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HAVE TO "Have to" is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation.


This ans er has to be correct. certainty The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. necessity They have to leave early. obligation

!sing "Have to" in "resent, "ast, and #uture "Have to" behaves $uite irregularly in the past and the %uture. &tudy the chart belo learn ho "have to" behaves in di%%erent contexts. !se "ositive #orms '. ( "resent ). ( "ast *. ( #uture +egative #orms '. ( "resent ). ( "ast *. ( #uture ,ou can also use: to

have to certaint y

'. That has to be -erry. They said he as tall ith bright red hair. ). That has to have been the right restaurant. There ere no other restaurants on the street. *. +O+E

'. &H.#T TO "/!&T" That must not be -erry. They said he has blond hair, not red hair. ). &H.#T TO "/!&T" That must not have been the right restaurant. . guess there as another one around there some here. *. +O+E

must, have got to

have to necessi ty

'. &he has to read %our boo0s %or this literature class. ). &he had to %inish the %irst boo0 be%ore the midterm. *. &he ill have to %inish the other boo0s be%ore the %inal exam.

'. &he doesn1t have to read "2rapes o% 3rath." .t1s optional reading %or extra credit. ). &he didn1t have to rite a criti$ue o% "The &carlet 4etter." &he had to give a presentation to her class. *. &he on1t have to ta0e any other literature classes. American


4iterature '5' is the only re$uired course.

6E/E/7E6: "8o not have to" vs. "/ust not" "8o not have to" suggests that someone is not re$uired to do something. "/ust not" suggests that you are prohibited %rom doing something. Examples:

,ou must not eat that. It is forbidden, it is not allowed. ,ou don1t have to eat that. You can if you want to, but it is not necessary.

O!2HT TO "Ought to" is used to advise or make recommendations. "Ought to" also expresses assumption or expectation as well as strong probability, often with the idea that something is deserved. "Ought not" (without "to") is used to advise against doing something, although Americans prefer the less formal forms "should not" or "had better not." xamples!

"ou ought to stop smoking. recommendation #im ought to get the promotion. It is expected because he deserves it. $his stock ought to increase in value. probability %ark ought not drink so much. advice against something (notice there is no "to")

!sing "Ought to" in "resent, "ast, and #uture %ost modal verbs behave &uite irregularly in the past and the future. 'tudy the chart below to learn how "ought to" behaves in different contexts. %odal (se )ositive *orms +. , )resent -. , )ast .. , *uture /egative *orms +. , )resent -. , )ast .. , *uture "ou can also use!

ought to recommendation, advice

+. %argaret ought to exercise more. -. %argaret ought to have exercised more so she would be better prepared for the marathon. .. %argaret ought to come to the fitness center with us tonight.

+. %argaret ought not exercise too much. 0t might cause in1ury. -. %argaret ought not have run the marathon. 'he wasn2t in good shape. .. %argaret ought not stay at home in front of the $3. 'he should go to the fitness center with us.


ought to assumption, expectation, probability

+. 'he ought to have the package by now. -. 'he ought to have

"Ought not" is used primarily to express negative recommendations. (See above.)


received the package yesterday. .. 'he ought to receive the package tonight.

+otice "Ought not" 4emember that "ought to" loses the "to" in the negative. 0nstead of "ought not to," we say "ought not." "Ought not" is more commonly used in 5ritish nglish. Americans prefer "should not." xamples!

"ou ought not smoke so much. 'he ought not take such risks while skiing. $hey ought not carry so much cash while traveling.