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UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

12F.1 Natural selection: Worksheet 1/1.a: FACTORS AFFECTING


POPULATIONSURVIVAL

12F.12.1-Know that predation, disease and competition within a population result in the survival and
reproduction of the strongest individuals and that this natural selection allows the inheritance of their
.characteristics

1. Define species:
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
A group of indiv iduals of organisms ' w hich are capable of interbreeding to produce
Fertile Of fs pring in nature

2. Define population:
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
A group of individuals of the s ame spec ies that are liv ing and f eeding under the same env ironment (habitat)

3. Define Inter-specific competition:


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Completion of organis ms of the same species in a population
(Us ually f or food, spac e, mating in the same habitat)

4. Define Intra-specific completion:


_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Completion of organis ms of the diff erent spec ies in a c ommunity
(Us ually f or food, spac e, mating in the same habitat)

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

Worksheet 1/1.b: FACTORS AFFECTING POPULATIONSURVIVAL

3. Name different factors that affect population size.


______________________________ ___________________________________
______________________________ ___________________________________
4. And explain how these factors help in survival of the strongest individuals in terms of
relationship and result.

Relation:
______________________
__
______________________
__

Relation:
______________________
__
______________________
__

Relation:
_____________________
___
_____________________
___

Result:
______________________
__
______________________

Result:
______________________
___
______________________

Result:
_____________________
___
_____________________

Relation:
____________________
___

Relation:
_____________________
__

Relation:
_________________________
___

Result:
____________________
___
____________________
___

Result:
_____________________
___
_____________________
___

Result:
_________________________
__
_________________________
__

-Disease.
-Only those who will survive the disease will reproduce.

-Protective behavior.
-Only those who are strong will survive to reproduce.

-Disease; Parasitism.
-Only those who are strong will survive to reproduce.

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

Worksheet 1/2

4. Predators kill other animals (their prey) for food.


a. Give some strategies that help predators to do so:
_______________________________________________________________________
b. Give some strategies that help prey to survive.
_______________________________________________________________________
*- WITH CLAWS, SHARP TEETH/BEAKS, - SPEED TO PURSUE (FOLLOW) PREY.
*- CAMOUFLAGE, - LIVE IN GROUPS, - SOME TASTE HORRIBALE

5. What is a heritable characteristic?


Characteristics that can be ___________ from parents to
____________.
PASSED

OFFSPRINGS

______________ through

GENES

6. What is (shabanation) adaptation?


The process by which an ___________ or a plant ____________ in response to its
__________________ is called Adaptation.
ANIMAL

CHANGES

ENVIROMENT

7. What is Variation?
Variation refers to an individual that possesses or genes (traits) that are
_____________ from the others of the same ___________.
CHARCTERISTICS

DIFFERENT

KIND

8. What is natural
selection?
The process by which the traits (genes) that _________ an organism to ____________
in a particular __________________ are _______________ over time and passed
to offspring's.
(shabanation)

HELPS

ENV IROMENT

SURVIVE

SEL ECTED

9. Give another meaning of natural selection using just one phrase / sentence?
________________________________________________
SURV IVAL OF THE FITTES T

10. What is meant by evolution by natural selection?


An organism that can adapt and ___________ they will pass their genes/alleles to
their _____ ____________, So over many generations these certain
______________ become more _______________ in a population that a new
_________________ is produced
SURV IVE

OFF SPRINGS

ALLELS

FREQ UENT

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

SPECIES

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

12F.2 Natural selection:: Evolution by Natural selection

The theory of evolution by natural


selection was first proposed by the scientists Darwin
and Wallace and states that: Individuals that have physical or behavioural traits that better suit
their environment are more likely to survive and will reproduce more successfully than those
that do not have such traits.
(shabanation)

Their theory includes the following points:


1. All organisms produce far more offspring than are needed to simply replace the parents
despite this tendency to increase; most populations maintain fairly constant numbers.
2. The individuals of the population are not exactly alike due to environmental and/or genetic
factors.
3. Struggle for survival, where individuals of the population compete for food, shelter or
mating.
4. Survival of the fittest: when the environmental conditions change (e.g. food shortage,
shortage of shelter, diseases and predation), the individuals that have better traits will survive.
5.
Evolution of new species: the fittest individual that survive the environmental
stresses will reproduce passing their Favourable traits to their offspring. However, other
individuals will die.
By time, the nature of the population changes, these changes would result in the formation of
new species.
(Shabanation)

