads to more ice melting and so on. Industrial vs. Photochemical Smog Industries are economic activity that is concerned with the processing of raw materials and manufacture of goods in factories. Industries are a particular form or branch of commercial or economic activity. Industries include all types of businesses in any region or area. Industry is a blanket term for groups of businesses. Examples of industries are agriculture, legal, health care, education, sports, and banking. Other industries include defense,

department stores, gas stations, manufacturing, retail, entertainment, and technology. Smog is a type of air pollution. Smog is a mixture of smoke and fog. Smog usually forms when smoke from pollution mixes with fog. For example, London, England, is often very foggy. Most people in London used to heat their homes by burning coal. The coal made lots of smoke, which mixed with fog to form smog. London used to have a lot of smog. Temperature Changes One of the most common temperature changes in a real world is our body temperature. When we have some infections or viral infections, our cells reacts to the foreign substance and fighting it in order to maintain the homeostasis. As a result, the immune system will signal the brain to increase the body temperature thus causing us to be warmer. Antipyretics on the other hand are medicine used to lower down the temperature of the body. Antipyretics will signal the hypothalamus to control the increased in temperature thus making the fever goes down.

Chau Vu, Diem Le


Changes in Precipitation There is a direct influence of global warming on precipitation. Increased heating leads to greater evaporation and thus surface drying, thereby increasing the intensity and duration of drought. However, the water holding capacity of air increases by about 7% per 1C warming, which leads to increased water vapor in the atmosphere. Hence, storms, whether individual thunderstorms, extratropical rain or snow storms, or tropical cyclones, supplied with increased moisture, produce more intense precipitation events. With warming, more precipitation occurs as rain instead of snow and snow melts earlier, there is increased runoff and risk of flooding in early spring, but increased risk of drought in summer, especially over continental areas. However, with more precipitation per unit of upward motion in the atmosphere, i.e. more bang for the buck, atmospheric circulation weakens, causing monsoons to falter. In the tropics and subtropics, precipitation patterns are dominated by shifts as sea surface temperatures change, with El Nio a good example. Changes in Global Ice Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner. Effects that scientist had predicted in the past would result from global climate change are now occurring: loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, more intense heat waves. Scientists have high confidence that global temperatures will continue to rise for decades to come, largely due to greenhouse gasses produced by human activities. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which includes more than 1,300 scientists from the United States and other countries, forecasts a temperature rise of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century. These drivers in turn affect the environment and biota. Globally, it is expected that climate change will have impacts on productivity, distribution and the timing of seasonal events. Warmer water cannot hold as much oxygen. When levels of dissolved oxygen become too low for biota, the condition is called hypoxia, and that lower threshold depends on the species. Changes in Biota For example, there is an impact on growth and abundance of cod below 70% oxygen saturation level (Ekau et al. 2010; see refs in Gilbert et al. 2005. Warmer water cannot hold as much oxygen. When levels of dissolved oxygen become too low for biota, the condition is called hypoxia, and that lower threshold depends on the species. For example, there is an impact on growth and abundance of cod below 70% oxygen saturation level (Ekau et al. 2010; see refs in Gilbert et al. 2005. For example, the 1950s was one of the warmest decades in the 20th century for air and ocean temperature in the Scotia Shelf region while the 1960s was one of the coldest.

16 April 2014

Sea Level Changes

It is not only small island states that need to worry about sea level rise. Sea level rise increases the risk of both temporary and permanent flooding of coastal lands. Around 23% of the worlds population lives in the near coastal zone with population densities about three times higher than the global average.