Scientists now know that genes are responsible for inherited traits. Therefore, certain forms of
a trait become more common in a population because more individuals in the population carry
the alleles for those forms. In other words, natural selection causes the frequency of certain
alleles in a population to increase or decrease over time.
Mutations and the recombination of alleles that occurs during sexual reproduction provide
endless sources of new variations for natural selection to act upon.

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

12F.2 Natural selection: Worksheet 2/1: DARWIN AND LAMARCK's THEORY


1. Name the TWO scientists who studied about evolution of species and name their theories?

_______________: Theory of acquired characteristics and

LAMARK

DARWIN

_______________: Theory of evolution by natural selection

2. What was the

(shabanation)

explanation by

Lamarck's about the giraffe's lone neck?


Lamarck believed that giraffes have

STRECHED

_____________ their necks to try and reach


food that is high in trees. The __________
PARENTS

__________ the long neck

TRAITS/GENES

PASSED

________ to their

offsprings /generation

3. What was the explanation by shabanation)


Darwin's about the giraffe's long neck?
Early giraffes probably had necks of different
LENGHTS

____________. Giraffes with ___________


LONG

necks were able to ____________ food and


REACH

SURVIVE

_____________. Those with __________


SHORT

necks could not reach food had _________.


DIED

The long necked giraffe

REPRODUCED

_______________

and soon _______ giraffes had long necks.


ALL

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

Worksheet 2/2
?Can natural selection accounts for the great diversity of live. Why .4

_______, because of evolving


very long time.
YES

?What is evolution by natural

________________ and ______________ for a

ENVIROMENT

(shabanation)

SPECIES

selection .5

The process of ______________ characteristics becoming ________________


ADAPTIVE

COMMON

in a population over many generations is called evolution by natural selection

Compare the theory of Lamark and Darwin about

(shabanation)

evolution of species .6

LAMARK: ___________of parents were inherited by offspring according to


TRAITS

USE - MISS-USE

_________ and ____________.


DARWIN: Organism

BEST ADAPTED TO ENVIROMENT

_______ _____________ ___ _______________ only

reproduced to make off spring

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

Worksheet 2/3
.Explain Darwins theory of
evolution in the following .7
There are 2 types of Ducks: ones that swim fast and those that swim slowly. The fast birds can
(shabanation)

reach up 10 miles / hour, the slow duck can reach speeds of up 5-10 miles / hour.
If a flock of ducks lays approx. 10 eggs but many predators break inlo the eggs and eat them
Just before they hatch so 1 or 2 only hatch.
a. Which Duck will survive by natural selection? Explain.

Answer:

- ___________________

DUCK THAT RUN FAST

b. Why:
DARWIN'S THEORY

(shabanation)

Population have __________________

Duck -run fast and, Duck -run slow

Some variations are favourable

Duck _______ _________

VARIATIONS

MORE

___________ offspring are produced t

han can survive


Those survive have
traits (genes).
A

POPULATION

EXPLANATION

RUN FAST

Laying 10 eggs. But only ________


1 or 2

survive. Others are killed by predators.


FAVOURABLE

_____________

___________ will change over time

Duck that run fast will survive to lay egg.

Duck that run fast will survive to lay egg.


Only baby Duck that run fast exist after
some time
.

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

Worksheet 2/4
The three
place:

(shabanation)

conditions listed below are necessary for natural selection(Darwin's 5 points) to take

a) Population Variation in characteristics within the population.


b) Some variations are favorable: i.e. Differences in survival and reproduction, such
as fitness.
c) More offspring are produced than survive
:Those that survive have favorable traits (genes) and will pass the genes to offsprings
(d
.i.e. Heritability of characteristics from parent to offspring
e) A population will change over time.
1. Below is a series of pictures representing changes in a population of cacti over many
generations:

a. Why would a deer be more likely to eat the left cactus than the right cactus (variation)?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
b. In figure 3, the right cactus has flowers, but the cactus that has been eaten by the deer is too
damaged to make flowers. Figure 4 shows the situation several months later. What has happened?
(Survival difference)
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
2. Do you think that evolution by
natural selection is occurring in this cactus population? Explain
why or why not (passing the genes)?
__________________________________________________________
shabanation)

__________________________________________________________

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

Worksheet 2/5

3. Read the following situations below and identify the key concepts of Darwins natural
selection
There are 3 types of
polar bears: ones with thick coats, ones with thin coats and ones with
medium coats. It is fall, soon to be winter. The temperatures are dropping rapidly and the bears must
be kept warm, or they will freeze to death. Many of the bears have had 2 cubs each but due to the
extreme temperatures, many mothers only have one cub left.
shabanation)

a. Which polar bear will not benefit from natural


selection?
__________________________________________________________
(shabanation)

__________________________________________________________
b. Identify the type of variation in the polar population.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
c. Who is the fittest in his environment? Explain?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
d. Predict how the gene pool will change over time?
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

Home Worksheet 2/5


1. Some individuals of a (

shabanation)

population or species are better suited to

a. evolve than other individuals.


b. survive and reproduce.
c. become extinct.
d. achieve punctuated equilibrium.
2. Charles
Darwin is credited with the theory of:
a. evolution by natural selection.
b. populations.
c. evolution by gradualism.
d. gravitation.
(shabanation)

3. In science, evolution
is referred to as
a. mere speculation.
b. an explanation of why species become extinct.
c. change over time.
d. an explanation for the rates of population growth.
(shabanation)

Complete each statement by underlining the correct term or phrase in the brackets.
4. Traits of individuals best suited to survive will become [more / less] common in each new generation.
5. [Genes / Natural

(shabanation)

selection] is (are) responsible for inherited traits.

6. [Natural selection / Genes] cause(s) the frequency of certain alleles in a population to vary over time.

Answer each of the following questions:


7. According to Darwin, what causes the nature of a population to change?

8. What causes a particular trait to become more common in a population?

9. What two events cause new variations of traits in a population?

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

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UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

12F.2 Natural selection: Worksheet 3/1: Evedince of Natural Selection

Evidence of evolution by natural

(shabanation)

selection.

1. Molecular biology
DNA

___________ sequences can be traced across closely similar species.

Organisms ____________ and the new ____________ are __________ in their proteins
GENES

SPECIES

SIMILAR

______________. These similarities can be explained by descent from a common

ANCESTOR

______________.
2. Comparative anatomy
ANOTHER

________________

Technique of comparing ________________, called


SPECIES

comparative anatomy. Vertebrate forelimbs contain the __________ sets of bones


SAME

___________ in similar ways, despite their difference in the

3. Geographic

shabanation)

(shabanation)

FUNCTION

ORGANISED

_______________.

distribution

Isolated environment lead to evolution from a common ancestor.


For an example ____________ ______________ of
DARWINS

FINSHES

GALAPAGOS

________________ Ireland were the

product of different lines of descent from common ancestor

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

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UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

12F.3 Natural selection: Worksheet 4/1: SPECIATION


12F.12.3 Explain how natural

(shabanation)

selection and evolution over a long period of time have

resulted in a great diversity of forms among living organisms

1.Define

(shabanation)

Speciation:

The production of a NEW SPECIES FROM THE SPILTTING OF AN EXISTING SPECIES

__________________________________________________________________
A SPECIES IS A GROUP OF ORGANISMS THAT ARE ABLE TO INTERBREED SUCCESSFULLY, PRODUCING OFFSPRINGS WHO THEMSELVES CAN REPRODUCE.

2. What are the reasons for speciation?


Speciation occurs when same species cannot ____________
due to ___________________ isolation or ________________
INTERBREED

GEOGRAPHICAL

REPRODUCTIVE

isolation.