Chau Vu, Diem Le


Trends estimated from time series starting in the 1950s may be very different from those estimated from those starting in the 1960s. Caution needs to be used in interpretations of the limited existing ocean datasets with regard to their implications for future change. Ocean sediment Ocean sediments also offer high-resolution archives of climate, applying similar methods as those used in lake sediments. However, annually laminated sediments are not usual. Otherwise, sedimentation rates may still be enough to provide information on a century or millennial scale, based on radiocarbon or other external dating, such as volcanic ash shards. The range of variables that can be determined in marine beds is similar to that of continental lakes: sedimentology, stable isotopes in shells and organic matter, chemical analysis, pollen records. Coral Annual growths of coral skeletons provide palaeo environmental information for tropical and sub-tropical oceans and atmosphere. For example, they have the potential to sample variations in regions sensitive to El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO) which can be useful to resolve large-scale patterns of climate (Folland et al. 2001). Accurate age estimates are possible for most sites using a combination of annual variations in skeletal density and geochemical parameters. Palaeo environmental reconstructions from corals rely mostly on geochemical variables, such as trace elements or stable isotopes. Pollen The particular biochemical composition of pollen grains makes them relatively resistant to chemical, biological and physical damage. Consequently, pollen grains may survive millions of years in a large variety of sedimentary environments: peat bogs, lake and marine beds, several kinds of loose terrestrial sediments, and even in consolidated rocks (for example in stalagmites). As pollen deposition, for a given species, is expected to be proportional to its abundance, palynologists are able to reconstruct past vegetation from the study of fossil pollen assemblages. Furthermore, and provided a good knowledge of the ecological range of a given taxa, functional group or plant community, it has been possible to derive climatic information from pollen data (Lebreton et al. 2004; Lpez-Sez et al. 2003). Nevertheless, it should be noted that anthropogenic influence on vegetation has increased exponentially

16 April 2014
since the onset of agriculture. Thus, during great part of the Holocene, pollen data might have too human-derived noise to provide reliable climatic information, although still giving useful information about the landscape (Committee on abrupt climate change 2002; Lebreton et al. 2004). Indeed, most pollen assemblages for the last two millennia reveal clear symptoms of anthropogenic disturbance, such as the abundance of pollen from cereals and other crops, and the spread of ruderal species.

Chau Vu, Diem Le

16 April 2014

The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty intended to bring countries together to reduce global warming and to cope with the effects of temperature increases that are unavoidable after 150 years of industrialization. The provisions of the Kyoto Protocol are legally binding on the ratifying nations, and stronger than those of the UNFCCC. Countries that ratify the Kyoto Protocol agree to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs and PFCs. The countries are allowed to use emissions trading to meet their obligations if they maintain or increase their greenhouse gas emissions. Emissions trading allow nations that can easily meet their targets to sell credits to those that cannot. Pros Advocates of the Kyoto Protocol claim that reducing greenhouse gas emissions is an essential step in slowing or reversing global warming, and that immediate multinational collaboration is needed if the world is to have any serious hope of preventing devastating climate changes. Scientists agree that even a small increase in the average global temperature would lead to significant climate and weather changes, and profoundly affect plant, animal and human life on Earth.

Cons Arguments against the Kyoto Protocol generally fall into three categories: it demands too much; it achieves too little; or it is unnecessary. In rejecting the Kyoto Protocol, which 178 other nations had accepted, President Bush claimed that the treaty requirements would harm the U.S. economy, leading to economic losses of $400 billion and costing 4.9 million jobs. Bush also objected to the exemption for developing nations. The presidents decision brought heavy criticism from U.S. allies and environmental groups in the U.S. and around the world.

Chau Vu, Diem Le

16 April 2014

Carbon Offsets
A carbon offset is a credit for greenhouse gas reductions achieved by one party that can be purchased and used to compensate (offset) the emissions of another party. Carbon offsets are typically measured in tonnes of CO2-equivalents (or CO2e) and are bought and sold through a number of international brokers, online retailers and trading platforms. Because it can be difficult for offset buyers to get clear answers to each of the above questions, a good way to ensure that your offset purchase is making a positive contribution to the climate is to purchase offsets that meet recognized standards. Just as consumers can feel confident when purchasing food products that meet strict third-party standards for organic agriculture, standards for carbon offsets provide assurance that certain criteria are met when the offset is developed and sold. The Gold Standard is restricted to offset projects in countries that don't have emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, primarily developing countries. Supporting offset projects that meet The Gold Standard therefore helps these countries leapfrog developed countries technologically so they don't go down the same fossil-fuel path, which would be disastrous for the climate.