3.Explain in details the two types of isolation based on Darwins evolution by natural selection?
a- geographical

(shabanation)

isolation:

-Two populations of ________ species are


SAME

by a

GEOGRAPHIC BARRIER

SEPARATED

________________

_____________________ ______________ (such as ocean, mountain).

-Because of the environment difference ,each population developes


_____________ ________________ to survive.
-These features are

PASSED ON TO THE NEXT

DIFFERENT

ADAPTATIONS

___________ ____ ____ _____ ________ generation.

After some generations the changes are big, so the species are
______ _________________ and develop into

NEW DIFFERENT

ABLE TO INTERBREED

_______

_______ and ____________

species.
b )Reproductive
isolation:
-The ______________ of two _____________ of common
____________ to interbreed dut to a particular _______________
(shabanation)

UNABILITY

SPECIES

ANCCESTOR

ISOLATION

-The reason is that they may have different _____________ behaviour,


sperms and egg are _____________ , or they may have different ____________
for breeding etc.
COURTSHIP

DIFFERENT

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

TIMES

12

UNIT 4:Natural

selection

(shabanation)

Worksheet 4/2

4. Explain the different beaks by (

shabanation

finches found in Galapagos island?

Darwin suggested that the finches has all developed from a

COMMON ANCCESTORS

___________ _______________ and that each type of finches had, over


time developed a type of _________ adapted to pick up particular type
BEAK

of ___________
FOOD

Due to

GEOGRAPHICAL

____________________isolation each type of finches became

DIFFERENT

____________ species.

5. Explain the speciation of elephants in ASIA and AFRICA?

The elephants has all developed from a common

ANCCESTOR

_________________ .

Each type of elephants had, over time, developed a type of a

DIFFERENT ENVIROMENTAL ADAPTATION

____________ ._________________________ ___________________.


Due to ype of

GEOGRAPHICAL

____________________ isolation each type of

elephants became _______________ species. After some generations


DIFFERENT

the genetic differences are big, so they not able to

INTERBREED

__________________ and develop into two different species.

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

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UNIT 4:Natural

(shabanation)

selection

12F.4 Natural selection: Worksheet 5/1: ADAPTATION


12F.12.4. Give examples and explanation of how organisms are adapted to survive in particular
environmental conditions.
1. Give some examples of (shabanation) adaptations in plants and animals

Organis
m
Camel
in desert

(shabanation)

Adaptation

1. Long strong legs

1. Keep its ________ away from hot sand.

2. Nearly closed Nostrils and


Thick eyelashes
3.Thick skin on _____

2.Keep out blowing _________

1. Cold weather: Stays in sun


Hot: stays in water.

1. Maintain ______ .____________

KNEES

Crocodile
in water

How it helps

2. Flaps-that cover the ears.

BODY

SAND

3.Protect it from getting burn when it kneels


on the hot desert sand
BODY

2.Seeing

UNDER

TEMP

_______ water

3. Nostrils on top of the head.

3.swimming _______ water to


catch prey

4. Grey colour.

4. camouflage to catch _______

1. ______ fur

1. _____________ not to be seen easy to


escape predators & catch preys.
2. ___________ to keep warm

UNDER

WHITE

Polar
bear in
arctic

PREY

CAMOFLAGE

2.Thick layers of fat and fur


3. Wide, large paws.

INS ULA TIO N

3. To walk on ice.
4. swimming _______ water
UNDER

4. Can close it nostrils.

Shark in
ocean
Water
Lilly in
pond

1. Fins and streamlined body


2. Teeth.
3. Gills.

1. _________in water.
2. To _________ prey.
3. _________ under water.

1. Tiny hair on roots and leaves

1. Help to _________ .

2. ____________ under
bottom of leaves.

Protect from fishes who will eat flower

1. ___________ instead of
leaves.
2. Thick waxy _________
3. Network of _________.
4. Swollen _________.

1. Reduce water loss by ______________


.
2. _________ water loss.
3. collects as much _____ as possible.
4. For __________ water.

THORNES

SPINES

Cacti in dry
area

CUTICL E

ROOTS

STEM

SWIM

CATCH

BREA TH

FLOAT

TRA NSPIRATION

PREV ENT

WATER

STORING

2. What is meant by (
) adaptation?
Adaptations are _____________________ that an organism is _______ with and
shabanation

SPECIA L FEATURES

SELECTION yr 12F Majdi shabans bio@TZISB_Dec 2010-12-10

BORN

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